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Sample records for acids current approaches

  1. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  2. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films: A parameter estimation approach and an overview of the current mass transfer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Mishra, Dharmendra; Dolan, Kirk; Burgess, Gary; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2018-01-01

    Migration studies of chemicals from contact materials have been widely conducted due to their importance in determining the safety and shelf life of a food product in their packages. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) require this safety assessment for food contact materials. So, migration experiments are theoretically designed and experimentally conducted to obtain data that can be used to assess the kinetics of chemical release. In this work, a parameter estimation approach was used to review and to determine the mass transfer partition and diffusion coefficients governing the migration process of eight antioxidants from poly(lactic acid), PLA, based films into water/ethanol solutions at temperatures between 20 and 50°C. Scaled sensitivity coefficients were calculated to assess simultaneously estimation of a number of mass transfer parameters. An optimal experimental design approach was performed to show the importance of properly designing a migration experiment. Additional parameters also provide better insights on migration of the antioxidants. For example, the partition coefficients could be better estimated using data from the early part of the experiment instead at the end. Experiments could be conducted for shorter periods of time saving time and resources. Diffusion coefficients of the eight antioxidants from PLA films were between 0.2 and 19×10 -14 m 2 /s at ~40°C. The use of parameter estimation approach provided additional and useful insights about the migration of antioxidants from PLA films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fournier's gangrene current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Omer F; Koksal, Neset; Altinli, Ediz; Celik, Atilla; Uzun, Mehmet A; Cıkman, Oztekin; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ergun, Ersin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2016-10-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare but highly mortal infectious disease characterised by fulminant necrotising fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. The objective of this study is to analyse the demographics, clinical feature and treatment approaches as well as outcomes of Fournier's gangrene. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and operative notes. Patient data were analysed by demographics, aetiological factors, clinical features, treatment approaches and outcomes. Twelve patients (five female and seven male) were enrolled in this study. The most common aetiology was perianal abscess (41·6%). Wound cultures showed a mixture of microorganisms in six (50%) patients. For faecal diversion, while colostomy was performed in six cases (50%), Flexi-Seal was used in two cases (16·6%). In four patients (33·4%), no faecal diversion was performed. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system was effective in the last four patients (33·4%). The mean hospitalisation period in patients who used NPWT was 18 days, while it was 20 days in the others. NPWT in Fournier's gangrene is a safe dressing method. It promotes granulation formation. Flexi-Seal faecal management is an alternative method to colostomy and provides protection from its associated complications. The combination of two devices (Flexi-Seal and NPWT) is an effective and comfortable method in the management of Fournier's gangrene in appropriate patients. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  5. Low current approach to ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenacchi, G.; Sugiyama, L.; Airoldi, A.; Coppi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The open-quotes standardclose quotes path to achieve ignition conditions so far has been that of producing plasmas with the maximum current and poloidal field that axe compatible with the applied toroidal field and the geometry of the adopted configuration (the low q a approach.) The other approach is that motivated by recent experiments with reversed shear configurations, with relatively low currents and high fields corresponding to high values of q a (e-g., q a ≅ 6). While the first approach can be pursued with ohmic heating alone, the second one necessarily involves an auxiliary heating system. One of the advantages of this approach is that the onset of large scale internal modes can be avoided as q(ψ) is kept above 1 over the entire plasma column. Since quite peaked density profiles are produced in the regimes where enhanced confinement is observed, the α-particle power levels for which ignition can be reached and therefore the thermal wall loading on the first wall, can be reduced relatively to the standard, low q a , approach. The possibility is considered that ignition is reached in the reversed shear, high q a , regime and that this is followed by a transition to non-reversed profiles, or even the low q a regime, assuming that the excitation of modes involving magnetic reconnection will not undermine the needed degree of confinement. These results have been demonstrated by numerical transport simulation for the Ignitor-Ult machine, but are applicable to all high field ignition experiments

  6. Current approach to liver traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptanoglu, Levent; Kurt, Necmi; Sikar, Hasan Ediz

    2017-03-01

    Liver injuries remain major obstacle for successful treatment, due to size and location of the liver. Requirement for surgery should be determined by clinical factors, most notably hemodynamical state. In this present study we tried to declare our approach to liver traumas. We also tried to emphasize the importance of conservative treatment, since surgeries for liver traumas carry high mortality rates. Patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Surgery at Kartal Research and Education Hospital, due to liver trauma were retrospectively analyzed between 2003 and 2013. Patient demographics, hepatic panel, APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), PT (prothrombin time), INR (international normalized ratio), fibrinogen, biochemistry panel were recorded. Hemodynamic instability was the most prominent factor for surgery decision, in the lead of current Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Operation records and imaging modalities revealed liver injuries according to the Organ Injury Scale of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. 300 patients admitted to emergency department were included in our study (187 males and 113 females). Mean age was 47 years (range, 12-87). The overall mortality rate was 13% (40 out of 300). Major factor responsible for mortality rates and outcome was stability of cases on admission. 188 (% 63) patients were counted as stable, whereas 112 (% 37) cases were found unstable (blood pressure ≤ 90, after massive resuscitation). 192 patients were observed conservatively, whereas 108 cases received abdominal surgery. High levels of AST, ALT, LDH, INR, creatinine and low levels of fibrinogen and low platelet counts on admission were found to be associated with mortality and these cases also had Grade 4 and 5 injuries. Hemodynamic instability on admission and the type and grade of injury played major role in mortality rates). Packing was performed in 35 patients, with Grade 4 and 5 injuries. Mortality rate was %13 (40

  7. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind...... of degraded vision rather than "truly blind". This article considers both perspectives and finds that both have difficulties understanding all existing evidence about blindsight. In order to reconcile the perspectives, we suggest two specific criteria for a good model of blindsight, able to encompass all...

  8. Current Approach to Child Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Dag

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rights of children, legally or morally all over the world that children are born with; education, health, life, shelter; physical, psychological or sexual exploitation protection of such rights is universal concept used to describethemall. Rights of children is an issue that should be addressed in the concept of human rights. Today, there are many parts of the world that human rights violations, child-size and grew broader, more difficult to intervene in a way that is situated. The idea that children than in adults of different physical, physiological, behavioral and psychological characteristics that continuous growth and improve dawareness that the establishment of thecare of children a society where the problem is and scientific approach everyone with this responsibility should be installed is shaped in Geneva Declaration of Childrens Rights. Today, the international document related to childrens rights is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child adoptedand approved by 193 countries. Child policy in Turkey where 25 million children live is an issue that should be seriously considered. Thus, childrens rights, children working in coordination with the contract on the basis of a policy should be implemented fully. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 1-5

  9. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  10. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  11. Childhood obesity: Current and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Matthew A; Kiess, Wieland

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the last fifty years by approximately 5% per decade, and approximately a quarter of all children are now either overweight or obese. These children have a significantly increased risk of many future health problems including adult obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Despite this relentless increase, common-sense approaches aimed at prevention and treatment have failed to solve the problem. Current approaches at prevention have faced major challenges with some progress in implementing smaller scale programs and social marketing, but little action on broad public policy approaches which often appears unpalatable to society or individual governments. Meanwhile, treatment approaches have mainly focused on lifestyle change, and novel approaches are urgently needed. Prevention needs to shift to improving maternal health prior to conception, with more research focussed on the impact of early years in programming offspring to future overweight/obesity. Likewise, treatment paradigms need to move from simply thinking that obesity can be solved by readdressing diet and activity levels. Novel approaches are needed which take into consideration the complex physiology which regulates early childhood growth and the development of obesity in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational Approaches to Nucleic Acid Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hosna; Aminpour, Maral; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-10-12

    Recent advances in experimental DNA origami have dramatically expanded the horizon of DNA nanotechnology. Complex 3D suprastructures have been designed and developed using DNA origami with applications in biomaterial science, nanomedicine, nanorobotics, and molecular computation. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) origami has recently been realized as a new approach. Similar to DNA, RNA molecules can be designed to form complex 3D structures through complementary base pairings. RNA origami structures are, however, more compact and more thermodynamically stable due to RNA's non-canonical base pairing and tertiary interactions. With all these advantages, the development of RNA origami lags behind DNA origami by a large gap. Furthermore, although computational methods have proven to be effective in designing DNA and RNA origami structures and in their evaluation, advances in computational nucleic acid origami is even more limited. In this paper, we review major milestones in experimental and computational DNA and RNA origami and present current challenges in these fields. We believe collaboration between experimental nanotechnologists and computer scientists are critical for advancing these new research paradigms.

  13. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  14. A multilayer approach for turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Castro Díaz, Manuel J.; Morales de Luna, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    When a river that carries sediment in suspension enters into a lake or the ocean it can form a plume that can be classified as hyperpycnal or hypopycnal. Hypopycnal plumes occurs if the combined density of the sediment and interstitial fluid is lower than that of the ambient. Hyperpycnal plumes are a class of sediment-laden gravity current commonly referred to as turbidity currents [7,9]. Some layer-averaged models have been previously developed (see [3, 4, 8] among others). Although this layer-averaged approach gives a fast and valuable information, it has the disadvantage that the vertical distribution of the sediment in suspension is lost. A recent technique based on a multilayer approach [1, 2, 6] has shown to be specially useful to generalize shallow water type models in order to keep track of the vertical components of the averaged variables in the classical shallow water equations. In [5] multilayer model is obtained using a vertical discontinuous Galerkin approach for which the vertical velocity is supposed to be piecewise linear and the horizontal velocity is supposed to be piecewise constant. In this work the technique introduced in [5] is generalized to derive a model for turbidity currents. This model allows to simulate hyperpycnal as well as hypopycnal plumes. Several numerical tests will be presented. References [1] E. Audusse, M. Bristeau, B. Perthame, and J. Sainte-Marie. A multilayer Saint-Venant system with mass exchanges for shallow water flows. derivation and numerical validation. ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, 45(1):169-200, (2010). [2] E. Audusse, M.-O. Bristeau, M. Pelanti, and J. Sainte-Marie. Approximation of the hydrostatic Navier–Stokes system for density stratified flows by a multilayer model: Kinetic interpretation and numerical solution. Journal of Computational Physics, 230(9):3453-3478, (2011). [3] S. F. Bradford and N. D. Katopodes. Hydrodynamics of turbid underflows. i: Formulation and numerical

  15. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  16. Current diagnostic approaches to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Koo, Brendan; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Tay, Keng Y.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Prompt diagnosis with high-resolution CT and intensive critical care support remain key aspects of good patient management. Early identification and definitive treatment of underlying ruptured aneurysms is generally advocated to reduce the risk of re-bleeding, a complication with high mortality and morbidity. Although intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is still considered the gold standard for sourcing aneurysms, CT angiography, especially with the evolution of multi-slice technology, is slowly gaining acceptance as a rapid, accessible and minimally invasive method which appears likely to replace DSA as first-line modality in the future. Furthermore, the advent of Guglielmi detachable coils and the ISAT trial have revolutionised the treatment of ruptured aneurysms, with a significant trend towards endovascular coiling away from operative clipping. Improvements in clinical experience, coiling technology and assistive devices now allow interventionalists to potentially treat the majority of aneurysms, including wide-necked or complex lesions. The uncertain long-term results of coiling, however, still fuel strong debate and controversy. This review summarises current diagnostic approaches to SAH from a radiological perspective, with an emphasis on aneurysmal SAH and an evidence-based approach to the role of imaging and interventional radiology in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Current diagnostic approaches to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Koo, Brendan; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Tay, Keng Y.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Prompt diagnosis with high-resolution CT and intensive critical care support remain key aspects of good patient management. Early identification and definitive treatment of underlying ruptured aneurysms is generally advocated to reduce the risk of re-bleeding, a complication with high mortality and morbidity. Although intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is still considered the gold standard for sourcing aneurysms, CT angiography, especially with the evolution of multi-slice technology, is slowly gaining acceptance as a rapid, accessible and minimally invasive method which appears likely to replace DSA as first-line modality in the future. Furthermore, the advent of Guglielmi detachable coils and the ISAT trial have revolutionised the treatment of ruptured aneurysms, with a significant trend towards endovascular coiling away from operative clipping. Improvements in clinical experience, coiling technology and assistive devices now allow interventionalists to potentially treat the majority of aneurysms, including wide-necked or complex lesions. The uncertain long-term results of coiling, however, still fuel strong debate and controversy. This review summarises current diagnostic approaches to SAH from a radiological perspective, with an emphasis on aneurysmal SAH and an evidence-based approach to the role of imaging and interventional radiology in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  18. Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiard, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The management of narcolepsy is presently at a turning point. Three main avenues are considered in this review: 1) Two tendencies characterize the conventional treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil has replaced methylphenidate and amphetamine as the first-line treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep attacks, based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of modafinil, but on no direct comparison of modafinil versus traditional stimulants. For cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, new antidepressants tend to replace tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in spite of a lack of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these compounds; 2) The conventional treatment of narcolepsy is now challenged by sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gammahydroxybutyrate, based on a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials and a long-term open label study. This treatment has a fairly good efficacy and is active on all symptoms of narcolepsy. Careful titration up to an adequate level is essential both to obtain positive results and avoid adverse effects; 3) A series of new treatments are currently being tested, either in animal models or in humans, They include novel stimulant and anticataplectic drugs, endocrine therapy, and, more attractively, totally new approaches based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy, hypocretine-based therapies, and immunotherapy. PMID:18830438

  19. Linearized dynamical approach to current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    We study the original motivations searching for a nonlinear chiral Lagrangian to replace the linear sigma model while manifesting all the successful properties of current algebra and partial conservation of axial currents (PCAC). (author). 26 refs

  20. Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Billiard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michel BilliardDepartment of Neurology, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: The management of narcolepsy is presently at a turning point. Three main avenues are considered in this review: 1 Two tendencies characterize the conventional treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil has replaced methylphenidate and amphetamine as the first-line treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and sleep attacks, based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of modafinil, but on no direct comparison of modafinil versus traditional stimulants. For cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, new antidepressants tend to replace tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in spite of a lack of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these compounds; 2 The conventional treatment of narcolepsy is now challenged by sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gammahydroxybutyrate, based on a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials and a long-term open label study. This treatment has a fairly good efficacy and is active on all symptoms of narcolepsy. Careful titration up to an adequate level is essential both to obtain positive results and avoid adverse effects; 3 A series of new treatments are currently being tested, either in animal models or in humans, They include novel stimulant and anticataplectic drugs, endocrine therapy, and, more attractively, totally new approaches based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy, hypocretine-based therapies, and immunotherapy.Keywords: narcolepsy, treatment, conventional drugs, modafinil, sodium oxybate, future treatments

  1. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  2. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current approaches to assessing intangible assets

    OpenAIRE

    Урусова, Зінаїда Петрівна

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes methods of assessing intangible assets in Ukraine as well as in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. Contemporary approaches to assessing intangible assets have been researched.

  4. ECAPS - Eddy Current Approach and Proximity Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple, energized coils in a small satellite will generate eddy currents in the skin of the International Space Station (ISS). This will create repulsive forces...

  5. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  6. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  7. Current approaches to gene regulatory network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazma Alvis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many different approaches have been developed to model and simulate gene regulatory networks. We proposed the following categories for gene regulatory network models: network parts lists, network topology models, network control logic models, and dynamic models. Here we will describe some examples for each of these categories. We will study the topology of gene regulatory networks in yeast in more detail, comparing a direct network derived from transcription factor binding data and an indirect network derived from genome-wide expression data in mutants. Regarding the network dynamics we briefly describe discrete and continuous approaches to network modelling, then describe a hybrid model called Finite State Linear Model and demonstrate that some simple network dynamics can be simulated in this model.

  8. Current approaches in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Sarı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age. AF is classified into subtypes according to the duration and/or able to provide sinus rhytym. İnitially, patients should be evaluated for rhythm or rate control for appropriate treatment. Second stage of strategy aimed to investigate the feasibility of anticoagulation therapy. Recently, due to the progress made in treatment with rhythm control and anticoagulation therapy, either American or European guidelines have been renovated. These developments have taken place in the newly published guide. In this article, the current change in the management of AF is discussed.

  9. Cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics - current use and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia-Krzyżak, Agnieszka; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Popiół, Justyna; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Marona, Henryk; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2018-06-05

    Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring as well as synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world. Some of them show allergic and photoallergic potential, resulting in restrictions in maximum concentrations and/or a requirement to indicate the presence of some substances in the list of ingredients when their concentrations exceed certain fixed values in a cosmetic product. Another important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene, and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Other rarely utilized functions of cinnamic acid derivatives are as an antioxidant, in skin conditioning, hair conditioning, as a tonic, and in antimicrobial activities. Moreover, some currently investigated natural and synthetic derivatives of cinnamic acid have shown skin lightening and anti-aging properties. Some of them may become new cosmetic ingredients in the future. In particular, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, which is currently indexed as a skin-conditioning cosmetics ingredient, has been widely tested in vitro and in vivo as a new drug candidate

  10. Multidisciplinary management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guro, Hanisah; Kim, Jin Won; Choi, YoungRok; Cho, Jai Young; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong

    2017-06-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a common primary hepatic tumor. However, its outcomes are usually worse than those of hepatocellular carcinoma owing to its non-specific presentation and detection at an advanced stage. The most widely used serum marker, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, is non-specific. Furthermore, imaging studies rarely identify any pathognomonic features. Surgery is the only treatment option that offers a chance of long-term survival. However, the resectability rate is low owing to the high frequencies of intrahepatic metastases, peritoneal carcinomatosis, or extrahepatic metastases. Surgical treatment should be tailored according to the macroscopic classification of ICC (e.g. mass-forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal growth types) because it reflects the tumor's dissemination pattern. Although lymph node metastasis is a negative prognostic factor, the importance and extent of lymph node dissection is still controversial. To improve patient survival, liver transplantation is considered in some patients with unresectable ICC, especially in those with an insufficient remnant liver volume. Minimally invasive procedures, including laparoscopic and robotic liver resection, have been tested and achieved comparable outcomes to conventional surgery in preliminary studies. No randomized trials have confirmed the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in ICC, and several trials have evaluated molecular-targeted agents as monotherapy or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Multidisciplinary approaches are necessary to improve the outcomes of ICC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CURRENT APPROACHES TO CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Choinzonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade malignant gliomas (WHO grade G III–IV account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive treatment, survival rates are still very low with a median reported survival of no more than 1.5 years.Radiation therapy is an integral part of the combined treatment, but often does not influence lethally on resistant tumor cells. Thereby, in recent decades there has been an active search for novel approaches to the treatment of malignant gliomas (chemotherapeutic drugs, biological modifiers, local hyperthermia. Experimental data showed that the effect of high temperatures has both a direct damaging effect on tumor cells and a sensitizing effect. Significant advantages are achieved when the complex treatment of different malignant tumorsincludes local hyperthermia. However data on the treatment of patients with primary and recurrent gliomas G III–IV using local hyperthermia are scarce.The literature review is given in the article provides an overview of the existing treatment methods for brain tumors.

  12. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  13. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  14. Lanthanides separation by counter - current electrophoretic using α - hydroxyisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleluia, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    Studies about counter-current electrophoretic separation of rare earth metal ions using α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as complexing electrolyte are discussed. La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu were separated and fractions with purities better than 99,9% were obtained, using neutron activation analysis. A relation between the first stability constant of the α-hydroxyisobutyrate/lanthanide complexes and their migration velocities were observed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  15. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  16. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  17. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100 0 C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100 0 C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100 0 C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters

  18. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  19. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nucleic acid base sequence of proteins plays a crucial role in the expression of gene. The gene is responsible for the synthesis of proteins and these proteins, which are synthesized, are responsible for the biological process and also for dreadful diseases as well. Once if the nucleic acid sequence is altered, we would be ...

  20. Assessing Acid-Base Status: Physiologic Versus Physicochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrogué, Horacio J; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-11-01

    The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco 2 ) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists. This approach posits that the acid-base status of body fluids is determined by changes in the dissociation of water that are driven by the interplay of 3 independent variables: the sum of strong (fully dissociated) cation concentrations minus the sum of strong anion concentrations (strong ion difference); the total concentration of weak acids; and Paco 2 . These 3 independent variables mechanistically determine both hydrogen ion concentration and bicarbonate concentration of body fluids, which are considered as dependent variables. Our experience indicates that the average practitioner is familiar with only one of these approaches and knows very little, if any, about the other approach. In the present Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, we attempt to bridge this knowledge gap by contrasting the physiologic and physicochemical approaches to assessing acid-base status. We first outline the essential features, advantages, and limitations of each of the 2 approaches and then apply each approach to the same patient presentation. We conclude with our view about the optimal approach. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A partial Hamiltonian approach for current value Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.; Chaudhry, Azam

    2014-10-01

    We develop a partial Hamiltonian framework to obtain reductions and closed-form solutions via first integrals of current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The approach is algorithmic and applies to many state and costate variables of the current value Hamiltonian. However, we apply the method to models with one control, one state and one costate variable to illustrate its effectiveness. The current value Hamiltonian systems arise in economic growth theory and other economic models. We explain our approach with the help of a simple illustrative example and then apply it to two widely used economic growth models: the Ramsey model with a constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function and Cobb Douglas technology and a one-sector AK model of endogenous growth are considered. We show that our newly developed systematic approach can be used to deduce results given in the literature and also to find new solutions.

  2. Adjoint current-based approaches to prostate brachytherapy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J. A.; Henderson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper builds on previous work done at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison to employ the adjoint concept of nuclear reactor physics in the so-called greedy heuristic of brachytherapy optimization. Whereas that previous work focused on the adjoint flux, i.e. the importance, this work has included use of the adjoint current to increase the amount of information available in optimizing. Two current-based approaches were developed for 2-D problems, and each was compared to the most recent form of the flux-based methodology. The first method aimed to take a treatment plan from the flux-based greedy heuristic and adjust via application of the current-displacement, or a vector displacement based on a combination of tissue (adjoint) and seed (forward) currents acting as forces on a seed. This method showed promise in improving key urethral and rectal dosimetric quantities. The second method uses the normed current-displacement as the greedy criterion such that seeds are placed in regions of least force. This method, coupled with the dose-update scheme, generated treatment plans with better target irradiation and sparing of the urethra and normal tissues than the flux-based approach. Tables of these parameters are given for both approaches. In summary, these preliminary results indicate adjoint current methods are useful in optimization and further work in 3-D should be performed. (authors)

  3. Tandem Wittig-ene reaction approach to kainic acid

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    The first example of a tandem Wittig-intramolecular ene reaction approach and its application toward the synthesis of kainic acid is reported. The synthetic pathway involves conversion of prenyl bromide into phosphorane 3, followed by one-pot Wittig...

  4. Current status of acid fog research. Sanseimu kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murano, K. (National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-07-10

    Acid fog research was behind in comparison with acid rain research. In case of acid fog, it is because the place generating sufficiently thick fog to collect is limited, the generating place is mountainous, its survey needs a lot of works, its collector is not convenient like in acid rain, or its sampling is difficult on its automation. Since the 1980s, an extensive survey on acid fog had been carried out centering the west coast of California, USA, and low pH fog (minimum pH 2.2) was observed. In the course of these researches, string type active fogwater collectors became a major sampling method, and the simulation of acidification of fog droplet in the atmosphere was extensively conducted. In Japan, already in the 1960s, field surveys on acid fog were conducted, in 1984 acid fog survey started on Mt. Akagi under a viewpoint of ecological impact, and there was a report that low pH fog (pH 3 to 4) continued more than 10 hours. It was pointed out that there were plant damage by acid fog in several locations, especially the tree mortality mechanism in Tomakomai was clarified. 50 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A progressive approach to discrete trial teaching: Some current guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Leaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete trial teaching (DTT is one of the cornerstones of applied behavior analysis (ABA based interventions. Conventionally, DTT is commonly implemented within a prescribed, fixed manner in which the therapist is governed by a strict set of rules. In contrast to conventional DTT, a progressive approach to DTT allows the therapist to remain flexible, making in-the-moment analyses and changes based on several variables (e.g., individual responding, current and previous history. The present paper will describe some guidelines to a progressive approach to DTT. The guidelines presented here should not be taken as a set of rules or as an exhaustive list.

  6. A Progressive Approach to Discrete Trial Teaching: Some Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. LEAF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete trial teaching (DTT is one of the cornerstones of applied behavior analysis (ABA based interventions. Conventionally, DTT is commonly implemented within a prescribed, fixed manner in which the therapist is governed by a strict set of rules. In contrast to conventional DTT, a progressive approach to DTT allows the therapist to remain flexible, making in-the-moment analyses and changes based on several variables (e.g., individual responding, current and previous history. The present paper will describe some guidelines to a progressive approach to DTT. The guidelines presented here should not be taken as a set of rules or as an exhaustive list.

  7. Current Therapeutic Strategies and Novel Approaches in Osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kosei; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Stresing, Verena; Mori, Kanji; Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and metastatic osteosarcoma has stagnated in the past several decades. Thus, current conventional therapy consists of multi-agent chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, which is not fully adequate for osteosarcoma treatment. Innovative drugs and approaches are needed to further improve outcome in osteosarcoma patients. This review describes the current management of osteosarcoma as well as potential new therapies

  8. Current management of oral cancer. A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, R A; Blanchaert, R H

    2001-11-01

    Recent basic science discoveries have contributed to our understanding of the etiology of oral cancer and allowed us to consider innovative approaches to therapy. The authors evaluated and summarized current approaches to the management of oral cancer, emphasizing the multidisciplinary team approach to coordinate surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Current concepts in management, including complications of therapy, are described. State-of-the-art surgical techniques can spare patients with oral cancer from much of the morbidity and complications common in the past. The refinement of treatment strategies reduces complications and improves efficacy. Many exciting new clinical trials in the areas of gene therapy and immunomodulation are showing promise. Management of oral cancer has undergone radical change in the past 10 years and continues to evolve rapidly. Discoveries in molecular biology, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy and medical oncology have altered many traditional concepts and practices. General dental practitioners need to understand current treatment modalities for oral and pharyngeal cancers to determine to whom they should refer patients for the most appropriate treatment, and to make recommendations regarding complications associated with these cancers.

  9. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  10. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands

  11. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer use: Current approaches and simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baethgen, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most common limiting nutrient in agricultural systems throughout the world. Crops need sufficient available N to achieve optimum yields and adequate grain-protein content. Consequently, sub-optimal rates of N fertilizers typically cause lower economical benefits for farmers. On the other hand, excessive N fertilizer use may result in environmental problems such as nitrate contamination of groundwater and emission of N 2 O and NO. In spite of the economical and environmental importance of good N fertilizer management, the development of optimum fertilizer recommendations is still a major challenge in most agricultural systems. This article reviews the approaches most commonly used for making N recommendations: expected yield level, soil testing and plant analysis (including quick tests). The paper introduces the application of simulation models that complement traditional approaches, and includes some examples of current applications in Africa and South America. (author)

  12. Breast cancer treatment: historical review and current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)

  13. Low-energy hadronic interactions beyond the current algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.; Nagy, M.

    1993-06-01

    The new low-energy AP 3 -interaction, which is produced by convergent box-constituent-quark-loop diagrams, is obtained within chiral perturbation theory at the quark level (CHPT) q with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry. Its contributions to processes of low-energy interactions of low-lying mesons are investigated. The new interaction goes beyond the framework of the low-energy current algebra approach and of the effective chiral Lagrangians with linear realization of chiral symmetry, constructed at the hadronic level. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  14. Electrostatic Discharge Current Linear Approach and Circuit Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos K. Katsivelis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Electrostatic Discharge phenomenon is a great threat to all electronic devices and ICs. An electric charge passing rapidly from a charged body to another can seriously harm the last one. However, there is a lack in a linear mathematical approach which will make it possible to design a circuit capable of producing such a sophisticated current waveform. The commonly accepted Electrostatic Discharge current waveform is the one set by the IEC 61000-4-2. However, the over-simplified circuit included in the same standard is incapable of producing such a waveform. Treating the Electrostatic Discharge current waveform of the IEC 61000-4-2 as reference, an approximation method, based on Prony’s method, is developed and applied in order to obtain a linear system’s response. Considering a known input, a method to design a circuit, able to generate this ESD current waveform in presented. The circuit synthesis assumes ideal active elements. A simulation is carried out using the PSpice software.

  15. A new approach to microbial production of gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Bhakti; Patil, Shridhar

    2008-10-01

    In a new approach to microbial gallic acid production by Aspergillus fischeri MTCC 150, 40gL(-1) of tannic acid was added in two installments during the bioconversion phase of the process (25gL(-1) and 15gL(-1) at 32 and 44h respectively). The optimum parameters for the bioconversion phase were found to be temperature: 35°C, pH: slightly acidic (3.3-3.5), aeration: nil and agitation: 250 rpm. A maximum of 71.4% conversion was obtained after 71h fermentation with 83.3% product recovery. The yield was 7.35 g of gallic acid per g of biomass accumulated and the fermenter productivity was 0.56 g of gallic acid produced per liter of medium per hour.

  16. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boverhof, Darrell R.; Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  17. Current Approaches to the Establishment of Credit Risk Specific Provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Nitu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the new Basel II and IFRS approaches is to make the operations of financial institutions more transparent and thus to create a better basis for the market participants and supervisory authorities to acquire information and make decisions. In the banking sector, a continuous debate is being led, related to the similarities and differences between IFRS approach on loan loss provisions and Basel II approach on calculating the capital requirements, judging against the classical method regarding loan provisions, currently used by the Romanian banks following the Central Bank’s regulations.Banks must take into consideration that IFRS and Basel II objectives are fundamentally different. While IFRS aims to ensure that the financial papers reflect adequately the losses recorded at each balance sheet date, the Basel II objective is to ensure that the bank has enough provisions or capital in order to face expected losses in the next 12 months and eventual unexpected losses.Consequently, there are clear differences between the objectives of the two models. Basel II works on statistical modeling of expected losses while IFRS, although allowing statistical models, requires a trigger event to have occurred before they can be used. IAS 39 specifically states that losses that are expected as a result of future events, no matter how likely, are not recognized. This is a clear and fundamental area of difference between the two frameworks.

  18. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  19. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included

  20. Amino acid neurotransmitters and new approaches to anticonvulsant drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B

    1984-01-01

    Amino acids provide the most universal and important inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine) and excitatory (glutamate, aspartate, cysteic acid, cysteine sulphinic acid) neurotransmitters in the brain. An anticonvulsant action may be produced (1) by enhancing inhibitory (GABAergic) processes, and (2) by diminishing excitatory transmission. Possible pharmacological mechanisms for enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition include (1) GABA agonist action, (2) GABA prodrugs, (3) drugs facilitating GABA release from terminals, (4) inhibition of GABA-transaminase, (5) allosteric enhancement of the efficacy of GABA at the receptor complex, (6) direction action on the chloride ionophore, and (7) inhibition of GABA reuptake. Examples of these approaches include the use of irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitors, such as gamma-vinyl GABA, and the development of anticonvulsant beta-carbolines that interact with the "benzodiazepine receptor." Pharmacological mechanisms for diminishing excitatory transmission include (1) enzyme inhibitors that decrease the maximal rate of synthesis of glutamate or aspartate, (2) drugs that decrease the synaptic release of glutamate or aspartate, and (3) drugs that block the post-synaptic action of excitatory amino acids. Compounds that selectively antagonise excitation due to dicarboxylic amino acids have recently been developed. Those that selectively block excitation produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (and aspartate) have proved to be potent anticonvulsants in many animal models of epilepsy. This provides a novel approach to the design of anticonvulsant drugs.

  1. Genomics of lactic acid bacteria: Current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of foods and feed raw materials where they contribute to flavor and texture of the fermented products. In addition, specific LAB strains are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effects in consumers. Recently, the genome sequencing of LAB is booming and the increased amount of published genomics data brings unprecedented opportunity for us to reveal the important traits of LAB. This review describes the recent progress on LAB genomics and special emphasis is placed on understanding the industry-related physiological features based on genomics analysis. Moreover, strategies to engineer metabolic capacity and stress tolerance of LAB with improved industrial performance are also discussed.

  2. Current and future developments in nucleic acid-based diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, G.J.; Romito, M.; Kara, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and characterization of specific nucleic acids of medico-veterinary pathogens have proven invaluable for diagnostic purposes. Apart from hybridization and sequencing techniques, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and numerous other methods have contributed significantly to this process. The integration of amplification and signal detection systems, including on-line real-time devices, have increased speed and sensitivity and greatly facilitated the quantification of target nucleic acids. They have also allowed for sequence characterization using melting or hybridization curves. Rugged portable real-time instruments for field use and robotic devices for processing samples are already available commercially. Various stem-loop DNA probes have been designed to have greater specificity for target recognition during real-time PCR. Various DNA fingerprinting techniques or post amplification sequencing are used to type pathogenic strains. Characterization according to DNA sequence is becoming more readily available as automated sequencers become more widely used. Reverse hybridization and to a greater degree DNA micro-arrays, are being used for genotyping related organisms and can allow for the detection of a large variety of different pathogens simultaneously. Non-radioactive labelling of DNA, especially using fluorophores and the principles of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, is now widely used, especially in real-time detection devices. Other detection methods include the use of surface plasmon resonance and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition to these technological advances, contributions by bioinformatics and the description of unique signatures of DNA sequences from pathogens will contribute to the development of further assays for monitoring presence of pathogens. An important goal will be the development of robust devices capable of sensitively and specifically detecting a broad spectrum of pathogens that will be applicable for point

  3. Two complementary approaches to right-handed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmler, Katrin M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavour observables impose strong constraints on models of new physics. We study whether right-handed currents can provide a realistic extension to the Standard Model. We analyse two complementary models. These setups lead to new flavour violating interactions in the right-handed sector. We first consider a bottom-up approach assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group broken only by the Yukawa couplings. In this model the vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke problem can be solved. Secondly we study the Left-Right Model. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis, including all known experimental constraints from ΔF=2 observables and the decay B →X s γ simultaneously. We observe that there exist regions in parameter space in accordance with the all data. In this model all flavour anomalies can be resolved except the vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke problem.

  4. OSTEOARTHRITIS: CURRENT CLINICAL CONCEPT AND SOME PROMISING THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a trend toward changing the clinical concept of osteoarthritis (OA. This disease has been considered as an age-related disease and the long-term result of a current pathological process for a very long time. However, many experts are now inclined to consider it necessary to identify the early, pre-X-ray stage of OA, when adequate treatment may not only halt the progression, but also achieve the regression of joint structural changes. This review deals with a number of pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the early stages of OA, which are important for timely diagnosis and pathogenetic therapy choice. It also considers some therapeutic approaches, both a "classic" and recently actively discussed methods for using platelet-rich plasma and autologous chondrocyte transplantation.

  5. Two complementary approaches to right-handed currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmler, Katrin M.

    2012-04-17

    Flavour observables impose strong constraints on models of new physics. We study whether right-handed currents can provide a realistic extension to the Standard Model. We analyse two complementary models. These setups lead to new flavour violating interactions in the right-handed sector. We first consider a bottom-up approach assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group broken only by the Yukawa couplings. In this model the vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke problem can be solved. Secondly we study the Left-Right Model. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis, including all known experimental constraints from {Delta}F=2 observables and the decay B {yields}X{sub s}{gamma} simultaneously. We observe that there exist regions in parameter space in accordance with the all data. In this model all flavour anomalies can be resolved except the vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke problem.

  6. Current Perspectives on Desmoid Tumors: The Mayo Clinic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Okuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors are a rare group of locally aggressive, non malignant tumors of fibroblastic origin that can lead to significant morbidity due to local invasion. Despite advances in the understanding of these tumors, their natural history is incompletely understood and the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Local control is the main goal of treatment and there has been a change in philosophy regarding the management of these tumors from aggressive surgical resection to function preservation. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to plan local control with acceptable morbidity. The current Mayo Clinic algorithm for the treatment of these tumors is based on institutional experience and the available evidence in the literature: asymptomatic/non progressive lesions away from vital structures are managed with observation and regular imaging; primary or recurrent desmoid tumors which are symptomatic or progressive or near vital structures are managed with wide surgical resection when wide surgical margins are possible with minimal functional and cosmetic loss. When positive or close surgical margins are likely, surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy is preferred. If likely functional or cosmetic deficit is unacceptable, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Unresectable lesions are considered for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or newer modalities however an unresectable lesion associated with a painful, functionless, infected extremity is managed with an amputation.

  7. Current Perspectives on Desmoid Tumors: The Mayo Clinic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, Siddharth B.; Rose, Peter S.; Sim, Franklin; Okuno, Scott; Petersen, Ivy

    2011-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are a rare group of locally aggressive, non malignant tumors of fibroblastic origin that can lead to significant morbidity due to local invasion. Despite advances in the understanding of these tumors, their natural history is incompletely understood and the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Local control is the main goal of treatment and there has been a change in philosophy regarding the management of these tumors from aggressive surgical resection to function preservation. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to plan local control with acceptable morbidity. The current Mayo Clinic algorithm for the treatment of these tumors is based on institutional experience and the available evidence in the literature: asymptomatic/non progressive lesions away from vital structures are managed with observation and regular imaging; primary or recurrent desmoid tumors which are symptomatic or progressive or near vital structures are managed with wide surgical resection when wide surgical margins are possible with minimal functional and cosmetic loss. When positive or close surgical margins are likely, surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy is preferred. If likely functional or cosmetic deficit is unacceptable, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Unresectable lesions are considered for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or newer modalities however an unresectable lesion associated with a painful, functionless, infected extremity is managed with an amputation

  8. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolution of Platinum in Hydrochloric Acid Under Industrial-Scale Alternating Current Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrzabekov, B. E.; Bayeshov, A. B.; Makhanbetov, A. B.; Mishra, B.; Baigenzhenov, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of platinum in a hydrochloric acid solution under polarization by an industrial-scale alternating current has been investigated. For the electrical dissolution of platinum, titanium is used as an auxiliary electrode, which increases the yield of platinum dissolution by 12.5 pct. The influence of the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the current densities of the platinum and titanium electrodes, and the temperature of the electrolyte on the efficiency of the process of dissolving platinum have all been studied.

  10. Cough in Children: Current Approaches to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Rechkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cough is one of the most common symptoms in the practice of doctors of various specialties, including pediatricians. Cough treatment should be started with the identification of its cause and correct diagnosis. Most often, cough in children is due to the increased viscosity of bronchial secretions, i.e. violation of sputum transport in the bronchial tree, and insufficient activity of ciliated epithelium. The main objective of the treatment of productive cough is dilution of sputum, bronchial secretion and excretion, thus necessitating the administration of mucolytics. Currently, one of the most famous mucolytics is acetylcysteine, cysteine amino acid product, such as ACC®. However, today the question of ACC® (acetylcysteine application in infants and young children is still debatable. This article presents a study whose objective was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of ACC® (20 mg/ml solution in the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases in children aged 2 to 6 years. Materials and methods. The study involved 60 children with acute tracheitis, simple bronchitis, acute obstructive bronchitis, recurrent bronchitis in the acute phase, community-acquired pneumonia, asthma exacerbation, cystic fibrosis. Patients of the main groups (n = 40 received ACC® (20 mg/ml solution at the age-specific dosage 3 times a day in combined treatment. Therapy of patients in the control group (n = 20 was conducted without ACC®. Results. During follow-up, patients who received ACC® had significant positive changes in the nature of cough, sputum viscosity and its amount as opposed to a comparison group of patients. Complete disappearance of cough was achieved on day 5–8 from the beginning of treatment, while in the control group patients, this time was longer. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the study drug showed that very good efficacy was achieved in 75 % of patients and good — in 20 %, and among patients who

  11. Assessment of acid-base balance. Stewart's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fores-Novales, B; Diez-Fores, P; Aguilera-Celorrio, L J

    2016-04-01

    The study of acid-base equilibrium, its regulation and its interpretation have been a source of debate since the beginning of 20th century. Most accepted and commonly used analyses are based on pH, a notion first introduced by Sorensen in 1909, and on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (1916). Since then new concepts have been development in order to complete and make easier the understanding of acid-base disorders. In the early 1980's Peter Stewart brought the traditional interpretation of acid-base disturbances into question and proposed a new method. This innovative approach seems more suitable for studying acid-base abnormalities in critically ill patients. The aim of this paper is to update acid-base concepts, methods, limitations and applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Topochemical approach to efficiently produce main-chain poly(bile acid)s with high molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weina; Li, Xuesong; Zhu, Wei; Li, Changxu; Xu, Dan; Ju, Yong; Li, Guangtao

    2011-07-21

    Based on a topochemical approach, a strategy for efficiently producing main-chain poly(bile acid)s in the solid state was developed. This strategy allows for facile and scalable synthesis of main-chain poly(bile acid)s not only with high molecular weights, but also with quantitative conversions and yields.

  13. Current approaches to nuclear power plant life management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    extracted additional maintenance measures and incorporated them into their long-term maintenance plans, thereby reinforcing their current maintenance activities. Considering the latest information including domestic and overseas operating experiences and knowledge of academics and experts consigned by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the METI reviewed and studied the technical evaluation and long-term maintenance plans of these electric utility companies. This paper describes the outlines of the NISA's report and related activities on current approaches to cope with the ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan. (Note) In 2001, the MITI was reorganized to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  14. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  15. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  17. Beyond (eco)design : Current approaches to sustainable packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.

    2014-01-01

    Packaging has always received a lot of attention within the field of design for sustainability. The classical approach has been to mainly focus on reducing the impact of the packaging. This approach stems from the ill-informed position that packaging is superfluous, or at best there only for

  18. Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of a potassium current in the giant neurons of Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches were used to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in the modulation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I R ) in the giant neurons of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. Using [ 3 H]AA as tracer, the intracellular free AA pool in Aplysia ganglia was found to be in a state of constant and rapid turnover through deacylation and reacylation of phospholipid, primarily phosphatidyl-inositol. This constant turnover was accompanied by a constant release of free AA and eicosanoids into the extracellular medium. The effects of three pharmacological agents were characterized with regard to AA metabolism in Aplysia ganglia. 4-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated liberation of AA from phospholipid, and 4-bromophenacylbromide (BPB), an inhibitor of phospholipate A 2 , inhibited this liberation. Indomethacin at 250 μM was found to inhibit uptake of AA, likely through inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase. These agents were also found to modulate I R in ways which were consistent with their biological effects: TPA inhibited I R , and both BPB and indomethacin stimulated I R . Modulation of I R by these substances was found not to involve cAMP metabolism. Acute application of exogenous AA did not affect I R ; however, I R in giant neurons was found to be inhibited after dialysis with AA or other unsaturated fatty acids. Also, after perfusion with BSA overnight, a treatment which strips the giant neurons of AA in lipid storage, I R was found to have increased over 2-fold. This perfusion-induced increase was inhibited by the presence of AA or by pretreatment of the giant neurons with BPB. These results suggest AA, provided through constant turnover from phospholipid, mediates constitutive inhibition of I R

  19. Nucleic Acid-Based Therapy Approaches for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vagner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a dominant mutation that results in an unstable expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene leading to a toxic gain of function in huntingtin protein which causes massive neurodegeneration mainly in the striatum and clinical symptoms associated with the disease. Since the mutation has multiple effects in the cell and the precise mechanism of the disease remains to be elucidated, gene therapy approaches have been developed that intervene in different aspects of the condition. These approaches include increasing expression of growth factors, decreasing levels of mutant huntingtin, and restoring cell metabolism and transcriptional balance. The aim of this paper is to outline the nucleic acid-based therapeutic strategies that have been tested to date.

  20. New Approaches to Circulating Current Controllers for Modular Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moranchel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next years, modular multilevel converters (MMCs are going to be a next generation multilevel converters for medium to high voltage conversion applications, such as medium voltage motor drives, medium voltage flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS and high voltage direct current transmission. They provide advantages such as high modularity, availability, low generation of harmonics, etc. However, the circulating current distorts the leg currents and increases the rated current of power devices, which further increases system cost. This paper focuses on analysis and suppression of these currents in a MMC using two algorithms for tracking of harmonics. For this work resonant controllers and repetitive controllers have been selected. Both controllers are analyzed and simulations results are presented. Moreover, the controllers have been tested and validated for a three phase MMC operating as an inverter using a real processing platform based on Zynq by Xilinx and designed to control large multilevel converters and in a real MMC prototype. These results are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. An evaluation of current approaches to nursing home capital reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Holahan, J

    1986-01-01

    One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs.

  2. Current approach to diagnosis and management of osteoarthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is extreme variability in presentation at different joint sites and between individuals. Management of OA involves a comprehensive approach consisting of preventative measures and numerous therapeutic modalities which should be tailored to individual needs. The family practitioner plays a vital role in the diagnosis ...

  3. A Progressive Approach to Discrete Trial Teaching: Some Current Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is one of the cornerstones of applied behavior analysis (ABA) based interventions. Conventionally, DTT is commonly implemented within a prescribed, fixed manner in which the therapist is governed by a strict set of rules. In contrast to conventional DTT, a progressive approach to DTT allows the therapist to remain…

  4. Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Dirksen, Uta; Lewis, Ian J.; Ferrari, Stefano; Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Kovar, Heinrich; Grimer, Robert; Whelan, Jeremy; Claude, Line; Delattre, Olivier; Paulussen, Michael; Picci, Piero; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; van den Berg, Hendrik; Ladenstein, Ruth; Michon, Jean; Hjorth, Lars; Judson, Ian; Luksch, Roberto; Bernstein, Mark L.; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Brennan, Bernadette; Craft, Alan W.; Womer, Richard B.; Juergens, Heribert; Oberlin, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or

  5. Experimental typography : reviewing the modernist and the current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Makal, Eray

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-66. The intention of this study is to evaluate the experimental typography within the history of graphic design by taking in consideration of two epochs. The Modernist and The Current. Makal, Eray M.S.

  6. Forecasting Water Waves and Currents: A Space-time Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambati, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting water waves and currents in near shore and off shore regions of the seas and oceans is essential to maintain and protect our environment and man made structures. In wave hydrodynamics, waves can be classified as shallow and deep water waves based on its water depth. The mathematical

  7. Online Learning Integrity Approaches: Current Practices and Future Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Post, Anita; Hapke, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to help institutions respond to the stipulation of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 by adopting cost-effective academic integrity solutions without compromising the convenience and flexibility of online learning. Current user authentication solutions such as user ID and password, security…

  8. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  9. Religious Approaches on Business Ethics: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Domènec

    2015-01-01

    The Business Ethics Movement began in the mid-1970s. For the first two decades philosophical theories were dominant, but in recent years an increasing presence of religious approaches, in both empirical and conceptual research, can be noted, in spite of some objections to the presence of religions in the business ethics field. Empirical research, generally based on psychological and sociological studies, shows the influence of religious faith on several business issues. Conceptual research in...

  10. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  11. Current treatment approaches in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Elbey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic disease that mainly affects sacroiliac joints and spine. AS predominantly occurs more often in males and typically begins in the second or third decade. The mainstay of therapy in AS are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which reduce inflammation and pain. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD did not have enough evidence to prove their effect in AS treatment. The use of DMARD may not sufficient to improve the treatment and symptoms. Currently, TNF-blockers such as, Golimumab Etanersept Adalimumab İnfliksimab have promising results in the treatment of AS. TNF-blockers improve the clinical signs and symptoms, and improve the patients’ physical function and quality of life. This manuscript is focused that Current pharmacological treatments in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  12. Implementation of the RCM approach at EDF NPPs: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil-Chambardel, A.; Martin-Onraet, M.; Degrave, C.

    2001-01-01

    To ensure safest possible operation and to get best overall economic performance of its Nuclear Power Plants, 10 years ago Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project to optimize the preventive maintenance programs. The principles underlying the RCM approach are based on common sense: failures must be prevented by preventive maintenance operations in all cases when the repercussions for the installation could be serious or critical in term of safety, availability or maintenance costs. The approach is a 3-phases process: 1. Evaluation of the functional consequences of failures 2. Evaluation of performances based on the analysis of experience feedback 3. Optimization of the preventive maintenance tasks The new preventive maintenance programs are presently almost completed and progressively implemented. Here and now, the implementation of the RCM approach allows to emphasize some benefits: 1. Same or increased level of safety 2. Same or increased level of plant availability 3. ALARA principles better taken into account 4. Cost control 5. Positive change in maintenance culture. Some new studies are in progress, such as the development of a 'Risk Based In Service Inspection' for passive components. (author)

  13. Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitations of current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Although botulinum toxin injection is the gold standard for treatment of spasmodic dysphonia, surgical approaches aimed at providing long-term symptom control have been advancing over recent years. Recent findings When surgical approaches provide greater long-term benefits to symptom control, they also increase the initial period of side effects of breathiness and swallowing difficulties. However, recent analyses of quality-of-life questionnaires in patients undergoing regular injections of botulinum toxin demonstrate that a large proportion of patients have limited relief for relatively short periods due to early breathiness and loss-of-benefit before reinjection. Summary Most medical and surgical approaches to the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia have been aimed at denervation of the laryngeal muscles to block symptom expression in the voice, and have both adverse effects as well as treatment benefits. Research is needed to identify the central neuropathophysiology responsible for the laryngeal muscle spasms in order target treatment towards the central neurological abnormality responsible for producing symptoms. PMID:19337127

  14. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  15. The effect of the fast neutron current on the amino acid contents and nucleic acid synthesis in maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhundova, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    At the present time the effects of external influences on the genetic structures of the plant cells and the transmission of the accepted signals to other cellular structures and then to the whole organism have actively been studied. According to the opinion of a number of authors the gene expression and repression are immediate responses to the environment changes. To affect the plant genetic apparatus it is quite enough to expose it to some factors such as gamma rays, X- rays, neutron currents, saline-, temperature- or osmotic stresses. At the current stage of the research of the molecular mechanisms of the plant adaptation to the environment changes the priority goal is to ascertain the nature of the influence of the above mentioned factors on the processes of DNA replication and transcription, as the nucleic acids are the targets for external effects. The fast neutron current is one of the factors that influence the plant growth and development. Unlike gamma rays, the mechanism of the neutron irradiation on the plant genetic apparatus is very poorly studied. The objective of our research was the study of the fast neutron current effects on the DNA replication and transcription processes and amino acid synthesis in the irradiated maize plants

  16. Limiting Current of Oxygen Reduction on Gas-Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1994-01-01

    on polytetrafluorine-ethyl bonded gas-diffusion electordes in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives. This provides an alternative to estimate the film thickness by combining it with the acid-adsorption measurements and the porosity analysis of the catalyst layer. It was noticed that the limiting......Various models have been devoted to the operation mechanism of porous diffusion electrodes. They are, however, suffering from the lack of accuracy concerning the acid-film thickness on which they are based. In the present paper the limiting current density has been measured for oxygen reduction...... current density can be accomplished either by gas-phase diffusion or liquid-phase diffusion, and it is the latter that can be used in the film-thickness estimation. It is also important to mention that at such a limiting condition, both the thin-film model and the filmed agglomerate model reach the same...

  17. Current Concepts and Management Approaches in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar M. Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of liver dysfunction worldwide. NAFLD may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and in turn cirrhosis. Importantly, hepatic cancer can occur in NASH in the absence of cirrhosis. The cardinal histologic feature of NAFLD is the presence of an excessive accumulation of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in hepatocytes. The presence of obesity and insulin resistance lead to an increased hepatic-free fatty acid (FFA flux creating an environment appropriate for the development of NAFLD. The generation of toxic reactive oxygen species with the production of hepatic injury and inflammation as a consequence of FFA oxidation will ultimately lead to the initiation and progression of fibrosis. Lifestyle modifications specifically weight loss, physical exercise, and cognitive behavior therapy have been recommended as treatments for NASH. Dietary fructose is an independent risk factor for the development of NAFLD. Pioglitazone can be used to treat biopsy-proven NASH; however, its safety risks should be considered carefully. Greater consumption for coffee, independent of its caffeine component, has been associated with a significant reduced risk of advanced fibrosis in NASH. Additional data are needed before recommending bariatric surgery as an established option for the specific treatment of NASH.

  18. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people with hypothyroidism who are biochemically euthyroid on levothyroxine replacement there is a significant proportion who report poorer quality of life. This review explores the historical and current treatment options for hypothyroidism, reasons for and potential solutions to suboptimal treatment, and future possibilities in the treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID:22291465

  19. Current approaches to antithrombotic therapy in patients with cardioembolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Vinogradov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of cardiogenic embolism among all ischemic strokes is as high as 38%. Cardioembolic strokes are characterized by the higher magnitude of neurological deficit, the high risk of recurrent acute stroke, and a lethal outcome. This review deals with the etiopathogenesis of thrombus formation in the heart chambers, with current criteria for the verification of cardioembolic strokes, with the results of trials of new oral anticoagulants, and latest guidelines for antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke. Special focus is given to secondary stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation since it is atrial fibrillation that is the most common cause of cardioembolic stroke.

  20. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  1. Determination of complex formation constants by phase sensitive alternating current polarography: Cadmium-polymethacrylic acid and cadmium-polygalacturonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigosa, Anna Maria; Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2007-10-15

    The use of phase sensitive alternating current polarography (ACP) for the evaluation of complex formation constants of systems where electrodic adsorption is present has been proposed. The applicability of the technique implies the previous selection of the phase angle where contribution of capacitive current is minimized. This is made using Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) in the analysis of ACP measurements at different phase angles. The method is checked by the study of the complexation of Cd by polymethacrylic (PMA) and polygalacturonic (PGA) acids, and the optimal phase angles have been ca. -10 degrees for Cd-PMA and ca. -15 degrees for Cd-PGA systems. The goodness of phase sensitive ACP has been demonstrated comparing the determined complex formation constants with those obtained by reverse pulse polarography, a technique that minimizes the electrode adsorption effects on the measured currents.

  2. Current Approaches to the Management of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jacqueline F.; St Paul, Michelle; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Family-based behavioral intervention has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe treatment for childhood obesity and should be considered a first-line treatment option. However, access to such intensive evidence-based treatment is limited and, currently, obesity care is dominated by high intensity behavioral treatment implemented in specialty clinics or less effective, low intensity treatments implemented in primary care. However, capitalizing on the established and ongoing relationship between primary care providers and families, primary care providers hold an invaluable role in early identification of overweight and obesity, and subsequent referral to an evidence-based treatment. key aspects of effective treatment include: early intervention, moderate- to high-intensity intervention of sufficient duration, multi-component intervention targeting dietary modification, physical activity and behavioral strategies, family involvement and goals targeting family members, and follow-up contact during maintenance. The purpose of this review is to present the current empirically supported treatment options for pediatric obesity including primary care-based interventions and diagnostic tools, multi-component behavioral intervention with a focus on family-based behavioral intervention, immersion treatment, and pharmacologic and surgical management. PMID:25205083

  3. Current concepts and future approaches to vestibular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernström, Fredrik; Zur, Oz; Jahn, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades methods of vestibular rehabilitation to enhance adaptation to vestibular loss, habituation to changing sensory conditions, and sensory reweighting in the compensation process have been developed. However, the use of these techniques still depends to a large part on the educational background of the therapist. Individualized assessment of deficits and specific therapeutic programs for different disorders are sparse. Currently, vestibular rehabilitation is often used in an unspecific way in dizzy patients irrespective of the clinical findings. When predicting the future of vestibular rehabilitation, it is tempting to foretell advances in technology for assessment and treatment only, but the current intense exchange between clinicians and basic scientists also predicts advances in truly understanding the complex interactions between the peripheral senses and central adaptation mechanisms. More research is needed to develop reliable techniques to measure sensory dependence and to learn how this knowledge can be best used--by playing off the patient's sensory strength or working on the weakness. To be able using the emerging concepts, the neuro-otological community must strive to educate physicians, physiotherapists and nurses to perform the correct examinations for assessment of individual deficits and to look for factors that might impede rehabilitation.

  4. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid

    2016-03-28

    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  5. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naeem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1 mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV of quinolones; (2 plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3 chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV. In the case of

  6. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible. PMID:24575870

  7. [Our current approach in the treatment of sigmoid colon volvulus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloğlu, Korhan; Aydin, Erol; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Güloğlu, Recep; Kurtoğlu, Mehmet

    2002-04-01

    Our aim was to emphasize the role of endoscopic detorsion in the treatment of sigmoid colon volvulus, which we currently apply in the majority of our cases. The data of 37 patients were analyzed in a retrospective manner, during a 86-month period, between May 1994 and July 2001. The patients were classified into three groups. The first group consisted of 9 patients with resection and anastomosis, the second group consisted of 20 patients with Hartmann's procedure, and the third group consisted of 8 patients with endoscopic detorsion. Complications were encountered in 7 patients (19%), and 3 patients (8%) died following treatment. We favor colonic resection following endoscopic treatment. Resection should be preferred, if endoscopic detorsion is not successful or in the presence of a complication.

  8. Current approaches and future directions in the treatment of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobec SM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sophie M WorobecDepartment of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: This review surveys current treatments and future treatment trends in leprosy from a clinical perspective. The World Health Organization provides a multidrug treatment regimen that targets the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus which causes leprosy. Several investigational drugs are available for the treatment of drug-resistant M. leprae. Future directions in leprosy treatment will focus on: the molecular signaling mechanism M. leprae uses to avoid triggering an immune response; prospective studies of the side effects experienced during multiple-drug therapy; recognition of relapse rates post-completion of designated treatments; combating multidrug resistance; vaccine development; development of new diagnostic tests; and the implications of the recent discovery of a genetically distinct leprosy-causing bacillus, Mycobacterium lepromatosis.Keywords: epidemiology, leprosy, Hansen’s disease, multidrug resistance, multidrug therapy

  9. Current approaches to challenging scenarios in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimran, Eran; Hoffman, Ronald; Kremyanskaya, Marina

    2018-06-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis are clonal hematological malignancies that originate at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell, and are characterized by excessive proliferation of cells belonging to one or more of the myeloid lineages. Central to the pathogenesis of the MPNs is constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway due to a family of driver mutations affecting JAK2, CALR or MPL. These disorders share common clinical and laboratory features, a significant burden of systemic symptoms, increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombotic events, and the potential to progress to myelofibrosis and acute leukemia. Areas covered: We identified four clinical situations which represent challenging management dilemmas for patients with MPNs. Our conclusions and recommendations are based on a literature search using MEDLINE and recent meeting abstracts using the keywords, focusing on publications directly addressing these scenarios and on recent contributions to the field. Expert commentary: Multi-center efforts to study large cohorts of MPN patients have led to more uniform and evidence-based approaches to key aspects in MPN management. However, treatment strategies to deal with specific clinical scenarios are lacking.

  10. Current approach to the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasic, Ivan; Lipton, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    Of all the cancers, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has witnessed the most rapid evolution of the therapeutic milieu in recent decades. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as a therapeutic option has profoundly changed patient experience and outcome. The availability of multiple new highly effective therapies has increasingly underscored the importance of a good understanding of the underlying pathophysiological basis in CML, as well as patient-specific factors in choosing the right treatment for every individual. The treatment of CML has migrated in many jurisdictions from the office of a highly specialized malignant hematologist to the general hematologist or even a general practitioner. The goal of this review is to offer an overview of the modern approach to the treatment of CML, with an emphasis on chronic phase (CP) CML, including both TKI-based therapies such as imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib and ponatinib, and non-TKI medications, such as omacetaxine. We discuss evidence behind each drug, most common and material adverse reactions and outline how this information can be used in selecting the right drug for the right patient. We also discuss evidence as it relates to other therapies, including stem cell transplant (SCT), and patients in accelerated (AP) and blastic phase (BP). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  12. Current approaches to diagnosing and treating major neurocognitive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 replaces the term «dementia» with «major neurocognitive disorder» (MNCD, which can reduce the  stigmatization of patients and focus the attention of specialists on  the preserved abilities of patients rather than deficit symptoms. In  the next 35 years, the number of patients with MNCD in the world is  predicted to almost triple. The article considers the concept,  epidemiology, and etiological pattern of this syndrome. It  characterizes in detail Alzheimer's disease (AD that is a cause of  MNCD in 50–70% of cases. The current diagnostic criteria and  clinical presentations of the disease are given. The presence of early and significant episodic memory disorders as both alone or  concurrent with other cognitive and behavioral changes reflects the  main clinical phenotype of AD. Magnetic resonance morphometry,  amyloid positron emission tomography, and estimation of  cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid and tau protein levels find increasing  applications in research and routine practice. Drug and non-drug  treatments for MNCD are considered. The use of akatinol memantine to treat this disorder and the issues related to the comprehensive management of patients with severe cognitive impairment are analyzed.

  13. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algazi, Alain P; Soon, Christopher W; Daud, Adil I

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible

  14. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  15. Current approaches to the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Ganesh; Richeldi, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and ultimately fatal lung disease associated with dyspnoea, cough and impaired quality of life. Currently, the aims of patient care are to improve outcomes for patients by slowing the progression of the disease, extending life, and improving quality of life. A prompt, accurate diagnosis is important to enable patients to receive treatment early in the course of the disease and to be considered for lung transplantation. Two anti-fibrotic drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have been shown to reduce decline in lung function in patients with IPF. In addition to pharmacological therapy, optimal management of IPF includes treatment of comorbidities, symptom relief, pulmonary rehabilitation, and palliative care. Patient education is important to enable patients to make decisions about their care and to help them manage their disease and the side-effects of anti-fibrotic drugs. Research continues into new treatments and combinations of treatments that may improve outcomes for patients with this devastating disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The aetiology ofautism spectrum disorders. An overview of current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gołaska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great popularity of autism among researchers, its main cause still remains unknown. However, there are many theories which describe the mechanisms of this disorder. On the other hand, one who tries to integrate them seems to be helpless according to their contradictory and – in most cases – hypothetical status. In a context of this inac‑ curacy, focusing only on one of the concepts would be probably very disadvantageous. As many researchers suggest, the etiology of autism is complex and it is the interaction of multiple factors which implies the disorder appears. It seems that the nature of autism is equifinal and heterogeneous. Thus, the aim of this article is to present a review of current biological theories of autism etiology and to indicate the environmental as well as innate risk factors which may disturb the natural pathway of child development: prenatal (which increase the probability of autism emergence as early as in the first or second year of life or perinatal ones (low birth weight, hypoxia, age of the mother, her educational sta‑ tus. The foetal testosterone theory of autism and its general consequences for the child development will be described also. Finally, the neurological, neurochemical and neuroanatomical dysfunctions in autism will be presented.

  17. Pancreaticoduodenal injuries: re-evaluating current management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, G E; Madiba, T E

    2010-02-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal injuries are uncommon owing to the protected position of the pancreas and duodenum in the retroperitoneum. Management depends on the extent of injury. This study was undertaken to document outcome of pancreaticoduodenal injuries and to re-evaluate our approach. A prospective study of all patients treated for pancreaticoduodenal trauma in one surgical ward at King Edward VIII hospital over a 7-year period (1998 - 2004). Demographic data, clinical presentation, findings at laparotomy and outcome were documented. Prophylactic antibiotics were given at induction of anaesthesia. A total of 488 patients underwent laparotomy over this period, 43 (9%) of whom (all males) had pancreatic and duodenal injuries. Injury mechanisms were gunshot (30), stabbing (10) and blunt trauma (3). Their mean age was 30.1+9.6 years. Delay before laparotomy was 12.8+29.1 hours. Seven were admitted in shock. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 14+8.6. Management of 20 duodenal injuries was primary repair (14), repair and pyloric exclusion (3) and conservative (3). Management of 15 pancreatic injuries was drainage alone (13), conservative management of pseudocyst (1) and distal pancreatectomy (1). Management of 8 combined pancreaticoduodenal injuries was primary duodenal repair and pancreatic drainage (5) and repair with pyloric exclusion of duodenal injury and pancreatic drainage (3). Twenty-one patients (49%) developed complications, and 28 required ICU admission with a median ICU stay of 4 days. Ten patients died (23%). Mean hospital stay was 18.3+24.4 days. The overall mortality was comparable with that in the world literature. We still recommend adequate exploration of the pancreas and duodenum and conservative operative management where possible.

  18. [Current situation and impact factors of acid deposition in main cites of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qiao-xian; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Mu, Jin-bo; Zhang, De-zhi

    2006-12-01

    Based on the monitoring data for years in Shandong Province, current situation of acid rain in every city was assessed, and the temporal distribution of the dry, wet and total sulfur deposition in Jinan and Qingdao were studied. The results showed that Qingdao which had the largest precipitation acidity was the single city whose annul average precipitation pH was below 5. 60. The precipitation acidities in the main cities of Shandong Province were in a descent tendency. The total sulfur desposition in Jinan and Qingdao was basically stable or in a descent tendency, but also reached 10 t/(km(2)x a) or so. Among the total sulfur deposition flux, the dry deposition of sulfur had the greater contribution, and the contribution of SO2 dry deposition was higher than that of SO42- dry deposition. By analyzing the relation between the precipitation acidity and the SO2 discharge intensity, soil acidity and meteorological condition, the impact factors of acid precipitation in the cities of Shandong Province were revealed.

  19. Treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage with tranexamic acid – A review of current evidence and ongoing trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Zhe Kang; Meretoja, Atte; Engelter, Stefan T

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic acid...... in improving clinical outcome after ICH. Method We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms ‘intracerebral haemorrhage’, ‘tranexamic acid’ and ‘antifibrinolytic’. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further...... details. Findings We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54...

  20. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Biotoxins: A New Paradigm Toward the Treatment and Diagnostic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody-based therape......Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody......-based therapeutic and diagnostic approach currently employed against biotoxins pose major limitations such as the requirement of a live animal for the in vivo enrichment of the antibody species, decreased stability, high production cost, and side effects. Aptamer technology is a viable alternative that can be used...

  1. Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, Shinya; Ishida, Yusuke; Ueda, Takashi; Yu, Yong; Shimada, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K + (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC 50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 μM) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

  2. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles.

  3. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching CTS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Congo Tak-Shing Ching,1,2 Kok-Khun Yong,3 Yan-Dong Yao,4 Huan-Ting Shen,3 Shiu-Man Hsieh,5 Deng-Yun Jheng,1 Tai-Ping Sun,1,6 Hsiu-Li Shieh11Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, 2Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Community College, Hong Kong; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Puli Christian Hospital, 6Department of Electronic Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Nantou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W, electroporation (100 V/cm2, and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2 was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2 demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 µA/mM for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894 was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the

  4. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Georgios A; Christou, Konstantinos A; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Rizos, Evangelos C; Nikas, Dimitrios N; Goudevenos, John A

    2015-09-22

    The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using "Omega-3 fatty acids" and "atrial fibrilation" as key search terms. n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  5. Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

  6. Dimerization of Carboxylic Acids: An Equation of State Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotou, Costas

    2017-01-01

    The association term of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding theory, which is an equation of state model, is extended to describe the dimerization of carboxylic acids in binary mixtures with inert solvents and in systems of two different acids. Subsequently, the model is applied to describe the excess...

  7. Formation of nitric acid hydrates - A chemical equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roland H.

    1990-01-01

    Published data are used to calculate equilibrium constants for reactions of the formation of nitric acid hydrates over the temperature range 190 to 205 K. Standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies are calculated for the tri- and mono-hydrates. These are shown to be in reasonable agreement with earlier calorimetric measurements. The formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar stratosphere is discussed in terms of these equilibrium constants.

  8. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  9. PCI-GC-MS-MS approach for identification of non-amino organic acid and amino acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hemi; Yang, Lin; Ji, Fenfen; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-03-15

    Alkyl chloroformate have been wildly used for the fast derivatization of metabolites with amino and/or carboxyl groups, coupling of powerful separation and detection systems, such as GC-MS, which allows the comprehensive analysis of non-amino organic acids and amino acids. The reagents involving n-alkyl chloroformate and n-alcohol are generally employed for providing symmetric labeling terminal alkyl chain with the same length. Here, we developed an asymmetric labeling strategy and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS-MS) approach for determination of non-amino organic acids and amino acids, as well as the short chain fatty acids. Carboxylic and amino groups could be selectively labelled by propyl and ethyl groups, respectively. The specific neutral loss of C 3 H 8 O (60Da), C 3 H 5 O 2 (74Da) and C 4 H 8 O 2 (88Da) were useful in the selective identification for qualitative analysis of organic acids and amino acid derivatives. PCI-GC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was applied for semi-quantification of typical non-amino organic acids and amino acids. This method exhibited a wide range of linear range, good regression coefficient (R 2 ) and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of targeted metabolites showed excellent intra- and inter-day precision (chloroformate derivatization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Skills Training for School Leavers: Some Alternative Approaches. Current Issues Brief No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug

    In the face of escalating youth unemployment, some new approaches are needed for training out-of-school youth in Australia. The current system of apprenticeship has become outmoded because many of the skilled trades that the system prepares young people for will soon be non-existent. One approach to this problem has been implementation of…

  11. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  12. Acid-base equilibrium: The best clinical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal-Salazar, Raúl E; Calvo-Torres, L. Felipe; Valencia-Arango, Luis Alfonso; Montoya-Canon, Mauricio; Barbosa-Gantiva, Oscar; Hincapié-Baena, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base balance disorders can be found in a primary or secondary form in patients with a disease process such as Diabetes Mellitus or acute renal failure, among others. The objective of this article is to explain and guide the correlation ship between the clinical findings in the patient and the parameters of arterial blood gases in a simple and precise manner, in order to make the correct acid-base balance diagnosis and adequate therapeutic interventions. A non-systematic review of the sci...

  13. New yeast-based approaches in production of palmitoleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolouchová, I.; Sigler, Karel; Schreiberová, O.; Masák, J.; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 192, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 726-734 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Oleaginous yeasts * Non-oleaginous yeasts * Palmitoleic acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.917, year: 2015

  14. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  15. Old and new approaches to the interpretation of acid-base metabolism, starting from historical data applied to diabetic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Lo Cicero, Marco; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The approach to acid-base chemistry in medicine includes several methods. Currently, the two most popular procedures are derived from Stewart's studies and from the bicarbonate/BE-based classical formulation. Another method, unfortunately little known, follows the Kildeberg theory applied to acid-base titration. By using the data produced by Dana Atchley in 1933, regarding electrolytes and blood gas analysis applied to diabetes, we compared the three aforementioned methods, in order to highlight their strengths and their weaknesses. The results obtained, by reprocessing the data of Atchley, have shown that Kildeberg's approach, unlike the other two methods, is consistent, rational and complete for describing the organ-physiological behavior of the hydrogen ion turnover in human organism. In contrast, the data obtained using the Stewart approach and the bicarbonate-based classical formulation are misleading and fail to specify which organs or systems are involved in causing or maintaining the diabetic acidosis. Stewart's approach, despite being considered 'quantitative', does not propose in any way the concept of 'an amount of acid' and becomes even more confusing, because it is not clear how to distinguish between 'strong' and 'weak' ions. As for Stewart's approach, the classical method makes no distinction between hydrogen ions managed by the intermediate metabolism and hydroxyl ions handled by the kidney, but, at least, it is based on the concept of titration (base-excess) and indirectly defines the concept of 'an amount of acid'. In conclusion, only Kildeberg's approach offers a complete understanding of the causes and remedies against any type of acid-base disturbance.

  16. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus. Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰ by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs, while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Koch, Paul L; Fiedler, Paul C; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  19. A review on the current status and production technology of 32,33P-orthophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A.

    2000-10-01

    The current status of 32 , 33 P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of 32 , 33 P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of 32 , 33 P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ( 32 , 33 P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations

  20. Current trends in dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) injection technique for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J; Arlen, Angela M; Lackgren, Goran

    2014-08-01

    To determine the current preferred injection technique(s) for endoscopic management of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Since the approval of dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) in 2001, injection methods have evolved and now include the hydrodistention implantation technique (HIT) and double HIT as well as subureteral transurethral injection (STING) method. In July 2012, 278 pediatric urologists in the United States were contacted to complete a 15-question survey regarding Dx/HA injection technique(s) currently used in their practice. Fifty board-certified pediatric urologists completed the survey for a response rate of 18%. Most respondents (60%) were in a single-specialty group practice, and 12% were affiliated with an academic- or university-based practice. Respondents reported seeing a mean of 159 pediatric patients (range, 40-400 patients) with VUR annually, and 94% used Dx/HA ≥4 times in the past year. Forty-seven respondents (94%) reported using double HIT over the course of their career compared with 36 (72%) for STING and 30 (60%) for HIT (P injection techniques. A significantly higher percentage currently perform double HIT (92%) compared with either STING (24%) or HIT (34%; P <.001). Respondents reported the use of double HIT 15 times more often than STING technique and 5 times more often than HIT during the past 12 months (P <.001). The double HIT method is currently the most commonly performed technique for endoscopic correction of VUR by pediatric urologists in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endomorphins potentiate acid-sensing ion channel currents and enhance the lactic acid-mediated increase in arterial blood pressure: effects amplified in hindlimb ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Mohamed; Drobish, Julie K; Puhl, Henry L; Kim, Joyce S; Herold, Paul B; Kaufman, Marc P; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Chronic limb ischaemia, characterized by inflammatory mediator release and a low extracellular pH, leads to acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) activation and reflexively increases mean arterial pressure; endomorphin release is also increased under inflammatory conditions. We examined the modulation of ASIC currents by endomorphins in sensory neurons from rats with freely perfused and ligated femoral arteries: peripheral artery disease (PAD) model. Endomorphins potentiated sustained ASIC currents in both groups of dorsal root ganglion neurons, independent of mu opioid receptor stimulation or G protein activation. Intra-arterial administration of lactic acid (to simulate exercising muscle and evoke a pressor reflex), endomorphin-2 and naloxone resulted in a significantly greater pressor response than lactic acid alone, while administration of APETx2 inhibited endomorphin's enhancing effect in both groups. These results suggest a novel role for endomorphins in modulating ASIC function to effect lactic acid-mediated reflex increase in arterial pressure in patients with PAD. Chronic muscle ischaemia leads to accumulation of lactic acid and other inflammatory mediators with a subsequent drop in interstitial pH. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), expressed in thin muscle afferents, sense the decrease in pH and evoke a pressor reflex known to increase mean arterial pressure. The naturally occurring endomorphins are also released by primary afferents under ischaemic conditions. We examined whether high affinity mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, endomorphin-1 (E-1) and -2 (E-2), modulate ASIC currents and the lactic acid-mediated pressor reflex. In rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, exposure to E-2 in acidic solutions significantly potentiated ASIC currents when compared to acidic solutions alone. The potentiation was significantly greater in DRG neurons isolated from rats whose femoral arteries were ligated for 72 h. Sustained ASIC current potentiation was also observed

  2. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    , as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...

  3. A Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to diagnose and manage acid-base disorders rapidly and effectively is essential to the care of critically ill patients. This article presents an approach to the diagnosis of pure and mixed acid-base disorders, metabolic or respiratory. The approach taken is based on using the law of mass-action equation as it applies to the bicarbonate buffer system (Henderson equation), using sub-classifications for diagnostic purposes of causes of metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis, and ...

  4. Quantum dot as a spin-current diode: A master-equation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, F.M.; Egues, J.C.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    We report a study of spin-dependent transport in a system composed of a quantum dot coupled to a normal metal lead and a ferromagnetic lead NM-QD-FM. We use the master equation approach to calculate the spin-resolved currents in the presence of an external bias and an intradot Coulomb interaction....... We find that for a range of positive external biases current flow from the normal metal to the ferromagnet the current polarization =I↑−I↓ / I↑+I↓ is suppressed to zero, while for the corresponding negative biases current flow from the ferromagnet to the normal metal attains a relative maximum value....... The system thus operates as a rectifier for spin-current polarization. This effect follows from an interplay between Coulomb interaction and nonequilibrium spin accumulation in the dot. In the parameter range considered, we also show that the above results can be obtained via nonequilibrium Green functions...

  5. A clinical trial with combined transcranial direct current stimulation and alcohol approach bias retraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Two studies showed an improvement in clinical outcomes after alcohol approach bias retraining, a form of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance effects of CBM. TDCS is a neuromodulation technique that can increase

  6. State Higher Education Funding Models: An Assessment of Current and Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzell, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the current and emerging approaches used by state governments in allocating funding for higher education institutions and programs. It reviews a number of desired characteristics or outcomes for state higher education funding models, including equity, adequacy, stability, and flexibility. Although there is…

  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  8. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Doi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  9. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F., E-mail: francois.brechignac@irsn. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Blg 229, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Doi, Masahiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Center for Radiation Protection, Regulatory Sciences Research Group, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  10. Neuromodulation by Mg2+ and polyamines of excitatory amino acid currents in rodent neurones in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, E

    1996-12-01

    Excitatory amino-acid currents in rodent central neurones are mediated by the activation of glutamate receptors. Ionotropic types of the receptors are divided into alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and the former two are collectively called non-NMDA receptors. The NMDA receptor is modulated by a number of endogenous neuromodulators including Mg2+, polyamines, glycine and protons in extracellular solutions. Although it has been generally thought that each of the neuromodulators acts on a distinct site in the NMDA receptor, recent studies have revealed that these actions may be not necessarily independent of each other. The NMDA receptor response is not only inhibited but also potentiated by Mg2+, and the latter action is due to an interaction of a Mg2+ site with either glycine- or proton-binding site. In the presence of polyamines, a tonic inhibition by protons of the NMDA receptor response is relieved, resulting in a potentiation of the response. Alternatively, it has been recently revealed that there are some subtypes of non-NMDA receptors which are negatively modulated by polyamines in either extra- or intra cellular solutions. The difference in polyamine sensitivity among non-NMDA receptors is attributed to a distinction in their constituted subunits. The inhibition of non-NMDA receptor by intracellular polyamines results in inward rectification of the current-voltage relation which is not seen for polyamine-insensitive ones. This polyamine action is not mimicked by intracellular Mg2+.

  11. A Phase Current Reconstruction Approach for Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are widely used in renewable energy applications such as wind power generation, tidal energy and electric vehicles owing to their merits such as high efficiency, high precision and high reliability. To reduce the cost and volume of the drive system, techniques of reconstructing three-phase current using a single current sensor have been reported for three-phase alternating current (AC control system using the power converts. In existing studies, the reconstruction precision is largely influenced by reconstructing dead zones on the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM plane, which requires other algorithms to compensate either by modifying PWM modulation or by phase-shifting of the PWM signal. In this paper, a novel extended phase current reconstruction approach for PMSM drive is proposed. Six novel installation positions are obtained by analyzing the sampling results of the current paths between each two power switches. By arranging the single current sensor at these positions, the single current sensor is sampled during zero voltage vectors (ZVV without modifying the PWM signals. This proposed method can reconstruct the three-phase currents without any complex algorithms and is available in the sector boundary region and low modulation region. Finally, this method is validated by experiments.

  12. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  13. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions

  14. Environmental release of living modified organisms: current approaches and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Nickson, Ph D

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is being rapidly adopted as evidenced by the acreage of genetically modified (GM) crops planted and tonnes of product (grain and fiber) harvested. Concurrent with this technological progress, is a growing concern that the worlds biological diversity is coming under increasing threat from human activities. As such, ecological risk assessment approaches are being developed for GM crop plants as international agreements regulating the transboundary movements of these products are being implemented. This paper reviews the ecological risk assessment approach that has been used to date to approve GM crops to date. The process has been case-by-case, using a comparative, science-based approach balancing the potential risks and benefits of the new technology versus those present with the currently accepted practices. The approach used to evaluate and approve these products is consistent with the conditions and requirements outlined in the Cartagena Protocol.

  15. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  16. Towards Current Profile Control in ITER: Potential Approaches and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, E.; Barton, J. E.; Wehner, W. P.

    2014-10-01

    Many challenging plasma control problems still need to be addressed in order for the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) to be able to successfully achieve the ITER project goals. For instance, setting up a suitable toroidal current density profile is key for one possible advanced scenario characterized by noninductive sustainment of the plasma current and steady-state operation. The nonlinearity and high dimensionality exhibited by the plasma demand a model-based current-profile control synthesis procedure that can accommodate this complexity through embedding the known physics within the design. The development of a model capturing the dynamics of the plasma relevant for control design enables not only the design of feedback controllers for regulation or tracking but also the design of optimal feedforward controllers for a systematic model-based approach to scenario planning, the design of state estimators for a reliable real-time reconstruction of the plasma internal profiles based on limited and noisy diagnostics, and the development of a fast predictive simulation code for closed-loop performance evaluation before implementation. Progress towards control-oriented modeling of the current profile evolution and associated control design has been reported following both data-driven and first-principles-driven approaches. An overview of these two approaches will be provided, as well as a discussion on research needs associated with each one of the model applications described above. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0001334 and DE-SC0010661.

  17. A novel HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF approach for the determination of fatty acids and acylglycerols in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Brandolini, Leonardo; Modugno, Francesca; Bonaduce, Ilaria

    2018-07-12

    We propose a new analytical method using reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled through an electrospray source with a tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-ToF) mass spectrometric detector for the full characterization and quantitation of the different classes of fatty acids and acylglycerols in lipid samples in a single chromatographic run. In this work, we optimized the derivatization reaction for free fatty acids with 2-hydrazinoquinoline, which is a low-cost approach, using a full factorial design. This reaction does not involve transesterification, thus enabling the free fatty acids to be separated and successfully quantified in the presence of mono-, di- and triacylglycerols without altering the whole glyceride profile. This new analytical method provides a full profile of fatty acids, mono-, di- and triglycerides within a relatively short chromatographic run (less than 40 min), with low operating back-pressure (less than 110 bar). The derivatization of the free fatty acids allows their detection in positive mode, with limits of detection in the range of 0.2-1.9 ng/g, and a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude. The figures of merit of the procedure are competitive with respect to the literature. The method was validated by characterizing two different types of olive oils. Free fatty acid content was quantified, and the results are consistent with literature data. The method was applied to the characterization of cow milk and an infant formula, after the precipitation of proteins and phospholipids, and proved suitable for the detection of short chain fatty acids, free fatty acids and glycerides highlighting differences in the composition of the two milks. The proposed procedure improves the current methods for the analysis of acylglyceride based materials, such as olive oil, and proved promising for the characterization of lipids in complex matrices, such as milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  19. Light-cone gauge approach to arbitrary spin fields, currents and shadows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space, conformal fields, conformal currents, and shadow fields in flat space are studied. Light-cone gauge formulations for such fields, currents and shadows are obtained. Use of the Poincaré parametrization of AdS space and ladder operators allows us to treat fields in flat and AdS spaces on an equal footing. Light-cone gauge realization of relativistic symmetries for fields, currents and shadows is also obtained. The light-cone gauge formulation for fields is obtained by using the gauge invariant Lagrangian which is presented in terms of modified de Donder divergence, while the light-cone gauge formulation for currents and shadows is obtained by using the gauge invariant approach to currents and shadows. This allows us to demonstrate explicitly how the ladder operators entering the gauge invariant formulation of fields, currents and shadows manifest themselves in the light-cone gauge formulation for fields, currents and shadows. (paper)

  20. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Integrodifferential approach to solution of eddy currents in linear structures with motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Karban, P.; Donátová, M.; Šolín, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 8 (2010), s. 1636-1646 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : eddy currents * integrodifferential approach * numerical analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 www.elsevier.com/locate/matcom

  2. A novel approach for nucleic acid delivery into cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainauska, Dace; Kozireva, Svetlana; Karpovs, Andrejs; Čistjakovs, Maksims; Bariševs, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    Liposomal magnetofection is based on the use of superparamagnetic particles and cationic lipids and shows better transfection efficiency than other common nonviral gene delivery methods; however, the distribution of aggregate complexes over the cell surface may be ununiform. The use of a dynamic gradient magnetic field could overcome this limitation. A newly developed device for magnetofection under a dynamic magnetic field was used to compare the transfection efficiency of prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with that obtained by lipofection and magnetofection. Reporter plasmid pcDNA3.1LacZ DNA was used in combination with Lipofectamine2000 reagent and superparamagnetic nanoparticles CombiMag. The effects of incubation time under a dynamic magnetic field and a rotation frequency of magnets on transfection efficiency for PC3 cell line were determined. Alternatively, lipofection and liposomal magnetofection were carried out. Transfection efficiency of delivery methods was estimated by β-galactosidase staining; cell viability, by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Liposomal magnetofection under a dynamic gradient magnetic field demonstrated the highest transfection efficiency: it was greater by almost 21% and 42% in comparison with liposomal magnetofection and lipofection, respectively. The optimal incubation time under dynamic magnetic field and the optimal magnet rotation frequency were 5 minutes and 5 rpm, respectively. Liposomal magnetofection under a dynamic gradient magnetic field was less cytotoxic (7%) than that under a permanent magnetic field (17%) and lipofection (11%). Our new approach, based on the use of a dynamic gradient magnetic field, enhanced the transfection efficiency and had a less cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells in comparison with the standard magnetofection and lipofection.

  3. Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Derek McCulloch, Christina Brown, Harry Iland Institute of Hematology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia Abstract: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML with a unique morphological appearance, associated coagulopathy and canonical balanced translocation of genetic material between chromosomes 15 and 17. APL was first described as a distinct subtype of AML in 1957 by Dr Leif Hillestad who recognized the pattern of an acute leukemia associated with fibrinolysis, hypofibrinogenemia and catastrophic hemorrhage. In the intervening years, the characteristic morphology of APL has been described fully with both classical hypergranular and variant microgranular forms. Both are characterized by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 15 and 17, [t(15;17(q24;q21], giving rise to a unique fusion gene PML-RARA and an abnormal chimeric transcription factor (PML-RARA, which disrupts normal myeloid differentiation programs. The success of current treatments for APL is in marked contrast to the vast majority of patients with non-promyelocytic AML. The overall prognosis in non-promyelocytic AML is poor, and although there has been an improvement in overall survival in patients aged <60 years, only 30%–40% of younger patients are still alive 5 years after diagnosis. APL therapy has diverged from standard AML therapy through the empirical discovery of two agents that directly target the molecular basis of the disease. The evolution of treatment over the last 4 decades to include all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, with chemotherapy limited to patients with high-risk disease, has led to complete remission in 90%–100% of patients in trials and rates of overall survival between 86% and 97%. Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia, ATRA, arsenic trioxide

  4. Pharmacological modulations of cardiac ultra-rapid and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents: potential antiarrhythmic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the emerging new insights into our understandings of the cellular mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmia, medical therapy for this disease remains unsatisfactory. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent arrhythmia, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, ventricular fibrillation results in sudden cardiac deaths in many instances. Prolongation of cardiac action potential (AP) is a proven principle of antiarrhythmic therapy. Class III antiarrhythmic agents prolong AP and QT interval by blocking rapidly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Kr)). However, I(Kr) blocking drugs carry the risk of life-threatening proarrhythmia. Recently, modulation of atrial-selective ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current (I(Kur)), has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach to treat AF. A number of I(Kur) blockers are being evaluated for the treatment of AF. The inhibition of slowly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) has also been proposed as an effective and safer antiarrhythmic approach because of its distinguishing characteristics that differ in remarkable ways from other selective class III agents. Selective I(Ks) block may prolong AP duration (APD) at rapid rates without leading to proarrhythmia. This article reviews the pathophysiological roles of I(Kur) and I(Ks) in cardiac repolarization and the implications of newly developed I(Kur) and I(Ks) blocking agents as promising antiarrhythmic approaches. Several recent patents pertinent to antiarrhythmic drug development have been discussed. Further research will be required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents in the clinical setting.

  5. Auroral Substorms: Search for Processes Causing the Expansion Phase in Terms of the Electric Current Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    Auroral substorms are mostly manifestations of dissipative processes of electromagnetic energy. Thus, we consider a sequence of processes consisting of the power supply (dynamo), transmission (currents/circuits) and dissipations (auroral substorms-the end product), namely the electric current line approach. This work confirms quantitatively that after accumulating magnetic energy during the growth phase, the magnetosphere unloads the stored magnetic energy impulsively in order to stabilize itself. This work is based on our result that substorms are caused by two current systems, the directly driven (DD) current system and the unloading system (UL). The most crucial finding in this work is the identification of the UL (unloading) current system which is responsible for the expansion phase. A very tentative sequence of the processes leading to the expansion phase (the generation of the UL current system) is suggested for future discussions. (1) The solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo enhances significantly the plasma sheet current when its power is increased above 10^{18} erg/s (10^{11} w). (2) The magnetosphere accumulates magnetic energy during the growth phase, because the ionosphere cannot dissipate the increasing power because of a low conductivity. As a result, the magnetosphere is inflated, accumulating magnetic energy. (3) When the power reaches 3-5× 10^{18} erg/s (3-5× 10^{11} w) for about one hour and the stored magnetic energy reaches 3-5×10^{22} ergs (10^{15} J), the magnetosphere begins to develop perturbations caused by current instabilities (the current density {≈}3× 10^{-12} A/cm2 and the total current {≈}106 A at 6 Re). As a result, the plasma sheet current is reduced. (4) The magnetosphere is thus deflated. The current reduction causes partial B/partial t > 0 in the main body of the magnetosphere, producing an earthward electric field. As it is transmitted to the ionosphere, it becomes equatorward-directed electric field which drives both

  6. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States

  7. VALUE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING CURRENT ASSETS OF CORPORATE CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Shapoval

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of management, the value of an enterprise becomes the main indicator, which is learned not only by scientists, but also by owners of enterprise and potential investors. Current assets take a very important place among the factors that affect the value of an enterprise, so management of current assets becomes more acute from the point of their impact on enterprise value. The purpose of the paper is to develop a system of value-based management of corporate construction companies’ current assets. The main tasks are: the study of current assets impact on the value of corporate construction companies, the definition of value-based approach to managing current assets of corporate enterprises and development of value-based management system of corporate construction companies’ current assets by elements. General scientific and special research methods were used while writing the work. Value-based management of current assets involves value-based management of the elements of current assets. The value-based inventory management includes the following stages of management: the assessment of reliability and choice of supplier according to the criterion of cash flow maximization, the classification of stocks in management accounting according to the rhythm of supply and the establishment of periodicity of supplies in accordance with the needs of the construction process. The value-based management of accounts receivable includes the following stages of management: assessment of the efficiency of investment of working capital into accounts receivable, the assessment of customers' loyalty and the definition of credit conditions and monitoring of receivables by construction and debt instruments. Value-based cash management involves determining the required level of cash to ensure the continuity of the construction process, assessing the effectiveness of cash use according to the criterion of maximizing cash flow, as well as budget

  8. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far

  9. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  10. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Nestor R.; Mo, Clifton C.; Karp, Judith E.; Hourigan, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The limited sensitivity of the historical treatment response criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has resulted in a different paradigm for treatment compared with most other cancers presenting with widely disseminated disease. Initial cytotoxic induction chemotherapy is often able to reduce tumor burden to a level sufficient to meet the current criteria for “complete” remission. Nevertheless, most AML patients ultimately die from their disease, most commonly as clinically evident relapsed AML. Despite a variety of available salvage therapy options, prognosis in patients with relapsed or refractory AML is generally poor. In this review, we outline the commonly utilized salvage cytotoxic therapy interventions and then highlight novel investigational efforts currently in clinical trials using both pathway-targeted agents and immunotherapy based approaches. We conclude that there is no current standard of care for adult relapsed or refractory AML other than offering referral to an appropriate clinical trial. PMID:25932335

  11. A frequency domain approach to analyzing passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids supplying periodic pulsed current loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, Alon; Aharon, Ilan; Kara, Avi; Malki, Shalev

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids are examined. → Frequency domain analysis is employed. → The ultracapacitor branch operates as a low-pass filter for the battery. → The battery supplies the average load demand. → Design requirements are discussed. - Abstract: A Fourier-based analysis of passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrid sources is introduced in the manuscript. The approach is first introduced for a general load, and then is followed by a study for a case of periodic pulsed current load. It is shown that the ultracapacitor branch is perceived by the battery as a low-pass filter, which absorbs the majority of the high frequency harmonic current and letting the battery to supply the average load demand in addition to the small part of dynamic current. Design requirements influence on the ultracapacitor capacitance and internal resistance choice are quantitatively discussed. The theory is enforced by simulation and experimental results, showing an excellent agreement.

  12. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  13. Molecular acidity: An accurate description with information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaofang; Rong, Chunying; Zhong, Aiguo; Lu, Tian; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-15

    Molecular acidity is one of the important physiochemical properties of a molecular system, yet its accurate calculation and prediction are still an unresolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to make use of the quantities from the information-theoretic (IT) approach in density functional reactivity theory and provide an accurate description of molecular acidity from a completely new perspective. To illustrate our point, five different categories of acidic series, singly and doubly substituted benzoic acids, singly substituted benzenesulfinic acids, benzeneseleninic acids, phenols, and alkyl carboxylic acids, have been thoroughly examined. We show that using IT quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Rényi entropy, one is able to simultaneously predict experimental pKa values of these different categories of compounds. Because of the universality of the quantities employed in this work, which are all density dependent, our approach should be general and be applicable to other systems as well. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A review on the current status and production technology of {sup 32,} {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A

    2000-10-01

    The current status of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ({sup 32}, {sup 33}P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations.

  15. Investigating students' view on STEM in learning about electrical current through STS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Grade 11 students' views on Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) with the integration of learning about electrical current based on Science Technology Society (STS) approach [8]. The participants were 60 Grade 11 students in Demonstration Secondary School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The methodology is in the respect of interpretive paradigm. The teaching and learning about Electrical Current through STS approach carried out over 6 weeks. The Electrical Current unit through STS approach was developed based on framework[8] that consists of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision making, and (5) socialization stage. To start with, the question "what if this world is lack of electricity" was challenged in the class in order to move students to find the problem of how to design Electricity Generation from Clean Energy. Students were expected to apply scientific and other knowledge to design of Electricity Generation. Students' views on STEM were collected during their learning by participant' observation and students' tasks. Their views on STEM were categorized when they applied their knowledge for designing the Electricity Generation. The findings indicated that students cooperatively work to solve the problem when applying knowledge about the content of Science and Mathematics and processing skill of Technology and Engineering. It showed that students held the integration of science, technology, engineering and mathematics to design their possible solutions in learning about Electrical Current. The paper also discusses implications for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  16. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  17. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  18. Current approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and reporting of trichomoniasis and candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B H; Adler, M W

    1979-02-01

    The current approach to the management of trichomoniasis and candidosis in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in England and Wales is described. Microscopy alone was used in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in 44% of clinics and of candidosis in 35% of clinics. Oral metronidazole was used for the treatment of trichomoniasis in women in 92% of clinics. Vaginal pessaries containing nystatin or clotrimazole were routinely used to treat candidosis in 95% of clinics. Male sexual contacts of female patients with candidosis and trichomoniasis were invited to attend for examination in 88% of clinics. Physicians in 81% of clinics prescribed treatment on epidemiological grounds for male contacts of female patients with trichomoniasis. A more uniform approach to the diagnostic categories used for the quarterly returns for cases treated epidemiologically is recommended.

  19. Multilevel Molecular Modeling Approach for a Rational Design of Ionic Current Sensors for Nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Alexsandro; de Almeida, James M; Miranda, Caetano R

    2018-05-10

    The complexity displayed by nanofluidic-based systems involves electronic and dynamic aspects occurring across different size and time scales. To properly model such kind of system, we introduced a top-down multilevel approach, combining molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with first-principles electronic transport calculations. The potential of this technique was demonstrated by investigating how the water and ionic flow through a (6,6) carbon nanotube (CNT) influences its electronic transport properties. We showed that the confinement on the CNT favors the partially hydrated Na, Cl, and Li ions to exchange charge with the nanotube. This leads to a change in the electronic transmittance, allowing for the distinguishing of cations from anions. Such an ionic trace may handle an indirect measurement of the ionic current that is recorded as a sensing output. With this case study, we are able to show the potential of this top-down multilevel approach, to be applied on the design of novel nanofluidic devices.

  20. How is the Current Nano/Microscopic Knowledge Implemented in Model Approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments of experimental techniques have opened new opportunities and challenges for the modelling and simulation of clay materials, on various scales. In this communication, several aspects of the interaction between experimental and modelling approaches will be presented and dis-cussed. What levels of modelling are available depending on the target property and what experimental input is required? How can experimental information be used to validate models? What knowledge can modelling on different scale bring to the knowledge on the physical properties of clays? Finally, what can we do when experimental information is not available? Models implement the current nano/microscopic knowledge using experimental input, taking advantage of multi-scale approaches, and providing data or insights complementary to experiments. Future work will greatly benefit from the recent experimental developments, in particular for 3D-imaging on intermediate scales, and should also address other properties, e.g. mechanical or thermal properties. (authors)

  1. Metabolic Interaction between Urea Cycle and Citric Acid Cycle Shunt: A Guided Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesi, Rossana; Balestri, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L.

    2018-01-01

    This article is a guided pedagogical approach, devoted to postgraduate students specializing in biochemistry, aimed at presenting all single reactions and overall equations leading to the metabolic interaction between ureagenesis and citric acid cycle to be incorporated into a two-three lecture series about the interaction of urea cycle with other…

  2. Modelling chloride penetration in concrete using electrical voltage and current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research programme aimed at giving a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the chloride penetration in cement-based materials. The general approach used was to solve the Nernst-Planck equation numerically for two physical ideal states that define the possible conditions under which chlorides will move through concrete. These conditions are named in this paper as voltage control and current control. For each condition, experiments and simulations were carried out in order to establish the importance of electrical variables such as voltage and current in modelling chloride transport in concrete. The results of experiments and simulations showed that if those electrical variables are included as key parameters in the modelling of chloride penetration through concrete, a better understanding of this complex phenomenon can be obtained.

  3. Cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome and oxidative stress: an innovative approach beyond current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanni; Madeddu, Clelia; Macciò, Antonio; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Serpe, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    Cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome and oxidative stress play a key role in the progression and outcome of neoplastic disease. On the basis of our previously published studies and clinical experience, we have developed an innovative approach consisting of diet with high polyphenol content (400 mg), p.o. pharmaconutritional support enriched with n - 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) 2 cans (237 mL each) per day, medroxiprogesterone acetate 500 mg/d, antioxidant treatment with alpha-lipoic acid 300 mg/d plus carbocysteine lysine salt 2.7 g/d plus vitamin E 400 mg/d plus vitamin A 30,000 IU/d plus vitamin C 500 mg/d, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Celecoxib 200 mg/d. The treatment is administered for 16 weeks. The following variables are evaluated: (a) clinical variables (stage and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional variables (lean body mass, appetite, and resting energy expenditure); (c) laboratory variables (serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, and leptin and blood levels of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes); and (d) quality of life variables (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, EQ-5Dindex, and EQ-5DVAS). A phase II nonrandomized study has been designed to enroll 40 patients with advanced cancer at different sites with symptoms of cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome and oxidative stress. As of January 2004, 28 patients have been enrolled: 25 patients were evaluable and 14 of them have completed the treatment (20 patients have completed 2 months of treatment). As for clinical response, five patients improved, three patients remained unchanged, and six patients worsened. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (grade) 1 remained unchanged. As for nutritional/functional variables, the lean body mass increased significantly at 2 and 4 months. As for laboratory variables, reactive oxygen species

  4. Moment approach to neoclassical flows, currents and transport in auxiliary heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yil Bong.

    1988-02-01

    The moment approach is utilized to derive the full complement of neoclassical transport processes in auxiliary heated tokamaks. The effects of auxiliary heating [neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH)] considered arise from the collisional interaction between the background plasma species and the fast-ion-tail species. From a known fast ion distribution function we evaluate the parallel (to the magnetic field) momentum and heat flow inputs to the background plasma. Then, through the momentum and heat flow balance equations, we can determine the induced parallel flows (and current) and radial transpot fluxes in ''equilibrium'' (on the time scale much longer than the collisional relaxation time, i.e., t >> 1ν/sub ii/). In addition to the fast-ion-induced current, the total neoclassical current includes the boostap current, which is driven by the pressure and temperature gradients, the Pfirsch-Schlueter current which is required for charge neutrality, and the neoclassical (including trapped particle effects) Spitzer current due to the parallel electric field. The radial transport fluxes also include off-diagonal compnents in the transport matrix which correspond to the Ware (neoclassical) pinch due to the inductive applied electric field an the fast-ion-induced radial fluxes, in addition to the usual pressure- and temperature-gradient-driven fluxes (particle diffusion and heat conduction). Once the tranport coefficient are completely determined, the radial fluxes and the heat fluxes can be substituted into the density and energy evolution equations to provide a complete description of ''equilibrium'' (δδt << ν/sub ii/) neoclassical transport processes in a plasma. 47 refs., 14 figs

  5. Conformational basis for the Li(+)-induced leak current in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the substrate-independent Li(+)-induced leak current was examined using two-electrode voltage clamp. The leak current was not affected by the addition of GABA and was not due to H(+) permeation. The Li......(+)-bound conformation of the protein displayed a lower passive water permeability than that of the Na(+)- and choline (Ch(+))-bound conformations and the leak current did not saturate with increasing amounts of Li(+) in the test solution. The mechanism that gives rise to the leak current did not support active water...... transport in contrast to the mechanism responsible for GABA translocation (approximately 330 water molecules per charge). Altogether, these data support the distinct nature of the leak conductance in relation to the substrate translocation process. It was observed that the leak current was inhibited by low...

  6. A Study of Frequency Mixing Approaches for Eddy Current Testing of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hee Jun; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Dae Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The multifrequency eddy current testing(ECT) have been proposed various frequency mixing algorithms. In this study, we compare these approaches to frequency mixing of ECT signals from steam generator tubes; time-domain optimization, discrete cosine transform-domain optimization. Specifically, in this study, two different frequency mixing algorithms, a time-domain optimization method and a discrete cosine transform(DCT) optimization method, are investigated using the experimental signals captured from the ASME standard tube. The DCT domain optimization method is computationally fast but produces larger amount of residue.

  7. Implementation of systematic training approach in Kozloduy Training Centre - Current situation. Presentation of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosturkov, L.

    1993-01-01

    To identify the needs in implementation of the systematic training approach, a relation between the number of trainees, duration of the training and the type of training should be made. In other hand, as it was stated in the TWG-T(93) Status Report, in order to be better identified outstanding training needs, the existing capabilities and other related projects should be taken into account. This report is pointed to give more details for the current situation in Bulgaria and to clarify the needs of international assistance. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are niche candidate for the field of energy management as electrical generator devices. Generally, comprehensive and accurate design techniques for TEGs (thermoelectric generators), such as reduced current approach (RCA), are complex and time consuming processes....... This study develops a simple, comprehensive and accurate TEG designing technique based on RCA. The proposed method can predict the most efficient TEG architecture with more than 97% accuracy comparing to the RCA over wide range of possible temperature and zT for present TEG applications. Moreover...

  9. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its "culture-bound" status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder.

  10. A broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Xi, De-Hui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Cao, Sen; Xu, Mo-Yun; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hui; Jia, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. However, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. We introduce an application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to RNA viruses. Applying 0.06 mM JA and then 0.1 mM SA 24 h later, enhanced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato and hot pepper. The inhibition efficiency to virus replication usually achieved up to 80-90%. The putative molecular mechanism was investigated. Some possible factors affecting the synergism of JA and SA have been defined, including WRKY53, WRKY70, PDF1.2, MPK4, MPK2, MPK3, MPK5, MPK12, MPK14, MKK1, MKK2, and MKK6. All genes involving in the synergism of JA and SA were investigated. This approach is safe to human beings and environmentally friendly and shows potential as a strong tool for crop protection against plant viruses.

  11. Current applications and different approaches for microbial L-asparaginase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Muso Cachumba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1 is an enzyme that catalysis mainly the asparagine hydrolysis in L-aspartic acid and ammonium. This enzyme is presented in different organisms, such as microorganisms, vegetal, and some animals, including certain rodent's serum, but not unveiled in humans. It can be used as important chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas (particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and has been a pivotal agent in chemotherapy protocols from around 30 years. Also, other important application is in food industry, by using the properties of this enzyme to reduce acrylamide levels in commercial fried foods, maintaining their characteristics (color, flavor, texture, security, etc. Actually, L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine, not allowing the reaction of reducing sugars with this aminoacid for the generation of acrylamide. Currently, production of L-asparaginase is mainly based in biotechnological production by using some bacteria. However, industrial production also needs research work aiming to obtain better production yields, as well as novel process by applying different microorganisms to increase the range of applications of the produced enzyme. Within this context, this mini-review presents L-asparaginase applications, production by different microorganisms and some limitations, current investigations, as well as some challenges to be achieved for profitable industrial production.

  12. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and management of orthopedic surgical hemorrhage: current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Park, Sam Si-Hyeong; Davey, J Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Total joint arthroplasty can be associated with major blood loss and require subsequent blood transfusions for postoperative anemia. Measures to effectively and safely decrease blood loss and reduce the need for blood transfusions would help improve patient safety and lower health care costs. A possible pharmacological option to reduce surgical blood loss in total joint arthroplasty is the use of tranexamic acid. Abundant literature has shown that intravenous and/or topical administration of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss and blood transfusions, with no increased risk of venous thromboembolic events or other complications. PMID:26345147

  13. An adaptive mesh refinement approach for average current nodal expansion method in 2-D rectangular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new adaptive h-refinement approach has been developed for a class of nodal method. ► The resulting system of nodal equations is more amenable to efficient numerical solution. ► The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. ► Spatially adaptive approach greatly enhances the accuracy of the solution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop a spatially adaptive coarse mesh strategy that progressively refines the nodes in appropriate regions of domain to solve the neutron balance equation by zeroth order nodal expansion method. A flux gradient based a posteriori estimation scheme has been utilized for checking the approximate solutions for various nodes. The relative surface net leakage of nodes has been considered as an assessment criterion. In this approach, the core module is called in by adaptive mesh generator to determine gradients of node surfaces flux to explore the possibility of node refinements in appropriate regions and directions of the problem. The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. For this purpose, a computer program ANRNE-2D, Adaptive Node Refinement Nodal Expansion, has been developed to solve neutron diffusion equation using average current nodal expansion method for 2D rectangular geometries. Implementing the adaptive algorithm confirms its superiority in enhancing the accuracy of the solution without using fine nodes throughout the domain and increasing the number of unknown solution. Some well-known benchmarks have been investigated and improvements are reported

  14. A Unified Current Loop Tuning Approach for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High level penetration of renewable energy sources has reshaped modern electrical grids. For the future grid, distributed renewable power generation plants can be integrated in a larger scale. Control of grid-connected converters is required to achieve fast power reference tracking and further to present grid-supporting and fault ride-through performance. Among all of the aspects for converter control, the inner current loop for grid-connected converters characterizes the system performance considerably. This paper proposes a unified current loop tuning approach for grid-connected converters that is generally applicable in different cases. A direct discrete-time domain tuning procedure is used, and particularly, the selection of the phase margin and crossover frequency is analyzed, which acts as the main difference compared with the existing studies. As a general method, the approximation in the modeling of the controller and grid filter is avoided. The effectiveness of the tuning approach is validated in both simulation and experimental results with respect to power reference tracking, frequency and voltage supporting.

  15. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth). © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  16. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritou, M.; Garnier, S.; Furet, B.; Hascoet, J. Y.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents a new complete approach for Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) in milling. The aim is the early detection of small damages so that catastrophic tool failures are prevented. A versatile in-process monitoring system is introduced for reliability concerns. The tool condition is determined by estimates of the radial eccentricity of the teeth. An adequate criterion is proposed combining mechanical model of milling and angular approach.Then, a new solution is proposed for the estimate of cutting force using eddy current sensors implemented close to spindle nose. Signals are analysed in the angular domain, notably by synchronous averaging technique. Phase shifts induced by changes of machining direction are compensated. Results are compared with cutting forces measured with a dynamometer table.The proposed method is implemented in an industrial case of pocket machining operation. One of the cutting edges has been slightly damaged during the machining, as shown by a direct measurement of the tool. A control chart is established with the estimates of cutter eccentricity obtained during the machining from the eddy current sensors signals. Efficiency and reliability of the method is demonstrated by a successful detection of the damage.

  17. Modeling radiation loads in the ILC main linac and a novel approach to treat dark current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nilolai V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, Igor L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tropin, Igor S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by electrons of dark current (DC) can represent a significant radiation threat to the ILC linac equipment and personnel. In this study, a commissioning scenario is analysed which is considered as the worst-case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the tunnel. A normal operation scenario is analysed as well. An emphasis is made on radiation load to sensitive electronic equipment—cryogenic thermometers inside the cryomodules. Prompt and residual dose rates in the ILC main linac tunnels were also calculated in these new high-statistics runs. A novel approach was developed—as a part of general purpose Monte Carlo code MARS15—to model generation, acceleration and transport of DC electrons in electromagnetic fields inside SRF cavities. Comparisons were made with a standard approach when a set of pre-calculated DC electron trajectories is used, with a proper normalization, as a source for Monte Carlo modelling. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the peak absorbed dose in the cryogenic thermometers in the main tunnel for 20 years of operation is about 0.8 MGy. The calculated contact residual dose on cryomodules and tunnel walls in the main tunnel for typical irradiation and cooling conditions is 0.1 and 0.01 mSv/hr, respectively.

  18. Tetramer model of leukoemeraldine-emeraldine electrochemistry in the presence of trihalogenoacetic acids. DFT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nuno Almeida; Grzeszczuk, Maria; Wieczorek, Robert

    2015-01-15

    First results of the application of the DFT computational approach to the reversible electrochemistry of polyaniline are presented. A tetrameric chain was used as the simplest model of the polyaniline polymer species. The system under theoretical investigation involved six tetramer species, two electrons, and two protons, taking part in 14 elementary reactions. Moreover, the tetramer species were interacting with two trihalogenoacetic acid molecules. Trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, and tribromoacetic acids were found to impact the redox transformation of polyaniline as shown by cyclic voltammetry. The theoretical approach was considered as a powerful tool for investigating the main factors of importance for the experimental behavior. The DFT method provided molecular structures, interaction energies, and equilibrium energies of all of the tetramer-acid complexes. Differences between the energies of the isolated tetramer species and their complexes with acids are discussed in terms of the elementary reactions, that is, ionization potentials and electron affinities, equilibrium constants, electrode potentials, and reorganization energies. The DFT results indicate a high impact of the acid on the reorganization energy of a particular elementary electron-transfer reaction. The ECEC oxidation path was predicted by the calculations. The model of the reacting system must be extended to octamer species and/or dimeric oligomer species to better approximate the real polymer situation.

  19. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  20. Evaluation of different approaches for modeling effects of acid rain on soils in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, T.; Schnoor, J.L.; Seip, H.M.; Dawei, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Acid deposition is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. Acidic soils are common in the southern part of the country and soil acidification caused by acid deposition is expected to occur. Here we test and apply two different approaches for modeling effects of acid deposition and compare results with observed data from sites throughout southern China. The dynamic model MAGIC indicates that, during the last few decades, soil acidification rates have increased considerably due to acid deposition. This acidification will continue if sulfur deposition is not reduced, and if reduced more rapidly than base cation deposition. With the Steady State Mass Balance model (SSMB), and assuming that a molar ratio of Ca 2+ /Al 3+ <1 in soil water is harmful to vegetation, we estimate a slight probability for exceedance of the critical load for present deposition rates. Results from both modeling approaches show a strong dependence with deposition of base cations as well as sulfur. Hence, according to the models, changes in emission control of alkaline particulate matter prior to sulfur dioxide will be detrimental to the environment. Model calculations are, however, uncertain, particularly because available data on base cation deposition fluxes are scarce, and that model formulation of aluminum chemistry does not fully reproduce observations. An effort should be made to improve our present knowledge regarding deposition fluxes. Improvements to the model are suggested. Our work indicates that the critical loads presented in the regional acid deposition assessment model RAINS-Asia are too stringent. We find weaknesses in the SSMB approach, developed for northern European conditions, when applying it to Chinese conditions. We suggest an improved effort to revise the risk parameters for use in critical load estimates in China

  1. Current approaches to enhance CNS delivery of drugs across the brain barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu CT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cui-Tao Lu,1 Ying-Zheng Zhao,2,3 Ho Lun Wong,4 Jun Cai,5 Lei Peng,2 Xin-Qiao Tian1 1The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Hainan Medical College, Haikou City, Hainan Province, People’s Republic of China; 3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Pharmacy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Departments of Pediatrics and Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Although many agents have therapeutic potentials for central nervous system (CNS diseases, few of these agents have been clinically used because of the brain barriers. As the protective barrier of the CNS, the blood–brain barrier and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier maintain the brain microenvironment, neuronal activity, and proper functioning of the CNS. Different strategies for efficient CNS delivery have been studied. This article reviews the current approaches to open or facilitate penetration across these barriers for enhanced drug delivery to the CNS. These approaches are summarized into three broad categories: noninvasive, invasive, and miscellaneous techniques. The progresses made using these approaches are reviewed, and the associated mechanisms and problems are discussed. Keywords: drug delivery system, blood–brain barrier (BBB, central nervous system, brain-targeted therapy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF

  2. Flow Regime Identification of Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow With Neural Network Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Goda; Seungjin Kim; Ye Mi; Finch, Joshua P.; Mamoru Ishii; Jennifer Uhle

    2002-01-01

    Flow regime identification for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in the 25.4 mm ID and the 50.8 mm ID round tubes was performed by employing an impedance void meter coupled with the neural network classification approach. This approach minimizes the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. The signals obtained by an impedance void meter were applied to train the self-organizing neural network to categorize these impedance signals into a certain number of groups. The characteristic parameters set into the neural network classification included the mean, standard deviation and skewness of impedance signals in the present experiment. The classification categories adopted in the present investigation were four widely accepted flow regimes, viz. bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flows. These four flow regimes were recognized based upon the conventional flow visualization approach by a high-speed motion analyzer. The resulting flow regime maps classified by the neural network were compared with the results obtained through the flow visualization method, and consequently the efficiency of the neural network classification for flow regime identification was demonstrated. (authors)

  3. Modelling geomagnetically induced currents in midlatitude Central Europe using a thin-sheet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Halbedl, Thomas S.; Schattauer, Ingrid; Römer, Alexander; Achleitner, Georg; Beggan, Ciaran D.; Wesztergom, Viktor; Egli, Ramon; Leonhardt, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power systems, which can lead to transformer damage over the short and the long term, are a result of space weather events and geomagnetic variations. For a long time, only high-latitude areas were considered to be at risk from these currents, but recent studies show that considerable GICs also appear in midlatitude and equatorial countries. In this paper, we present initial results from a GIC model using a thin-sheet approach with detailed surface and subsurface conductivity models to compute the induced geoelectric field. The results are compared to measurements of direct currents in a transformer neutral and show very good agreement for short-period variations such as geomagnetic storms. Long-period signals such as quiet-day diurnal variations are not represented accurately, and we examine the cause of this misfit. The modelling of GICs from regionally varying geoelectric fields is discussed and shown to be an important factor contributing to overall model accuracy. We demonstrate that the Austrian power grid is susceptible to large GICs in the range of tens of amperes, particularly from strong geomagnetic variations in the east-west direction.

  4. Effects of current density and electrolyte temperature on the volume expansion factor of anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Baron-Wiecheć, A.; Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Curioni, M.; Habazaki, H.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic alumina in 0.4 M oxalic acid is investigated over a range of current density and electrolyte temperature using sputtering-deposited substrates containing tungsten tracer layers. The findings reveal volume expansion factors and efficiencies of film growth that increase with the increase of the current density and decrease of the temperature. Pore generation by the flow of the anodic alumina in the barrier layer toward the pore walls is proposed to dominate at relatively high current densities (above ∼2 mA cm −2 ), with tungsten tracer species being retained within films. Conversely, losses of tungsten species occur at lower current densities, possibly due to increased field-assisted ejection of Al 3+ ions and/or field-assisted dissolution of the anodic alumina.

  5. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.Eu.......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.297....

  6. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pophaly Sarang; Singh Rameshwar; Pophaly Saurabh; Kaushik Jai K; Tomar Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stres...

  7. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR and Betulinic acid (BA limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared.A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations.Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549 tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity.Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA.

  8. Eddy current crack detection capability assessment approach using crack specimens with differing electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2018-03-01

    Like other NDE methods, eddy current surface crack detectability is determined using probability of detection (POD) demonstration. The POD demonstration involves eddy current testing of surface crack specimens with known crack sizes. Reliably detectable flaw size, denoted by, a90/95 is determined by statistical analysis of POD test data. The surface crack specimens shall be made from a similar material with electrical conductivity close to the part conductivity. A calibration standard with electro-discharged machined (EDM) notches is typically used in eddy current testing for surface crack detection. The calibration standard conductivity shall be within +/- 15% of the part conductivity. This condition is also applicable to the POD demonstration crack set. Here, a case is considered, where conductivity of the crack specimens available for POD testing differs by more than 15% from that of the part to be inspected. Therefore, a direct POD demonstration of reliably detectable flaw size is not applicable. Additional testing is necessary to use the demonstrated POD test data. An approach to estimate the reliably detectable flaw size in eddy current testing for part made from material A using POD crack specimens made from material B with different conductivity is provided. The approach uses additional test data obtained on EDM notch specimens made from materials A and B. EDM notch test data from the two materials is used to create a transfer function between the demonstrated a90/95 size on crack specimens made of material B and the estimated a90/95 size for part made of material A. Two methods are given. For method A, a90/95 crack size for material B is given and POD data is available. Objective of method A is to determine a90/95 crack size for material A using the same relative decision threshold that was used for material B. For method B, target crack size a90/95 for material A is known. Objective is to determine decision threshold for inspecting material A.

  9. A facile physical approach to make chitosan soluble in acid-free water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yinghao; Xiao, Congming

    2017-10-01

    We changed the situation that chitosan was only dissolved in diluted acid through mild physical treatment. In viewing of the usual methods to modify chitosan are chemical ones, we established the approach by using a water-soluble chitosan derivative as the model polymer. Its water-solubility was modulated via changing the concentration of solution and varying the precipitants. Such a physical method was adopted to treat chitiosan. One gram chitosan was dissolved in a mixture of 100mL 10% acetic acid and 50mL methanol, and then precipitated from a precipitant consisted of 10mL ethanol and 90mL acetate ester. The treated chitosan became soluble in acid-free water completely, and its solubility was 8.02mg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mazzoleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  11. Standard and biological treatment in large vessel vasculitis: guidelines and current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Francesco; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are the two major forms of idiopathic large vessel vasculitis. High doses of glucocorticoids are effective in inducing remission in both conditions, but relapses and recurrences are common, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid treatment with the risk of the related adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the standard and biological treatment strategies in large vessel vasculitis, and we will focus on the current approaches to these diseases. Expert commentary: The results of treatment trials with conventional immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide have overall been disappointing. TNF-α blockers are ineffective in giant cell arteritis, while observational evidence and a phase 2 randomized trial support the use of tocilizumab in relapsing giant cell arteritis. Observational evidence strongly supports the use of anti-TNF-α agents and tocilizumab in Takayasu patients with relapsing disease. However biological agents are not curative, and relapses remain common.

  12. Current Approaches and New Developments in the Pharmacological Management of Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Julio; Coffman, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology characterized by spontaneous, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Once thought to be rare, TS affects 0.3-1% of the population. Tics can cause physical discomfort, emotional distress, social difficulties, and can interfere with education and desired activities. The pharmacologic treatment of TS is particularly challenging, as currently the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of this disorder are still largely unknown. However, clinical experience gained from treating TS has helped us better understand its pathogenesis and, as a result, derive treatment options. The strongest data exist for the antipsychotic agents, both typical and atypical, although their use is often limited in children and adolescents due to their side-effect profiles. There are agents in a variety of other pharmacologic categories that have evidence for the treatment of TS and whose side-effect profiles are more tolerable than the antipsychotics; these include clonidine, guanfacine, baclofen, topiramate, botulinum toxin A, tetrabenazine, and deutetrabenazine. A number of new agents are being developed and tested as potential treatments for TS. These include valbenazine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabidiol, and ecopipam. Additionally, there are agents with insufficient data for efficacy, as well as agents that have been shown to be ineffective. Those without sufficient data for efficacy include clonazepam, ningdong granule, 5-ling granule, omega-3 fatty acids, and n-acetylcysteine. The agents that have been shown to be ineffective include pramipexole and metoclopramide. We will review all of the established pharmacologic treatments, and discuss those presently in development.

  13. A Review of Player Monitoring Approaches in Basketball: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jordan L; Scanlan, Aaron T; Stanton, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, and Stanton, R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2021-2029, 2017-Effective monitoring of players in team sports such as basketball requires an understanding of the external demands and internal responses, as they relate to training phases and competition. Monitoring of external demands and internal responses allows coaching staff to determine the dose-response associated with the imposed training load (TL), and subsequently, if players are adequately prepared for competition. This review discusses measures reported in the literature for monitoring the external demands and internal responses of basketball players during training and competition. The external demands of training and competition were primarily monitored using time-motion analysis, with limited use of microtechnology being reported. Internal responses during training were typically measured using hematological markers, heart rate, various TL models, and perceptual responses such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rate was the most commonly reported indicator of internal responses during competition with limited reporting of hematological markers or RPE. These findings show a large discrepancy between the reporting of external and internal measures and training and competition demands. Microsensors, however, may be a practical and convenient method of player monitoring in basketball to overcome the limitations associated with current approaches while allowing for external demands and internal responses to be recorded simultaneously. The triaxial accelerometers of microsensors seem well suited for basketball and warrant validation to definitively determine their place in the monitoring of basketball players. Coaching staff should make use of this technology by tracking individual player responses across the annual plan and using real-time monitoring to minimize factors such as fatigue

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN ACID-BASE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat Sahputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning in the understanding of acid-base chemistry in schools needs to be improved so research to determine differences in learning outcomes between students taught using environmental approaches and methods lectures in class XI SMA on acid-base subject needs to be done. In this study, using a quasi-experimental method using a data collection tool achievement test essay form. The test statistic results of the post-test learning has been obtained Asymp value. Sig (2-tailed 0,026 that showed the differences between students' learning outcomes with a control experimental class with effect size of 0.63 or much influence difference with the percentage 23.57% which indicated that the learning environment approach can improve learning outcomes of high school students.

  15. Towards the design of 3D multiscale instructive tissue engineering constructs: Current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-11-01

    The design of 3D constructs with adequate properties to instruct and guide cells both in vitro and in vivo is one of the major focuses of tissue engineering. Successful tissue regeneration depends on the favorable crosstalk between the supporting structure, the cells and the host tissue so that a balanced matrix production and degradation are achieved. Herein, the major occurring events and players in normal and regenerative tissue are overviewed. These have been inspiring the selection or synthesis of instructive cues to include into the 3D constructs. We further highlight the importance of a multiscale perception of the range of features that can be included on the biomimetic structures. Lastly, we focus on the current and developing tissue-engineering approaches for the preparation of such 3D constructs: top-down, bottom-up and integrative. Bottom-up and integrative approaches present a higher potential for the design of tissue engineering devices with multiscale features and higher biochemical control than top-down strategies, and are the main focus of this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  17. The territorial approach to EU cohesion policy: Current issues and evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attributed to the territorial dimension of the European Union cohesion policy steadily influences its successive reforms and adaptations, while in recent years there has been an evolution in the way this particular dimension of cohesion policy is perceived. Important evidence for this is the way in which the Community Strategic Guidelines on cohesion 2007-13 take account of the territorial dimension of cohesion policy. This paper discusses the territorial approach to cohesion policy in relation to both policy and practice. Specifically, it examines the territorial dimension of regional development planning in Greece as it has emerged in the relevant official documents, namely the successive three Community Support Frameworks since 1989 and the National Strategic Reference Framework for the current 2007-13 period. The territorial dimension of the organization of the planning system is also considered in an effort to understand limitations and prospects, in light of the importance of the territorial approach to cohesion policy post-2013.

  18. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  19. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  20. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerman, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Technology

    2003-09-01

    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large.

  1. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerman, Anders

    2003-09-01

    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large

  2. Co-administration of creatine and guanidinoacetic acid for augmented tissue bioenergetics: A novel approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-07-01

    A confined absorption of exogenous creatine through creatine transporter (CRT1) seems to hamper its optimal uptake in bioenergetical deficits. Co-administration of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) along with creatine could target other transport channels besides CRT1, and supremely improve cellular levels of creatine. This innovative approach might tackle tissues difficult to reach with conventional creatine interventions, providing a potentially more effective and safe mixture in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of protein structural classes by Chou's pseudo amino acid composition: approached using continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Chao; Zhou, Xi-Bin; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiao-Yong

    2009-07-01

    A prior knowledge of protein structural classes can provide useful information about its overall structure, so it is very important for quick and accurate determination of protein structural class with computation method in protein science. One of the key for computation method is accurate protein sample representation. Here, based on the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition (AAC, Chou, Proteins: structure, function, and genetics, 43:246-255, 2001), a novel method of feature extraction that combined continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with principal component analysis (PCA) was introduced for the prediction of protein structural classes. Firstly, the digital signal was obtained by mapping each amino acid according to various physicochemical properties. Secondly, CWT was utilized to extract new feature vector based on wavelet power spectrum (WPS), which contains more abundant information of sequence order in frequency domain and time domain, and PCA was then used to reorganize the feature vector to decrease information redundancy and computational complexity. Finally, a pseudo-amino acid composition feature vector was further formed to represent primary sequence by coupling AAC vector with a set of new feature vector of WPS in an orthogonal space by PCA. As a showcase, the rigorous jackknife cross-validation test was performed on the working datasets. The results indicated that prediction quality has been improved, and the current approach of protein representation may serve as a useful complementary vehicle in classifying other attributes of proteins, such as enzyme family class, subcellular localization, membrane protein types and protein secondary structure, etc.

  4. Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances in End-Stage Liver Disease: A Physiopathological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José Víctor; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego Luis; Rosado-Canto, Rodrigo; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo; Kershenobich, David; Carrillo-Maravilla, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are frequent in patients with end-stage liver disease; the underlying physiopathological mechanisms are often complex and represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the physician. Usually, these disorders do not develop in compensated cirrhotic patients, but with the onset of the classic complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, renal failure, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and variceal bleeding, multiple electrolyte, and acid-base disturbances emerge. Hyponatremia parallels ascites formation and is a well-known trigger of hepatic encephalopathy; its management in this particular population poses a risky challenge due to the high susceptibility of cirrhotic patients to osmotic demyelination. Hypokalemia is common in the setting of cirrhosis: multiple potassium wasting mechanisms both inherent to the disease and resulting from its management make these patients particularly susceptible to potassium depletion even in the setting of normokalemia. Acid-base disturbances range from classical respiratory alkalosis to high anion gap metabolic acidosis, almost comprising the full acid-base spectrum. Because most electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are managed in terms of their underlying trigger factors, a systematic physiopathological approach to their diagnosis and treatment is required.

  5. Counter-current acid leaching process for the removal of Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn from shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Stéphanie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Martel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn extraction in a polluted shooting range soil. The initial metal concentrations in the soil were 1790 mg Cu/kg, 48,300 mg Pb/kg, 840 mg Sb/kg and 368 mg Zn/kg. The leaching process consisted of five one-hour acid leaching steps, which used 1 M H2SO4 + 4 M NaCl (20 degrees C, soil suspension = 100 g/L) followed by two water rinsing steps. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed and the average metal removal yields were 98.3 +/- 0.3% of Cu, 99.5 +/- 0.1% of Pb, 75.5 +/- 5.1% of Sb and 29.1 +/- 27.2% of Zn. The quality of metal leaching did not deteriorate throughout the 10 remediation cycles completed for this study. The CCLP reduced acid and salt use by approximately 68% and reduced water consumption by approximately 60%, exceeding reductions achieved by a standard acid leaching process.

  6. Biological Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid: An Update on the Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of high added-value chemicals from renewable resources is a necessity in our attempts to switch to a more sustainable society. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP is a promising molecule that can be used for the production of an important array of high added-value chemicals, such as 1,3-propanediol, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and bioplastics. Biological production of 3HP has been studied extensively, mainly from glycerol and glucose, which are both renewable resources. To enable conversion of these carbon sources to 3HP, extensive work has been performed to identify appropriate biochemical pathways and the enzymes that are involved in them. Novel enzymes have also been identified and expressed in host microorganisms to improve the production yields of 3HP. Various process configurations have also been proposed, resulting in improved conversion yields. The intense research efforts have resulted in the production of as much as 83.8 g/L 3HP from renewable carbon resources, and a system whereby 3-hydroxypropionitrile was converted to 3HP through whole-cell catalysis which resulted in 184.7 g/L 3HP. Although there are still challenges and difficulties that need to be addressed, the research results from the past four years have been an important step towards biological production of 3HP at the industrial level.

  7. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  8. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  9. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  10. Fatty acid profiles among the Inuit of Nunavik: current status and temporal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Françoise; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The Inuit undergo substantial changes in their lifestyle, but few data exist on how these changes occur in biomarkers, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 among 861 representative Nunavik Inuit adults, in whom FAs were measured in red blood cells (RBCs). FAs were also measured in plasma phospholipids (n=452) to assess temporal trend by comparing plasma PUFAs measured in 1992. Food intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In 2004, marine food intake was 84±4g/d (±SEM). Adjusted-mean of RBC omega-3 was significantly higher, and omega-6 lower, in older age groups (PtrendInuit adults still have high RBC omega-3, but show signs of nutritional transition - as indicated by lower omega-3 and higher trans-fats in RBCs of young compared to older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-02-04

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H(+) is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and

  12. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELNABY ORABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA,El-Gammal F, Nassar M, Belal A, Farag W, El-Mesiry G, El-Haddad K, Orabi A, Abdelreheem A, Shaaban A. 2013. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity. Biodiversitas 14: 43-53. The increasing rates of coral mortality associated with the rise in stress factors and the lack of adequate recovery worldwide have urged recent calls for actions by the scientific, conservation, and reef management communities. This work reviews the current trends in coral transplantation. Transplantation of coral colonies or fragments, whether from aqua-, mariculture or harvesting from a healthy colony, has been the most frequently recommended action for increasing coral abundance on damaged or degraded reefs and for conserving listed or “at-risk” species. Phytoplanktons are important for providing transplanted corals with complex organic compounds through photosynthesis. Artificial surfaces like concrete blocks, wrecks or other purpose-designed structures can be introduced for larval settlement. New surfaces can also be created through electrolysis. Molecular biological tools can be used to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits. Surface chemistry and possible inputs of toxic leachate from artificial substrates are considered as important factors affecting natural recruitment. Transplants should be carefully maintained , revisited and reattached at least weekly in the first month and at least fortnightly in the next three months. Studies on survivorship and the reproductive ability of transplanted coral fragments are important for coral reef restoration. A coral nursery may be considered as a pool for local species that supplies reef-managers with unlimited coral colonies for sustainable management. Transplanting corals for making artificial reefs can be useful for increasing biodiversity, providing tourist diving, fishing and surfing; creating new artisanal and commercial fishing opportunities

  14. Promoting pre-conceptional use of folic acid to Hispanic women: a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Hauser, Kimberlea; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Nydia Y; Frías, Jaime L

    2006-09-01

    To develop a culturally appropriate communication initiative in an effort to promote the use of pre-conceptional folic acid among Hispanic women of childbearing age. The materials were designed to communicate information about the risks of neural tube defects and the value of folic acid supplementation before conception. The initiative was developed using a social marketing approach. A series of focus groups were conducted with Hispanic women, particularly Mexican and Mexican-American women, to gain an understanding of their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding birth defects and folic acid. Additionally focus groups assessed women's preferences for existing folic acid education materials. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes which were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to include the role of partners and a sense of family in the promotions aimed at these groups. Another key component was the need to dispel myths which act as barriers to pre-conceptional folic acid use. Other important elements included in the media products were the need for Spanish and English versions, an explanation of neural tube defects, and a reference to the cost of the supplements. The final products of the initiative included Spanish and English versions of a brochure, photo-novella, and radio public service announcement. Pre-testing results showed women understood the message, thought the message was for women like them, and expected to begin taking a folic acid supplement. Results of the overall evaluation of the initiative are on-going.

  15. Current and future perspectives on the development, evaluation and application of in silico approaches for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major reasons of attrition in drug development. Non-testing approaches to predict toxicity could form part of the solution. This review provides a perspective of current status of non-testing approaches available for the predictio...

  16. Approach to integrate current safeguards measures with additional protocol requirements at national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Peru adhered to the Additional Protocol in March 2000 which was also approved by the Congress in May 2001. After approval by law the obligations derived from this Additional Protocol will be in force after 180 days. After the signing of the Protocol an approach was designed to help better fulfill these requirements in an integrated way with the previous measures. As first stage, a review of the current state of safeguards was undertaken. Under the current agreement (an INFCIRC/153 type agreement) the reporting is less complicated and inexpensive to be carried out because these reports include only the declared nuclear material and the features of declared facilities where the nuclear material is used. No other related facility or material or activity needs to be declared. In Peru there are only two MBAs where low enriched uranium (LEU) is used and the record system includes general ledgers, inventory records and operational books. The results of national inspections and copies of reports and communications sent to the IAEA are also kept in this system. Under the agreement and subsidiary arrangements material balance reports (MBR), physical inventory listings (PIL) and inventory change reports (ICR) are prepared and submitted to the IAEA at scheduled periods. The MBR and PIL reports are sent after yearly regular inspections carried out by the IAEA. The ICR is sent just every time when an import or export of nuclear material is made. The time devoted to carry out all of these activities is not so extensive for both the State System for Accountability and Control (SSAC) and the users because of the limited nuclear activities in the country. Because of the characteristics and limited quantities of nuclear material the efforts for inspection and reporting activities are few. Another subject under review was the procedure for controlling the imports of nuclear material. Under the current agreement this subject was not a problem, as all of the radioactive and nuclear

  17. Current state of purification, isolation and analysis of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Stankevičius, Mantas; Bimbiraitė-Survilienė, Kristina; Naujokaitytė, Gintarė; Šernienė, Loreta; Mulkytė, Kristina; Malakauskas, Mindaugas; Maruška, Audrius

    2017-02-01

    The scientific interest for the search of natural means of microbial inhibitors has not faded for several years. A search of natural antibiotics, so-called bacteriocins which are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gains a huge attention of the scientists in the last century, in order to reduce the usage of synthetic food additives. Pure bacteriocins with wide spectra of antibacterial activity are promising among the natural biopreservatives. The usage of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB as starter culture for the fermentation of some food products, in order to increase their shelf-life, when synthetic preservatives are not allowable, is also possible. There are a lot of studies focusing on the isolation of new bacteriocins from traditional fermented food, dairy products and other foods or sometimes even from unusual non-food matrices. Bacteriocins producing bacteria have been isolated from different sources with the different antibacterial activity against food-borne microorganisms. This review covers the classification of bacteriocins, diversity of sources of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB, antibacterial spectra of isolated bacteriocins and analytical methods for the bacteriocin purification and analysis within the last 15 years.

  18. Current Concepts in the Use of Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Vince; Lynde, Carrie B

    2015-11-01

    Soft-tissue augmentation with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers has become one of the most popular cosmetic procedures performed. HA fillers represent safe and commonly used fillers. Several different HA fillers are available. The differences lie in the manufacturing process, allowing for tailored uses. A small-particle HA with lidocaine (SP-HAL; Restylane Silk; Galderma, Uppsala, Sweden) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2014 but has been available for many years in Canada as Restylane Fine Lines and in Europe as Restylane Vital. Relevant articles were reviewed relating to the composition, effectiveness, and safety of SP-HAL. We also discuss the author's extensive clinical experience in the use of this product in Canada. SP-HAL has demonstrated proven benefits for lip fullness, augmentation, and treatment of perioral rhytides. Although off-label in the United States, SP-HAL is also well suited for the treatment of superficial fine lines, including periorbital, forehead, marionette, and smile lines. In addition, it has also been used in the tear trough region. A novel application for SP-HAL includes use as a skinbooster with intradermal micropuncture. In this technique, small aliquots of product are injected so as to gradually rejuvenate the skin in areas such as the face and hands. Side effects of SP-HAL were generally transient and mild. The most common side effects were swelling, tenderness, bruising, pain, and redness. SP-HAL is an effective and safe HA filler with varied clinical uses.

  19. Nor-Ursodeoxycholic Acid as a Novel Therapeutic Approach for Cholestatic and Metabolic Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilbasic, Emina; Steinacher, Daniel; Trauner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is a side-chain-shortened derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid with relative resistance to amidation, which enables its cholehepatic shunting. Based on its specific pharmacologic properties, norUDCA is a promising drug for a range of cholestatic liver and bile duct disorders. Recently, norUDCA has been successfully tested clinically in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as first application in patients. Moreover, hepatic enrichment of norUDCA facilitates direct therapeutic effects on both parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells, thereby counteracting cholestasis, steatosis, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, inhibiting hepatocellular proliferation, and promoting autophagy. This may open its therapeutic use to other non-cholestatic and metabolic liver diseases. This review article is a summary of a lecture given at the XXIV International Bile Acid Meeting (Falk Symposium 203) on "Bile Acids in Health and Disease" held in Düsseldorf, on June 17-18, 2016 and summarizes the recent progress of norUDCA as novel therapeutic approach in cholestatic and metabolic liver disorders with a specific focus on PSC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A new approach to study cadmium complexes with oxalic acid in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytrtová, Jana Jaklová; Jakl, Michal; Sestáková, Ivana; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Schröder, Detlef; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2011-05-05

    This study presents a new analytical approach for the determination of heavy metals complexed to low-molecular-weight-organic acids in soil solutions, which combines the sensitivity of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with the molecular insight gained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of these analytical methods allows the investigation of such complexes in complex matrixes. On the voltammograms of the soil solutions, in addition to the expected complexes of oxalic acid with cadmium and lead, respectively, also peaks belonging to mixed complexes of cadmium, lead, and oxalic acid (OAH(2)) were observed. In order to verify the possible formation of complexes with OAH(2), aqueous solutions of OAH(2) with traces of Cd(II) were investigated as model systems. Signals corresponding to several distinct molecular complexes between cadmium and oxalic acid were detected in the model solutions using negative-ion ESI-MS, which follow the general formula [Cd(n)(X,Y)((2n+1))](-), where n is the number of cadmium atoms, X=Cl(-), and Y=OAH(-). Some of these complexes were also identified in the ESI mass spectra taken from the soil solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new approach to study cadmium complexes with oxalic acid in soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklova Dytrtova, Jana; Jakl, Michal; Sestakova, Ivana; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Schroeder, Detlef; Navratil, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical approach for the determination of heavy metals complexed to low-molecular-weight-organic acids in soil solutions, which combines the sensitivity of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with the molecular insight gained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of these analytical methods allows the investigation of such complexes in complex matrixes. On the voltammograms of the soil solutions, in addition to the expected complexes of oxalic acid with cadmium and lead, respectively, also peaks belonging to mixed complexes of cadmium, lead, and oxalic acid (OAH 2 ) were observed. In order to verify the possible formation of complexes with OAH 2 , aqueous solutions of OAH 2 with traces of Cd(II) were investigated as model systems. Signals corresponding to several distinct molecular complexes between cadmium and oxalic acid were detected in the model solutions using negative-ion ESI-MS, which follow the general formula [Cd n (X,Y) (2n+1) ] - , where n is the number of cadmium atoms, X = Cl - , and Y = OAH - . Some of these complexes were also identified in the ESI mass spectra taken from the soil solutions.

  2. A new approach to study cadmium complexes with oxalic acid in soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklova Dytrtova, Jana, E-mail: dytrtova@uochb.cas.cz [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Jakl, Michal [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Sestakova, Ivana [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Zins, Emilie-Laure; Schroeder, Detlef [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Navratil, Tomas [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-05

    This study presents a new analytical approach for the determination of heavy metals complexed to low-molecular-weight-organic acids in soil solutions, which combines the sensitivity of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with the molecular insight gained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of these analytical methods allows the investigation of such complexes in complex matrixes. On the voltammograms of the soil solutions, in addition to the expected complexes of oxalic acid with cadmium and lead, respectively, also peaks belonging to mixed complexes of cadmium, lead, and oxalic acid (OAH{sub 2}) were observed. In order to verify the possible formation of complexes with OAH{sub 2}, aqueous solutions of OAH{sub 2} with traces of Cd(II) were investigated as model systems. Signals corresponding to several distinct molecular complexes between cadmium and oxalic acid were detected in the model solutions using negative-ion ESI-MS, which follow the general formula [Cd{sub n}(X,Y){sub (2n+1)}]{sup -}, where n is the number of cadmium atoms, X = Cl{sup -}, and Y = OAH{sup -}. Some of these complexes were also identified in the ESI mass spectra taken from the soil solutions.

  3. Amino Acid Prodrugs: An Approach to Improve the Absorption of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Lopinavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor systemic concentrations of lopinavir (LPV following oral administration occur due to high cellular efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs and extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 enzymes. In this study, amino acid prodrugs of LPV were designed and investigated for their potential to circumvent efflux processes and first pass effects. Three amino acid prodrugs were synthesized by conjugating isoleucine, tryptophan and methionine to LPV. Prodrug formation was confirmed by the LCMS/MS and NMR technique. Interaction of LPV prodrugs with efflux proteins were carried out in P-gp (MDCK-MDR1 and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2 transfected cells. Aqueous solubility studies demonstrated that prodrugs generate higher solubility relative to LPV. Prodrugs displayed higher stability under acidic conditions and degraded significantly with rise in pH. Uptake and transport data suggested that prodrugs carry significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Moreover, prodrugs exhibited higher liver microsomal stability relative to LPV. Hence, amino acid prodrug modification might be a viable approach for enhancing LPV absorption across intestinal epithelial and brain endothelial cells which expresses high levels of P-gp and MRP2.

  4. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  5. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Systemic-Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SSc-PAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Vincent; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Despite the use of specific treatments, SSc-PAH survival remains poorer than in idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Recent therapeutic advances in PAH show a lower magnitude of response in SSc-PAH and a higher risk of adverse events, as compared to IPAH. The multifaceted underlying mechanisms and the multisystem nature of SSc probably explain part of the worse outcomes in SSc-PAH compared to IPAH. This review describes the current management of SSc-PAH with an emphasis on the impact of the different organ involvements in the prognosis and treatment response. An earlier detection of PAH and a better characterization of the clinical phenotypes of SSc-PAH are warranted in clinical practice and future trials. Determinants of prognosis, surrogate markers of clinical improvement or worsening, and relevance of the common endpoints used in clinical trials should be evaluated in this specific population. A multidisciplinary approach in expert referral centers is mandatory for SSc-PAH management.

  7. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Weight management in type 2 diabetes: current and emerging approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-10-15

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures or neuronal activity patterns for a given brain function. It is nowadays feasible to combine NTBS, either consecutively or concurrently, with a variety of neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques. Here we discuss what kind of information can be gained from combined approaches, which often are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation and "offline" NTBS effects outlasting plasticity-inducing NTBS protocols can be assessed. Finally, both strategies can be combined to close the loop between measuring and modulating brain activity by means of closed-loop brain state-dependent NTBS. In this paper, we will provide a conceptual framework, emphasizing principal strategies and highlighting promising future directions to exploit the benefits of combining NTBS with neuroimaging or electrophysiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management-An Insight into Future Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighizola, Cecilia Beatrice; Ubiali, Tania; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.

  12. Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management—An Insight into Future Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiali, Tania; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control. PMID:26075289

  13. Econometric modelling of Serbian current account determinants: Jackknife Model Averaging approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to model Serbian current account determinants for the period Q1 2002 - Q4 2012. Taking into account the majority of relevant determinants, using the Jackknife Model Averaging approach, 48 different models have been estimated, where 1254 equations needed to be estimated and averaged for each of the models. The results of selected representative models indicate moderate persistence of the CA and positive influence of: fiscal balance, oil trade balance, terms of trade, relative income and real effective exchange rates, where we should emphasise: (i a rather strong influence of relative income, (ii the fact that the worsening of oil trade balance results in worsening of other components (probably non-oil trade balance of CA and (iii that the positive influence of terms of trade reveals functionality of the Harberger-Laursen-Metzler effect in Serbia. On the other hand, negative influence is evident in case of: relative economic growth, gross fixed capital formation, net foreign assets and trade openness. What particularly stands out is the strong effect of relative economic growth that, most likely, reveals high citizens' future income growth expectations, which has negative impact on the CA.

  14. Current Approaches to Tactical Performance Analyses in Soccer Using Position Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Tactical match performance depends on the quality of actions of individual players or teams in space and time during match-play in order to be successful. Technological innovations have led to new possibilities to capture accurate spatio-temporal information of all players and unravel the dynamics and complexity of soccer matches. The main aim of this article is to give an overview of the current state of development of the analysis of position data in soccer. Based on the same single set of position data of a high-level 11 versus 11 match (Bayern Munich against FC Barcelona) three different promising approaches from the perspective of dynamic systems and neural networks will be presented: Tactical performance analysis revealed inter-player coordination, inter-team and inter-line coordination before critical events, as well as team-team interaction and compactness coefficients. This could lead to a multi-disciplinary discussion on match analyses in sport science and new avenues for theoretical and practical implications in soccer.

  15. Citizenship Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: History and Current Instructional Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Abdullah Alharbi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article attempts to review current studies related to Citizenship Education (CE in order to shed light on the provisions of citizenship education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The review examines the significance of   CE in the KSA. It also explores the history of CE in the KSA followed by its national identity, as this too, affects the nature of the CE offered in the country. Then the article identifies and explores the implementation of CE in the KSA. In addition, the article discusses the approaches of introducing Citizenship Education in the KSA, its content and implementation. It can be argued that Islam has played a crucial role in shaping Saudi citizens’ private and national identities and their national values. The study also found that CE in Saudi Arabia faces multiple challenges. It emphasizes citizens’ responsibilities, duties, identity formation, and obedience towards the system and how one can achieve them. It also appears that promoting freedom, equality, fairness, freedom of expression and participation in the decision making process is poorly addressed. Moreover, lack of teaching aids and lack of specialist teachers and training are some major challenges to implement CE in the KSA. The article ends by drawing some conclusions.

  16. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  17. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  18. Current and evolving approaches for improving the oral permeability of BCS Class III or analogous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Gupta, Deepak; Yu, Monica; Nguyen, Phuong; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba

    2017-02-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classifies pharmaceutical compounds based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS Class III compounds are hydrophilic molecules (high aqueous solubility) with low permeability across the biological membranes. While these compounds are pharmacologically effective, poor absorption due to low permeability becomes the rate-limiting step in achieving adequate bioavailability. Several approaches have been explored and utilized for improving the permeability profiles of these compounds. The approaches include traditional methods such as prodrugs, permeation enhancers, ion-pairing, etc., as well as relatively modern approaches such as nanoencapsulation and nanosizing. The most recent approaches include a combination/hybridization of one or more traditional approaches to improve drug permeability. While some of these approaches have been extremely successful, i.e. drug products utilizing the approach have progressed through the USFDA approval for marketing; others require further investigation to be applicable. This article discusses the commonly studied approaches for improving the permeability of BCS Class III compounds.

  19. Gas Antisolvent Approach for the Precipitation of α -Methoxyphenylacetic Acid – ( R -1-Cyclohexylethylamine Diateromeric Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zodge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of diastereomeric salt precipitation based enantioseparation is the time and solvent requirement of crystallization. In the gas antisolvent (GAS approach, supercritical carbon dioxide is applied as an antisolvent, and the precipitation takes place in a couple of minutes. By setting the process parameters diastereomeric excess, yields, and selectivity can be controlled. Applicability of the process is demonstrated on the resolution of racemic 2-methoxyphenylacetic acid with enantiopure (R-(−-1-cyclohexylethylamine. Diastereomeric excess values over 55 % along with 80 % yields were achieved at optimal conditions in a single step.

  20. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  2. A Serviced-based Approach to Connect Seismological Infrastructures: Current Efforts at the IRIS DMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Tim; Trabant, Chad

    2014-05-01

    As part of the COOPEUS initiative to build infrastructure that connects European and US research infrastructures, IRIS has advocated for the development of Federated services based upon internationally recognized standards using web services. By deploying International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) endorsed web services at multiple data centers in the US and Europe, we have shown that integration within seismological domain can be realized. By deploying identical methods to invoke the web services at multiple centers this approach can significantly ease the methods through which a scientist can access seismic data (time series, metadata, and earthquake catalogs) from distributed federated centers. IRIS has developed an IRIS federator that helps a user identify where seismic data from global seismic networks can be accessed. The web services based federator can build the appropriate URLs and return them to client software running on the scientists own computer. These URLs are then used to directly pull data from the distributed center in a very peer-based fashion. IRIS is also involved in deploying web services across horizontal domains. As part of the US National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube effort, an IRIS led EarthCube Building Block's project is underway. When completed this project will aid in the discovery, access, and usability of data across multiple geoscienece domains. This presentation will summarize current IRIS efforts in building vertical integration infrastructure within seismology working closely with 5 centers in Europe and 2 centers in the US, as well as how we are taking first steps toward horizontal integration of data from 14 different domains in the US, in Europe, and around the world.

  3. A current value Hamiltonian Approach for Discrete time Optimal Control Problems arising in Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Rehana

    2018-01-01

    Pontrygin-type maximum principle is extended for the present value Hamiltonian systems and current value Hamiltonian systems of nonlinear difference equations for uniform time step $h$. A new method termed as a discrete time current value Hamiltonian method is established for the construction of first integrals for current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary difference equations arising in Economic growth theory.

  4. Agulhas Current variability determined from space: a multi-sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available to the Doppler shift signal, the ASAR surface current velocities are able to consistently highlight regions of strong current and shear. The synaptic nature and relatively high resolution of ASAR acquisitions make the ASAR derived current velocities a good...

  5. Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ping; Fang, Yingtong; Xie, Ronglong; Hu, Weilun; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Dong, Genlai; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Role of amino acid supplementation in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates - a review of current evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Bhawan Deep; Kabra, Nandkishor S

    2018-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15 to 30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis, and over-reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other database. This review included 15 RCTs that fulfilled inclusion criteria. The total neonates enrolled in these different RCT are 3424 (amino acid group 1711 and control 1713). Almost all participating neonates were of VLBW or extremely low birth weight (ELBW). In two trials, birth weight was between 1500-2000 grams. The intervention was started within first few days after birth and continued up to 30th day of postnatal age in most of the trials. In two trials, intervention was continued up to 120th day of postnatal age. Arginine, glutamine and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were used at the dose of 1.5 mol/kg/day (261 mg/kg/day), 0.3 grams/kg/day and 16-32 mg/kg/day, respectively. Role of amino acid in the prevention of neonatal NEC is not exclusively supported by the current evidence. Only three studies were able to show reduction in the incidence of NEC with amino acid supplementation (arginine, glutamine), and the remaining studies did not report any positive effect. Amino acid supplementation was not associated with significant reduction in mortality due to any causes. However, arginine supplementation was associated with significant reduction in mortality due to NEC. Two studies on glutamine were reported significant reduction in

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oladipupo; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Schultz, Francisca; Ibrahim, Effendi; Trauner, Michael; Williamson, Catherine; Glukhov, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. Methods High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes. Results TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (−10.2±1.5 versus −5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (−22.3±1.1 versus −9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA. PMID:28934223

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Adeyemi

    Full Text Available Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM. Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05 and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05 exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05, but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05. UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001, whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  9. In-stream chemical neutralization: A whole watershed approach to mitigating acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The North Branch of the Potomac River is adversely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) throughout its entire length. As an alternative to mine-mouth treatment methods an in-stream AMD-neutralization demonstration program for an approximately 25-mile segment of the North Branch of the Potomac River was designed and implemented. This river segment was ranked as the highest priority site in Maryland for a demonstration project owing to its combination of very poor water quality and excellent potential for supporting a recreational sport fishery in the absence of toxic metal and acid loadings. A whole-watershed approach employing Scandinavian doser technologies and calcium carbonate neutralizing agents is the basis for the North Branch Potomac River demonstration project. The project involves four phases: feasibility (1), design (2), implementation (3), and monitoring (4). This watershed approach to mitigating AMD is expected to restore circumneutrial water quality and to promote desirable fishery resources throughout the mainstem and selected tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River Upstream of Jennings Randolph Dam. This paper summarizes Phases 1--3 of the demonstration project

  10. Far-red fluorescent probes for canonical and non-canonical nucleic acid structures: current progress and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Y V; Narayanaswamy, Nagarjun; Pratihar, Sumon; Govindaraju, Thimmaiah

    2018-02-05

    The structural diversity and functional relevance of nucleic acids (NAs), mainly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are indispensable for almost all living organisms, with minute aberrations in their structure and function becoming causative factors in numerous human diseases. The standard structures of NAs, termed canonical structures, are supported by Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. Under special physiological conditions, NAs adopt distinct spatial organisations, giving rise to non-canonical conformations supported by hydrogen bonding other than the Watson-Crick type; such non-canonical structures have a definite function in controlling gene expression and are considered as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Development of molecular probes for these canonical and non-canonical DNA/RNA structures has been an active field of research. Among the numerous probes studied, probes with turn-on fluorescence in the far-red (600-750 nm) region are highly sought-after due to minimal autofluorescence and cellular damage. Far-red fluorescent probes are vital for real-time imaging of NAs in live cells as they provide good resolution and minimal perturbation of the cell under investigation. In this review, we present recent advances in the area of far-red fluorescent probes of DNA/RNA and non-canonical G-quadruplex structures. For the sake of continuity and completeness, we provide a brief overview of visible fluorescent probes. Utmost importance is given to design criteria, characteristic properties and biological applications, including in cellulo imaging, apart from critical discussion on limitations of the far-red fluorescent probes. Finally, we offer current and future prospects in targeting canonical and non-canonical NAs specific to cellular organelles, through sequence- and conformation-specific far-red fluorescent probes. We also cover their implications in chemical and molecular biology, with particular focus on decoding various disease

  11. Current status and perspectives of neurobehavioral approaches in guideline—oriented animal testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TakaH

    2002-01-01

    This presentation aims to overview the current status and perspective of behavioral approaches used in guideline-oriented toxicological studies for agricultural chemicals.Guidelines revised recently (MAFF,OECD,EPA) require sytematic observation of non-learning behavior using defined scales.The observational endpoints are organized into a battery (e.g.functional observational battery,FOB) and inculde home-cage and open-field observation of behavior reactivity to various stimuli(e.g.auditory,tactile,visual),grip strength,and motor activity under a novel environment.The outline of FOB will be illustrated and discussed in the first half of the presentation.One social concern in neurotoxicology is the impact of chemical exposure on cnognitive functions such as learning and memory as well as non-learning behavior.Guidelines describe the necessity of learning and memory tests when other data suggest potential effects on brain function,even though little information regarding cognitive status other than brain pathology can be obtained with FOB.This discrepancy arises from the lack of a simple method compatible with regular studies.One candidate method is fear-induced freezing of rats conditioned to context and auditory cue(Kim & Fanselow,1992).In order to evaluate this paradigm as a screening method,the effects of trimethyltin chloride (TMT) have been studied.Prior to the study,it has been characterized that oral administration of TMT to rats produces excitatory clinical signs and massive neural cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions at lethal dose(8mg·kg-1),but not any abnormalities at sub-lethal doses (4mg·kg-1 or less).Oral administration of TMT at a sub-lethal dose produced a significant decrease in freezing time to the context (hippocampal-dependent measure),but not to the auditory cue.Administration of TMT at a sublethal dose significantly inhibited long-term potentiation in the CA1,but not in the dentate gyrus.These results suggest that the model can be

  12. Current Techniques for the Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum for the Production of Biomass, Ganoderic Acid and Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in the Orient for more than 2000 years. Due to the long time required for basidiocarp formation, attention has recently been given to the use of submerged fermentation for the production of mycelial biomass and its bioactive components, such as polysaccharides and ganoderic acids. We review the current state of knowledge about the cultivation of G. lucidum by modern fermentation techniques, focussing on the effects of fermentation conditions and how knowledge of these effects has been used to develop strategies for improving the production of biomass, polysaccharides and ganoderic acid. We also outline the methods that have been used for biomass and product recovery and point out potential problems involved in these steps. Studies to date have been almost entirely limited to laboratory scale and much more understanding of the physiology of G. lucidum and its relationship with growth morphology will be necessary before it will be possible to develop economical large scale processes.

  13. Feasibility of the current-duration approach to studying human fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Rémy; Ducot, Béatrice; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    of unprotected intercourse was defined for 69 women (5.7%). An additional 15 women (1.2%) were planning to start trying to become pregnant within the next 6 months. Parametric methods allowed, based on current duration of unprotected intercourse, estimation of fecundity as if the couples had been followed...... up (current-duration design). To illustrate the feasibility of the current-duration design, we contacted a random sample of 1204 French women age 18 to 44 years in 2004 and recruited those who were currently having unprotected sexual intercourse. The current duration since the beginning...... prospectively. The estimated proportion of couples not pregnant after 12 months of unprotected intercourse was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15-54%). The accelerated-failure time model allows study of the influence of environmental factors on fecundity. As an illustration, tobacco smoking by the woman...

  14. Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arike Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Results Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific growth rate dependent metabolism of L. lactis including utilization of amino acids was studied based on extracellular metabolome, global transcriptome and proteome analysis. A new growth medium was designed with reduced amino acid concentrations to increase precision of measurements of consumption of amino acids. Consumption patterns were calculated for all 20 amino acids and measured carbon balance showed good fit of the data at all growth rates studied. It was observed that metabolism of L. lactis became more efficient with rising specific growth rate in the range 0.10 - 0.60 h-1, indicated by 30% increase in biomass yield based on glucose consumption, 50% increase in efficiency of nitrogen use for biomass synthesis, and 40% reduction in energy spilling. The latter was realized by decrease in the overall product formation and higher efficiency of incorporation of amino acids into biomass. L. lactis global transcriptome and proteome profiles showed good correlation supporting the general idea of transcription level control of bacterial metabolism, but the data indicated that substrate transport systems together with lower part of glycolysis in L. lactis were presumably under allosteric control. Conclusions The current study demonstrates advantages of the usage of strictly controlled continuous cultivation methods combined with multi-omics approach for quantitative understanding of amino acid and energy metabolism of L. lactis which is a valuable new knowledge for development of balanced growth media, gene manipulations for desired product

  15. Particle currents in a space-time dependent and CP-violating Higgs background: a field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, D.; Riotto, A.

    1995-06-01

    Motivated by cosmological applications like electroweak baryogenesis, we develop a field theoretic approach to the computation of particle currents on a space-time dependent and CP-violating Higgs background. We consider the Standard Model model with two Higgs doublets and CP violation in the scalar sector, and compute both fermionic and Higgs currents by means of an expansion in the background fields. We discuss the gauge dependence of the results and the renormalization of the current operators, showing that in the limit of local equilibrium, no extra renormalization conditions are needed in order to specify the system completely. (orig.)

  16. The current approach to human error and blame in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, Melanie

    There is a large body of research to suggest that serious errors are widespread throughout medicine. The traditional response to these adverse events has been to adopt a 'person approach' - blaming the individual seen as 'responsible'. The culture of medicine is highly complicit in this response. Such an approach results in enormous personal costs to the individuals concerned and does little to address the root causes of errors and thus prevent their recurrence. Other industries, such as aviation, where safety is a paramount concern and which have similar structures to the medical profession, have, over the past decade or so, adopted a 'systems' approach to error, recognizing that human error is ubiquitous and inevitable and that systems need to be developed with this in mind. This approach has been highly successful, but has necessitated, first and foremost, a cultural shift. It is in the best interests of patients, and medical professionals alike, that such a shift is embraced in the NHS.

  17. Current Counter-Drone Technology Solutions to Shield Airports and Approach and Departure Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The proliferation of drones has the potential to harm people and property. In particular, drones flying near airports and airport approaches can cause flight disruptions, as well as other serious challenges and incidents. There is a need to understan...

  18. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ritou , Mathieu; Garnier , Sébastien; Furet , Benoît; Hascoët , Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a new complete approach for Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) in milling. The aim is the early detection of small damages so that catastrophic tool failures are prevented. A versatile in-process monitoring system is introduced for reliability concerns. The tool condition is determined by estimates of the radial eccentricity of the teeth. An adequate criterion is proposed combining mechanical model of milling and angular approach. Then, a new solution i...

  19. Positive feedback : exploring current approaches in iterative travel demand model implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the models that TxDOTs Transportation Planning and Programming Division (TPP) developed are : traditional three-step models (i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, and traffic assignment) that are sequentially : applied. A limitation...

  20. Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.

  1. Determinants of Current Account Deficit in Turkey: The Conditional and Partial Granger Causality Approach

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKUL, Funda; CEVHER, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the causality relations between the macro aggregates that affect current deficit using conditional and partial Granger causality test. Current deficit/GDP, growth rate, real effective exchange rate, direct foreign capital investment, openness, and energy import were selected as variables for this purpose. 2003.1-2014.2 quarterly data for Turkey’s economy were used for analysis. The results of the conditional and partial Granger causality test demonstrate that real ef...

  2. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  3. Land administration in Ecuador; Current situation and opportunities with adoption of fit-for-purpose land administration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorovski, D.; Salazar, Rodolfo; Jacome, Ginella; Bermeo, Antonio; Orellana, Esteban; Zambrano, Fatima; Teran, Andrea; Mejia, Raul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore current land administration situation in Ecuador and identify opportunities for fit-for-purpose (FFP) land administration approach that could improve the land administration functions for the country and its citizens. In this paper, initially literature about land

  4. Approaches to chronic disease management evaluation in use in Europe : A review of current methods and performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, A.; Nolte, E.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: An overview was produced of approaches currently used to evaluate chronic disease management in selected European countries. The study aims to describe the methods and metrics used in Europe as a first to help advance the methodological basis for their assessment. Methods: A common

  5. Rotor cage fault diagnosis in three-phase induction motors based on a current and virtual flux approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Dulce F.; Pires, V. Fernao; Martins, J.F.; Pires, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection of a rotor cage fault in a three-phase PWM feed induction motor. In inverter-fed machines there are some difficulties for the detection of a rotor cage fault. These difficulties are due to the fault signature that will be contained in the currents or voltages applied to the machine. In this way, a new approach based on the current and a virtual flux is proposed. The use of the virtual flux allows the improving of the signal to noise ratio. This approach also allows the identification of a rotor cage fault independently of the type of control used in the ac drive. The theoretical principle of this method is discussed. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach

  6. New food approaches to reduce and/or eliminate increased gastric acidity related to gastroesophageal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Ciro; Naviglio, Daniele; Marino, Marina; Calogero, Armando; Gallo, Monica

    2018-03-22

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is very common in industrialized countries and rapidly and significantly increasing even in developing countries. The approach in this study is one not commonly found to date in the scientific literature. To assess the ability of reduced-carbohydrate diets and foods that are enriched with acid potential of hydrogen (pH; lemon and tomato) to quickly and exponentially reduce symptoms that are related to conditions such as gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux and unrelated to Helicobacter pylori. After the administration of an anamnestic test, 130 patients were selected including 73 women and 57 men, 21 to 67 y, and with a gastritis diagnosis for 92 patients (56 women, 36 men) and reflux gastritis for 38 patients (17 women, 21 men). Study participants followed three dietary treatments in succession. Each treatment lasted 2 wk and treatments were separated by 2 wk of washout. The patients followed a diet that consisted primarily of proteins and fats and included the exponential reduction of glycides (simple and complex). In addition, the treatment provided for the daily intake of the juice of two lemons and approximately 100 g of fresh orange tomato without seeds eaten either raw or cooked and peeled. During treatment and at the end of 2 wk of treatment, the patients reported significant improvements including an almost total disappearance of symptoms that were related to the disease in question. This study shows that a carbohydrate-free diet and/or highly hypoglycidal diet that is enriched with acid pH foods appears to lead to a decrease in the pH of the gastric contents, thus inhibiting the further production of hydrochloric acid with a reduction or disappearance of heartburn symptoms that are typical of gastroesophageal diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  8. A computational fluid dynamics approach to nucleation in the water-sulfuric acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, E; Brus, D; Hyvärinen, A-P; Stratmann, F; Wilck, M; Lihavainen, H; Kulmala, M

    2010-08-12

    This study presents a computational fluid dynamics modeling approach to investigate the nucleation in the water-sulfuric acid system in a flow tube. On the basis of an existing experimental setup (Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Viisanen, Y.; Kulmala, M.; Lihavainen, H. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2010, 10, 2631-2641), we first establish the effect of convection on the flow profile. We then proceed to simulate nucleation for relative humidities of 10, 30, and 50% and for sulfuric acid concentration between 10(9) to 3 x 10(10) cm(-3). We describe the nucleation zone in detail and determine how flow rate and relative humidity affect its characteristics. Experimental nucleation rates are compared to rates gained from classical binary and kinetic nucleation theory as well as cluster activation theory. For low RH values, kinetic theory yields the best agreement with experimental results while binary nucleation best reproduces the experimental nucleation behavior at 50% relative humidity. Particle growth is modeled for an example case at 50% relative humidity. The final simulated diameter is very close to the experimental result.

  9. A combinatorial approach to detect coevolved amino acid networks in protein families of variable divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baussand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.

  10. Overview of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): A Nonsurgical Approach for Reduction of Submental Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Steven H; Humphrey, Shannon; Jones, Derek H; Lizzul, Paul F; Gross, Todd M; Stauffer, Karen; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe convexity or fullness associated with submental fat. ATX-101 has been evaluated in a clinical development program that included 18 Phase 1 to 3 studies supporting the current indication. Since 2007, the toxicity and safety profiles of ATX-101 have been characterized in numerous preclinical studies, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal treatment paradigm have been defined in multiple Phase 1 and 2 studies, and its efficacy and clinical safety have been confirmed in 4 large Phase 3 trials (2 conducted in Europe and 2 in the United States and Canada [REFINE-1 and REFINE-2]). As subcutaneous injection of deoxycholic acid has been shown to cause adipocytolysis, the reduction in submental fat achieved after ATX-101 treatment is expected to be long lasting. This prediction is confirmed by data from long-term follow-up studies of up to 4 years after last treatment with ATX-101, which demonstrate that the treatment response is maintained over time in most subjects. ATX-101 offers a durable, minimally invasive alternative to liposuction and surgery for addressing submental fullness.

  11. A new approach to control a deflection of an electroplated microstructure: dual current electroplating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Seo, Min-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and novel method to control the deflection in a suspended microstructure by using a dual current electroplating (DuCE) method. The key concept of this method is to divide the structure into two layers—a bottom layer and a top layer—and then apply respective current densities in electroplating to those two layers while all other conditions are kept the same. In addition to a flat structure, the direction of structure bending is freely controlled by virtue of the DuCE method. Cantilever Ni beams with a length of 400 µm, which were electroplated by the conventional single current electroplating method, bent downward with a deflection of 3.4 µm. On the contrary, by the DuCE method, cantilever beams with a length of 400 µm showed an almost flat structure as desired. (The current densities of the bottom layer, the top layer, and the ratio of the two current densities, are 0.15, 1.24 A dm −2 , and 8.3, respectively.) Consequently, a nickel electroplated spiral structure with a length of 8600 µm was suspended flat with an end deflection of less than 0.7 µm (the ratio between the deflection and length is 0.007%). This work therefore represents the unprecedented ultra-long suspended microstructure with submicrometer deflection. (paper)

  12. Cognitive-behavior therapy for problem gambling: a critique of current treatments and proposed new unified approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchard, Barry

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.

  13. A Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Approach for Measuring Weak Electric Currents Inside the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan

    of individual ohmic conductivity values may open up the possibility of creating more realistic and accurate head models, which may ameliorate the simulations and practical use of NIBS techniques. Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT......Knowing the electrical conductivity and current density distribution inside the human brain will be useful in various biomedical applications, i.e. for improving the efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, the accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG......) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, or localization of pathological tissues. For example, the accuracy of electric field simulations for NIBS techniques is currently reduced by assigning inaccurate ohmic conductivity values taken from literature to different brain tissues. Therefore, the knowledge...

  14. The "Magic Cure" A Review of the Current Controversial Approaches for Treating Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Larry B.

    1987-01-01

    In view of popular press coverage of controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities, the article briefly reviews evidence concerning the following: neurophysiological retraining (patterning, optometric visual training, cerebellar-vestibular remediation, and applied kinesiology); and orthomolecular medicine (concerning megavitamins,…

  15. Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education--Trends and Current Situation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Gerhard; Grafe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as…

  16. Overview of current multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging approach in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily based on the utility and validity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of prostate gland tumors. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging, useful approach for evaluating and detecting prostate cancers. It also aids in the management of a tumor and improve the care and follow-up of patients.

  17. 3-D time-domain induced polarization tomography: a new approach based on a source current density formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.

    2018-04-01

    Induced polarization (IP) of porous rocks can be associated with a secondary source current density, which is proportional to both the intrinsic chargeability and the primary (applied) current density. This gives the possibility of reformulating the time domain induced polarization (TDIP) problem as a time-dependent self-potential-type problem. This new approach implies a change of strategy regarding data acquisition and inversion, allowing major time savings for both. For inverting TDIP data, we first retrieve the electrical resistivity distribution. Then, we use this electrical resistivity distribution to reconstruct the primary current density during the injection/retrieval of the (primary) current between the current electrodes A and B. The time-lapse secondary source current density distribution is determined given the primary source current density and a distribution of chargeability (forward modelling step). The inverse problem is linear between the secondary voltages (measured at all the electrodes) and the computed secondary source current density. A kernel matrix relating the secondary observed voltages data to the source current density model is computed once (using the electrical conductivity distribution), and then used throughout the inversion process. This recovered source current density model is in turn used to estimate the time-dependent chargeability (normalized voltages) in each cell of the domain of interest. Assuming a Cole-Cole model for simplicity, we can reconstruct the 3-D distributions of the relaxation time τ and the Cole-Cole exponent c by fitting the intrinsic chargeability decay curve to a Cole-Cole relaxation model for each cell. Two simple cases are studied in details to explain this new approach. In the first case, we estimate the Cole-Cole parameters as well as the source current density field from a synthetic TDIP data set. Our approach is successfully able to reveal the presence of the anomaly and to invert its Cole

  18. Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are important natural enemies of many pests in crop ecosystems throughout the world. Although several species are currently mass-reared and sold by biocontrol companies, there is an urgent need to reduce rearing costs. Cost effective mass rearing of...

  19. Current Approaches to the Assessment of Graphic Design in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloi, Susan; du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current trends in assessment practice within the field of graphic design. The demands placed on educators to apply sound assessment practice for Higher Education subjects is as intense in the field of graphic design as in any other. Forcing the assessment of creative visual work into existing assessment…

  20. Trade reform, policy uncertainty, and the current account: a non expected-utility approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid and comprehensive reduction in barriers to international trade has often been followed by a sharp deterioration in the current account. The macroeconomic counterpart of the deterioration has typically been a decline in private savings; no clear response pattern has been observed for private

  1. [Current approaches to evaluating the anatomic and functional status of the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Borodina, N V; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M

    2010-01-01

    The review provides data on current methods for evaluating the anatomic and functional status of the cornea (light refraction, light transmission, and biomechanical properties, in particular). It analyzes the main advantages and disadvantages of basic (biomicroscopy, endothelial microscopy, ophthalmometry, topography, and pachymetry) and special (confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound biomicroscopy, aberrometry, bidirectional corneal applanation, and keratoesthesiometry) studies.

  2. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special

  3. A Holistic Theoretical Approach to Intellectual Disability: Going beyond the Four Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth; Tassé, Marc J.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a holistic theoretical framework that can be used to explain intellectual disability (ID) and organize relevant information into a usable roadmap to guide understanding and application. Developing the framework involved analyzing the four current perspectives on ID and synthesizing this information into a holistic…

  4. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  5. Risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. Current approaches and future strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Larsen, John Christian; Meyer, Otto A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is based on toxicological evaluation of the single compounds and no internationally accepted procedure exists for evaluation of cumulative exposure to multiple residues of pesticides in crops, except for a few groups of pesticides sharing a group...... several approaches are available for the risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. However, no single simple approach is available to judge upon potential interactions at the low doses that humans are exposed to from pesticide residues in food. In these cases, PBTK models could be useful as tools...... to assess combined tissue doses and to help predict potential interactions including thresholds for such effects. This would improve the quality of the risk assessment....

  6. Evaluation of Current Approaches to Stream Classification and a Heuristic Guide to Developing Classifications of Integrated Aquatic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, S. J.; Jones, N. E.; Schmidt, B. J.

    2014-03-01

    Conservation and management of fresh flowing waters involves evaluating and managing effects of cumulative impacts on the aquatic environment from disturbances such as: land use change, point and nonpoint source pollution, the creation of dams and reservoirs, mining, and fishing. To assess effects of these changes on associated biotic communities it is necessary to monitor and report on the status of lotic ecosystems. A variety of stream classification methods are available to assist with these tasks, and such methods attempt to provide a systematic approach to modeling and understanding complex aquatic systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Of the vast number of approaches that exist, it is useful to group them into three main types. The first involves modeling longitudinal species turnover patterns within large drainage basins and relating these patterns to environmental predictors collected at reach and upstream catchment scales; the second uses regionalized hierarchical classification to create multi-scale, spatially homogenous aquatic ecoregions by grouping adjacent catchments together based on environmental similarities; and the third approach groups sites together on the basis of similarities in their environmental conditions both within and between catchments, independent of their geographic location. We review the literature with a focus on more recent classifications to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. We identify gaps or problems with the current approaches, and we propose an eight-step heuristic process that may assist with development of more flexible and integrated aquatic classifications based on the current understanding, network thinking, and theoretical underpinnings.

  7. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood; Abordagem diagnostica atual dos tumores osseos na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1995-09-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs.

  8. [From tic disorders to Tourette syndrome: current data, comorbidities, and therapeutic approach in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourneret, P; Desombre, H; Broussolle, E

    2014-06-01

    Motor tics are frequently observed in children during development. Usually transient and benign, they can become chronic over time, join various morbid disorders (vocal tics, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders) and move toward genuine Tourette syndrome. In this case, it will be necessary to prevent impacts - mainly in terms of quality of life and emotional and relational problems - using a global therapeutic strategy combining psychoeducational approaches with appropriate medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Current psychological therapeutic approaches for gambling disorder with psychiatric comorbidities: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Amor, Pedro J.; Gómez, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Although the presence of a gambling disorder (GD) together with another mental disorder poses special treatment challenges, such as relapses, severe outcomes for patients and families, and increased number of hospitalizations, there are only a few critical reviews in the literature. Objective: To review empirical evidence of psychological approaches to cope specifically with these dual disorders. Method: A narrative review of the relevant bibliography on this topic wa...

  10. Molecular Phytopathology: Current Approaches and Main Directions in Diagnostics of Woody Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Baranov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors describe the prospects for diagnosis of woody plants diseases based on the use of modern methods of molecular plant pathology. The metagenomic approach based on the analysis of complex pathogens, including non-pathogenic microflora is described. The use the multicopy universal loci characterized by a number of advantages in determining taxonomic affiliation of infectious agents during phytopathological molecular analysis is proposed.

  11. Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers: Current status of a modern approach in pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skevos Sideris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first transvenous pacemaker implantation, which took place 50 years ago, important progress has been achieved in pacing technology. Consequently, at present, more than 700,000 pacemakers are implanted annually worldwide. However, conventional pacemakers' implantation has a non-negligible risk of periprocedural and long-term complications associated with the transvenous leads and pacemaker pocket. Recently, leadless pacing systems have emerged as a therapeutic alternative to conventional pacing systems that provide therapy for patients with bradyarrhythmias, while eliminating potential transvenous lead- and pacemaker pocket-related complications. Initial studies have demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety of currently developed leadless pacing systems, compared to transvenous pacemakers. In the present paper, we review the current evidence and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this novel technology. New technological advances may allow the next generation of leadless pacemakers to further expand, thereby offering a wireless cardiac pacing in future. Keywords: cardiac pacing, pacemaker, leadless pacemaker, bradycardia

  12. AC losses in superconductors: a multi-scale approach for the design of high current cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escamez, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The work reported in this PhD deals with AC losses in superconducting material for large scale applications such as cables or magnets. Numerical models involving FEM or integral methods have been developed to solve the time transient electromagnetic distributions of field and current densities with the peculiarity of the superconducting constitutive E-J equation. Two main conductors have been investigated. First, REBCO superconductors for applications operating at 77 K are studied and a new architecture of conductor (round wires) for 3 kA cables. Secondly, for very high current cables, 3-D simulations on MgB_2 wires are built and solved using FEM modeling. The following chapter introduced new development used for the calculation of AC losses in DC cables with ripples. The thesis ends with the use of the developed numerical model on a practical example in the european BEST-PATHS project: a 10 kA MgB_2 demonstrator [fr

  13. A new approach to the inverse problem for current mapping in thin-film superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, J. W.; Wells, F. S.; Fedoseev, S. A.; Johansen, T. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Pan, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    A novel mathematical approach has been developed to complete the inversion of the Biot-Savart law in one- and two-dimensional cases from measurements of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field using the well-developed Magneto-Optical Imaging technique. Our approach, especially in the 2D case, is provided in great detail to allow a straightforward implementation as opposed to those found in the literature. Our new approach also refines our previous results for the 1D case [Johansen et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 16264 (1996)], and streamlines the method developed by Jooss et al. [Physica C 299, 215 (1998)] deemed as the most accurate if compared to that of Roth et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 65, 361 (1989)]. We also verify and streamline the iterative technique, which was developed following Laviano et al. [Supercond. Sci. Technol. 16, 71 (2002)] to account for in-plane magnetic fields caused by the bending of the applied magnetic field due to the demagnetising effect. After testing on magneto-optical images of a high quality YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting thin film, we show that the procedure employed is effective.

  14. A Finite Element Versus Analytical Approach to the Solution of the Current Diffusion Equation in Tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesnic, S.; Dorić, V.; Poljak, D.; Šušnjara, A.; Artaud, J.F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2018), s. 1027-1034 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Finite element analysis * Tokamaks * current diffusion equation (CDE) * finite-element method (FEM) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.052, year: 2016

  15. Current approach to diagnosis and treatment of delirium after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Adam S.; Weiner, Menachem M.; Arora, Rakesh C.; Chung, Insung; Deshpande, Ranjit; Varghese, Robin; Augoustides, John; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Delirium after cardiac surgery remains a common occurrence that results in significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. It continues to be underdiagnosed given its complex presentation and multifactorial etiology; however, its prevalence is increasing given the aging cardiac surgical population. This review highlights the perioperative risk factors, tools to assist in diagnosing delirium, and current pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy options. PMID:27052077

  16. State of Corporate Social Responsibility in India – Current scenario, Approach and Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Nagpal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to examine the state of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)in India. The report attempts to investigate the current scenario of CSR ctivities and examine how corporations in India interpret CSR. The study also seeks to identify the reported driving forces behind implementation of CSR practices by firms in India. Methodology – CSR personnel from 3O companies that are obligated to spend on CSR activities under the Companies Act, 2013 were surveyed. To cr...

  17. Our Approach to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Review of Current Treatment Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a clinical entity which has a 30 to 40 % mortality rate, with necrolysis affecting the entire epidermis. Antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants are offender drugs in TEN etiology. A standard treatment protocol with proven efficacy is still lacking. In this study, current treatment practice and our treatment strategy for TEN is discussed and eight patients treated in our clinic between the years 2001 and 2008 are reviewed.

  18. The reflection of evolving bearing faults in the stator current's extended park vector approach for induction machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corne, Bram; Vervisch, Bram; Derammelaere, Stijn; Knockaert, Jos; Desmet, Jan

    2018-07-01

    Stator current analysis has the potential of becoming the most cost-effective condition monitoring technology regarding electric rotating machinery. Since both electrical and mechanical faults are detected by inexpensive and robust current-sensors, measuring current is advantageous on other techniques such as vibration, acoustic or temperature analysis. However, this technology is struggling to breach into the market of condition monitoring as the electrical interpretation of mechanical machine-problems is highly complicated. Recently, the authors built a test-rig which facilitates the emulation of several representative mechanical faults on an 11 kW induction machine with high accuracy and reproducibility. Operating this test-rig, the stator current of the induction machine under test can be analyzed while mechanical faults are emulated. Furthermore, while emulating, the fault-severity can be manipulated adaptively under controllable environmental conditions. This creates the opportunity of examining the relation between the magnitude of the well-known current fault components and the corresponding fault-severity. This paper presents the emulation of evolving bearing faults and their reflection in the Extended Park Vector Approach for the 11 kW induction machine under test. The results confirm the strong relation between the bearing faults and the stator current fault components in both identification and fault-severity. Conclusively, stator current analysis increases reliability in the application as a complete, robust, on-line condition monitoring technology.

  19. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessalova, Valentina [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perov, Nikolai [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10{sup −11} A m{sup 2} at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  20. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessalova, Valentina; Perov, Nikolai; Rodionova, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10 −11 A m 2 at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  1. Artificial Intelligence approaches in hematopoietic cell transplant: A review of the current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Ibrahim N; ElHassan, Tusneem; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2018-06-08

    Currently, the evidence-based literature on healthcare is expanding exponentially. The opportunities provided by the advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) tools i.e. machine learning are appealing in tackling many of the current healthcare challenges. Thus, AI integration is expanding in most fields of healthcare, including the field of hematology. This study aims to review the current applications of AI in the field hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Literature search was done involving the following databases: Ovid-Medline including in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations and google scholar. The abstracts of the following professional societies: American Society of Haematology (ASH), American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) were also screened. Literature review showed that the integration of AI in the field of HCT has grown remarkably in the last decade and confers promising avenues in diagnosis and prognosis within HCT populations targeting both pre and post-transplant challenges. Studies on AI integration in HCT have many limitations that include poorly tested algorithms, lack of generalizability and limited use of different AI tools. Machine learning techniques in HCT is an intense area of research that needs a lot of development and needs extensive support from hematology and HCT societies / organizations globally since we believe that this would be the future practice paradigm. Key words: Artificial intelligence, machine learning, hematopoietic cell transplant.

  2. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  4. A MapReduce approach to diminish imbalance parameters for big deoxyribonucleic acid dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Sarwar; Ripon, Shamim Hasnat; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Santhi, V

    2016-07-01

    In the age of information superhighway, big data play a significant role in information processing, extractions, retrieving and management. In computational biology, the continuous challenge is to manage the biological data. Data mining techniques are sometimes imperfect for new space and time requirements. Thus, it is critical to process massive amounts of data to retrieve knowledge. The existing software and automated tools to handle big data sets are not sufficient. As a result, an expandable mining technique that enfolds the large storage and processing capability of distributed or parallel processing platforms is essential. In this analysis, a contemporary distributed clustering methodology for imbalance data reduction using k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classification approach has been introduced. The pivotal objective of this work is to illustrate real training data sets with reduced amount of elements or instances. These reduced amounts of data sets will ensure faster data classification and standard storage management with less sensitivity. However, general data reduction methods cannot manage very big data sets. To minimize these difficulties, a MapReduce-oriented framework is designed using various clusters of automated contents, comprising multiple algorithmic approaches. To test the proposed approach, a real DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dataset that consists of 90 million pairs has been used. The proposed model reduces the imbalance data sets from large-scale data sets without loss of its accuracy. The obtained results depict that MapReduce based K-NN classifier provided accurate results for big data of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current approaches on non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal genomics, transcriptomics, personalized fetal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Günel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in molecular genetics improved our knowledge on fetal genome and physiology. Novel scientific innovations in prenatal diagnosis have accelerated in the last decade changing our vision immensely. Data obtained from fetal genomic studies brought new insights to fetal medicine and by the advances in fetal DNA and RNA sequencing technology novel treatment strategies has evolved. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis found ground in genetics and the results are widely studied in scientific arena. When Lo and colleges proved fetal genetic material can be extracted from maternal plasma and fetal DNA can be isolated from maternal serum, the gate to many exciting discoveries was open. Microarray technology and advances in sequencing helped fetal diagnosis as well as other areas of medicine. Today it is a very crucial prerequisite for physicians practicing prenatal diagnosis to have a profound knowledge in genetics. Prevailing practical use and application of fetal genomic tests in maternal and fetal medicine mandates obstetricians to update their knowledge in genetics. The purpose of this review is to assist physicians to understand and update their knowledge in fetal genetic testing from maternal blood, individualized prenatal counseling and advancements on the subject by sharing our experiences as İstanbul University Fetal Nucleic Acid Research Group.

  6. Current National Approach to Healthcare ICT Standardization: Focus on Progress in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Taek; Atalag, Koray

    2015-07-01

    Many countries try to efficiently deliver high quality healthcare services at lower and manageable costs where healthcare information and communication technologies (ICT) standardisation may play an important role. New Zealand provides a good model of healthcare ICT standardisation. The purpose of this study was to review the current healthcare ICT standardisation and progress in New Zealand. This study reviewed the reports regarding the healthcare ICT standardisation in New Zealand. We also investigated relevant websites related with the healthcare ICT standards, most of which were run by the government. Then, we summarised the governance structure, standardisation processes, and their output regarding the current healthcare ICT standards status of New Zealand. New Zealand government bodies have established a set of healthcare ICT standards and clear guidelines and procedures for healthcare ICT standardisation. Government has actively participated in various enactments of healthcare ICT standards from the inception of ideas to their eventual retirement. Great achievements in eHealth have already been realized, and various standards are currently utilised at all levels of healthcare regionally and nationally. Standard clinical terminologies, such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) have been adopted and Health Level Seven (HL7) standards are actively used in health information exchanges. The government to New Zealand has well organised ICT institutions, guidelines, and regulations, as well as various programs, such as e-Medications and integrated care services. Local district health boards directly running hospitals have effectively adopted various new ICT standards. They might already be benefiting from improved efficiency resulting from healthcare ICT standardisation.

  7. Patient centric approach for clinical trials: Current trend and new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.

  8. Patient centric approach for clinical trials: Current trend and new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Shankar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere "subjects" who generate data, - but as informed collaborators whose participation is "core" to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of "patient-centric trials." This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education.

  9. The current status of theoretically based approaches to the prediction of the critical heat flux in flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the phenomena governing the critical heat flux in flow boiling. Inducts which vary with the flow pattern. Separate models are needed for dryout in annular flow, wall overheating in plug or slug flow and formation of a vapor blanket in dispersed flow. The major theories and their current status are described for the annular and dispersed regions. The need for development of the theoretical approach in the plug and slug flow region is indicated

  10. Review: Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tolosa Igualada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Gallego-Hernández (ed.. Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation / Enfoques actuales en traducción económica e institucional. Actas del Congreso Internacional de Traducción Económica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional. Suíça: Peter Lang, 2015, 254 páginas. ISBN 978-3-0343-1656-9.

  11. Current Approaches for Phenotyping as a Target for Precision Medicine in COPD Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Centanni, Stefano

    2018-03-20

    The study of airway diseases continues to present several challenges for modern medicine. The different disease presentations with variables and overlapping features may result in a real challenge for the clinician. In this context, the concept of precision medicine has started to emerge in order to give answers to some of these challenges from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. The main reasons to target for precision medicine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include that there is variability in the clinical presentation, there is no correlation between the different clinical variables at the patient level, there are a number of relevant clinical variables associated with outcomes, we do have specific therapies for specific patient types, and that there is variability in the clinical response to different therapies. To bring precision medicine into clinical practice several approaches have been used, including the use of independent variables to identify subjects, the use of multidimensional indexes, the so-called clinical phenotypes, and the approximation by the so-called treatable traits. All these approaches have their strengths and weaknesses which are reviewed in the present document. Although there is no universally accepted proposal, the available initiatives provide us with a framework on which to start working and move toward precision medicine in COPD, with the ultimate goal of bringing the best possible medicine to each patient in particular.

  12. Applying quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches to nanotoxicology: Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, David A.; Mombelli, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Tran, Lang; Worth, Andrew; Fadeel, Bengt; McCall, Maxine J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential (eco)toxicological hazard posed by engineered nanoparticles is a major scientific and societal concern since several industrial sectors (e.g. electronics, biomedicine, and cosmetics) are exploiting the innovative properties of nanostructures resulting in their large-scale production. Many consumer products contain nanomaterials and, given their complex life-cycle, it is essential to anticipate their (eco)toxicological properties in a fast and inexpensive way in order to mitigate adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this context, the application of the structure–toxicity paradigm to nanomaterials represents a promising approach. Indeed, according to this paradigm, it is possible to predict toxicological effects induced by chemicals on the basis of their structural similarity with chemicals for which toxicological endpoints have been previously measured. These structure–toxicity relationships can be quantitative or qualitative in nature and they can predict toxicological effects directly from the physicochemical properties of the entities (e.g. nanoparticles) of interest. Therefore, this approach can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal testing. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent key advances in the field of QSAR modelling of nanomaterial toxicity, to identify the major gaps in research required to accelerate the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods, and to provide a roadmap for future research needed to achieve QSAR models useful for regulatory purposes

  13. Comprehensive assessment of energy systems: approach and current results of the Swiss activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Kypreos, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approaches used and results obtained to this date within the Swiss Project GaBE on ''Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems''. Based on the ''cradle to grave'' approach detailed environmental inventories for major fuel cycles have been generated. In comparison to earlier studies a very broad spectrum of resources and air and water pollutants has been covered. Also non-energetic resources such as land depreciation have been considered. Numerous examples of evaluations are provided in the paper, including comparisons of greenhouse gas emissions, land use, radiation and wastes, and illustrating the impact of consideration of full energy chains. In the part concerning severe accidents some evaluations based on the database established as the Paul Scherrer Institute are presented as well as the estimated contribution of hypothetical severe accidents to the external costs associated with a specific Swiss nuclear power plant. Results of applications of the large scale energy-economy model MARKAL to the Swiss energy system and greenhouse gas scenarios are described. This includes cost-optimal contributions of different technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions, and trade-offs on the national and international level. Finally, the content of other GaBE activities either being in progress or planned is provided. (orig.)

  14. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hoon Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods. Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. While some literature describes the challenges and opportunities to overcome the technical issues related to food industry legal guidelines, there is a lack of reviews of the current trials to overcome technological limitations related to sample preparation and microbial detection via nano and micro technologies. In this review, we primarily explore current analytical technologies, including metallic and magnetic nanomaterials, optics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy. These techniques rely on the early detection of pathogens via enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity. In order to introduce the potential combination and comparative analysis of various advanced methods, we also reference a novel sample preparation protocol that uses microbial concentration and recovery technologies. This technology has the potential to expedite the pre-enrichment step that precedes the detection process.

  15. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Ku, Seockmo

    2017-09-30

    The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods). Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. While some literature describes the challenges and opportunities to overcome the technical issues related to food industry legal guidelines, there is a lack of reviews of the current trials to overcome technological limitations related to sample preparation and microbial detection via nano and micro technologies. In this review, we primarily explore current analytical technologies, including metallic and magnetic nanomaterials, optics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy. These techniques rely on the early detection of pathogens via enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity. In order to introduce the potential combination and comparative analysis of various advanced methods, we also reference a novel sample preparation protocol that uses microbial concentration and recovery technologies. This technology has the potential to expedite the pre-enrichment step that precedes the detection process.

  16. A Gradually Varied Approach to Model Turbidity Currents in Submarine Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Frascati, A.; Falivene, O.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a one-dimensional model to describe the dynamics of turbidity current flowing in submarine channels. We consider the flow as a steady state polydisperse suspension accounting for water detrainment from the clear water-turbid interface, for spatial variations of the channel width and for water and sediment lateral overspill from the channel levees. Moreover, we account for sediment exchange with the bed extending the model to deal with situations where the current meets a nonerodible bed. Results show that when water detrainment is accounted for, the flow thickness becomes approximately constant proceeding downstream. Similarly, in the presence of channel levees, the flow tends to adjust to channel relief through the lateral loss of water and sediment. As more mud is spilled above the levees relative to sand, the flow becomes more sand rich proceeding downstream when lateral overspill is present. Velocity and flow thickness predicted by the model are then validated by showing good agreement with laboratory observations. Finally, the model is applied to the Monterey Canyon bathymetric data matching satisfactorily the December 2002 event field measurements and predicting a runout length consistent with observations.

  17. A Novel Approach in Cinnamic Acid Synthesis: Direct Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids from Aromatic Aldehydes and Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in the Presence of Boron Tribromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onciu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acids have been prepared in moderate to high yields by a new direct synthesis using aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids, in the presence of boron tribromide as reagent, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP and pyridine (Py as bases and N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP as solvent, at reflux (180-190°C for 8-12 hours.

  18. Post-operative complications after removal of sporadic vestibular schwannoma via retrosigmoid-suboccipital approach: current diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Stylianos; Koutsimpelas, Dimitrios; Gouveris, Haralampos; Mann, Wolf

    2011-05-01

    The retrosigmoid (suboccipital) approach is one of four surgical approaches for the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas). It is increasingly used by otologic surgeons, and in experienced hands is associated with improved results and more limited complications. Mortality rates are minimal and often zero, while postoperative sequelae, on the other hand, are not rare. In order to not only save the patient's life, but also to assure good quality of life after the surgery, one must consider many different aspects of management of the respective complications. In this review the issues of current management of CSF leak and meningitis, facial paresis, headache, hearing loss, unsteadiness, disequilibrium, vertigo, tinnitus, cerebellar and brain stem injuries or abscess, vascular complications and venous air embolism after retrosigmoid approach for removal of vestibular schwannomas are presented. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  19. Investigation of eddy currents in the components of the dynamic ergodic divertor of TEXTOR using analytical and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, B.; Neubauer, O.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kitaev, B.; Obidenko, T.; Panin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches for the calculation of eddy currents in mechanical structures of the TEXTOR tokamak in view of operating the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) coil system fed with the alternating current up to 15 kA at frequencies up to 10 kHz are described. The design of the in-vessel components located close to the DED coils requires detailed investigation of eddy current effects to avoid unacceptable heating and forces. Different approaches depending on skin-layer depths compared with the body dimensions are analyzed. The applied algorithms are based on analytical and simplified numerical methods. Precision and application range of these algorithms have been checked by a numerical code. The simplified technique is rather effective for first step engineering estimation and gives a good understanding for the problem. In a certain parameter range, it results in even precise values and can be used for design optimization of the structures without huge efforts in numerical modeling. After modification of the component's shape prototypes have been manufactured and successfully tested in a full-scale model under the real DED field. The design recommendations resulting from the eddy current studies contributed significantly to the optimized lay out of the DED in-vessel components

  20. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  1. Current Trend Towards Using Soft Computing Approaches to Phase Synchronization in Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeffrey T.; Prasad, Nadipuram R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys recent advances in communications that utilize soft computing approaches to phase synchronization. Soft computing, as opposed to hard computing, is a collection of complementary methodologies that act in producing the most desirable control, decision, or estimation strategies. Recently, the communications area has explored the use of the principal constituents of soft computing, namely, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms, for modeling, control, and most recently for the estimation of phase in phase-coherent communications. If the receiver in a digital communications system is phase-coherent, as is often the case, phase synchronization is required. Synchronization thus requires estimation and/or control at the receiver of an unknown or random phase offset.

  2. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  3. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  4. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...... were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...... the dominating resin types in plastic packaging. The suggested washing procedure caused a decrease of 70% of the ash content of the plastic material. The analysed metals and nutrients were reduced by up to 24%...

  5. The current role of on-line extraction approaches in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    In today's clinical and forensic toxicological laboratories, automation is of interest because of its ability to optimize processes, to reduce manual workload and handling errors and to minimize exposition to potentially infectious samples. Extraction is usually the most time-consuming step; therefore, automation of this step is reasonable. Currently, from the field of clinical and forensic toxicology, methods using the following on-line extraction techniques have been published: on-line solid-phase extraction, turbulent flow chromatography, solid-phase microextraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, single-drop microextraction and on-line desorption of dried blood spots. Most of these published methods are either single-analyte or multicomponent procedures; methods intended for systematic toxicological analysis are relatively scarce. However, the use of on-line extraction will certainly increase in the near future.

  6. Advantages of the non-stationary approach: test on eddy current signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, P.

    1993-12-01

    Conventional signal processing is often unsuitable for the interpretation of intrinsically non-stationary signals, such as surveillance or non destructive testing signals. In these cases, ''advanced'' methods are required. This report presents two applications of non-stationary signal processing methods to the complex signals obtained in eddy current non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. The first application consists in segmenting the absolute channel, which can be likened to a piecewise constant signal. The Page-Hinkley cumulative sum algorithm is used, enabling detection of unknown mean amplitude jumps in a piecewise constant signal disturbed by a white noise. Results are comparable to those obtained with the empirical method currently in use. As easy to implement as the latter, the Page-Hinkley algorithm has the added advantage of being well formalized and of identifying whether the jumps in mean are positive or negative. The second application concerns assistance in detecting characteristic fault transients in the differential channels, using the continuous wavelet transform. The useful signal and noise spectra are fairly close, but not strictly identical. With the continuous wavelet transform, these frequency differences can be turned to account. The method was tested on synthetic signals obtained by summing noise and real defect signals. Using the continuous wavelet transform reduces the minimum signal-to-noise ratio by 5 dB for detection of a transient as compared with direct detection on the original signal. Finally, a summary of non-stationary methods using our data is presented. The two investigations described confirm that non-stationary methods may be considered as interesting signal and image analysis tools, as an efficient complement to conventional methods. (author). 24 figs., 13 refs

  7. Current approaches to geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, E.M.; Hornbrook, E.H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Wide-interval geochemical reconnaissance is currently being carried out over large areas of the Canadian Shield by the Geological Survey of Canada. This work is in support of the federal-provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program. The paper reviews the methodology employed for this reconnaissance to outline areas of enhanced potential for uranium and other mineral commodities. The generally low relief of the Shield virtually restricts wide-interval reconnaissance to the mobile elements that can travel some distance in solution. The high mobility of uranium, particularly in waters of neutral pH, makes it one of the most suitable types of mineralization for detection. For much of the Shield the most appropriate sampling media are lake sediments and lake waters. Centre-lake sediments are homogeneous, and are readily and economically collected utilizing helicopter support. They provide a good response for uranium and a variety of other indicator elements. Waters collected at the same sample sites are a useful supplement in the search for uranium mineralization, particularly in carbonate terrain. However, because of the very low content of uranium in many Shield waters, they present as yet unresolved problems of analysis and storage. The influence of organic material, iron and manganese on the uranium content of lake sediments are examined. Their scavenging influence has been found to be significant only at their lower concentration levels, particularly for organic matter and iron. For the majority of centre-lake samples the effect is negligible. The choice of sample interval is related to total survey costs, to speed of coverage, and to ability to detect uranium and other types of mineralization. For current G.S.C. programs a sample density of one per five square mile appears optimal. The results are presented as l:250,000 symbol maps that are prepared largely by computer, and as 1:1,000,000 contoured compilation maps. (author)

  8. A New Approach to Amino Acid Racemization in Enamel: Testing of a Less Destructive Sampling Methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, R.C.; Moody, H.; Penkman, K.E.H.; Fagan, M.J.; Curtis, N.; Collins, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aspartic acid racemization has been found to be an accurate measure of age at death for recent forensic material. This paper examines the practicality of using acid etching of the tooth surface to extract amino acids from the enamel for racemization analysis. By serial etching of the tooth and

  9. Dynamical Approach to Multiequilibria Problems for Mixtures of Acids and Their Conjugated Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rainer E.; Delarosa, Marco A.; Salau, Ahmed Olasunkanmi; Chicone, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical methods are described for the determination of steady-state concentrations of all species in multiequilibria systems consisting of several acids and their conjugated bases in aqueous solutions. The main example consists of a mixture of a diprotic acid H[subscript 2]A, a monoprotic acid HB, and their conjugate bases. The reaction…

  10. Determination of acid ionization constants for weak acids by osmometry and the instrumental analysis self-evaluation feedback approach to student preparation of solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakolesha, Nyanguila

    One focus of this work was to develop of an alternative method to conductivity for determining the acid ionization constants. Computer-controlled osmometry is one of the emerging analytical tools in industrial research and clinical laboratories. It is slowly finding its way into chemistry laboratories. The instrument's microprocessor control ensures shortened data collection time, repeatability, accuracy, and automatic calibration. The equilibrium constants of acetic acid, chloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, cyanoacetic acid, and iodoacetic acid have been measured using osmometry and their values compared with the existing literature values obtained, usually, from conductometric measurements. Ionization constant determined by osmometry for the moderately strong weak acids were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. The results showed that two factors, the ionic strength and the osmotic coefficient, exert opposite effects in solutions of such weak acids. Another focus of the work was analytical chemistry students solution preparation skills. The prevailing teacher-structured experiments leave little room for students' ingenuity in quantitative volumetric analysis. The purpose of this part of the study was to improve students' skills in making solutions using instrument feedback in a constructivist-learning model. After making some solutions by weighing and dissolving solutes or by serial dilution, students used the spectrophotometer and the osmometer to compare their solutions with standard solutions. Students perceived the instrument feedback as a nonthreatening approach to monitoring the development of their skill levels and liked to clarify their understanding through interacting with an instructor-observer. An assessment of the instrument feedback and the constructivist model indicated that students would assume responsibility for their own learning if given the opportunity. This study involved 167 students enrolled in Quantitative Chemical

  11. Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment and risk management around the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibelings, Bas W.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Kardinaal, W. Edwin A.; Chorus, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria became more widely recognized as a potential health hazard in the 1990s, and in 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) first published a provisional Guideline Value of 1 μg L−1 for microcystin-LR in drinking-water. In this publication we compare risk assessment and risk management of toxic cyanobacteria in 17 countries across all five continents. We focus on the three main (oral) exposure vehicles to cyanotoxins: drinking-water, water related recreational and freshwater seafood. Most countries have implemented the provisional WHO Guideline Value, some as legally binding standard, to ensure the distribution of safe drinking-water with respect to microcystins. Regulation, however, also needs to address the possible presence of a wide range of other cyanotoxins and bioactive compounds, for which no guideline values can be derived due to insufficient toxicological data. The presence of microcystins (commonly expressed as microcystin-LR equivalents) may be used as proxy for overall guidance on risk management, but this simplification may miss certain risks, for instance from dissolved fractions of cylindrospermopsin and cyanobacterial neurotoxins. An alternative approach, often taken for risk assessment and management in recreational waters, is to regulate cyanobacterial presence – as cell numbers or biomass – rather than individual toxins. Here, many countries have implemented a two or three tier alert level system with incremental severity. These systems define the levels where responses are switched from Surveillance to Alert and finally to Action Mode and they specify the short-term actions that follow. Surface bloom formation is commonly judged to be a significant risk because of the elevated concentration of microcystins in a scum. Countries have based their derivations of legally binding standards, guideline values, maximally allowed concentrations (or limits named otherwise) on very similar scientific methodology, but underlying

  12. Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment and risk management around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibelings, Bas W; Backer, Lorraine C; Kardinaal, W Edwin A; Chorus, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria became more widely recognized as a potential health hazard in the 1990s, and in 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) first published a provisional Guideline Value of 1 μg L -1 for microcystin-LR in drinking-water. In this publication we compare risk assessment and risk management of toxic cyanobacteria in 17 countries across all five continents. We focus on the three main (oral) exposure vehicles to cyanotoxins: drinking-water, water related recreational and freshwater seafood. Most countries have implemented the provisional WHO Guideline Value, some as legally binding standard, to ensure the distribution of safe drinking-water with respect to microcystins. Regulation, however, also needs to address the possible presence of a wide range of other cyanotoxins and bioactive compounds, for which no guideline values can be derived due to insufficient toxicological data. The presence of microcystins (commonly expressed as microcystin-LR equivalents) may be used as proxy for overall guidance on risk management, but this simplification may miss certain risks, for instance from dissolved fractions of cylindrospermopsin and cyanobacterial neurotoxins. An alternative approach, often taken for risk assessment and management in recreational waters, is to regulate cyanobacterial presence - as cell numbers or biomass - rather than individual toxins. Here, many countries have implemented a two or three tier alert level system with incremental severity. These systems define the levels where responses are switched from Surveillance to Alert and finally to Action Mode and they specify the short-term actions that follow. Surface bloom formation is commonly judged to be a significant risk because of the elevated concentration of microcystins in a scum. Countries have based their derivations of legally binding standards, guideline values, maximally allowed concentrations (or limits named otherwise) on very similar scientific methodology, but underlying

  13. Current approaches to journal club by general surgery programs within the Southwestern surgical congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflette, Vanessa; Mitchell, Chris; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Journal club (JC) is a well-recognized education tool for many postgraduate medical education programs. Journal club helps residents learn critical analytic skills and keep up to date with current medical practices. To our knowledge, there is minimal evidence in the current literature detailing modern JC practices of general surgery training programs. Our study attempts to define how general surgery residency programs are implementing JC in their training process. We distributed by mail a 14-question survey to general surgery program directors within the Southwestern Surgical Congress. These surveys were redistributed 1 month after the initial attempt. The responses were collected and analyzed. Survey questions aimed to define JC practice characteristics, such as where JC is held, when JC is held, who directs JC, what journals are used, the perceived importance of JC, and average attendance. The surveys were sent to 32 program directors (PDs), which included 26 university and 6 community-based programs. We received responses from 26 (81%) PDs. Ninety-two percent of the programs have a consistent journal club (JC). Most JCs meet monthly (64%) or weekly (16%). The meeting places ranged from conference rooms (60%), faculty homes (20%), restaurants (8%), or in the hospital (12%). The meeting times were divided between morning (29%), midday (29%), and evening (42%). Most JCs lasted between 1 and 2 hours (88%), reviewed 1-4 articles (88%), and are attended by more than 60% of residents routinely (75%). Half of the programs (50%) had 3-4 faculty members present during discussion; 29% of the programs had only 1-2 faculty present. The articles were selected from more than 10 different journals. Seventy-five percent of the programs used the American Journal of Surgery and Annals of Surgery to find articles; only 13% of the programs used evidence-based reviews in surgery. PDs believe JC is very beneficial (42%), moderately beneficial (42%), or only fairly beneficial (16

  14. IMRT dose fractionation for head and neck cancer: Variation in current approaches will make standardisation difficult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Kean F. (Academic Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Fowler, Jack F. (Dept. of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Wisconsin (United States)); Sykes, Andrew J.; Yap, Beng K.; Lee, Lip W.; Slevin, Nick J. (Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    Introduction. Altered fractionation has demonstrated clinical benefits compared to the conventional 2 Gy/day standard of 70 Gy. When using synchronous chemotherapy, there is uncertainty about optimum fractionation. IMRT with its potential for Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) adds further to this uncertainty. This survey will examine international practice of IMRT fractionation and suggest possible reasons for diversity in approach. Material and methods. Fourteen international cancer centres were surveyed for IMRT dose/fractionation practised in each centre. Results. Twelve different types of dose fractionation were reported. Conventional 70-72 Gy (daily 2 Gy/fraction) was used in 3/14 centres with concurrent chemotherapy while 11/14 centres used altered fractionation. Two centres used >1 schedule. Reported schedules and number of centres included 6 fractions/week DAHANCA regime (3), modest hypofractionation (=2.2 Gy/fraction) (3), dose-escalated hypofractionation (=2.3 Gy/fraction) (4), hyperfractionation (1), continuous acceleration (1) and concomitant boost (1). Reasons for dose fractionation variability include (i) dose escalation; (ii) total irradiated volume; (iii) number of target volumes; (iv) synchronous systemic treatment; (v) shorter overall treatment time; (vi) resources availability; (vii) longer time on treatment couch; (viii) variable GTV margins; (ix) confidence in treatment setup; (x) late tissue toxicity and (xi) use of lower neck anterior fields. Conclusions. This variability in IMRT fractionation makes any meaningful comparison of treatment results difficult. Some standardization is needed particularly for design of multi-centre randomized clinical trials.

  15. Current legal regime for environmental impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction and its future approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Deqiang; Fang, Qinhua; Guan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.

  16. Nanotechnology Based Theranostic Approaches in Alzheimer's Disease Management: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javed; Akhter, Sohail; Rizwanullah, Md; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Pigeon, Lucie; Addo, Richard T; Greig, Nigel H; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a cognitive dysfunction/dementia state amongst the elders is characterized by irreversible neurodegeneration due to varied pathophysiology. Up till now, anti-AD drugs having different pharmacology have been developed and used in clinic. Yet, these medications are not curative and only lowering the AD associated symptoms. Improvement in treatment outcome required drug targeting across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the central nervous system (CNS) in optimal therapeutic concentration. Nanotechnology based diagnostic tools, drug carriers and theranostics offer highly sensitive molecular detection, effective drug targeting and their combination. Over the past decade, significant works have been done in this area and we have seen very remarkable outocome in AD therapy. Various nanoparticles from organic and inorganic nanomaterial category have successfully been investigated against AD. This paper discussed the role of nanoparticles in early detection of AD, effective drug targeting to brain and theranostic (diagnosis and therapy) approaches in AD's management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. The "Biogenetic Law" in zoology: from Ernst Haeckel's formulation to current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S; Hoßfeld, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level. But their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the Modern Synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in 'idealistic morphology', usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. We end our review with a brief look at the present situation in which molecular data are used to test the "hour-glass model", which can be seen as a modern version of the biogenetic law.

  18. Current legal regime for environmental impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction and its future approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deqiang [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Fang, Qinhua, E-mail: qhfang@xmu.edu.cn [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Guan, Song [Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China)

    2016-01-15

    In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.

  19. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  20. How to measure the international development of palliative care? A critique and discussion of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucka, Martin; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A number of research projects have been conducted that aim to gather data on the international development of palliative care. These data are important for policy makers and palliative care advocates. The aim of this article was to provide a critical comparative analysis of methodological approaches used to assess the development and status of palliative care services and infrastructure at an international level. A selective literature review that focused on the methodological features of eight identified reports was undertaken. Reviewed reports were found to differ in adopted methodologies and provided uneven amounts of methodological information. Five major methodological limitations were identified (lack of theory, use of experts as source of information, grey literature, difficulties in ranking, and the problematic nature of data on service provision). A set of recommendations on how to deal with these issues in future research is provided. Measuring the international development of palliative care is a difficult and challenging task. The results of this study could be used to improve the validity of future research in this field. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Approaches of Taxation under the Current Circumstances between Desiderata and Results – I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As a basic component of modern society, the taxation should combine the main objectivefor the public authority, to ensure most of the resources necessary to carry out state functions, withtargets at least as important on the country's economic development, supporting social issues,respecting the law and the financial discipline, in terms of efficiency, stability and sustainability. Forthese reasons, the level of taxation is very important for the present and future developments of acountry and the relevance of the analysis in this direction exceeds the economic, social or politicallevel. They practice different ways to understand and determine the impact of taxation in an economyand their uniform and realistic approach is important in order to succeed effective internationalcomparability and responsible actions at all levels, now and in the future. The public policy must findsolutions that can be adapted and implemented following the response that it gives the result ofanalysis that has as its starting point the economy, stimulating the private interest, which may leadimplicitly to obtaining parameters of superior quality at general level.

  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria Selection for Biopreservation as a Part of Hurdle Technology Approach Applied on Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wiernasz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As fragile food commodities, microbial, and organoleptic qualities of fishery and seafood can quickly deteriorate. In this context, microbial quality and security improvement during the whole food processing chain (from catch to plate, using hurdle technology, a combination of mild preserving technologies such as biopreservation, modified atmosphere packaging, and superchilling, are of great interest. As natural flora and antimicrobial metabolites producers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are commonly studied for food biopreservation. Thirty-five LAB known to possess interesting antimicrobial activity were selected for their potential application as bioprotective agents as a part of hurdle technology applied to fishery products. The selection approach was based on seven criteria including antimicrobial activity, alteration potential, tolerance to chitosan coating, and superchilling process, cross inhibition, biogenic amines production (histamine, tyramine, and antibiotics resistance. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against six common spoiling bacteria in fishery products (Shewanella baltica, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus sakei, Hafnia alvei, Serratia proteamaculans and one pathogenic bacterium (Listeria monocytogenes in co-culture inhibitory assays miniaturized in 96-well microtiter plates. Antimicrobial activity and spoilage evaluation, both performed in cod and salmon juice, highlighted the existence of sensory signatures and inhibition profiles, which seem to be species related. Finally, six LAB with no unusual antibiotics resistance profile nor histamine production ability were selected as bioprotective agents for further in situ inhibitory assays in cod and salmon based products, alone or in combination with other hurdles (chitosan, modified atmosphere packing, and superchilling.

  3. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • A new method for synthesis of the BPEI-CuNCs is established. • A facile approach for Fe{sup 3+} ion sensing by fluorescence quenching is developed. • The method for Fe{sup 3+} sensing has high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5–1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe{sup 3+} permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe{sup 3+} in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%.

  4. 5-aminolevulinic acid and neuronavigation in high-grade glioma surgery: results of a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-02-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, several techniques are used to achieve the maximum cytoreductive treatment preserving neurological functions. However, the effectiveness of all the methods used alone is reduced by specific limitations of each. We assessed the reliability of a multimodal strategy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and neuronavigation. We prospectively studied 18 patients with suspected, non eloquent-area malignant gliomas amenable for complete resection. Conventional illumination was used until the excision appeared complete. The cavity was then systematically inspected in violet-blue light to identify any residual tumour. Multiple biopsies of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent tissue were performed in all cases. Each specimen was labelled according to the sampling location (inside or outside the boundary set by the neuronavigator). The samples were analysed by a neuropathologist blinded to the intraoperative classification. We reviewed the results of both methods, either singly or in combination. Individual analysis showed higher 5-ALA reliability compared to neuronavigation. However, several false-negative fluorescent specimens were detected. With the combined use of fluorescence and neuroimaging, only 1 sample (negative for both 5-ALA and navigation) was tumoral tissue. In our experience, the combined approach showed the best sensitivity and it is recommended in cases of lesions involving non-eloquent areas. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige; Chen, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for synthesis of the BPEI-CuNCs is established. • A facile approach for Fe 3+ ion sensing by fluorescence quenching is developed. • The method for Fe 3+ sensing has high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe 3+ ) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5–1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe 3+ permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe 3+ in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%

  6. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  7. A Review of Current Neuromorphic Approaches for Vision, Auditory, and Olfactory Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarse, Anup; Osseiran, Adam; Rassau, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Conventional vision, auditory, and olfactory sensors generate large volumes of redundant data and as a result tend to consume excessive power. To address these shortcomings, neuromorphic sensors have been developed. These sensors mimic the neuro-biological architecture of sensory organs using aVLSI (analog Very Large Scale Integration) and generate asynchronous spiking output that represents sensing information in ways that are similar to neural signals. This allows for much lower power consumption due to an ability to extract useful sensory information from sparse captured data. The foundation for research in neuromorphic sensors was laid more than two decades ago, but recent developments in understanding of biological sensing and advanced electronics, have stimulated research on sophisticated neuromorphic sensors that provide numerous advantages over conventional sensors. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in neuromorphic implementation of vision, auditory, and olfactory sensors and identify key contributions across these fields. Bringing together these key contributions we suggest a future research direction for further development of the neuromorphic sensing field.

  8. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  9. Current and previous eating practices among women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimitrov Ulian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how women, who have recovered from anorexia nervosa, perceive and describe their current eating practices, as well as the ones developed during the eating disorder period. METHODS: Seven women were interviewed individually with the objective of investigating their eating practices, transition phases and all relevant aspects that somewhat contributed to the habit-forming; experiences, feelings and perceptions related to mealtime and the influence that food has had over the present subjects' life. The interviews were analyzed by the discourse of the collective subject method. RESULTS: The results brought up the following topics: a control; b concerns and feelings; c deprivation d beauty dictatorship; e eating competence; f importance of food; g food cacophony. CONCLUSIONS: What stands out is a multiplicity of eating practices, which during the eating disorder were similar to and characterized by restriction; however, after recovery, part of the subjects seem to have developed a higher eating competence, whereas others show a practice similar to the one acquired during the anorexia nervosa, such as the difficulty in realizing when they are satisfied and a feeling of discomfort when facing social interactions.

  10. Current approaches to prevent NSAID-induced gastropathy – COX selectivity and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jan C; Domschke, Wolfram; Pohle, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is still an important medical and socio-economic problem – despite recent pharmaceutical advances. To prevent NSAID-induced gastropathy, three strategies are followed in clinical routine: (i) coprescription of a gastroprotective drug, (ii) use of selective COX-2 inhibitors, and (iii) eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Proton pump inhibitors are the comedication of choice as they effectively reduce gastrointestinal adverse events of NSAIDs and are safe even in long-term use. Co-medication with vitamin C has only been little studied in the prevention of NSAID-induced gastropathy. Apart from scavenging free radicals it is able to induce haeme-oxgenase 1 in gastric cells, a protective enzyme with antioxidant and vasodilative properties. Final results of the celecoxib outcome study (CLASS study) attenuated the initial enthusiasm about the GI safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors, especially in patients concomitantly taking aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Helicobacter pylori increases the risk for ulcers particularly in NSAID-naive patients and therefore eradication is recommended prior to long-term NSAID therapy at least in patients at high risk. New classes of COX-inhibitors are currently evaluated in clinical studies with very promising results: NSAIDs combined with a nitric oxide releasing moiety (NO-NSAID) and dual inhibitors of COX and 5-LOX. These drugs offer extended anti-inflammatory potency while sparing gastric mucosa. PMID:15563357

  11. Incorporation of post-translational modified amino acids as an approach to increase both chemical and biological diversity of conotoxins and conopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael J; Cabalteja, Chino C; Sugai, Christopher K; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides from Conus venom contain a natural abundance of post-translational modifications that affect their chemical diversity, structural stability, and neuroactive properties. These modifications have continually presented hurdles in their identification and characterization. Early endeavors in their analysis relied on classical biochemical techniques that have led to the progressive development and use of novel proteomic-based approaches. The critical importance of these post-translationally modified amino acids and their specific assignment cannot be understated, having impact on their folding, pharmacological selectivity, and potency. Such modifications at an amino acid level may also provide additional insight into the advancement of conopeptide drugs in the quest for precise pharmacological targeting. To achieve this end, a concerted effort between the classical and novel approaches is needed to completely elucidate the role of post-translational modifications in conopeptide structure and dynamics. This paper provides a reflection in the advancements observed in dealing with numerous and multiple post-translationally modified amino acids within conotoxins and conopeptides and provides a summary of the current techniques used in their identification.

  12. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  13. Sleep Interventions Designed to Improve Athletic Performance and Recovery: A Systematic Review of Current Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar, Daniel; Bartel, Kate; Kakoschke, Naomi; Lang, Christin

    2018-03-01

    Athletes experience various situations and conditions that can interfere with their sleep, which is crucial for optimal psychological and physiological recovery as well as subsequent performance. Conventional sleep screening and intervention approaches may not be efficacious for athletes given their lifestyle, the demands of training and travel associated with interstate/international competition. The present systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate sleep intervention studies targeting subsequent performance and recovery in competitive athletes. Based on the findings, a secondary aim was to outline a possible sleep intervention for athletes, including recommendations for content, mode of delivery and evaluation. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines in May 2016 with an update completed in September 2017. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria comprising a total of 218 participants in the age range of 18-24 years with athletes from various sports (e.g., swimming, soccer, basketball, tennis). A modified version of the quality assessment scale developed by Abernethy and Bleakley was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The included studies implemented several sleep interventions, including sleep extension and napping, sleep hygiene, and post-exercise recovery strategies. Evidence suggests that sleep extension had the most beneficial effects on subsequent performance. Consistent with previous research, these results suggest that sleep plays an important role in some, but not all, aspects of athletes' performance and recovery. Future researchers should aim to conduct sleep interventions among different athlete populations, compare results, and further establish guidelines and intervention tools for athletes to address their specific sleep demands and disturbances.

  14. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: current approaches and opportunities for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpesh N. Amin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, a common complication in patients with cancer, is associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and recurrent VTE. Risk factors for VTE in cancer patients include the type and stage of cancer, comorbidities, age, major surgery, and active chemotherapy. Evidence-based guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients have been published: the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and American Society for Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for hospitalized cancer patients, while the American College of Chest Physician guidelines recommend thromboprophylaxis for surgical patients with cancer and bedridden cancer patients with an acute medical illness. Guidelines do not generally recommend routine thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients during chemotherapy, but there is evidence that some of these patients are at risk of VTE; some may be at higher risk while on active chemotherapy. Approaches are needed to identify those patients most likely to benefit from thromboprophylaxis, and, to this end, a risk assessment model has been developed and validated. Despite the benefits, many at-risk patients do not receive any thromboprophylaxis, or receive prophylaxis that is not compliant with guideline recommendations. Quality improvement initiatives have been developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Quality Forum, and Joint Commission to encourage closure of the gap between guideline recommendations and clinical practice for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in hospitalized patients. Health-care institutions and providers need to take seriously the burden of VTE, improve prophylaxis rates in patients with cancer, and address the need for prophylaxis across the patient continuum.

  15. Where should Momma go? Current nursing home performance measurement strategies and a less ambitious approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home performance measurement systems are practically ubiquitous. The vast majority of these systems aspire to rank order all nursing homes based on quantitative measures of quality. However, the ability of such systems to identify homes differing in quality is hampered by the multidimensional nature of nursing homes and their residents. As a result, the authors doubt the ability of many nursing home performance systems to truly help consumers differentiate among homes providing different levels of quality. We also argue that, for consumers, performance measurement models are better at identifying problem facilities than potentially good homes. Discussion In response to these concerns we present a proposal for a less ambitious approach to nursing home performance measurement than previously used. We believe consumers can make better informed choice using a simpler system designed to pinpoint poor-quality nursing homes, rather than one designed to rank hundreds of facilities based on differences in quality-of-care indicators that are of questionable importance. The suggested performance model is based on five principles used in the development of the Consumers Union 2006 Nursing Home Quality Monitor. Summary We can best serve policy-makers and consumers by eschewing nursing home reporting systems that present information about all the facilities in a city, a state, or the nation on a website or in a report. We argue for greater modesty in our efforts and a focus on identifying only the potentially poorest or best homes. In the end, however, it is important to remember that information from any performance measurement website or report is no substitute for multiple visits to a home at different times of the day to personally assess quality.

  16. STUDY OF CURRENT APPROACHES FOR WEB PUBLISHING OF OPEN SCIENTIFIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Mouromtsev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The subject of study of this work is closely related to the development of tools and technologies for Internet publishing of open data in machine-readable formats with regard to data of universities, educational and research organizations and scientific laboratories. We analyze the trends in the publishing formats most commonly used including not only popular formats such as pdf, csv, excel, but also the Semantic Web formats such as RDF. The paper describes the way of scientific data publication in semantic formats on the example of import and convertation of the information from University database. Methods. We describe the methods of publication for scientific open data in the network consisting of a set of transformations of the original data sets to the final semantic representation. These transformation steps include data upload from a relational database, data mapping on the ontological model (schema and the generation of a set of RDF-triples corresponding to the initial database fragment. A description is given to the popular open data publishing systems, such as CKAN, VIVO, and others. OpenLink Virtuoso system is selected as the primary storage and data publication. The description of RDF data model is used as a way of presenting open data of ITMO University. Main Results. The authors have described the methods of scientific open data publication and identified their shortcomings. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method of university open data publication, a software prototype has been developed available online at: http://lod.ifmo.ru/. The example of the system usage is also given. Practical Relevance. Implementation of the proposed approach will improve significantly the effect of the publication of university open data and make it available for third-party applications, such as applications for information retrieval about educational activities and research results, analysis of scientific activities in

  17. The crucial role of habits in energy consumption: an evolutionary approach on changing current patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, Kevin (Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment (CESSE), Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Univ. d' Europe (Belgium)). e-mail: kevin.marechal@ulb.ac.be

    2009-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has shown that our behaviour is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behaviour - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as they make it unlikely that consumers be capable of exercising control over their energy consumption in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in the evolutionary perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constraints and shapes consumers' choices through structural forces. Habits being potentially 'counterintentional', they may explain the 'efficiency paradox' in energy as well as the continued increase of energy consumption despite the rising environmental awareness among the population. Policies aiming at reducing energy consumption should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. For instance, targeting new residents has proven to be more effective given that their preceding habits have been disturbed. The results of our empirical analysis confirm this idea by showing how a change of context makes people more receptive to a proposed measure. Our analysis of the role played by habits also suggests that individuals do not consider the need to change existing habits as an obstacle even though this is contradicted implicitly in the answers they provided to open questions. This 'unconsciousness' is one of the most delicate features of habits and it should thus be accounted for when designing measures. Given the other characteristics of habits, the joint use of feedbacks and commitment strategies appears promising.

  18. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  19. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  20. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Duane; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  1. Long-term catheterization: current approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of port-related infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cesar Bustos,1 Aitziber Aguinaga,1 Francisco Carmona-Torre,2 Jose Luis Del Pozo1,3 1Department of Clinical Microbiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Abstract: Since the first description in 1982, totally implanted venous access ports have progressively improved patients' quality of life and medical assistance when a medical condition requires the use of long-term venous access. Currently, they are part of the standard medical care for oncohematologic patients. However, apart from mechanical and thrombotic complications, there are also complications associated with biofilm development inside the catheters. These biofilms increase the cost of medical assistance and extend hospitalization. The most frequently involved micro-organisms in these infections are gram-positive cocci. Many efforts have been made to understand biofilm formation within the lumen catheters, and to resolve catheter-related infection once it has been established. Apart from systemic antibiotic treatment, the use of local catheter treatment (ie, antibiotic lock technique is widely employed. Many different antimicrobial options have been tested, with different outcomes, in clinical and in in vitro assays. The stability of antibiotic concentration in the lock solution once instilled inside the catheter lumen remains unresolved. To prevent infection, it is mandatory to perform hand hygiene before catheter insertion and manipulation, and to disinfect catheter hubs, connectors, and injection ports before accessing the catheter. At present, there are still unresolved questions regarding the best antimicrobial agent for catheter-related bloodstream infection treatment and the duration of concentration stability of the antibiotic solution within the lumen of the port. Keywords: catheter-related infection, bacteremia, biofilm

  2. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  3. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  4. Improving the management of infertile acid soils in Southeast Asia: The approach of the IBSRAM Acid-Soils network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefroy, R.D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The IBSRAM ASIALAND Management of Acid Soils network aims to improve the understanding of the broad range of biophysical and socio-economic production limitations on infertile acid soils of Southeast Asia, and to lead to development and implementation of sustainable land-management strategies for these important marginal areas. The main activities of the network are in Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam, with associated activity in Thailand, and minor involvement in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia. The main experimental focus is through researcher-managed on-farm trials, to improve the management of phosphorus nutrition with inorganic and organic amendments. A generic design is used across the eight well characterised sites that form the core of the network. The results will be analysed across time and across sites. Improved methods for laboratory analyses, experimental management, socio-economic data collection, and data analysis and interpretation are critical components. Three important initiatives are associated with the core activities. These aim to establish a broader network on maintenance of quality laboratory analyses, to assess the potential for implementation of improved strategies through farmer-managed on-farm trials, and to improve our understanding of, and ways of estimating, nutrient budgets for diverse farming systems. (author)

  5. Electrolysis of an acidic NaCl solution with a graphite anode : IV. Chlorine evolution at a graphite electrode after switching off current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    During electrolysis of an acid chloride soln., at. Cl is taken up by a graphite anode. After switching off the current, the evolution of mol. Cl continues. This phenomenon is designated as residual gas evolution (RGE). The mol. Cl is formed according to the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism, Clads + e ->

  6. The potential for military diets to reduce depression, suicide, and impulsive aggression: a review of current evidence for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gow, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated. Moderate evidence indicates that when fish consumption decreases and simultaneously omega-6 increases, the risk of clinical depressive symptoms are elevated. One meta-analysis examining tissue compositions provides moderate to strong evidence that higher levels of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with decreased risk of clinical depressions. Other meta-analytic reviews of randomized placebo-controlled trials provide moderate to strong evidence of significantly improving clinically depressive symptoms when the formulation given was >50% in eicosapentaenoic acid. Finally, a meta-analysis of omega-3 HUFAs provides modest evidence of clinical efficacy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article recommends that a rebalancing of the essential fatty acid composition of U.S. military diets, achieve tissue compositions of HUFAs consistent with traditional Mediterranean diets, may help reduce military psychiatric distress and simultaneously increase force efficacy substantially. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  8. Underlying role of mitochondrial mutagenesis in the pathogenesis of a disease and current approaches for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Kyrgiou, Maria; Martin, Francis L

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease. Special attention is given to the influence of xenobiotics on mitochondria; environmental factors inducing mutations or epigenetic changes in the mitochondrial genome can alter its expression and impair the whole cell's functionality. Specifically, we suggest that environmental agents can cause damage in mitochondrial DNA and consequently lead to mutagenesis. Moreover, we describe current approaches for handling mitochondrial diseases, as well as available prenatal diagnostic tests, towards eliminating these maternally inherited diseases. Undoubtedly, more research is required, as current therapeutic approaches mostly employ palliative therapies rather than targeting primary mechanisms or prophylactic approaches. Much effort is needed into further unravelling the relationship between xenobiotics and mitochondria, as the extent of influence in mitochondrial pathogenesis is increasingly recognised. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. CURRENT APPROACHES TO THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES: ROLE OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    .The alternative therapies of RD include the use of low-molecular-weight chemically synthesized agents that suppress the activity of tyrosine kinases. The important area of this therapy is to restore immunological tolerance and to correct autoimmune disorders by means of autologous hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells, regulatory T and B cells, gene therapy, and peptide antigens. The prospects for the laboratory diagnosis of RD are associated with the necessity of harmonizing and standardizing the current methods to determine autoantibodies and with the search for and clinical validation of novel proteomic, transcriptomic, and genomic biomarkers.

  10. [Overwork and its health effects--current status and future approach regarding Karoshi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu

    2003-09-01

    The word karoshi, i.e. death due to overwork, is not defined for medical diagnosis, but in Japan it means cases of compensation awarded by reason of fatal occupational diseases, particularly ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases which are recognized as caused by a heavy workload. Current studies have shown that 1) almost definitely there is evidence of an association between overwork and cardiovascular diseases and the risk factors were found, 2) no reports have been published on evidence of a causal relationship between overwork and fatal effects even though the possibility remains, and 3) the adverse health effects can vary according to workers' characteristics such as gender, age, stress coping and perception. Recently there has been an increase in the proportion of compensated cases versus claims from 3.1% in the 1988 fiscal year to 20.7% in the 2001 fiscal year. This may be related to the deregulation of criteria for compensation, or nintei-kijun. The period of determination of overwork for victims has been extended to a maximum of six months in the newest criteria set in 2001, up from only one week in the criteria set in 1987. According to sociological analysis, long working hours in Japan are related not only to the structure of the working-time system but also the sociocultural background of labor. In 2002, the Japanese government provided the first countermeasures for the prevention of karoshi for all employees stating that they should not work more than 45 h overtime per month and that government intervention in the form of administrative guidance to employees and their employers should be conducted if overtime exceeds 100 h per month. It is a population strategy targeting all workers equally, not just a high-risk strategy targeting only those with some risk factors, and is expected to provide more fruitful results with flexibility, i.e. differentially reinforced management for older workers and those working under highly stressful

  11. Fatty acid is a potential agent for bone tissue induction: In vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Guinea Bc; Chacon, Erivelto; Chacon, Priscila Gl; Bordeaux-Rego, Pedro; Duarte, Adriana Ss; Saad, Sara T Olalla; Zavaglia, Cecilia Ac; Cunha, Marcelo R

    2017-12-01

    Our hypothesis was to investigate the fatty acid potential as a bone induction factor. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate this approach. Oleic acid was used in a 0.5 wt.% concentration. Polycaprolactone was used as the polymeric matrix by combining solvent-casting and particulate-leaching techniques, with a final porosity of 70 wt.%, investigated by SEM images. Contact angle measurements were produced to investigate the influence of oleic acid on polycaprolactone chains. Cell culture was performed using adipocyte-derived stem cells to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity properties. In addition, in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the induction potential of oleic acid addition. Adipocyte-derived stem cells were used to provide differentiation after 21 days of culture. Likewise, information were obtained with in vivo data and cellular invagination was observed on both scaffolds (polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone /oleic acid); interestingly, the scaffold with oleic acid addition demonstrated that cellular migrations are not related to the surrounding tissue, indicating bioactive potential. Our hypothesis is that fatty acid may be used as a potential induction factor for bone tissue engineering. The study's findings indicate oleic acid as a possible agent for bone induction, according to data on cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Impact statement The biomaterial combined in this study on bone regeneration is innovative and shows promising results in the treatment of bone lesions. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and oleic acid have been studied separately. In this research, we combined biomaterials to assess the stimulus and the speed of bone healing.

  12. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex alters decision making during approach-avoidance conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Gorey, Claire; Aupperle, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) refers to situations associated with both rewarding and threatening outcomes. The AAC task was developed to measure AAC decision-making. Approach behavior during this task has been linked to self-reported anxiety sensitivity and has elicited anterior cingulate, insula, caudate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity, with right lateral PFC tracking the extent of approach behavior. Guided by these results, we used excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to demonstrate the causal involvement of right dlPFC in AAC decision-making. Participants received anodal tDCS at 1.5mA over either left or right dlPFC or sham stimulation, while performing the AAC task and a control short-term memory task. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed that for individuals with high anxiety sensitivity excitatory right (but not left or sham) dlPFC stimulation elicited measurable decreases in approach behavior during conflict. Excitatory left (but not right or sham) dlPFC simulation improved performance on the control task. These results support a possible asymmetry between the contributions of right and left dlPFC to AAC resolution during emotional decision-making. Increased activity in right dlPFC may contribute to anxiety-related symptoms and, as such, serve as a neurobehavioral target of anxiolytic treatments aiming to decrease avoidance behavior. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-16

    Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.

  14. A human rights approach to advocacy for people with dementia: A review of current provision in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeremy; Laing, Judy; Valentine, Christine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review current advocacy services for people with dementia in England and Wales (provided, respectively, under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 , the Mental Health Act 1983 /2007 and the Care Act 2014) through the lens of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). We examine what a human rights' approach to advocacy support would entail, and whether current frameworks in England and Wales are adequate for this approach and provide a sufficient safeguard. First, we consider how the human rights of persons with dementia have become increasingly important and the extent to which the CRPD provides an opportunity to bolster safeguards and protection. Second, we discuss cause and case advocacy, and how these advocacy models could be shaped by the CRPD to promote the rights of persons with dementia at each stage of the disease. Third, we highlight current dilemmas and challenges in the provision of advocacy support in England and Wales by focusing on case law, commissioning of services and current practice. In particular, we analyse how the different legislative schemes have given rise to some confusion about the various advocacy provisions, as well as potential for overlap and discrepancies between different regimes. We also highlight the need for further research to address important gaps in knowledge, including the scale of need, patterns of referral and attitudes to advocacy services. The article concludes by highlighting how advocacy support could be recalibrated as a universal right to promote the aims and aspirations of the CRPD, and how education is needed to address the stigma of dementia and promote the benefits of advocacy in protecting the rights of those with dementia.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of a-hydroxy-b-amino acids: the chiral pool approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR N. SAICIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the stereoselective homologation of a-amino acids into syn-a-hydroxy-b-amino acids is described, based on the conversion of stereoisomeric cyanohydrins into trans-oxazolines. The synthetic potential of the method is illustrated in the enantioselective formal synthesis of Bestatin.

  16. Passive remediation of acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite: a batch experimental and geochemical modelling approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage is generated when mining activities expose sulphidic rock to water and oxygen leading to generation of sulphuric acid effluents rich in Fe, Al, SO (Sup4) and Mn with minor concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mg, Ca, Pb depending...

  17. A diagrammatic description of the equations of motion, current and noise within the second-order von Neumann approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlström, O; Pedersen, J N; Bergenfeldt, C; Samuelsson, P; Wacker, A; Emary, C; Zedler, P; Brandes, T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the second-order von Neumann approach from a diagrammatic point of view and demonstrate its equivalence with the resonant tunneling approximation. The investigation of higher order diagrams shows that the method correctly reproduces the equation of motion for the single-particle reduced density matrix of an arbitrary non-interacting many-body system. This explains why the method reproduces the current exactly for such systems. We go on to show, however, that diagrams not included in the method are needed to calculate exactly higher cumulants of the charge transport. This thorough comparison sheds light on the validity of all these self-consistent second-order approaches. We analyze the discrepancy between the noise calculated by our method and the exact Levitov formula for a simple non-interacting quantum dot model. Furthermore, we study the noise of the canyon of current suppression in a two-level dot, a phenomenon that requires the inclusion of electron–electron interaction as well as higher order tunneling processes. (paper)

  18. CURRENT APPROACH TO SINUSITIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ment of bacterial resistance to the antibiotic.1. Very often antibiotics ... Acute sinusitis is a bacterial infection of one or more of the paranasal sinuses. It .... mathematical model of ABS is as fol- lows:1,8 ... The predicted spontaneous resolution.

  19. A novel approach for rapidly and cost-effectively assessing toxicity of toxic metals in acidic water using an acidophilic iron-oxidizing biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2.5. The colorimetric acidophilic IOB biosensor was based on the inhibition of the iron oxidizing ability of Strain Y10, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, by metals toxicity. Our results showed that Strain Y10 is acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium. Thiobacillus caldus medium (TCM) (pH 2.5) supplied with both S 4 O 6 2- and glucose was the optimum growth medium for Strain Y10. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Strain Y10 was 45 °C and pH 2.5, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the color-based acidophilic IOB biosensor can be semi-quantitatively observed by eye or quantitatively measured by spectrometer to detect toxicity from multiple toxic metals at pH 2.5 within 45 min. Our study shows that monitoring toxic metals in acidic water is possible by using the acidophilic IOB biosensor. Our study thus provides a novel approach for rapid and cost-effective detection of toxic metals in acidic conditions that can otherwise compromise current methods of chemical analysis. This method also allows for increased efficiency when screening large numbers of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conformational analysis of glutamic acid: a density functional approach using implicit continuum solvent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Başak; Selçuki, Cenk

    2014-09-01

    Amino acids are constituents of proteins and enzymes which take part almost in all metabolic reactions. Glutamic acid, with an ability to form a negatively charged side chain, plays a major role in intra and intermolecular interactions of proteins, peptides, and enzymes. An exhaustive conformational analysis has been performed for all eight possible forms at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. All possible neutral, zwitterionic, protonated, and deprotonated forms of glutamic acid structures have been investigated in solution by using polarizable continuum model mimicking water as the solvent. Nine families based on the dihedral angles have been classified for eight glutamic acid forms. The electrostatic effects included in the solvent model usually stabilize the charged forms more. However, the stability of the zwitterionic form has been underestimated due to the lack of hydrogen bonding between the solute and solvent; therefore, it is observed that compact neutral glutamic acid structures are more stable in solution than they are in vacuum. Our calculations have shown that among all eight possible forms, some are not stable in solution and are immediately converted to other more stable forms. Comparison of isoelectronic glutamic acid forms indicated that one of the structures among possible zwitterionic and anionic forms may dominate over the other possible forms. Additional investigations using explicit solvent models are necessary to determine the stability of charged forms of glutamic acid in solution as our results clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding and its type have a major role in the structure and energy of conformers.

  1. Approaches to chronic disease management evaluation in use in Europe: a review of current methods and performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn; Nolte, Ellen; Vrijhoef, Hubertus

    2013-01-01

    An overview was produced of approaches currently used to evaluate chronic disease management in selected European countries. The study aims to describe the methods and metrics used in Europe as a first to help advance the methodological basis for their assessment. A common template for collection of evaluation methods and performance measures was sent to key informants in twelve European countries; responses were summarized in tables based on template evaluation categories. Extracted data were descriptively analyzed. Approaches to the evaluation of chronic disease management vary widely in objectives, designs, metrics, observation period, and data collection methods. Half of the reported studies used noncontrolled designs. The majority measure clinical process measures, patient behavior and satisfaction, cost and utilization; several also used a range of structural indicators. Effects are usually observed over 1 or 3 years on patient populations with a single, commonly prevalent, chronic disease. There is wide variation within and between European countries on approaches to evaluating chronic disease management in their objectives, designs, indicators, target audiences, and actors involved. This study is the first extensive, international overview of the area reported in the literature.

  2. The current CEA/DRN safety approach for the design and the assessment of future nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.; Pinto, P.L.; Costa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the document is to present the basis of the safety approach currently implemented by the CEA/DRN, both for the design and the assessment of innovative systems and future nuclear installations. This approach is the result of the experience maturated, within the context of the CEA/DRN Innovative Programme through practical applications over several future concepts, both for fission and fusion reactors, as well as for waste disposal. The background of this experience is structured coherently with the European Safety Authorities recommendations and the European Utilities Requirements (EUR). The Defence In Depth principle and its application, by means, among others, of the barrier concept, remains the basis of the safety design process of future nuclear installations. Its adequacy is checked through the safety assessment. The methodology for Lines Of Defence (LOD) implementation as well as the one for the LOD architecture assessment is shown and motivated. The document shows that the clear and unambiguous definition of the safety approach provides an essential base for the organisation of the design tasks, being sure that the safety aspects are correctly taken into account and implemented, and for an adequate safety assessment of the final design, both from qualitative point of view as well as for the quantitative safety analysis. (author)

  3. From Medicinal Chemistry to Human Health: Current Approaches to Drug Discovery for Cancer and Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO G. FERREIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scientific and technological breakthroughs have compelled the current players in drug discovery to increasingly incorporate knowledge-based approaches. This evolving paradigm, which has its roots attached to the recent advances in medicinal chemistry, molecular and structural biology, has unprecedentedly demanded the development of up-to-date computational approaches, such as bio- and chemo-informatics. These tools have been pivotal to catalyzing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the molecular sciences, and to converting the data into insightful guidelines for use in the research pipeline. As a result, ligand- and structure-based drug design have emerged as key pathways to address the pharmaceutical industry’s striking demands for innovation. These approaches depend on a keen integration of experimental and molecular modeling methods to surmount the main challenges faced by drug candidates - in vivo efficacy, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and safety. To that end, the Laboratório de Química Medicinal e Computacional (LQMC of the Universidade de São Paulo has developed forefront research on highly prevalent and life-threatening neglected tropical diseases and cancer. By taking part in global initiatives for pharmaceutical innovation, the laboratory has contributed to the advance of these critical therapeutic areas through the use of cutting-edge strategies in medicinal chemistry.

  4. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Depression: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA+DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA+DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms. PMID:27766299

  5. Rotor Current Control of DFIG for Improving Fault Ride - Through Using a Novel Sliding Mode Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guowei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Deyou

    2013-11-01

    The doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have been recognized as the dominant technology used in wind power generation systems with the rapid development of wind power. However, continuous operation of DFIG may cause a serious wind turbine generators tripping accident, due to destructive over-current in the rotor winding which is caused by the power system fault or inefficient fault ride-through (FRT) strategy. A new rotor current control scheme in the rotor-side converter (RSC) ispresented to enhance FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Due to the strongly nonlinear nature of DFIG and insensitive to DFIG parameter's variations, a novel sliding mode controller was designed. The controller combines extended state observer (ESO) with sliding model variable structure control theory. The simulation is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control approach under various types of grid disturbances. It is shown that the proposed controller provides enhanced transient features than the classic proportional-integral control. The proposed control method can effectively reduce over-current in the RSC, and the transient pulse value of electromagnetic torque is too large under power grid fault.

  6. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETABLE WASTES FOR LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION: A LABORATORY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Daharbha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables wastes are organic materials which are not utilized as vegetables and are discarded at all stages of production, processing and marketing. These wastes form a major part of municipal solid wastes and are cause of foul smell and growth of microorganisms due to their high organic contents. The vegetable wastes can be utilized in many different ways to produces different products. We have shown that they can be utilized for production of lactic acid using anaerobic digestion. The 2nd day was the optimum day for recovery of lactic acid while 1:1 ratio of slurry and water was found to the best ratio for production of lactic acid from vegetable wastes. Effect of salts on lactic acid was also studied and it was found that the production decreased in all the concentrations of salts.

  9. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez, A.

    1999-07-20

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol enzymatic based process. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment lignin burner and boiler--turbogenerator, and utilities--are included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation to assist in the process design evaluation, equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin burner and boiler turbogenerator has been reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. and the wastewater treatment by Merrick and Company. An overview of both reviews is included here. The purpose of this update was to ensure that the process design and equipment costs were reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type using available technical data. This work has resulted in an economic model that can be used to predict the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass using this technology if a plant were to be built in the next few years. The model was also extended using technology improvements that are expected to be developed based on the current DOE research plan. Future process designs and cost estimates are given for the years 2005, 2010, and 2015.

  10. Synthesis of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates designed for photo-CIDNP experiments by a phosphotriester approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Abramova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugates of 2’-deoxyguanosine, L-tryptophan and benzophenone designed to study pathways of fast radical reactions by the photo Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (photo-CIDNP method were obtained by the phosphotriester block liquid phase synthesis. The phosphotriester approach to the oligonucleotide synthesis was shown to be a versatile and economic strategy for preparing the required amount of high quality samples of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates.

  11. The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Aggarwal, Manoj; Bachler, Gerald; Broadmeadow, Alan; Gellatly, Nichola; Moore, Emma; Robinson, Sally; Rooseboom, Martijn; Stevens, Alexander; Terry, Claire; Burden, Natalie

    2017-08-15

    For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible. A key element necessary to ensure the transition towards successfully utilising both non-animal and refined safety testing is the better understanding of chemical exposure. This includes approaches such as measuring chemical concentrations within cell-based assays and during in vivo studies, understanding how predicted human exposures relate to levels tested, and using existing information on human exposures to aid in toxicity study design. Such approaches promise to increase the human relevance of safety assessment, and shift the focus from hazard-driven to risk-driven strategies similar to those used in the pharmaceutical sectors. Human exposure-based safety assessment offers scientific and 3Rs benefits across all sectors marketing chemical or medicinal products. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) convened an expert working group of scientists across the agrochemical, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries plus a contract research organisation (CRO) to discuss the current status of the utilisation of exposure-driven approaches, and the challenges and potential next steps for wider uptake and acceptance. This paper summarises these discussions, highlights the challenges - particularly those identified by industry - and proposes initial steps for moving the field forward. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukfatullin, O.F.; Yuldoshev, I.A.; Solieva, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  13. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Katrin; Popp, Johanna; Becker, André; Hankel, Julia; Visscher, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Meemken, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3). Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P meat quality traits showed no differences in the R308 breed (P > 0.05), but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C) to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295), which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  14. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zeiger

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308 and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA broilers in three independent trials (n = 3. Although slaughter parameters did not show any significant differences, the fatty acid profile of both breeds revealed significantly higher lauric acid concentrations (P 0.05, but HJA test broilers had higher values for drip loss, electrical conductivity, CIE color values L* and b*, and lower pH values. The inoculation trials of R308 showed that initial bacterial loads of 5.9 log10 cfu/g were reduced during six days of storage (4°C to approximately 4.3 log10 cfu/g in the control groups compared to 3.5 log10 cfu/g in the treatment groups (P = 0.0295, which could be due to antimicrobial effects of lauric acid within the muscle. This study therefore suggests that lauric acid as a feed additive has the potential to improve food safety by reducing the numbers of Campylobacter coli in broiler meat. However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle.

  15. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the exception of patient relapse, the longer-term (eg, >2 years effects of these approaches on most psychosocial outcomes are not well-established among these patients. Despite the fact that patients' perspectives on treatment and care have been increasingly concerned, not many studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on this perspective, and where they did, the findings were inconclusive. To conclude, current approaches to psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia have their strengths and weaknesses, particularly indicating limited evidence on long-term effects. To improve the longer-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia, future treatment strategies should focus on risk identification, early intervention, person-focused therapy, partnership with family caregivers, and the integration of evidence-based psychosocial interventions into existing services. Keywords: schizophrenia, psychosocial intervention, patient-focused perspectives

  16. Differential effects of temperature on acid-activated currents mediated by TRPV1 and ASIC channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelands, Torben R; Zhang, Xu-Feng; McDonald, Heath; Puttfarcken, Pamela

    2010-05-06

    Elevated temperature and decreased extracellular pH are hallmarks of inflammatory pain states. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are integral in transferring painful stimuli from the periphery to central sites. This study investigated the effect of elevated temperatures on the response of DRG neurons to acute application of acidic solutions. At room temperature (22 degrees C), in response to pH 5.5, there were a variety of kinetic responses consistent with differential expression of TRPV1 and ASIC channels. Increasing the temperature resulted in a significant increase in the peak and total current mediated by TRPV1 in response to an acidic solution. In contrast, the amplitude of a fast activating, rapidly inactivating ASIC1-like current was not affected by increasing the temperature but did result in an increased rate of desensitization that reduced the total current level. This effect on the rate of desensitization was temperature-dependent and could be reversed by returning to 22 degrees C. Likewise, cells exhibiting slowly inactivating ASIC2-like responses also had temperature-dependent increase in the rate of desensitization. The ASIC2-like responses and the TRPV1 responses tended to decrease in amplitude with repetitive application of pH 5.5 even at 22 degrees C. The rate of desensitization of ASIC-like currents activated by less acidic solutions (pH 6.8) was also increased in a temperature-dependent manner. Finally, acidic pH reduced threshold to trigger action potentials, however, the pattern of action potential firing was shaped by the distribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels. These results indicate that the ambient temperature at which acidosis occurs has a profound effect on the contribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels, therefore, altering the neuronal excitability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  18. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  19. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  20. Rational Discovery of (+) (S) Abscisic Acid as a Potential Antifungal Agent: a Repurposing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohammed A; Massarotti, Alberto; Mohamed, Maged E

    2018-06-04

    Fungal infections are spreading widely worldwide, and the types of treatment are limited due to the lack of diverse therapeutic agents and their associated side effects and toxicity. The discovery of new antifungal classes is vital and critical. We discovered the antifungal activity of abscisic acid through a rational drug design methodology that included the building of homology models for fungal chorismate mutases and a pharmacophore model derived from a transition state inhibitor. Ligand-based virtual screening resulted in some hits that were filtered using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations studies. Both in silico methods and in vitro antifungal assays were used as tools to select and validate the abscisic acid repurposing. Abscisic acid inhibition assays confirmed the inhibitory effect of abscisic acid on chorismate mutase through the inhibition of phenylpyruvate production. The repositioning of abscisic acid, the well-known and naturally occurring plant growth regulator, as a potential antifungal agent because of its suggested action as an inhibitor to several fungal chorismate mutases was the main result of this work.

  1. Massive pulmonary embolism: the predisposing and complicating factors, its current diagnostic approaches and critical importance of early diagnostic physical exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Konecny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE often leads to circulation collapse, a form of shock. The process is set off by thrombus or multiple thrombi dislodgement followed by a rapid perfusion insufficiency of pulmonary arterial system. Patients experience severe hypotension with diastolic and systolic failure with an acute tricuspid regurgitation. On many occasions, release of an obstruction is unattainable and death is occurring frequently within one hour of presentation. A key reported source of MPE is its occurrence as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. While long-term immobilization and surgery are both directly associated with MPE, others such as previous DVT, malignancy, infectious lung and heart diseases, family thrombophilia, lower limb paralysis and pregnancy have to be considered as risk factors mainly due to its silent nature. Predisposing and complicating risks should be addressed by an early diagnostic physical exam. The clinician might offer a wide variety of diagnostic approaches, combining techniques into algorithms to better deal with the embolism severity. Multiple patient life-style changes and decisions to adhere to the proposed plan should be built up on patient-physician team effort. KEY WORDS: Massive pulmonary embolism, predisposing factors, current diagnostic approaches.

  2. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  3. Mesoporous ZSM-5 Zeolites in Acid Catalysis: Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pit Losch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A top-down desilication of Al-rich ZSM-5 zeolites and a bottom-up mesopores creating method were evaluated in this study. Three liquid–solid and one gas–solid heterogeneously-catalysed reactions were chosen to establish relationships between zeolites textural properties and their catalytic behavior in acid-catalysed model reactions that are influenced by shape selectivity: Diels-Alder cyclization between isoprene and methylacrylate, Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO reaction, chlorination of iodobenzene with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, and Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole by carboxylic acids with differing sizes. It is found amongst others that no optimal mesoporosity for all the different reactions can be easily obtained, but depending on the chosen application, a specific treatment has to be set to achieve high activity/selectivity and stability.

  4. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing.

  5. Amino Acids from Icy Amines: A Radiation-Chemical Approach to Extraterrestrial Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Detections of amino acids in meteorites go back several decades, with at least 100 such compounds being reported for the Murchison meteorite alone. The presence of these extraterrestrial molecules raises questions as to their formation, abundance, thermal stability, racemization, and possible subsequent reactions. Although all of these topics have been studied in laboratories, such work often involves many variables and unknowns. This has led us to seek out model systems with which to uncover reaction products, test chemical predictions, and sited light on underlying reaction mechanisms. This presentation will describe one such study, focusing on amino-acid formation in ices.

  6. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  7. Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1. Simple acid-base disorders. Disorder. pH. pCO2. HCO3. -. Clinical examples. Respiratory acidosis ... Lactic acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis and vomiting. Triple disorder: .... Renal tubular acidosis type 1 and 2. Ureteral diversion to ...

  8. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

  9. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH INCORPORATING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  10. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  11. Neutralization and Acid Dissociation of Hydrogen Carbonate Ion: A Thermochemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Shigedomi, Kana; Kimura, Tomoyasu; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Mishima, Saki

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory inquiry into the thermochemical relationships in the reaction between aqueous solutions of NaHCO[subscript 3] and NaOH is described. The enthalpy change for this reaction, delta[subscript r]H, and that for neutralization of strong acid and NaOH(aq), delta[subscript n]H, are determined calorimetrically; the explanation for the…

  12. Recent approaches towards the asymmetric synthesis of α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Henning; Brase, S.

    2007-01-01

    The class of alpha,alpha-disubstituted alpha-amino acids has gained considerable attention in the past decades and continues doing so. The ongoing interest in biological and chemical properties of the substance class has inspired the development of many new methodologies for their asymmetric...

  13. Diversity, vitality and activities of intestinal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria assessed by molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaughan, E.E.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Ben-Amor, K.; Vos, de W.M.

    2005-01-01

    While lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been scientifically important for over a century, many of these are marketed today as probiotics and have become a valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the food market that is leading functional foods in many countries. The human

  14. Fluorescent probes for detection of picric acid explosive: A greener approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Sudesna; Gogoi, Bedanta; Sen Sarma, Neelotpal, E-mail: neelot@iasst.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Green materials with advantages of low cost and high sensitivity are important from the perspective of human health, environment and homeland security. Herein, we have reported two cost effective modified biomaterials as fluorophores for detection of Picric acid in aqueous state. The biomaterials Scutellarin–Hispiduloside and Curcumin have been modified with green solvent glycerol for Picric acid detection in aqueous solution. The limit of detection for Picric acid by Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol and Curcumin–glycerol are 9.1×10{sup −8} M and 6.03×10{sup −8} M respectively. These luminescence based sensors have also been able to detect Picric acid in real samples with high efficiency. The fluorescence quenching efficiency of Scutellarin–Hispiduloside–glycerol has been found to be 99% while that for Curcumin–glycerol, it is 88.9% for 0.5 µM Picric acid in aqueous state. In both the cases, the quenching is governed by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency has been found to be 0.968 and 0.792 respectively. In addition, both the systems show excellent selectivity towards PA in presence of other nitroaromatic compounds and are also statistically accessible. The utilization of readily available cheap biomaterials without using multistep protocol for synthesis and devoid of any kind of sophisticated equipments for the processs further enhances the utility of the method. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign systems – Scutellarin, Hispiduloside and curcumin with green solvent glycerol – have been used for Picric acid sensing. • The method is simple and cost effective with a detection limit for CIG and CG found to be 9.1×10−8 M and 6.03×10−8 M of PA respectively. • Both the sensing systems were found to be highly selective for Picric acid in the presence of structurally similar compounds. • The quenching occurs by FRET between the fluorophore and the quencher and the FRET efficiency is determined

  15. Current concepts on the physiology and genetics of neurotransmitters-mediating enzyme-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.

    1993-03-01

    Two most important neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin are mediated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Because of their importance in the regulation of neuronal functions, behaviour and emotion of higher animals, many researchers are working on this enzyme to elucidate its physiological properties, structure and genetic aspects. We have discovered this enzyme in the mammalian blood, we established sensitive assay methods for the assay of the activities of this enzyme. We have made systematic studies on this enzyme in the tissues and brains of rats, and human subjects. We have found an endogenous inhibitor of this enzyme in the monkey's blood. The amino acid sequences of human AADC has been compared to rat or bovine. A full-length cDNA clone encoding human AADC has been isolated. Very recently the structure of human AADC gene including 5'-flaking region has been characterized and the transcriptional starting point has been determined. The human AADC gene assigned to chromosome 7. Up-to-date research data have shown that AADC is encoded by a single gene. Recently two patients with AADC deficiency were reported. This paper describes the systematic up-to-date review studies on AADC. (author). 62 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  16. Current protein and amino acid intakes among Japanese people: Analysis of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate protein and amino acid intakes and distribution among Japanese people in terms of prevention of sarcopenia or frailty. We carried out a cross-sectional study using data from Japan's 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. From the original dataset, we selected individuals aged ≥30 years, who were not pregnant or lactating, and for whom dietary intake, bodyweight and body height data were available. Protein intake was calculated using exclusive software developed for the survey. Amino acid intake was calculated using the database created by the National Institute for Longevity Sciences. More than 95% of the participants met recommended levels of protein suggested by the Dietary Reference Intake in Japan. However, nearly half of the participants did not meet recommended levels in terms of prevention of sarcopenia. Leucine intake was not sufficient for each sex and age group, probably because of decreased intake of animal protein, especially protein from milk and dairy products. Distribution of protein and leucine in each meal tended toward dinner. The Japanese population might have insufficient quality, quantity and distribution of protein intake required to prevent sarcopenia or frailty. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 723-731. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. An exploratory study of lead recovery in lead-acid battery lifecycle in US market: An evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genaidy, A.M.; Sequeira, R.; Tolaymat, T.; Kohler, J.; Rinder, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling rates for LAB in the published literature and is derived from a single source. Therefore, its recycling efforts in the US has been unclear so as to determine the maximum opportunities for metal recovery and recycling in the face of significant demands for LAB particularly in the auto industry. Objectives: The research utilizes an evidence-based approach to: (1) determine recycling rates for lead recovery in the LAB product lifecycle for the US market; and (2) quantify and identify opportunities where lead recovery and recycling can be improved. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of the published literature was conducted to gather information on different LAB recycling models and actual data used to calculate recycling rates based on product lifecycle for the US market to identify strategies for increasing lead recovery and recycling. Results: The electronic search yielded five models for calculating LAB recycling rates. The description of evidence was documented for each model. Furthermore, an integrated model was developed to identify and quantify the maximum opportunities for lead recovery and recycling. Results showed that recycling rates declined during the period spanning from 1999 to 2006. Opportunities were identified for recovery and recycling of lead in the LAB product lifecycle. Concluding remarks: One can deduce the following from the analyses undertaken in this report: (1) lead recovery and recycling has been stable between 1999 and 2006; (2) lead consumption has increased at an annual rate of 2.25%, thus, the values derived in this study for opportunities dealing with lead recovery and recycling underestimate the amount of lead in scrap and waste generated; and (3) the

  18. The impact of acid deposition and forest harvesting on lakes and their forested catchments in south central Ontario: a critical loads approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Watmough

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acid deposition and tree harvesting on three lakes and their representative sub-catchments in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of south-central Ontario was assessed using a critical loads approach. As nitrogen dynamics in forest soils are complex and poorly understood, for simplicity and to allow comparison among lakes and their catchments, CLs (A for both lakes and forest soils were calculated assuming that nitrate leaching from catchments will not change over time (i.e. a best case scenario. In addition, because soils in the region are shallow, base cation weathering rates for the representative sub-catchments were calculated for the entire soil profile and these estimates were also used to calculate critical loads for the lakes. These results were compared with critical loads obtained by the Steady State Water Chemistry (SSWC model. Using the SSWC model, critical loads for lakes were between 7 and 19 meq m-2yr-1 higher than those obtained from soil measurements. Lakes and forests are much more sensitive to acid deposition if forests are harvested, but two acid-sensitive lakes had much lower critical loads than their respective forested sub-catchments implying that acceptable acid deposition levels should be dictated by the most acid-sensitive lakes in the region. Under conditions that assume harvesting, the CL (A is exceeded at two of the three lakes and five of the six sub-catchments assessed in this study. However, sulphate export from catchments greatly exceeds input in bulk deposition and, to prevent lakes from falling below the critical chemical limit, sulphate inputs to lakes must be reduced by between 37% and 92% if forests are harvested. Similarly, sulphate leaching from forested catchments that are harvested must be reduced by between 16 and 79% to prevent the ANC of water draining the rooting zone from falling below 0 μeq l-1. These calculations assume that extremely low calcium leaching losses (9–27 μeq l-1 from

  19. Designing a Summer Transition Program for Incoming and Current College Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Hotez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD face unique challenges transitioning from high school to college and receive insufficient support to help them navigate this transition. Through a participatory collaboration with incoming and current autistic college students, we developed, implemented, and evaluated two intensive week-long summer programs to help autistic students transition into and succeed in college. This process included: (1 developing an initial summer transition program curriculum guided by recommendations from autistic college students in our ongoing mentorship program, (2 conducting an initial feasibility assessment of the curriculum [Summer Transition Program 1 (STP1], (3 revising our initial curriculum, guided by feedback from autistic students, to develop a curriculum manual, and (4 pilot-testing the manualized curriculum through a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test assessment of a second summer program [Summer Transition Program 2 (STP2]. In STP2, two autistic college students assumed a leadership role and acted as “mentors” and ten incoming and current autistic college students participated in the program as “mentees.” Results from the STP2 pilot-test suggested benefits of participatory transition programming for fostering self-advocacy and social skills among mentees. Autistic and non-autistic mentors (but not mentees described practicing advanced forms of self-advocacy, specifically leadership, through their mentorship roles. Autistic and non-autistic mentors also described shared (e.g., empathy and unique (an intuitive understanding of autism vs. an intuitive understanding of social interaction skills that they contributed to the program. This research provides preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of a participatory approach in which autistic college students are integral to the development and implementation of programming to help less experienced autistic students develop the self

  20. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-cut recovery of cobalt and lithium was directly obtained using oxalic acid. • Short-cut recovery process was optimized for a high recovery rate. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • Leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} using oxalic acid was first proposed. - Abstract: With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L{sup −1} solid–liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  1. Modelling of Eu migration in groundwater with high humic acid concentrations using a kinetic approach (KICAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of humic acids on the migration of lanthanides and actinides in nonbinding loose sediments was investigated in flow column experiments. Experiments with Am were described by a reaction scheme based on kinetically controlled processes, and reaction rate constants were derived and used successfully for describing independent Am experiments. It was investigated inhowfar these data can be used for describing the Eu experiments of GSF Munich [de

  2. Contributions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cerebral neurobiology: an integrated omics approach with epigenomic focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    increase in N-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio reduces maternal obesity - associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice. PLoS One...reduced transcriptional expressions. The majority of miRNAs overexpressed by BLD are associated with Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia. BLD implicated long-term...requires choline, other methyl donors and sufficient amounts of energy [7,8]. Hence, foods enriched with or deprived of such supplements enable control of

  3. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  4. Experimental approaches to the interaction of the prion protein with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans: Modulators of the pathogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jerson L; Vieira, Tuane C R G; Gomes, Mariana P B; Rangel, Luciana P; Scapin, Sandra M N; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2011-03-01

    The concept that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused only by proteins has changed the traditional paradigm that disease transmission is due solely to an agent that carries genetic information. The central hypothesis for prion diseases proposes that the conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a misfolded, β-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)) accounts for the development of (TSE). There is substantial evidence that the infectious material consists chiefly of a protein, PrP(Sc), with no genomic coding material, unlike a virus particle, which has both. However, prions seem to have other partners that chaperone their activities in converting the PrP(C) into the disease-causing isoform. Nucleic acids (NAs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the most probable accomplices of prion conversion. Here, we review the recent experimental approaches that have been employed to characterize the interaction of prion proteins with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans. A PrP recognizes many nucleic acids and GAGs with high affinities, and this seems to be related to a pathophysiological role for this interaction. A PrP binds nucleic acids and GAGs with structural selectivity, and some PrP:NA complexes can become proteinase K-resistant, undergoing amyloid oligomerization and conversion to a β-sheet-rich structure. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous polyanions (such as NAs and GAGs) may accelerate the rate of prion disease progression by acting as scaffolds or lattices that mediate the interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) molecules. In addition to a still-possible hypothesis that nucleic acids and GAGs, especially those from the host, may modulate the conversion, the recent structural characterization of the complexes has raised the possibility of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid in water by photochemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Hayakawa, Etsuko; Einaga, Hisahiro; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Koike, Kazuhide; Ibusuki, Takashi; Kiatagawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2004-11-15

    The decomposition of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by UV-visible light irradiation, by H202 with UV-visible light irradiation, and by a tungstic heteropolyacid photocatalyst was examined to develop a technique to counteract stationary sources of PFOA. Direct photolysis proceeded slowly to produce CO2, F-, and short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Compared to the direct photolysis, H2O2 was less effective in PFOA decomposition. On the other hand, the heteropolyacid photocatalyst led to efficient PFOA decomposition and the production of F- ions and CO2. The photocatalyst also suppressed the accumulation of short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids in the reaction solution. PFOA in the concentrations of 0.34-3.35 mM, typical of those in wastewaters after an emulsifying process in fluoropolymer manufacture, was completely decomposed by the catalyst within 24 h of irradiation from a 200-W xenon-mercury lamp, with no accompanying catalyst degradation, permitting the catalyst to be reused in consecutive runs. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) measurements showed no trace of environmentally undesirable species such as CF4, which has a very high global-warming potential. When the (initial PFOA)/(initial catalyst) molar ratio was 10: 1, the turnover number for PFOA decomposition reached 4.33 over 24 h of irradiation.

  6. An approach for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidin polymers into oligomers by sulphurous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Cheng, Jinhui; Fang, Bairui; Wei, Zongmin; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-08-01

    To develop an efficient method for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins polymers into oligomers, an optimized sulphurous acid degradation conditions for grape seed with the temperature of 60 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, and for grape skin with the temperature of 40 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, were established. Afterwards, HSCCC and prep-HPLC were used to fractionate and isolate individual proanthocyanidin oligomers from the degradation products. Total of ten dimeric or trimeric procyanidins were obtained, and most of them presented high yield (from 0.7 mg to 13.6 mg per run in grape seed and from 0.5 mg to 4.1 mg per run in grape skin) and high purity (over 90%). The proposed method provides a new way for large preparation of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from naturally abundant and wasted polymeric ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New aspects of the antioxidant properties of phenolic acids: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, E; Kosinová, P; Kozlowski, D; Mokrini, R; Duroux, J L; Trouillas, P

    2009-09-21

    Ferulic acid is widely distributed in the leaves and seeds of cereals as well as in coffee, apples, artichokes, peanuts, oranges and pineapples. Like numerous other natural polyphenols it exhibits antioxidant properties. It is known to act as a free radical scavenger by H atom transfer from the phenolic OH group. In the present joint experimental and theoretical studies we studied a new mechanism to explain such activities. Ferulic acid can indeed act by radical addition on the alpha,beta-double bond. On the basis of the identification of metabolites formed in an oxidative radiolytic solution and after DFT calculations, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of this reaction. Addition and HAT reactions were treated as competitive reactions. The possibility of dimer formation was also investigated from a theoretical point of view; the high barriers we obtained contribute to explaining why we did not observe those compounds as major radiolytic compounds. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of ferulic acid and the oxidative products was measured and is discussed on the basis of DFT calculations (BDEs and spin densities).

  8. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India); Methattel Raman, Shijeesh [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India)

    2016-04-18

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  9. Water column distribution of phospholipid-derived fatty acids of marine microorganisms in the Humboldt Current system off northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Luisa F.; Pantoja, Silvio; Pinto, Luis A.; Rullkötter, Jürgen

    2009-07-01

    Suspended particulate matter samples from the oxygenated surface zone, the oxygen minimum zone, and the oxygenated deeper zone were collected from the upwelling area off Antofagasta in northern Chile during austral autumn (April 2001) to study the composition of microbial phospholipid-derived fatty acid methyl esters, using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas phytoplanktonic carbon dominated living organic matter near the coast, bacterial carbon was most abundant offshore. The biomarker distribution showed some differences between the depth levels sampled, such as the highest microbial abundance in the epipelagic zone represented by phytoplankton, especially diatoms, and a homogeneous distribution of bacterial biomarkers, with no indication of vertical segregation of functional groups as previously thought.

  10. Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayakonvikom, Monta; Fuangvut, Parin; Cannell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    ERP training is a critical success factor in ERP implementation. The current ERP training was largely ineffective and caused user resistance and ERP implementation failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the current ERP training approach can accommodate the cultural learning behaviors of end-users. Hofstede's cultural…

  11. Optimization of an innovative approach involving mechanical activation and acid digestion for the extraction of lithium from lepidolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieceli, Nathália; Nogueira, Carlos A.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Durão, Fernando O.; Guimarães, Carlos; Margarido, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    The recovery of lithium from hard rock minerals has received increased attention given the high demand for this element. Therefore, this study optimized an innovative process, which does not require a high-temperature calcination step, for lithium extraction from lepidolite. Mechanical activation and acid digestion were suggested as crucial process parameters, and experimental design and response-surface methodology were applied to model and optimize the proposed lithium extraction process. The promoting effect of amorphization and the formation of lithium sulfate hydrate on lithium extraction yield were assessed. Several factor combinations led to extraction yields that exceeded 90%, indicating that the proposed process is an effective approach for lithium recovery.

  12. An enantioselective approach toward 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin through the bromocyclization of styrene-type carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhou, Ling; Tan, Chong Kiat; Yeung, Ying-Yeung

    2012-01-20

    A facile and enantioselective approach toward 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin was developed. The method involved an amino-thiocarbamate catalyzed enantioselective bromocyclization of styrene-type carboxylic acids, yielding 3-bromo-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins with good yields and ee's. 3-Bromo-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are versatile building blocks for various dihydroisocoumarin derivatives in which the Br group can readily be modified to achieve biologically important 4-O-type and 4-N-type 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin systems. In addition, studies indicated that, by refining some parameters, the synthetically useful 5-exo phthalide products could be achieved with good yields and ee's.

  13. Contaminated land in Colombia: A critical review of current status and future approach for the management of contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Espana, Victor Andres; Rodriguez Pinilla, Alfonso R; Bardos, Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2018-03-15

    Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation. Colombia is an important emerging economy and has started to take the first steps towards the development of a framework for the management of contaminated sites and there are opportunities for the country to learn from countries with well-established frameworks such as the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) and for international collaboration with organisations such as CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CARE). We review main pollution issues, current status of contaminated land management in Colombia to identify the gaps in policy and regulation. We also review the UK and US contaminated land policies and regulations to identify the elements of those experiences that could support progress in the country. Finally, we propose recommendations (e.g. risk based approach, soil screening criteria, clean-up funding, liability) for Colombia that could support further development and implementation of a more effective contaminated land management framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginitis in girls: a current approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyitler, İlke; Kavukcu, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in children and young girls. Some of the factors which cause vulvovaginitis include hypoestrogenism, the anatomical proximity of rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. We made a literature search with Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane database from January 2002 to May 2015 in English language using the key words vulvovaginitis, children, clinical, diagnosis and treatment. Vulvovaginitis in girls is usually caused by non-specific factors and hygiene measures, bioyoghurt and avoidance of chemical irritants are generally useful. Weight control if necessary and prevention of voiding dysfunction are effective. Vaginal flora is important in girls and results should be interpreted with clinical features to decide whether an isolated microorganism is part of the normal microflora or is the cause of symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Specific treatment is generally considered in case of a detected pathogen microorganism. Isolation of a sexually transmitted organism requires further investigation. Persistent disease may not always indicate a foreign body but it must be taken into account. Girls and parents are encouraged psychologically in all steps of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. Probiotics, nanotechnology and petroleum jelly are other important treatment options used in vulvovaginitis. In this review, we present current approach to the presentation and management of vulvovaginitis in childhood. This disorder requires a comprehensive evaluation in all steps of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Current Nutrient Management Practices in Semi-Arid Areas of Eastern Kenya: A Nutmon Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuku, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining soil fertility caused mainly by continuous cultivation without adequate replenishment of nutrients, is a major factor contributing to low crop yields in the arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. Development of appropriate nutrient management strategies for suitable agricultural production in these areas is, therefore, a priority issue. in the study reported here, analyses of the current nutrient management practices were carried out using the nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) approach in order to create farm house-hold awareness on nutrient management aspects. The procedure involved participatory soil and nutrient flow maps and soil sampling at farm level. laboratory analysis of the soil samples was later carried out. Structured questionnaires were used for systematic collection of information on farm management practices in order to quantify flows of materials with emphasis on soil nutrients and cash. Results of the laboratory soil analysis were also presented to the farmers and discussed during feedback sessions. The test was carried out in three places namely, Kibwezi, Kasikeu and Kiomo. In all the three clusters, off-farm income was an important component of the total family income. Farm net cash flow was highest in Kibwezi cluster due to horticultural crop production activities. Household net cash flow was highest in Kasikeu, largely originating from off-farm income. It was concluded that NUTMON methodology appeared a suitable tool for the diagnostic of the farming system analysis and design in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya

  17. Environmental microbiology through the lens of high-throughput DNA sequencing: synopsis of current platforms and bioinformatics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logares, Ramiro; Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Kumar, Surendra; Lanzén, Anders; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Quince, Christopher; Kauserud, Håvard

    2012-10-01

    The incursion of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) in environmental microbiology brings unique opportunities and challenges. HTS now allows a high-resolution exploration of the vast taxonomic and metabolic diversity present in the microbial world, which can provide an exceptional insight on global ecosystem functioning, ecological processes and evolution. This exploration has also economic potential, as we will have access to the evolutionary innovation present in microbial metabolisms, which could be used for biotechnological development. HTS is also challenging the research community, and the current bottleneck is present in the data analysis side. At the moment, researchers are in a sequence data deluge, with sequencing throughput advancing faster than the computer power needed for data analysis. However, new tools and approaches are being developed constantly and the whole process could be depicted as a fast co-evolution between sequencing technology, informatics and microbiologists. In this work, we examine the most popular and recently commercialized HTS platforms as well as bioinformatics methods for data handling and analysis used in microbial metagenomics. This non-exhaustive review is intended to serve as a broad state-of-the-art guide to researchers expanding into this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A cost-effective approach to produce 15N-labelled amino acids employing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC503.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás Carcelén, Jesús; Marchante-Gayón, Juan Manuel; González, Pablo Rodríguez; Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Alonso, José Ignacio García

    2017-08-18

    The use of enriched stable isotopes is of outstanding importance in chemical metrology as it allows the application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Primary methods based on IDMS ensure the quality of the analytical measurements and traceability of the results to the international system of units. However, the synthesis of isotopically labelled molecules from enriched stable isotopes is an expensive and a difficult task. Either chemical and biochemical methods to produce labelled molecules have been proposed, but so far, few cost-effective methods have been described. The aim of this study was to use the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to produce, at laboratory scale, 15 N-labelled amino acids with a high isotopic enrichment. To do that, a culture media containing 15 NH 4 Cl was used. No kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was observed. The labelled proteins biosynthesized by the microorganism were extracted from the biomass and the 15 N-labelled amino acids were obtained after a protein hydrolysis with HCl. The use of the wall deficient strain CC503 cw92 mt+ is fit for purpose, as it only assimilates ammonia as nitrogen source, avoiding isotope contamination with nitrogen from the atmosphere or the reagents used in the culture medium, and enhancing the protein extraction efficiency compared to cell-walled wild type Chlamydomonas. The isotopic enrichment of the labelled amino acids was calculated from their isotopic composition measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average isotopic enrichment for the 16 amino acids characterized was 99.56 ± 0.05% and the concentration of the amino acids in the hydrolysate ranged from 18 to 90 µg/mL. Previously reported biochemical methods to produce isotopically labelled proteins have been applied in the fields of proteomics and fluxomics. For these approaches, low amounts of products are required and the isotopic enrichment of the molecules has never been properly determined. So far, only 13

  19. Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria populations in Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese samples submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation by means of a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Succi, Mariantonietta; Aponte, Maria

    2014-06-02

    The survival of the autochthonous microflora, of samples collected during Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese manufacturing, was evaluated along the passage through a model mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract. The aim was the selection of lactic acid bacteria potentially able to arrive alive and metabolically active to the colon. The dynamics of lactic microbiota, throughout simulated digestion of cheese samples, were evaluated by means of an approach PCR-DGGE-based. Dominant species after cheese digestion could be related to the Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei groups. Sixty-three strains, which survived to simulated gastro-intestinal transit, were further evaluated for technological features and tolerance to human digestion in several experimental conditions, according to routinely used protocols. Bacterial survival appeared to be, more than strain-specific, strongly affected by experimental conditions, i.e. some strains showed an acceptable survival when resuspended in skim milk but not in ewe milk and vice versa. Nevertheless according to data, one gram of fresh Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese may convey to human colon about the same amount of viable LAB of a probiotic drink. Although it cannot be assumed that lactobacilli introduced with Pecorino have beneficial effects on the host, the healthy impact of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of naturally fermented food has a broad consensus in the current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany J. Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.

  2. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K.; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R. G.; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis-acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance. PMID:28265276

  3. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  4. A statistical approach to the experimental design of the sulfuric acid leaching of gold-copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high grade of copper in the Igarapé Bahia (Brazil gold-copper ore prevents the direct application of the classic cyanidation process. Copper oxides and sulfides react with cyanides in solution, causing a high consumption of leach reagent and thereby raising processing costs and decreasing recovery of gold. Studies have showm that a feasible route for this ore would be a pretreatment for copper minerals removal prior to the cyanidation stage. The goal of this experimental work was to study the experimental conditions required for copper removal from Igarapé Bahia gold-copper ore by sulfuric acid leaching by applying a statistical approach to the experimental design. By using the Plackett Burman method, it was possible to select the variables that had the largest influence on the percentage of copper extracted at the sulfuric acid leaching stage. These were temperature of leach solution, stirring speed, concentration of sulfuric acid in the leach solution and particle size of the ore. The influence of the individual effects of these variables and their interactions on the experimental response were analyzed by applying the replicated full factorial design method. Finally, the selected variables were optimized by the ascending path statistical method, which determined the best experimental conditions for leaching to achieve the highest percentage of copper extracted. Using the optimized conditions, the best leaching results showed a copper extraction of 75.5%.

  5. Omics approaches on fresh-cut lettuce reveal global molecular responses to sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddiego, Loretta; Bianco, Linda; Capodicasa, Cristina; Carbone, Fabrizio; Dalmastri, Claudia; Daroda, Lorenza; Del Fiore, Antonella; De Rossi, Patrizia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Donini, Marcello; Lopez, Loredana; Mengoni, Alessio; Paganin, Patrizia; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable that is extensively commercialized as a ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. An omics approach was applied to reveal global changes at molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify total bacterial abundance and composition. The study revealed wide metabolic alterations induced by the two sanitizers. In particular, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed out a number of transcripts and proteins differentially accumulated in response to peracetic acid washing, mainly occurring on the first day of storage. In parallel, different microbiota composition and significant reduction in total bacterial load following washing were also observed. The results provide useful information for the fresh-cut industry to select an appropriate washing procedure preserving fresh-like attributes as much as possible during storage of the end product. Molecular evidence indicated peracetic acid to be a valid alternative to sodium hypochlorite as sanitizer solution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Simple Approaches to Minimally-Instrumented, Microfluidic-Based Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Song, Jinzhao; Liu, Changchun; Bau, Haim H.

    2018-01-01

    Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs) in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC) tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges (‘chips’) that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described. These chips can be used with a companion module for separating plasma from blood through a combined sedimentation-filtration effect. Three reporter types: Fluorescence, colorimetric dyes, and bioluminescence; and a new paradigm for end-point detection based on a diffusion-reaction column are compared. Multiplexing (parallel amplification and detection of multiple targets) is demonstrated. Low-cost detection and added functionality (data analysis, control, communication) can be realized using a cellphone platform with the chip. Some related and similar-purposed approaches by others are surveyed. PMID:29495424

  7. Simple Approaches to Minimally-Instrumented, Microfluidic-Based Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges (‘chips’ that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described. These chips can be used with a companion module for separating plasma from blood through a combined sedimentation-filtration effect. Three reporter types: Fluorescence, colorimetric dyes, and bioluminescence; and a new paradigm for end-point detection based on a diffusion-reaction column are compared. Multiplexing (parallel amplification and detection of multiple targets is demonstrated. Low-cost detection and added functionality (data analysis, control, communication can be realized using a cellphone platform with the chip. Some related and similar-purposed approaches by others are surveyed.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THIOSEMICARBAZONE 2,3-DIHYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE ON CATALYTIC CURRENTS IN THE SYSTEM MOLYBDENUM (VI – POTASSIUM CHLORATE IN ACID SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Chiriac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI, thiosemicarbazone 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (TSC 2,3-DHBA and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions, taking place in the solutions and on the electrode, has been proposed. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of an active intermediate complex [Mo(V×TSC 2,3-DHBA (ClO-3]. The rate constant of this complex formation K = 2.56 × 106 mol-1×dm3×s-1, the activation energy Ea = 15.9 kcal×mol-1 and the reaction activation entropy ∆Sa¹ = -23.5 e.u. have been calculated.

  9. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Abordagem atual dos pacientes com doença de Hodgkin Current approach to patients with Hodgkin's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Spector

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, houve um progresso substancial na abordagem do paciente com doença de Hodgkin. Uma nova classificação histopatológica foi adotada, e fatores prognósticos reprodutíveis foram identificados. Os pacientes são tratados de acordo com o estádio clínico e, no caso de pacientes com doença localizada, também de acordo com os fatores prognósticos. Uma consistente série de estudos em pacientes com doença localizada tornou obsoleta a realização de laparotomia e a abordagem radioterápica isolada. Nos pacientes com doença avançada, o ABVD emergiu como o regime com a melhor relação risco/benefício após uma dura seqüência de comparações com o MOPP e combinações de MOPP e ABVD. Dois regimes inovadores estão em testes, o Stanford V e o BEACOPP. Entretanto, o avanço dos resultados terapêuticos depende da redução da toxicidade nos pacientes de baixo risco e da melhora do controle da doença nos pacientes de alto risco.In recent years, significant progress has been made in the approach to the patient with Hodgkin's disease. A new histopathologic classification has been adopted and reproducible prognostic factors have been recognized. Patients are treated according to their clinical stage and, in patients with early-stage disease, also according to their prognostic factors. A consistent sequence of studies in patients with early-stage disease has made laparotomy followed by radiation therapy obsolete. In patients with advanced disease, ABVD emerged as the regimen with the best risk/benefit ratio after a hard series of direct comparisons against MOPP and combinations of MOPP and ABVD. Two innovative regimens, Stanford V and BEACOPP, are currently undergoing a thorough evaluation. However, the improvement of treatment outcome is ultimately dependent on reducing the therapy-related toxicity for patients with low-risk disease, while improving disease control for patients with poor-risk disease through a risk

  11. Hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis in all joints except the knee: what is the current evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Sascha; Haverkamp, Daniel; Mulier, Michiel; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2012-04-01

    The use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is a well known treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). In other joints, less evidence is available about the efficacy of treatment with intra-articular HA. HA is also used intra-articularly in the metatarsophalangeal-1 joint, the ankle, the hip, the sacroiliac joint, the facet joints, the carpometacarpal-1 joint, the shoulder and the temporo-mandibular joint. In this systematic review we include all prospective studies about the effects of intra-articular HA in the above-mentioned joints. Its use in the knee joint, however, will be discussed in a separate article in this journal. A systematic review was conducted using databases including MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register, and EMBASE. After performing a solid systematic review using a rigid methodology and trying to pool the outcomes of different studies, we noticed that, compared with baseline, there is statistical evidence for a positive effect of intra-articular HA. However, there is limited evidence HA is superior to placebo and no evidence that intra-articular HA is better than corticosteroids or other conservative therapies. Our recommendation for future research is that one should focus on adequately powered randomized trials comparing HA treatment with other types of intra-articular or conservative treatment. We think it is useless to further perform and publish (large) non-comparative prospective studies about the use of HA in the treatment of problems caused by OA. It is well perceived that HA exerts positive effects in the treatment of OA, but up to now there is no (strong) evidence available that HA is superior to other treatments of OA such as corticosteroids, physiotherapy or other conservative measures.

  12. Application of the Generic Modeling Template Approach to Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation and Crystallization Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a couple of applications of the template-based approach for model development are presented. The computer-aided template concept has been developed based on a model decomposition technique and has been implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface...

  13. The development of an approach to assess critical loads of acidity for woodland habitats in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Langan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside other countries that are signatories to the UNECE Convention Long Range Transboundary on Air Pollution, the UK is committed to reducing the impact of air pollution on the environment. To advise and guide this policy in relation to atmospheric emissions of sulphur and nitrogen, a critical load approach has been developed. To assess the potential impact of these pollutants on woodland habitats a steady state, simple mass balance model has been parameterised. For mineral soils, a Ca:Al ratio in soil solution has been used as the critical load indicator for potential damage. For peat and organic soils critical loads have been set according to a pH criterion. Together these approaches have been used with national datasets to examine the potential scale of acidification in woodland habitats across the UK. The results can be mapped to show the spatial variability in critical loads of the three principal woodland habitat types (managed coniferous, managed broadleaved/ mixed woodland and unmanaged woodland. The results suggest that there is a wide range of critical loads. The most sensitive (lowest critical loads are associated with managed coniferous followed by unmanaged woodland on peat soils. Calculations indicate that at steady state, acid deposition inputs reported for 1995–1997 result in a large proportion of all the woodland habitats identified receiving deposition loads in excess of their critical load; i.e. critical loads are exceeded. These are discussed in relation to future modelled depositions for 2010. Whilst significant widespread negative impacts of such deposition on UK woodland habitats have not been reported, the work serves to illustrate that if acid deposition inputs were maintained and projected emissions reductions not achieved, the long-term sustainability of large areas of woodland in the UK could be compromised. Keywords: critical loads, acid deposition, acidification, woodland, simple mass balance model

  14. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of the common methods of modifying starch properties by introducing acetil (CH3CO groups to starch molecules at low temperatures. While most acetylation is conducted using starch as anhidroglucose source and acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate as nucleophilic agents, this work employ reactants, namely flour and glacial acetic acid. The purpose of this work are to study the effect of pH reaction and GAA/GF mass ratio on the rate of acetylation reaction and to determine its rate constants. The acetylation of gadung flour with glacial acetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a homogenous catalyst was studied at ambient temperature with pH ranging from 8-10 and different mass ratio of acetic acid : gadung flour (1:3; 1:4; and 1:5. It was found that increasing pH, lead to increase the degree of substitution, while increasing GAA/GF mass ratio caused such decreases in the degree of substitution, due to the hydrolysis of the acetylated starch. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by undesirable hydrolysis reaction of the acetylated starch after 40-50 minutes reaction time. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction observed that the value of mass transfer rate constant (Kcs is smaller than the surface reaction rate constant (k. Thus, it can be concluded that rate controlling step is mass transfer.  © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th August 2014; Revised: 8th September 2014; Accepted: 14th September 2014How to Cite: Kumoro, A.C., Amelia, R. (2015. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 30-37. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37

  15. Producing Cochrane systematic reviews-a qualitative study of current approaches and opportunities for innovation and improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Tovey, David; McDonald, Steve; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Pestridge, Charlotte; Elliott, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Producing high-quality, relevant systematic reviews and keeping them up to date is challenging. Cochrane is a leading provider of systematic reviews in health. For Cochrane to continue to contribute to improvements in heath, Cochrane Reviews must be rigorous, reliable and up to date. We aimed to explore existing models of Cochrane Review production and emerging opportunities to improve the efficiency and sustainability of these processes. To inform discussions about how to best achieve this, we conducted 26 interviews and an online survey with 106 respondents. Respondents highlighted the importance and challenge of creating reliable, timely systematic reviews. They described the challenges and opportunities presented by current production models, and they shared what they are doing to improve review production. They particularly highlighted significant challenges with increasing complexity of review methods; difficulty keeping authors on board and on track; and the length of time required to complete the process. Strong themes emerged about the roles of authors and Review Groups, the central actors in the review production process. The results suggest that improvements to Cochrane's systematic review production models could come from improving clarity of roles and expectations, ensuring continuity and consistency of input, enabling active management of the review process, centralising some review production steps; breaking reviews into smaller "chunks", and improving approaches to building capacity of and sharing information between authors and Review Groups. Respondents noted the important role new technologies have to play in enabling these improvements. The findings of this study will inform the development of new Cochrane Review production models and may provide valuable data for other systematic review producers as they consider how best to produce rigorous, reliable, up-to-date reviews.

  16. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently. Despite these progresses, currently there is neither any effective drug nor any vaccine available against ZIKV. Under such circumstances and to tackle the problem at large, control measures of which mosquito population control need to be strengthened following appropriate mechanical, chemical, biological and genetic control measures. Apart from this, several other known modes of ZIKV transmission which have gained importance in recent past such as intrauterine, sexual intercourse, and blood-borne spread need to be checked and kept under control by adopting appropriate precautions and utmost care during sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The virus inactivation by pasteurization, detergents, chemicals, and filtration can effectively reduce viral load in plasma-derived medicinal products. Added to this, strengthening of the surveillance and monitoring of ZIKV as well as avoiding travel to Zika infected areas would aid in keeping viral infection under check. Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. Additionally, owing to the success of vaccines for a number of infections

  17. Aspectos atuais sobre aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e exercício físico Current aspects of branched chain amino acid and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2008-12-01

    modulation of the immune response, in performance enhancement of individuals who work out in hot environments, and in avoiding muscle lesion. This review approaches all aspects of the metabolism of and supplementation with branched chain amino acids in physical exercise.

  18. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania) — Acid mine drainage and climatological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Andrei; Dill, Harald G.; Buzgar, Nicolae; Damian, Gheorghe; Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț

    2016-01-01

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30–90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. - Highlights: • Efflorescent salts from mining areas have a great impact on the environment. • Secondary minerals are influenced by geology, hydrology, biology and climate. • AMD-precipitates samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman and NIR spectrometry. • The dehydration temperatures

  19. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania)--Acid mine drainage and climatological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatu, Andrei; Dill, Harald G; Buzgar, Nicolae; Damian, Gheorghe; Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț

    2016-01-15

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30-90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania) — Acid mine drainage and climatological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzatu, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.buzatu@uaic.ro [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Dill, Harald G. [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University, Welfengarten 1 D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Buzgar, Nicolae [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Damian, Gheorghe [Technical University Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, 62A Dr. Victor Babeş Street, 430083 Baia Mare (Romania); Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania)

    2016-01-15

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30–90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. - Highlights: • Efflorescent salts from mining areas have a great impact on the environment. • Secondary minerals are influenced by geology, hydrology, biology and climate. • AMD-precipitates samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman and NIR spectrometry. • The dehydration temperatures

  1. Identification of okadaic acid-induced phosphorylation events by a mass spectrometry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Jennifer J.; Callaghan, Deborah A.; Ding Wen; Kelly, John F.; Chakravarthy, Balu R.

    2006-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a widely used small-molecule phosphatase inhibitor that is thought to selectively inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Multiple studies have demonstrated that PP2A activity is compromised in Brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Thus, we set out to determine changes in phosphorylation that occur upon OA treatment of neuronal cells. Utilizing isotope-coded affinity tags and mass spectrometry analysis, we determined the relative abundance of proteins in a phosphoprotein enriched fraction from control and OA-treated primary cortical neurons. We identified many proteins whose phosphorylation state is regulated by OA, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β, collapsin-response mediator proteins (DRP-2, DPYSL-5, and CRMP-4), and the B subunit of PP2A itself. Most interestingly, we have found that complexin 2, an important regulator of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity, is phosphorylated at serine 93 upon OA treatment of neurons. This is First report of a phosphorylation site on complexin 2

  2. Using physical approaches for the attenuation of lactic acid bacteria in an organic rice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Casanova, Francesco Pio; Petruzzi, Leonardo; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-02-01

    A wild strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from an Italian sourdough, was inoculated in an organic rice drink; however, it caused a strong acidification. Thus, it was preliminary processed through homogenization (single or multiple passes) or sonication (US) and then inoculated in the beverage. The samples were stored at 4 °C and analyzed to assess pH, production of lactic acid, viable count and sensory scores. A US-2-step process (power, 80%) could control acidification; viability and sensory traits were never affected by sonication. This result was confirmed on two commercial probiotics (Lactobacillus casei LC01 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12). In the 2nd step samples inoculated with attenuated strains were also stored under thermal abuse conditions (25 or 37 °C for 4 or 24 h, then at 4 °C) and the results showed that US could control acidification for a short thermal abuse. Finally, US-attenuated starter cultures were inoculated in the rice drink containing β-glucans as healthy compounds; the targets did not cause any significant change of prebiotic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Apelo, S I; Knapp, J R; Hanigan, M D

    2014-07-01

    In current dairy production systems, an average of 25% of dietary N is captured in milk, with the remainder being excreted in urine and feces. About 60% of total N losses occur postabsorption. Splanchnic tissues extract a fixed proportion of total inflow of each essential AA (EAA). Those EAA removed by splanchnic tissues and not incorporated into protein are subjected to catabolism, with the resulting N converted to urea. Splanchnic affinity varies among individual EAA, from several fold lower than mammary glands' affinity for the branched-chain AA to similar or higher affinity for Phe, Met, His, and Arg. On average, 85% of absorbed EAA appear in peripheral circulation, indicating that first-pass removal is not the main source of loss. Essential AA in excess of the needs of the mammary glands return to general circulation. High splanchnic blood flow dictates that a large proportion of EAA that return to general circulation flow through splanchnic tissues. In association with this constant recycling, EAA are removed and catabolized by splanchnic tissues. This results in splanchnic catabolism equaling or surpassing the use of many EAA for milk protein synthesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that EAA, energy substrates, and hormones activate signaling pathways that in turn regulate local blood flow, tissue extraction of EAA, and rates of milk protein synthesis. These recent findings would allow manipulation of dairy diets to maximize mammary uptake of EAA and reduce catabolism by splanchnic tissues. Dairy cattle nutrient requirement systems consider EAA requirements in aggregate as metabolizable protein (MP) and assume a fixed efficiency of MP use for milk protein. Lysine and Met sufficiency is only considered after MP requirements have been met. By doing so, requirement systems limit the scope of diet manipulation to achieve improved gross N efficiency. Therefore, this review focuses on understanding the dynamics of EAA metabolism in mammary and splanchnic

  4. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janire Mingo

    Full Text Available Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis.

  5. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Polis, Chelsea B.; Cox, Carie M.; Tun?alp, ?zge; McLain, Alexander C.; Thoma, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? SUMMARY ANSWER Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Despite associations with serious negative hea...

  6. Interplay of mycolic acids, antimycobacterial compounds and pulmonary surfactant membrane: a biophysical approach to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marina; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Lúcio, Marlene; Caio, João M; Moiteiro, Cristina; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Camacho, Luis

    2013-02-01

    This work focuses on the interaction of mycolic acids (MAs) and two antimycobacterial compounds (Rifabutin and N'-acetyl-Rifabutin) at the pulmonary membrane level to convey a biophysical perspective of their role in disease. For this purpose, accurate biophysical techniques (Langmuir isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and polarization-modulation infrared reflection spectroscopy) and lipid model systems were used to mimic biomembranes: MAs mimic bacterial lipids of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) membrane, whereas Curosurf® was used as the human pulmonary surfactant (PS) membrane model. The results obtained show that high quantities of MAs are responsible for significant changes on PS biophysical properties. At the dynamic inspiratory surface tension, high amounts of MAs decrease the order of the lipid monolayer, which appears to be a concentration dependent effect. These results suggest that the amount of MAs might play a critical role in the initial access of the bacteria to their targets. Both molecules also interact with the PS monolayer at the dynamic inspiratory surface. However, in the presence of higher amounts of MAs, both compounds improve the phospholipid packing and, therefore, the order of the lipid surfactant monolayer. In summary, this work discloses the putative protective effects of antimycobacterial compounds against the MAs induced biophysical impairment of PS lipid monolayers. These protective effects are most of the times overlooked, but can constitute an additional therapeutic value in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) and may provide significant insights for the design of new and more efficient anti-Tb drugs based on their behavior as membrane ordering agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel approaches to tumor imaging in mice: pre targeting with radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Qu, T.; Chang, F.; Rusckowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text.Since targeting of tumour by conventional methods is not consistently favorable, we have considered pre targeting with separate administrations of anti tumour antibody and radiolabel. As an alternative to streptavidin and biotin for this application, we earlier considered single stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA) bound to an irrelevant protein administered first and allowed to diffuse non specifically into tumour. This was followed later by the administration of 99 m Tc labeled complementary PNA. We now report on the first studies with PNA conjugated anti tumour antibody to allow specific binding. PNA was conjugated to the NRLU-10 IgG antibody while the complementary PNA (amine derivatized) was labeled with ((m Tc using MAG3. LS174T tumour-bearing nude mice received IV 200 ug of the PNA-antibody conjugate and 20 h later, received IV 100 ug (130 uCl) of 99m Tc- complementary PNA. Animals were imaged and sacrificed 5 h later. Because of rapid clearance, at sacrifice all tissue levels of 99 m Tc were low, the highest being kidneys at about 4%ID/gm. Tumour uptake was 0.55%ID/gm for the study animals vs. 0. 13 for controls and tumour/muscle ratios were 9.8 vs. 3.6 respectively. These values represent a 2.5-fold improvement in localization over the nonspecific study. The whole body images also reflected the superior targeting of study vs. control animals. We conclude that single-stranded PNAs should be a useful alternative to streptavidin and biotin for pre targeting studies

  8. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive approach for low-temperature startup plasmas using O-X-EBW mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    A mechanism for heating and driving currents in very overdense plasmas is considered based on a double-mode conversion: Ordinary mode to Extraordinary mode to electron Bernstein wave. The possibility of using this mechanism for plasma buildup and current ramp in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is investigated

  9. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications.

  10. Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Sanchez, Tiffany R; van Geen, Alexander; Mey, Jacob L; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Balac, Olgica; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that > 140 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water. As undergoes biologic methylation, which facilitates renal As elimination. In folate-deficient individuals, this process is augmented by folic acid (FA) supplementation, thereby lowering blood As (bAs). Creatinine concentrations in urine are a robust predictor of As methylation patterns. Although the reasons for this are unclear, creatine synthesis is a major consumer of methyl donors, and this synthesis is down-regulated by dietary/supplemental creatine. Our aim was to determine whether 400 or 800 μg FA and/or creatine supplementation lowers bAs in an As-exposed Bangladeshi population. We conducted a clinical trial in which 622 participants were randomized to receive 400 μg FA, 800 μg FA, 3 g creatine, 3 g creatine+400 μg FA, or placebo daily. All participants received an As-removal filter on enrollment, and were followed for 24 weeks. After the 12th week, half of the two FA groups were switched to placebo to evaluate post-treatment bAs patterns. Linear models with repeated measures indicated that the decline in ln(bAs) from baseline in the 800-μg FA group exceeded that of the placebo group (weeks 1-12: β= -0.09, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.01; weeks 13-24: FA continued: β= -0.12, 95% CI: -0.24, -0.00; FA switched to placebo: β= -0.14, 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02). There was no rebound in bAs related to cessation of FA supplementation. Declines in bAs observed in the remaining treatment arms were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. In this mixed folate-deficient/replete study population, 12- and 24-week treatment with 800 μg (but not 400 μg) FA lowered bAs to a greater extent than placebo; this was sustained 12 weeks after FA cessation. In future studies, we will evaluate whether FA and/or creatine altered As methylation profiles.

  11. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny

    2014-01-01

    We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature

  12. Large-eddy-simulation approach in understanding flow structures of 2D turbulent density currents over sloping surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayamatullah, M.; Rao Pillalamarri, Narasimha; Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2018-04-01

    A numerical investigation was performed to understand the flow dynamics of 2D density currents over sloping surfaces. Large eddy simulation was conducted for lock-exchange (L-E) release currents and overflows. 2D Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the Boussinesq approximation. The effects of the lock aspect-ratio (height/length of lock), slope, and Reynolds number on the flow structures and turbulence mixing have been analyzed. Results have confirmed buoyancy within the head of the two-dimensional currents is not conserved which contradicts the classical thermal theory. The lock aspect-ratio dictates the fraction of initial buoyancy which is carried by the head of the current at the beginning of the slumping (horizontal) and accelerating phase (over a slope), which has important implications on turbulence kinetic energy production, and hence mixing in the current. For L-E flows over a slope, increasing slope angle enhances the turbulence production. Increasing slope results in shear reversal within the density current resulting in shear-instabilities. Differences in turbulence production mechanisms and flow structures exist between the L-E and constant-flux release currents resulting in significant differences in the flow characteristics between different releases.

  13. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  14. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  15. Soft and hard computing approaches for real-time prediction of currents in a tide-dominated coastal area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charhate, S.B.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.

    . Owing to the complex real sea conditions, such methods may not always yield satisfactory results. This paper discusses a few alternative approaches based on the soft computing tools of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP...

  16. Radial expansion of the tail current disruption during substorms: A new approach to the substorm onset region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, S.; Kokubun, S.; Russell, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    The substorm onset region and the radial development of the tail current disruption are examined from a new viewpoint. The reconfiguration of the magnetotail field at substorm onset can be understood in terms of a sudden decrease (disruption) in tail current intensity. The north-south component (B Z ) is very sensitive to whether the spacecraft position is earthward or tailward of the disruption region, while the change in Sun-Earth component (B X ) is most sensitive to the change in tail current intensity near the spacecraft. If the current disruption starts in a localized range of radial distance and expands radially, a distinctive phase relationship between the changes in B X and B Z is expected to be observed. This phase relationship depends on whether the current disruption starts on the earthward side or the tailward side of the spacecraft. Thus it is possible to infer the direction of the radial expansion of the current disruption from magnetic field data of a single spacecraft. This method is applied to ISEE observations of a tail reconfiguration event that occurred on March 6, 1979. The phase relationship indicates that eh disruption region expanded tailward from the earthward side of the spacecraft during the event. This model prediction is consistent with the time lag of magnetic signatures observed by the two ISEE spacecraft. The expansion velocity is estimated at 2 R E /min (∼200 km/s) for this event. Furthermore, it is found that the observed magnetic signatures can be reproduced to a good approximation by a simple geometrical model of the current disruption. The method is used statistically for 13 events selected from the ISEE magnetometer data. It is found that the current disruption usually starts in the near-Earth magnetotail (|X| E ) and often within 15 R E of the Earth

  17. Decentralized Load Sharing in a Low-Voltage Direct Current Microgrid With an Adaptive Droop Approach Based on a Superimposed Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Conventional droop methods for load sharing control in low-voltage direct current microgrids suffer from poor power sharing and voltage regulation, especially in the case when operating many dc sources with long feeders. Hence, the communication-based approaches are employed to improve the load s...

  18. Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

  19. Analytical Approach to Circulating Current Mitigation in Hexagram Converter-Based Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Using Multiwinding Coupled Inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullrahman A. Al-Shamma’a

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexagram multilevel converter (HMC is composed of six conventional two-level voltage source converters (VSCs, where each VSC module is connected to a string of PV arrays. The VSC modules are connected through inductors, which are essential to minimize the circulating current. Selecting inductors with suitable inductance is no simple process, where the inductance value should be large to minimize the circulating current as well as small to reduce an extra voltage drop. This paper analyzes the utilization of a multiwinding (e.g., two, three, and six windings coupled inductor to interconnect the six VSC modules instead of six single inductors, to minimize the circulating current inside the HMC. Then, a theoretical relationship between the total impedance to the circulating current, the number of coupled inductor windings, and the magnetizing inductance is derived. Owing to the coupled inductors, the impedance on the circulating current path is a multiple of six times the magnetizing inductance, whereas the terminal voltage is slightly affected by the leakage inductance. The HMC is controlled to work under variable solar radiation, providing active power to the grid. Additional functions such as DSTATCOM, during daytime, are also demonstrated. The controller performance is found to be satisfactory for both active and reactive power supplies.

  20. A photocatalytic approach in micro arc oxidation of WO3-TiO2 nano porous semiconductors under pulse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Molaei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: WO3-TiO2 layers were fabricated via microarc oxidation process and effect of the electrical current type on their photocatalytic performance under UV and visible illuminations was investigated. Highlights: → WO3-TiO2 layers were grown by MAO under pulse current for the first time. → Effect of the frequency and duty cycle on properties of the layers was studied. → A correlation between catalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. - Abstract: Since ultraviolet (UV) irradiation cannot be applied for a long time in practical applications, it is necessary to develop a narrow band gap photocatalyst to decompose environmental pollutants under visible irradiation. In this research, (WO 3 ) x -(TiO 2 ) 1-x nano-porous layers were fabricated by micro arc oxidation (MAO) and influence of the electrical current type on their physical and chemical properties was investigated. Morphological studies, performed by SEM technique, revealed that pore size and roughness decreased with the frequency and increased with the duty cycle. The pulse-grown layers had a finer structure when compared to those fabricated under direct current. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and tungsten oxide phases. Applying pulse current resulted in higher anatase relative contents. Band gap energies of the MAO-grown TiO 2 and WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were respectively measured as 3.14 and 2.96 eV. The layers fabricated under pulse current exhibited higher photoactivity under ultraviolet and visible illuminations as compared to the layers grown under direct current. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model material to examine photocatalytic performance of the layers. Maximum MB-photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-synthesized WO 3 -TiO 2 layers were measured as 0.0269 and 0.0129 min -1 for ultraviolet and visible irradiations. For layers grown under direct current, the rate constants were lower, i.e. 0.0228 and 0