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Sample records for acids current approaches

  1. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  2. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In this way the nucleic acids act as drug for inhibiting gene expression or protein synthesis. This article examines ... The majority of currently employed pharmacological approaches for ..... of antiviral and anticancer in near future. REFERENCE.

  3. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  4. Bruxism and Current Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Eren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the mastication system disorders bruxism is a parafunctional behavior that comes from psychophysiological origin. Epidemiologic studies have reported great variability of bruxism prevalence. The factors that could cause bruxism is highly controversial. There are different opinions on this issue. The etiologic factors of bruxism include stress, malnutrition, allergic and endocrinologic diseases, central nervous system disorders, genetic factors, medicines, malocclusion, and wrong dental treatment. The aim of treatment of bruxism is to prevent damage that may occur on teeth and in the temporomandibular joint and to eliminate pain. Dental treatment, physical therapy, pharmacological treatment and behavioral and cognitive therapy can be considered for this purpose of treatment. This review summarizes the etiologic factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, and current treatment approaches of patient with bruxism. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 241-258

  5. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otáhal, P; Trněný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor -specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B -cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B- cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field.

  6. Current clinical approach to achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander J Eckardt; Volker F Eckardt

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus.The classical features are incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and a lack of peristalsis in the tubular esophagus.These motor abnormalities lead to dysphagia,stasis,regurgitation,weight loss,or secondary respiratory complications.Although major strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare disorder,including a probable autoimmune mediated destruction of inhibitory neurons in response to an unknown insult in genetically susceptible individuals,a definite trigger has not been identified.The diagnosis of achalasia is suggested by clinical features and confirmed by further diagnostic tests,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD),manometry or barium swallow.These studies are not only used to exclude pseudoachalasia,but also might help to categorize the disease by severity or clinical subtype.Recent advances in diagnostic methods,including high resolution manometry (HRM),might allow prediction of treatment responses.The primary treatments for achieving long-term symptom relief are surgery and endoscopic methods.Although limited high-quality data exist,it appears that laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is superior to endoscopic methods in achieving long-term relief of symptoms in the majority of patients.However,the current clinical approach to achalasia will depend not only on patients' characteristics and clinical subtypes of the disease,but also on local expertise and patient preferences.

  7. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind...

  8. Reconciling current approaches to blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, blindsight is still a mysterious and controversial topic in consciousness research. Currently, many researchers tend to think of it as an ideal phenomenon to investigate neural correlates of consciousness, whereas others believe that blindsight is in fact a kind...

  9. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  10. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired.

  11. Current Approaches for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infections in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Vikram Vemula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advancement in vaccine and virus research, influenza continues to be a major public health concern. Each year in the United States of America, influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations and 30,000–50,000 deaths. Accurate and early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Several different approaches are currently available for diagnosis of influenza infections in humans. These include viral isolation in cell culture, immunofluorescence assays, nucleic acid amplification tests, immunochromatography-based rapid diagnostic tests, etc. Newer diagnostic approaches are being developed to overcome the limitations associated with some of the conventional detection methods. This review discusses diagnostic approaches currently available for detection of influenza viruses in humans.

  12. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  13. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  14. Current Understanding of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-14 carbons in length) and an anionic head group (sulfonate, carboxylate or phosphonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and hav...

  15. Computational Approaches to Nucleic Acid Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hosna; Aminpour, Maral; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-10-12

    Recent advances in experimental DNA origami have dramatically expanded the horizon of DNA nanotechnology. Complex 3D suprastructures have been designed and developed using DNA origami with applications in biomaterial science, nanomedicine, nanorobotics, and molecular computation. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) origami has recently been realized as a new approach. Similar to DNA, RNA molecules can be designed to form complex 3D structures through complementary base pairings. RNA origami structures are, however, more compact and more thermodynamically stable due to RNA's non-canonical base pairing and tertiary interactions. With all these advantages, the development of RNA origami lags behind DNA origami by a large gap. Furthermore, although computational methods have proven to be effective in designing DNA and RNA origami structures and in their evaluation, advances in computational nucleic acid origami is even more limited. In this paper, we review major milestones in experimental and computational DNA and RNA origami and present current challenges in these fields. We believe collaboration between experimental nanotechnologists and computer scientists are critical for advancing these new research paradigms.

  16. Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Billiard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michel BilliardDepartment of Neurology, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: The management of narcolepsy is presently at a turning point. Three main avenues are considered in this review: 1 Two tendencies characterize the conventional treatment of narcolepsy. Modafinil has replaced methylphenidate and amphetamine as the first-line treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and sleep attacks, based on randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of modafinil, but on no direct comparison of modafinil versus traditional stimulants. For cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, new antidepressants tend to replace tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in spite of a lack of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these compounds; 2 The conventional treatment of narcolepsy is now challenged by sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of gammahydroxybutyrate, based on a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials and a long-term open label study. This treatment has a fairly good efficacy and is active on all symptoms of narcolepsy. Careful titration up to an adequate level is essential both to obtain positive results and avoid adverse effects; 3 A series of new treatments are currently being tested, either in animal models or in humans, They include novel stimulant and anticataplectic drugs, endocrine therapy, and, more attractively, totally new approaches based on the present state of knowledge of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy, hypocretine-based therapies, and immunotherapy.Keywords: narcolepsy, treatment, conventional drugs, modafinil, sodium oxybate, future treatments

  17. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  18. Current approach to burn critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, A E; Haberal, M

    2007-10-01

    Burn trauma is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Advancements in resuscitation, surgical tecniques, infection control and nutritional/metaolic support decreased mortality and morbidity. This article intends to review current outlines for initial treatment and resuscitation nutritional/metabolic support and wound management peculiar to burn patients.

  19. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  20. Current approaches to gene regulatory network modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazma Alvis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many different approaches have been developed to model and simulate gene regulatory networks. We proposed the following categories for gene regulatory network models: network parts lists, network topology models, network control logic models, and dynamic models. Here we will describe some examples for each of these categories. We will study the topology of gene regulatory networks in yeast in more detail, comparing a direct network derived from transcription factor binding data and an indirect network derived from genome-wide expression data in mutants. Regarding the network dynamics we briefly describe discrete and continuous approaches to network modelling, then describe a hybrid model called Finite State Linear Model and demonstrate that some simple network dynamics can be simulated in this model.

  1. Thalassemia: current approach to an old disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Louise; Singer, Sylvia Titi

    2002-12-01

    This article discusses the approach for recognition, diagnosis, and management of the thalassemias, and reviews new prospects of therapy, focusing mostly on the beta-thalassemias--the more severe and clinically important type, beta-thalassemia major is typically treated with regular transfusion and chelation therapy. New strategies for specific therapy including monitoring of iron induced organ damage, fetal hemoglobin augmentation as an alternative for transfusions, bone marrow transplantation offer hope for prevention of complications and better care of the beta-thalassemias.

  2. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Izol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis is an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. This painful condition mostly affects young and middle-aged men and diminishes their quality of life. With the recent introduction of a new classification for this disease, more effective approach for the evaluation and management of the patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome has emerged. Nonetheless, no definitely effective treatment regime has yet been described in the literature. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 130-140

  3. Current approaches in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Sarı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age. AF is classified into subtypes according to the duration and/or able to provide sinus rhytym. İnitially, patients should be evaluated for rhythm or rate control for appropriate treatment. Second stage of strategy aimed to investigate the feasibility of anticoagulation therapy. Recently, due to the progress made in treatment with rhythm control and anticoagulation therapy, either American or European guidelines have been renovated. These developments have taken place in the newly published guide. In this article, the current change in the management of AF is discussed.

  4. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  5. Current endoscopic approach to indeterminate biliary strictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David W Victor; Stuart Sherman; Tarkan Karakan; Mouen A Khashab

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are considered indeterminate when basic work-up,including transabdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with routine cytologic brushing,are non-diagnostic.Indeterminate biliary strictures can easily be mischaracterized which may dramatically affect patient's outcome.Early and accurate diagnosis of malignancy impacts not only a patient's candidacy for surgery,but also potential timely targeted chemotherapies.A significant portion of patients with indeterminate biliary strictures have benign disease and accurate diagnosis is,thus,paramount to avoid unnecessary surgery.Current sampling strategies have suboptimal accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy.Emerging data on other diagnostic modalities,such as ancillary cytology techniques,single operator cholangioscopy,and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration,revealed promising results with much improved sensitivity.

  6. Current approach to cutaneous mastocytosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Özçeker, Deniz

    2016-09-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by clonal proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in one of more organs which may lead to different clinical pictures. Pathological increase and activation of mast cells in various tissues can cause different clinical pictures. Cutaneous mastocytosis limited to the skin is the most typical clinical picture observed in children and systemic mastocytosis is very rare in the pediatric age group. The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis is based on clinical findings, but is often delayed due to lack of clinical awareness of the disease and lack of its consideration in the differential diagnosis. This article focuses on the current diagnosis, management and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis in children in order to increase awareness about this issue.

  7. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: The current management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-04-01

    The current recommendation for catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) management is the standard triple therapy with anticoagulation (AC), glucocorticoids (GCs), plasma exchange (PE), and/or intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). Of note, only AC has a significant effect on the prognosis of these patients. However, from the experimental or basic point of view, there is only indirect evidence to advocate the use of these immunomodulatory therapies (GC, PE, and IVIG) in CAPS. Recently, there have been reports of severe or refractory CAPS patients treated with the monoclonal antibodies rituximab and eculizumab. The first blocks CD20, a surface protein expressed on the cytoplasmic membrane of B cells, and decreases the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies such as antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The second binds with high affinity to C5 complement protein, inhibiting its cleavage and thus preventing the generation of C5b-C9 complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current therapeutic approaches for plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicolò Martinelli, Carlo Bonifacini, Giovanni RomeoDepartment of Ankle and Foot Surgery, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Almost 1 million Americans are affected by plantar fasciitis (PF, which is the commonest cause of chronic heel pain. This condition is often managed conservatively, and many rehabilitation protocols, some with the aid of orthoses, have been adopted, with good-to-excellent clinical results. Although most cases of chronic PF can be successfully managed with a conservative approach, alternative treatments, including high-energy shock wave therapy and corticosteroid injections, are commonly accepted as second-line treatment when traditional conservative therapy fails. However, surgery is still an important mode of treatment. Recently, new minimally invasive surgical techniques that offer numerous advantages (faster recovery time, early weight-bearing, lower postoperative pain over standard surgical approaches have been proposed, with good results and low complication rates. The purpose of this review is to report new conservative and surgical techniques for the treatment of PF. A literature search for articles about plantar fasciitis was conducted on the PubMed database in order to identify publications addressing the treatments of PF. The literature suggests that, initially, traditional conservative treatments consisting of rest, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, foot orthotics, and stretching exercises can be tried for several weeks. In patients with chronic recalcitrant PF, extracorporeal shock wave therapy or corticosteroid injection can be considered. Surgery (minimally invasive techniques should be considered only after failure of the conservative treatments.Keywords: heel pain, surgery, plantar fasciosis

  9. CURRENT APPROACHES TO CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Choinzonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade malignant gliomas (WHO grade G III–IV account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive treatment, survival rates are still very low with a median reported survival of no more than 1.5 years.Radiation therapy is an integral part of the combined treatment, but often does not influence lethally on resistant tumor cells. Thereby, in recent decades there has been an active search for novel approaches to the treatment of malignant gliomas (chemotherapeutic drugs, biological modifiers, local hyperthermia. Experimental data showed that the effect of high temperatures has both a direct damaging effect on tumor cells and a sensitizing effect. Significant advantages are achieved when the complex treatment of different malignant tumorsincludes local hyperthermia. However data on the treatment of patients with primary and recurrent gliomas G III–IV using local hyperthermia are scarce.The literature review is given in the article provides an overview of the existing treatment methods for brain tumors.

  10. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  11. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  12. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  13. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  14. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  15. Cancer of the cervix: current management and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivnani, Anand T; Rimel, B J; Schink, Julian; Small, William

    2006-11-01

    This article summarizes the current management of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. The topics range from the management of early-stage disease to the phase III randomized studies that have established the current standard of care for patients with locally advanced cancer of the cervix. New approaches to combined-modality therapy with the goal of improving outcomes and decreasing complications are also described.

  16. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  17. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Olesen, Inge A; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    of carcinoma in situ (CIS). This review describes current possible approaches for the detection of CIS. At present, an open testicular biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing the presence of CIS. The tissue section should be of an adequate size, be properly fixed, and evaluation be supported...

  18. LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACROMEGALY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanik, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH), typically from a benign pituitary somatotroph adenoma, that leads to subsequent hypersecretion of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of mortality and progressive worsening of comorbidities. Surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy are currently available treatment approaches for patients with acromegaly, with overall therapeutic goals of lowering GH levels and achieving normal IGF-1 levels, reducing tumor size, improving comorbidities, and minimizing mortality risk. Although surgery can lead to biochemical remission in some patients with acromegaly, many patients will continue to have uncontrolled disease and require additional treatment. We reviewed recently published reports and present a summary of the safety and efficacy of current treatment modalities for patients with acromegaly. A substantial proportion of patients who receive medical therapy or radiotherapy will have persistently elevated GH and/or IGF-1. Because of the serious health consequences of continued elevation of GH and IGF-1, there is a need to improve therapeutic approaches to optimize biochemical control, particularly in high-need patient populations for whom current treatment options provide limited benefit. This review discusses current treatment options for patients with acromegaly, limitations associated with each treatment approach, and areas within the current treatment algorithm, as well as patient populations for which improved therapeutic options are needed. Novel agents in development were also highlighted, which have the potential to improve management of patients with uncontrolled or persistent acromegaly.

  19. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  20. Current approaches to fine mapping of antigen-antibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W Mark; Damschroder, Melissa M; Lowe, David C

    2014-08-01

    A number of different methods are commonly used to map the fine details of the interaction between an antigen and an antibody. Undoubtedly the method that is now most commonly used to give details at the level of individual amino acids and atoms is X-ray crystallography. The feasibility of undertaking crystallographic studies has increased over recent years through the introduction of automation, miniaturization and high throughput processes. However, this still requires a high level of sophistication and expense and cannot be used when the antigen is not amenable to crystallization. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a similar level of detail to crystallography but the technical hurdles are even higher such that it is rarely used in this context. Mutagenesis of either antigen or antibody offers the potential to give information at the amino acid level but suffers from the uncertainty of not knowing whether an effect is direct or indirect due to an effect on the folding of a protein. Other methods such as hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry and the use of short peptides coupled with ELISA-based approaches tend to give mapping information over a peptide region rather than at the level of individual amino acids. It is quite common to use more than one method because of the limitations and even with a crystal structure it can be useful to use mutagenesis to tease apart the contribution of individual amino acids to binding affinity.

  1. A Review of Currently Available Fenofibrate and Fenofibric Acid Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hua; Luoma, John T; Hilleman, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Fenofibrate is a third-generation fibric acid derivative indicated as a monotherapy to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B; to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia; and to reduce triglycerides in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. In this review, the key characteristics of available fenofibrate formulations are examined. A literature search was conducted, focusing on comparative studies examining bioavailability, food effects, absorption, and lipid efficacy. Fenofibrate is highly lipophilic, virtually insoluble in water, and poorly absorbed. Coadministration with meals was necessary to maximize bioavailability of early formulations. Micronized and nanoparticle formulations of fenofibrate with reduced particle sizes were developed, resulting in greater solubility, improved bioavailability, and in some cases, the ability to be given irrespective of food. A recently introduced hydrophilic choline salt of fenofibric acid also can be taken without regard to meals, is absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, has the highest bioavailability among marketed formulations, and is approved for coadministration with a statin. Differences in bioavailability of fenofibrate formulations have resulted in low-dose (40 - 67) mg and standard-dose (120 - 200 mg) formulations. Different formulations are not equivalent on a milligram-to-milligram basis. In order to prevent medication errors, resulting in underdosing or overdosing with attendant consequences, it is important for healthcare providers to recognize that the formulations of fenofibrate and fenofibric acid that are currently available vary substantially in relation to food effect, equivalency on a milligram-to-milligram basis, and indication to be coadministered with a statin.

  2. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU.

  3. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  4. Current Therapeutic Strategies and Novel Approaches in Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kosei; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Stresing, Verena; Mori, Kanji; Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and metastatic osteosarcoma has stagnated in the past several decades. Thus, current conventional therapy consists of multi-agent chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, which is not fully adequate for osteosarcoma treatment. Innovative drugs and approaches are needed to further improve outcome in osteosarcoma patients. This review describes the current management of osteosarcoma as well as potential new therapies. PMID:24216993

  5. Current Therapeutic Strategies and Novel Approaches in Osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kosei, E-mail: andokercgv@gmail.com [INSERM, UMR 957, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Physiopathologie de la Résorption Osseuse et Therapie des Tumeurs Osseuses Primitives, Université de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universités, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Equipe Labellisee Ligue 2012, Nantes, 44035 (France); Heymann, Marie-Françoise [INSERM, UMR 957, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Physiopathologie de la Résorption Osseuse et Therapie des Tumeurs Osseuses Primitives, Université de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universités, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Equipe Labellisee Ligue 2012, Nantes, 44035 (France); Nantes University Hospital, Nantes 44035 (France); Stresing, Verena [INSERM, UMR 957, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Physiopathologie de la Résorption Osseuse et Therapie des Tumeurs Osseuses Primitives, Université de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universités, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Nantes University Hospital, Nantes 44035 (France); Mori, Kanji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa-cho, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique [INSERM, UMR 957, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Physiopathologie de la Résorption Osseuse et Therapie des Tumeurs Osseuses Primitives, Université de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universités, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, 44035 Nantes (France); Equipe Labellisee Ligue 2012, Nantes, 44035 (France); Nantes University Hospital, Nantes 44035 (France)

    2013-05-24

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and metastatic osteosarcoma has stagnated in the past several decades. Thus, current conventional therapy consists of multi-agent chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, which is not fully adequate for osteosarcoma treatment. Innovative drugs and approaches are needed to further improve outcome in osteosarcoma patients. This review describes the current management of osteosarcoma as well as potential new therapies.

  6. Chiral lagrangian approach to exchange vector currents in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Park, T S; Rho, M; Park, Tae Sun; Min, Dong Pil; Rho, Mannque

    1995-01-01

    Exchange vector currents are calculated up to one-loop order (corresponding to next-to-next-to-leading order) in chiral perturbation theory. As an illustration of the power of the approach, we apply the formalism to the classic nuclear process n+p\\rightarrow d +\\gamma at thermal energy. The exchange current correction comes out to be (4.5 \\pm 0.3) \\% in amplitude giving a predicted cross section \\sigma= (334\\pm 3)\\ {\\mbox mb} in excellent agreement with the experimental value (334.2\\pm 0.5)\\ {\\mbox mb}. Together with the axial charge transitions computed previously, this result provides a strong support for the power of chiral Lagrangians in nuclear physics. As a by-product of our results, we suggest an open problem in the application of chiral Lagrangian approach to nuclear processes that has to do with giving a physical meaning to the short-range correlations that play an important role in nuclei.

  7. Current nutritional approaches in managing autism spectrum disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekici, Hande; Sanlier, Nevin

    2017-08-01

    The link between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a complex developmental disorder manifesting itself in significant delays or deviation in interaction and communication, has provided a fresh point of view and signals that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of ASD, as well as play an active role in treatment by alleviating symptoms. In this review study aimed at evaluating, with scientific and concrete proof, the current medical nutrition implementations on ASD, existing medical nutrition therapies have been addressed and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed in light of current research. We reviewed articles regarding the medical nutritional therapy of autism on current nutritional approaches selected from PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO, and databases about autism and nutrition. The research put forward that in individuals with ASD, while gluten-free/casein-free and ketogenic diets, camel milk, curcumin, probiotics, and fermentable foods can play a role in alleviating ASD symptoms, consumption of sugar, additives, pesticides, genetically modified organisms, inorganic processed foods, and hard-to-digest starches may aggravate symptoms. Further prospective controlled trials with large sample sizes are needed before recommendations can be made regarding the ideal ASD diet. This review emphasizes the value of identifying current nutritional approaches specific to individuals with ASD and integrating their effects on symptoms to the conversation and presents suggestions for future research designed to identify medical nutrition therapies targeting this population to better understand the link between ASD and nutrition.

  8. Fatty acid and vitamin interventions in adults with schizophrenia: a systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mok, Yee Ming; Honer, William G; Sim, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Current psychopharmacological approaches to reduce psychotic phenomenology in schizophrenia are associated with adverse effects including extrapyramidal and metabolic side effects. In view of the emerging data on nutritional supplementation interventions in schizophrenia which are not entirely consistent, we aimed to review existent studies focusing on fatty acid and vitamin interventions and summarise current evidence on such nutritional supplementations in schizophrenia. We searched the digital databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLINK, PubMed/Medline) for relevant studies pertaining to fatty acid and vitamin supplementation interventions in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia up to February 2015. Overall, there were more studies conducted on fatty acid over vitamin supplementations in patients with schizophrenia. There were more positive findings in support of fatty acid supplementation compared with vitamin supplementation in the context of specific intervention features (dose of nutrient supplementation, single versus combination nutritional interventions, specific antipsychotic), subject features (older age, long duration of illness, baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid levels) and clinical outcomes (improvements of psychotic symptoms and/or extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotics). However, investigations of both supplementation modalities were limited by relatively small study sample sizes, short study duration, which precluded further segmentation of impact on more diverse patient subtypes and symptom profiles. Future studies may consider examining larger samples over a longer time period, recruiting younger subjects with shorter duration of illness, examination of different clinical features including specific cognitive domains, and use of single versus combination nutritional interventions.

  9. Potentiometric determination of the total acidity of humic acids by constant-current coulometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Ferri, Diego; Manfredi, Carla; Vasca, Ermanno

    2007-01-16

    A straightforward method for both the quantitative and the equilibrium analysis of humic acids in solution, based on the combination of potentiometry with coulometry, is presented. The method is based on potentiometric titrations of alkaline solutions containing, besides the humic acid sample, also NaClO(4) 1M; by means of constant current coulometry the analytical acidity in the solutions is increased with a high precision, until the formation of a solid phase occurs. Hence, the total acid content of the macromolecules may be determined from the e.m.f. data by using modified Gran plots or least-squares sum minimization programs as well. It is proposed to use the pK(w) value in the ionic medium as a check of the correctness of each experiment; this datum may be readily obtained as a side-result in each titration. Modelling acid-base equilibria of the HA samples analysed was also performed, on the basis of the buffer capacity variations occurring during each titration. The experimental data fit, having the least standard deviation, was obtained assuming a mixture of three monoprotic acids (HX, HY, HZ) having about the same analytical concentration, whose acid dissociation constants in NaClO(4) 1M at 25 degrees C were pK(HX)=3.9+/-0.2, pK(HY)=7.5+/-0.3, pK(HZ)=9.5+/-0.2, respectively. With the proposed method the handling of alkaline HA solutions, the titration with very dilute NaOH or HCl solutions and the need for the availability of very small volumes of titrant to be added by microburettes may be avoided.

  10. Personalized medicine and treatment approaches in hypertension: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrd JB

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available James Brian Byrd Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: In the US, hypertension affects one in three adults. Current guideline-based treatment of hypertension involves little diagnostic testing. A more personalized approach to the treatment of hypertension might be of use. Several methods of personalized treatment have been proposed and vetted to varying degrees. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the rationale for personalized therapy in hypertension, barriers to its development and implementation, some influential examples of proposed personalization measures, and a view of future efforts. Keywords: hypertension, blood pressure, personalized medicine

  11. Electrostatic discharge current linear approach and circuit design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsivelis, P. K.; Fotis, G. P.; Gonos, I. F.; Koussiouris, T. G.; Stathopulos, I. A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zographou 157 80, Athens (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomenon is a great threat to all electronic devices and ICs. An electric charge passing rapidly from a charged body to another can seriously harm the last one. However, there is a lack in a linear mathematical approach which will make it possible to design a circuit capable of producing such a sophisticated current waveform. The commonly accepted electrostatic discharge current waveform is the one set by the IEC 61000-4-2. However, the over-simplified circuit included in the same standard is incapable of producing such a waveform. Treating the electrostatic discharge current waveform of the IEC 61000-4-2 as reference, an approximation method, based on Prony's method, is developed and applied in order to obtain a linear system's response. Considering a known input, a method to design a circuit, able to generate this ESD current waveform in presented. The circuit synthesis assumes ideal active elements. A simulation is carried out using the PSpice software. (authors)

  12. Current Approaches to the Establishment of Credit Risk Specific Provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Nitu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the new Basel II and IFRS approaches is to make the operations of financial institutions more transparent and thus to create a better basis for the market participants and supervisory authorities to acquire information and make decisions. In the banking sector, a continuous debate is being led, related to the similarities and differences between IFRS approach on loan loss provisions and Basel II approach on calculating the capital requirements, judging against the classical method regarding loan provisions, currently used by the Romanian banks following the Central Bank’s regulations.Banks must take into consideration that IFRS and Basel II objectives are fundamentally different. While IFRS aims to ensure that the financial papers reflect adequately the losses recorded at each balance sheet date, the Basel II objective is to ensure that the bank has enough provisions or capital in order to face expected losses in the next 12 months and eventual unexpected losses.Consequently, there are clear differences between the objectives of the two models. Basel II works on statistical modeling of expected losses while IFRS, although allowing statistical models, requires a trigger event to have occurred before they can be used. IAS 39 specifically states that losses that are expected as a result of future events, no matter how likely, are not recognized. This is a clear and fundamental area of difference between the two frameworks.

  13. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  14. Two complementary approaches to right-handed currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmler, Katrin M.

    2012-04-17

    Flavour observables impose strong constraints on models of new physics. We study whether right-handed currents can provide a realistic extension to the Standard Model. We analyse two complementary models. These setups lead to new flavour violating interactions in the right-handed sector. We first consider a bottom-up approach assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group broken only by the Yukawa couplings. In this model the vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke problem can be solved. Secondly we study the Left-Right Model. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis, including all known experimental constraints from {Delta}F=2 observables and the decay B {yields}X{sub s}{gamma} simultaneously. We observe that there exist regions in parameter space in accordance with the all data. In this model all flavour anomalies can be resolved except the vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke problem.

  15. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available he present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  16. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  17. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

  18. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  19. Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: current therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Giovanni; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Khamashta, Munther A

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the less understood aspect of the disease. Its recognition and treatment continue to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Due to the lack of controlled randomized trials, current therapeutic approach is still empirical and based on clinical experience. The therapeutic choice depends on accurate diagnosis, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanism, severity of the presenting neuropsychiatric symptoms, and on prompt identification and management of contributing causes of CNS disease. Mild neuropsychiatric manifestations may need symptomatic treatment only. In more severe CNS disease it is important to distinguish between thrombotic and non-thrombotic mechanisms. Focal CNS manifestations, particularly TIA and stroke, are associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Anticoagulation is warranted in patients with thrombotic disease, particularly in those with the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). Other CNS manifestations, such as demyelinating syndrome, transverse myelitis, chorea, seizures, migraine and/or cognitive dysfunction, when associated with persistent positivity for aPL, may also benefit from anticoagulation in selected patients. Severe diffuse CNS manifestations, such as acute confusional state, generalised seizures, mood disorders and psychosis, generally require corticosteroids in the first instance. Pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy may help when more severe manifestations are refractory to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, generally when response is not seen in 3-5 days. Plasmapheresis may also be added in severe cases of symptoms refractory to conventional treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulins, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, intratecal methotrexate and dexametasone deserve further studies to confirm their

  20. CURRENT APPROACHES TO UNIVERSAL VACCINE AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Esmagambetov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a seasonal infectious disease widespread across the globe. In Russia the share of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections account for up to 90% of all infectious diseases. Scientific and reasonable method of influenza prevention is vaccination. However, traditional current influenza vaccines can’t induce protection against various virus strains that differ substantially in terms of their antigenic structure, and thus require periodic updates to its immunogenic components. In addition, there is the risk of a pandemic caused by an entirely new antigen in relation to variants of influenza virus A. Attempts to improve on traditional approaches to vaccination have focused primarily on improving production technologies and to increase immunogenicity of vaccines. Therefore, the urgent task is the creation of vaccines able to induce immune response a broad spectrum against different influenza virus strains and human strains of avian influenza, also can cause disease in humans. Protective effect of universal vaccine should be the induction of integrated immune response, based on the formulation of cross-reactive antibodies and T cells. The development of such universal vaccine could remove the need for periodical strain composition update of existing vaccines and, accor dingly, will be able to give the vaccine manufacturer itself, production planning regardless of epidemic seasons. Currently, the most widely studied antigens as key components of flu vaccines are proteins M2 and NP as well as the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. This review summarizes and lists some data of domestic and foreign research on a universal influenza virus vaccine.

  1. Current Perspectives on Desmoid Tumors: The Mayo Clinic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Okuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors are a rare group of locally aggressive, non malignant tumors of fibroblastic origin that can lead to significant morbidity due to local invasion. Despite advances in the understanding of these tumors, their natural history is incompletely understood and the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Local control is the main goal of treatment and there has been a change in philosophy regarding the management of these tumors from aggressive surgical resection to function preservation. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to plan local control with acceptable morbidity. The current Mayo Clinic algorithm for the treatment of these tumors is based on institutional experience and the available evidence in the literature: asymptomatic/non progressive lesions away from vital structures are managed with observation and regular imaging; primary or recurrent desmoid tumors which are symptomatic or progressive or near vital structures are managed with wide surgical resection when wide surgical margins are possible with minimal functional and cosmetic loss. When positive or close surgical margins are likely, surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy is preferred. If likely functional or cosmetic deficit is unacceptable, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Unresectable lesions are considered for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or newer modalities however an unresectable lesion associated with a painful, functionless, infected extremity is managed with an amputation.

  2. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Thomas G; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, particularly in the elderly. The accompanying symptoms, which include abdominal pain and fatigue, can markedly impair patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic histologic findings of the colonic mucosa. This review focuses on the current approach to evaluation and management of patients with microscopic colitis. Although the incidence of microscopic colitis has been increasing over time, recent epidemiological studies show stabilization at 21.0-24.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Recent research has further expanded our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and emphasized the entity of drug-induced microscopic colitis and the association with celiac disease. Two recent randomized studies have confirmed the effectiveness of oral budesonide for both induction and maintenance treatment of microscopic colitis and is now endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association as first-line treatment. The incidence of microscopic colitis has stabilized at just over 20 cases per 100,000 person-years. Celiac disease and drug-induced microscopic colitis should be considered in all patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis. There are a number of treatments available for patients with microscopic colitis; however, budesonide is the only option well studied in controlled trials and is effective for both induction and maintenance treatment.

  3. Current Approaches and Future Trends to Promote Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, D S; Torres, J; Guedes, R M; Lopes, M A

    2015-09-01

    Tendons are composed by extracellular collagen fibres arranged in regular arrays and are responsible to transmit tensile forces from a muscle to a bone. Due to their poor healing ability, in some cases tendons injuries are debilitating impairments that affect life quality among adult population worldwide. In the last years, attending to the social and economic concern associated to the high prevalence of tendons injuries and the limited success of the available current treatments, several scaffolds have been developed. Some of these scaffolds are intended to be used as graft-augmentation devices and others to fully replace a damaged tendon. The synthetic ones present superior mechanical characteristics compared to biological scaffolds. However, attending to the specific tendons physiology, even the synthetic scaffolds still don´t present the ideal mechanical properties to accomplish a complete and long-term functional tissue repair. Therefore, to enhance tendogenesis when using a tendon engineering approach, several methodologies have been developed to associate with scaffolds, including surface modification and cell seeding.

  4. Current approaches for the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marisol; Gómez-de-León, Andrés; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2013-10-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an infrequent group of diseases defined by autoantibody mediated red blood cell destruction. Correct diagnosis and classification of this condition are essential to provide appropriate treatment. AIHA is divided into warm and cold types according to the characteristics of the autoantibody involved and by the presence of an underlying or associated disorder into primary and secondary AIHA. Due to its low frequency, treatment for AIHA is largely based on small prospective trials, case series, and empirical observations. This review describes in detail the different treatment approaches for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Warm antibody type AIHA should be treated with steroids, to which most patients respond, although relapse can occur and maintenance doses are frequently required. Splenectomy is an effective second line treatment and can provide long-term remission without medication. Rituximab is a useful alternative for steroid refractory patients, those requiring high maintenance doses and unfavorable candidates for surgery. Promising therapeutic modifications with this monoclonal antibody are emerging including drug combinations, lower doses, and long-term use. Primary cold agglutinin disease has been recognized as having a lymphoproliferative monoclonal origin. It is unresponsive to both steroids and splenectomy. Rituximab is currently the best therapeutic alternative for this condition, and several treatment regimens are available with variable responses.

  5. Current Perspectives on Desmoid Tumors: The Mayo Clinic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, Siddharth B. [Musculoskeletal Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States); Rose, Peter S.; Sim, Franklin, E-mail: sim.franklin@mayo.edu [Department of Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st ST SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Okuno, Scott [Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN55905 (United States)

    2011-08-08

    Desmoid tumors are a rare group of locally aggressive, non malignant tumors of fibroblastic origin that can lead to significant morbidity due to local invasion. Despite advances in the understanding of these tumors, their natural history is incompletely understood and the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Local control is the main goal of treatment and there has been a change in philosophy regarding the management of these tumors from aggressive surgical resection to function preservation. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to plan local control with acceptable morbidity. The current Mayo Clinic algorithm for the treatment of these tumors is based on institutional experience and the available evidence in the literature: asymptomatic/non progressive lesions away from vital structures are managed with observation and regular imaging; primary or recurrent desmoid tumors which are symptomatic or progressive or near vital structures are managed with wide surgical resection when wide surgical margins are possible with minimal functional and cosmetic loss. When positive or close surgical margins are likely, surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy is preferred. If likely functional or cosmetic deficit is unacceptable, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. Unresectable lesions are considered for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or newer modalities however an unresectable lesion associated with a painful, functionless, infected extremity is managed with an amputation.

  6. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  7. Opportunities to overcome the current limitations and challenges for efficient microbial production of optically pure lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-20

    There has been growing interest in the microbial production of optically pure lactic acid due to the increased demand for lactic acid-derived environmentally friendly products, for example biodegradable plastic (poly-lactic acid), as an alternative to petroleum-derived materials. To maximize the market uptake of these products, their cost should be competitive and this could be achieved by decreasing the production cost of the raw material, that is, lactic acid. It is of great importance to isolate and develop robust and highly efficient microbial lactic acid producers. Alongside the fermentative substrate and concentration, the yield and productivity of lactic acid are key parameters and major factors in determining the final production cost of lactic acid. In this review, we will discuss the current limitations and challenges for cost-efficient microbial production of optically pure lactic acid. The main obstacles to effective fermentation are the use of food resources, indirect utilization of polymeric sugars, sensitivity to inhibitory compounds released during biomass treatments, substrate inhibition, decreased lactic acid yield and productivity, inefficient utilization of mixed sugars, end product inhibition, increased use of neutralizing agents, contamination problems, and decreased optical purity of lactic acid. Furthermore, opportunities to address and overcome these limitations, either by fermentation technology or metabolic engineering approaches, will be introduced and discussed.

  8. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 matches the acid-gated current in cardiac ischemia-sensing neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Stephani P.; Christopher J. Benson; Adelman, John P.; McCleskey, Edwin W.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac afferents are sensory neurons that mediate angina, pain that occurs when the heart receives insufficient blood supply for its metabolic demand (ischemia). These neurons display enormous acid-evoked depolarizing currents, and they fire action potentials in response to extracellular acidification that accompanies myocardial ischemia. Here we show that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), but no other known acid-sensing ion channel, reproduces the functional featur...

  9. Robotic surgery for gastric tumor: current status and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hae Min; Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques have evolved tremendously over this past century. To maximize the efficacy and minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery, researchers have sought to implement wider application of robotics. Nevertheless, both optimism without sound evidence and fear of new technology obscure the appropriate uses of robotic surgery. In the present review, we attempted to provide a balanced perspective on the current state of robotic gastrectomy, outlining evidence and opportunities for the use thereof. Although evidence is limited, the use of robotics is feasible for gastric cancer surgery, and less than 10 cases of robotic surgery are needed to become proficient therein. Compared to the clinical impact of laparoscopy on gastric cancer surgery, the additional benefits of robotic surgery to patients seem to be limited. Despite additional costs and longer surgeries, robotic surgery reportedly does not offer surgical outcomes superior to those for laparoscopic surgery, according to a recent multicenter study. Meanwhile, however, our in-depth review of retrospective and prospective reports revealed that robots could expand the indications of minimally invasive gastrectomy for patients requiring total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Moreover, we found that robotic gastrectomy is associated with a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes, less bleeding, fewer complications, and shorter hospital stay, compared to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Accordingly, new surgical approaches using advanced technologies, such as near infrared detectors, the Tilepro(®) multi-input display, dual consoles, and the Single-Site(®) system, are under investigation. In conclusion, measuring the additional benefits of robotic over laparoscopic surgery would be difficult and clinically insignificant. Thus, developing new surgical procedures that extend the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery to patients in whom minimally invasive surgery would not be possible is

  10. Diagnostic approach and current treatment options in childhood vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Şahin, Sezgin; Adroviç, Amra; Kasapçopur, Özgür

    2015-12-01

    All inflammatory changes in the vessel wall are defined as vasculitis. Pediatric vasculitis may present with different clinical findings. Although Henoch-Schönlein purpura which is the most common pediatric vasculitis generally recovers spontaneously, it should be monitorized closely because of the risk of renal failure. Although Kawasaki disease is easy to diagnose with its classical findings, the diagnosis may be delayed in case of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease should be considered especially in infants in case of prolonged fever even if the criteria are not fully met and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment should be administered without delay in order to prevent development of coronary artery aneurism. Reaction at the site of administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine may be observed as commonly as cervical lymphadenopathy in Kawasaki disease and may be used as a valuable finding in suspicious cases. Although anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides are rare in children, renal involvement is more common and progression is more severe compared to adults. Hence, efficient and aggressive treatment is required. Takayasu's arteritis is observed commonly in young adult women and rarely in adolescent girls. Therefore, a careful physical examination and blood pressure measurement should be performed in addition to a detailed history in daily practice. In children with unexplained neurological findings, cerebral vasculitis should be considered in the absence of other systemic vasculitides and necessary radiological investigations should be performed in this regard. This review will provide an insight into the understanding of pediatric vasculitis, current diagnostic approaches and prognosis by the aid of new studies.

  11. Robotic surgery for gastric tumor: current status and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hae Min; Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques have evolved tremendously over this past century. To maximize the efficacy and minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery, researchers have sought to implement wider application of robotics. Nevertheless, both optimism without sound evidence and fear of new technology obscure the appropriate uses of robotic surgery. In the present review, we attempted to provide a balanced perspective on the current state of robotic gastrectomy, outlining evidence and opportunities for the use thereof. Although evidence is limited, the use of robotics is feasible for gastric cancer surgery, and less than 10 cases of robotic surgery are needed to become proficient therein. Compared to the clinical impact of laparoscopy on gastric cancer surgery, the additional benefits of robotic surgery to patients seem to be limited. Despite additional costs and longer surgeries, robotic surgery reportedly does not offer surgical outcomes superior to those for laparoscopic surgery, according to a recent multicenter study. Meanwhile, however, our in-depth review of retrospective and prospective reports revealed that robots could expand the indications of minimally invasive gastrectomy for patients requiring total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Moreover, we found that robotic gastrectomy is associated with a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes, less bleeding, fewer complications, and shorter hospital stay, compared to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Accordingly, new surgical approaches using advanced technologies, such as near infrared detectors, the Tilepro® multi-input display, dual consoles, and the Single-Site® system, are under investigation. In conclusion, measuring the additional benefits of robotic over laparoscopic surgery would be difficult and clinically insignificant. Thus, developing new surgical procedures that extend the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery to patients in whom minimally invasive surgery would not be possible is necessary

  12. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  13. Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ira; Kraut, Jeffrey; Ornekian, Vahram; Nguyen, Minhtri K

    2008-05-01

    When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist focuses on molecular, cellular, and whole organ transport processes that modulate the acidity of a given body fluid compartment. The clinician emphasizes the diagnosis, clinical causes, and most appropriate treatment of acid-base disturbances. Historically, two different conceptual frameworks have evolved among clinicians and physiologists for interpreting acid-base phenomena. The traditional or bicarbonate-centered framework relies quantitatively on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, whereas the Stewart or strong ion approach utilizes either the original Stewart equation or its simplified version derived by Constable. In this review, the concepts underlying the bicarbonate-centered and Stewart formulations are analyzed in detail, emphasizing the differences in how each approach characterizes acid-base phenomenology at the molecular level, tissue level, and in the clinical realm. A quantitative comparison of the equations that are currently used in the literature to calculate H(+) concentration ([H(+)]) is included to clear up some of the misconceptions that currently exist in this area. Our analysis demonstrates that while the principle of electroneutrality plays a central role in the strong ion formulation, electroneutrality mechanistically does not dictate a specific [H(+)], and the strong ion and bicarbonate-centered approaches are quantitatively identical even in the presence of nonbicarbonate buffers. Finally, our analysis indicates that the bicarbonate-centered approach utilizing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mechanistic formulation that reflects the underlying acid-base phenomenology.

  14. Genomics of lactic acid bacteria: Current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of foods and feed raw materials where they contribute to flavor and texture of the fermented products. In addition, specific LAB strains are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effects in consumers. Recently, the genome sequencing of LAB is booming and the increased amount of published genomics data brings unprecedented opportunity for us to reveal the important traits of LAB. This review describes the recent progress on LAB genomics and special emphasis is placed on understanding the industry-related physiological features based on genomics analysis. Moreover, strategies to engineer metabolic capacity and stress tolerance of LAB with improved industrial performance are also discussed.

  15. Beyond (eco)design: current approaches to sustainable packaging design

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, R.

    2014-01-01

    Packaging has always received a lot of attention within the field of design for sustainability. The classical approach has been to mainly focus on reducing the impact of the packaging. This approach stems from the ill-informed position that packaging is superfluous, or at best there only for marketing reasons. This is a rather guild-based approach that, if taken to extremes, would lead to complete elimination of packaging, or at most a quintessential brown paper bag. In industry reality thoug...

  16. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  17. Beyond (eco)design: current approaches to sustainable packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.

    2014-01-01

    Packaging has always received a lot of attention within the field of design for sustainability. The classical approach has been to mainly focus on reducing the impact of the packaging. This approach stems from the ill-informed position that packaging is superfluous, or at best there only for marketi

  18. Beyond (eco)design: current approaches to sustainable packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.

    2014-01-01

    Packaging has always received a lot of attention within the field of design for sustainability. The classical approach has been to mainly focus on reducing the impact of the packaging. This approach stems from the ill-informed position that packaging is superfluous, or at best there only for

  19. Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

    1985-01-01

    In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Valproic acid inhibits TTX-resistant sodium currents in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Bartlomiej; Nurowska, Ewa

    2017-09-16

    Valproic acid is frequently prescribed and used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder and other conditions. However, the mechanism of action of valproic acid has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of valproic acid (200 μM) on TTX-resistant sodium currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Valproic acid inhibited the maximal amplitude and did not change the activation parameters of TTX-resistant sodium currents. Moreover, valproic acid (2 μM and 200 μM) shifted the TTX-resistant sodium channel inactivation curve towards hyperpolarisation. In the presence of valproic acid, TTX-resistant sodium currents recovered from inactivation more slowly. Valproic acid did not influence the use-dependent blockade of TTX-resistant sodium currents. This study suggests that a potential new mechanism of the antiepileptic action of valproic acid is, among others, inhibition of TTX-resistant sodium currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HEADROOM APPROACH TO DEVICE DEVELOPMENT: CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Girling, A; Lilford, R; Cole, A; Young, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The headroom approach to medical device development relies on the estimation of a value-based price ceiling at different stages of the development cycle. Such price-ceilings delineate the commercial opportunities for new products in many healthcare systems. We apply a simple model to obtain critical business information as the product proceeds along a development pathway, and indicate some future directions for the development of the approach. METHODS: Health economic modelling in...

  2. Escherichia coli as a fatty acid and biodiesel factory: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziaur; Rashid, Naim; Nawab, Javed; Ilyas, Muhammad; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has received widespread attention as a sustainable, environment-friendly, and alternative source of energy. It can be derived from plant, animal, and microbial organisms in the form of vegetable oil, fats, and lipids, respectively. However, biodiesel production from such sources is not economically feasible due to extensive downstream processes, such as trans-esterification and purification. To obtain cost-effective biodiesel, these bottlenecks need to be overcome. Escherichia coli, a model microorganism, has the potential to produce biodiesel directly from ligno-cellulosic sugars, bypassing trans-esterification. In this process, E. coli is engineered to produce biodiesel using metabolic engineering technology. The entire process of biodiesel production is carried out in a single microbial cell, bypassing the expensive downstream processing steps. This review focuses mainly on production of fatty acid and biodiesel in E. coli using metabolic engineering approaches. In the first part, we describe fatty acid biosynthesis in E. coli. In the second half, we discuss bottlenecks and strategies to enhance the production yield. A complete understanding of current developments in E. coli-based biodiesel production and pathway optimization strategies would reduce production costs for biofuels and plant-derived chemicals.

  3. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...

  4. Current approaches to model extracellular electrical neural microstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eJoucla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high-density microelectrode arrays provide unprecedented possibilities to precisely activate spatially well-controlled central nervous system (CNS areas. However, this requires optimizing stimulating devices, which in turn requires a good understanding of the effects of microstimulation on cells and tissues. In this context, modeling approaches provide flexible ways to predict the outcome of electrical stimulation in terms of CNS activation. In this paper, we present state-of-the-art modeling methods with sufficient details to allow the reader to rapidly build numerical models of neuronal extracellular microstimulation. These include 1 the computation of the electrical potential field created by the stimulation in the tissue, and 2 the response of a target neuron to this field. Two main approaches are described: First we describe the classical hybrid approach that combines the finite element modeling of the potential field with the calculation of the neuron’s response in a cable equation framework (compartmentalized neuron models. Then, we present a whole finite element approach allows the simultaneous calculation of the extracellular and intracellular potentials, by representing the neuronal membrane with a thin-film approximation. This approach was previously introduced in the frame of neural recording, but has never been implemented to determine the effect of extracellular stimulation on the neural response at a sub-compartment level. Here, we show on an example that the latter modeling scheme can reveal important sub-compartment behavior of the neural membrane that cannot be resolved using the hybrid approach. The goal of this paper is also to describe in detail the practical implementation of these methods to allow the reader to easily build new models using standard software packages. These modeling paradigms, depending on the situation, should help build more efficient high-density neural prostheses for CNS rehabilitation.

  5. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  6. Current Approaches to the Understanding of Early Infantile Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, David L.

    This review of the literature provides summaries of the genetic, neurophysiological, and biochemical approaches to understanding autism, with special reference to neuroanatomic, cognitive, and neuropsychological studies of this disorder. Available instruments for the assessment of autism and various treatment alternatives including drug therapy,…

  7. Automatic object recognition: critical issues and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic object recognition, with its diverse applications in numerous fields of science and technology, is permeating many aspects of military and civilian industries. This paper gives an overview of the issues confronting the automatic object recognition field and the approaches being used to address these issues.

  8. Current Approaches to Improving Access to Government Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Carol; Latta, Ann

    Based on the responses of 77 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries to a December 1986 survey of 106 ARL libraries (a 73% response rate), this report profiles the current state of bibliographic access to federal publications. Following a brief discussion of survey background and methodology, a summary of survey results indicates…

  9. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  10. Experimental typography : reviewing the modernist and the current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Makal, Eray

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-66. The intention of this study is to evaluate the experimental typography within the history of graphic design by taking in consideration of two epochs. The Modernist and The Current. Makal, Eray M.S.

  11. Assessment of acid-base balance. Stewart's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fores-Novales, B; Diez-Fores, P; Aguilera-Celorrio, L J

    2016-04-01

    The study of acid-base equilibrium, its regulation and its interpretation have been a source of debate since the beginning of 20th century. Most accepted and commonly used analyses are based on pH, a notion first introduced by Sorensen in 1909, and on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (1916). Since then new concepts have been development in order to complete and make easier the understanding of acid-base disorders. In the early 1980's Peter Stewart brought the traditional interpretation of acid-base disturbances into question and proposed a new method. This innovative approach seems more suitable for studying acid-base abnormalities in critically ill patients. The aim of this paper is to update acid-base concepts, methods, limitations and applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Current Approaches for Management of Postpenetrating Keratoplasty Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr Feizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful corneal graft requires both clarity and an acceptable refraction. A clear corneal graft may be an optical failure if high astigmatism limits visual acuity. Intraoperative measures to reduce postkeratoplasty astigmatism include round and central trephination of cornea with an adequate size, appropriate sutures with evenly distributed tension, and perfect graft-host apposition. Suture manipulation has been described for minimising early postoperative astigmatism. If significant astigmatism remains after suture removal, which cannot be corrected by optical means, then further surgical procedures containing relaxing incisions, compression sutures, laser refractive surgery, insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments, wedge resection, and toric intraocular lens implantation can be performed. When astigmatism cannot be reduced using one or more abovementioned approaches, repeat penetrating keratoplasty should inevitably be considered. However, none of these techniques has emerged as an ideal one, and corneal surgeons may require combining two or more approaches to exploit the maximum advantages.

  13. Current treatment approaches in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Elbey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic disease that mainly affects sacroiliac joints and spine. AS predominantly occurs more often in males and typically begins in the second or third decade. The mainstay of therapy in AS are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which reduce inflammation and pain. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD did not have enough evidence to prove their effect in AS treatment. The use of DMARD may not sufficient to improve the treatment and symptoms. Currently, TNF-blockers such as, Golimumab Etanersept Adalimumab İnfliksimab have promising results in the treatment of AS. TNF-blockers improve the clinical signs and symptoms, and improve the patients’ physical function and quality of life. This manuscript is focused that Current pharmacological treatments in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  14. Modification of Current Feedback Strategies: A Text Synthesis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    f c o lorad I Technic Report No. 127 This research was aponsored byiwtut ot Cogniive Science The Air Force Office of Scienlbc Uriverulty of Cooado...SYNTHESIS APPROACH(UA COLORADO ANIA AT BOXLDEN INST OF COONITXE SCIENCE P LANGEB ET AL MAN 84 N6 SIID AORT-408 FS-304 / /0 N EA-1216 OIIATOh E CR E...ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK( UNIT NUMIERS Institute of Cognitive Science University of Colorado 61103F Boulder, CO 80309

  15. Current approaches and problems in social crime prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Slaviša

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the topic of consideration focuses on current methods and forms of implementation social crime prevention, as well as problems that often arise in practice during its implementation. This is one of the most important areas in crime prevention, which is also known as crime prevention through social development, and often includes legal activities of state and non-state actors aimed at preventing delinquency of children and minors through the weakening and, if possible, eliminatin...

  16. Direct current stimulation : new approach to enhancing heavy oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Hill, D.G. [Southern California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The limited recovery of heavy crude oil can be attributed to the high viscosity of the liquids in the oil reservoirs. A viable technology has been lacking for the economic recovery of heavy oil. This paper discussed the advantages of direct current electrical stimulation or electro-enhanced oil recovery (EEOR). The paper outlined the advantages, including data produced from field demonstrations as well as the results of recent laboratory studies. The paper provided a historical and electro-chemical background of EEOR. Field operations that were discussed included electric field maps and a comparison of direct current versus alternating current electrical power. A series of EEOR field demonstrations were presented for the Santa Maria basin in California and the eastern Alberta plains. The paper also discussed produced fluid chemical changes and electro-osmosis and effective permeability. Last, the paper provided a comparison of EEOR to other existing and emerging technologies including steam flood; surfactant flood; co-solvent flood; carbon dioxide flood; and fire flood. It was concluded that the biggest EEOR limitation is its limited field application portfolio. EEOR has produced encouraging field demonstrations to date and has facilitated beneficial chemical changes in the produced fluids. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Limiting Current of Oxygen Reduction on Gas-Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1994-01-01

    Various models have been devoted to the operation mechanism of porous diffusion electrodes. They are, however, suffering from the lack of accuracy concerning the acid-film thickness on which they are based. In the present paper the limiting current density has been measured for oxygen reduction...... on polytetrafluorine-ethyl bonded gas-diffusion electordes in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives. This provides an alternative to estimate the film thickness by combining it with the acid-adsorption measurements and the porosity analysis of the catalyst layer. It was noticed that the limiting...... expression for the limiting current density. The acid-film thickness estimated this way was found to be of 0.1 mum order of magnitude for the two types of electrodes used in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives at 150-degrees-C....

  18. Current approaches in evolution: from molecules to cells and organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, Mukund; Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2014-11-01

    This is an exciting time to be an evolutionary biologist. Indeed, it is difficult to keep up with all the studies that fall under the broad category of "Evolution" since they span species, traits, and scales of organization. This special issue gives a flavor of exciting new approaches in evolutionary biology, but also emphasizes universal themes. The reviews contained here discuss important aspects of molecular evolution at multiple scales, from individual proteins to complex regulatory networks, as well as from unicellular organisms to macroscopic traits in animals. Though the model systems are diverse, the issues addressed are fundamental: the origin of evolutionary novelties, and the forces that drive them to fixation.

  19. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  20. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  1. Current approach in the diagnosis and management of panuveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Reema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Panuveitis is a generalized inflammation of not only the whole of the uveal tract but also involves the retina and vitreous humor. It differs from other anatomical sites of inflammation in terms of causes as well as distribution. The common causes of panuveitis in our population are tuberculosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, Behcet′s disease and sarcoidosis. A large number of cases still remain idiopathic. A stepwise approach is essential while evaluating these patients to be able to identify and treat the disease timely and correctly. Ancillary tests can be appropriately applied once the anatomic site of inflammation is identified. An exhaustive approach comprising a full battery of tests is obsolete. Only specific tailored investigations are ordered as suggested by the preliminary clinical and ocular examination. The mainstay of the treatment of uveitis is corticosteroids. Immunosuppressive agents are administered if the inflammation is not adequately controlled with corticosteroids. One of the recent breakthroughs in the treatment of refractory uveitis includes the introduction of immunomodulating drugs: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist and Interferon-alpha. Vitrectomy has been used in uveitis for over a few decades for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. When compared to other anatomical sites of inflammation, panuveitis has poor visual outcome due to more widespread inflammation. The side-effects of the chronic treatment that these patients receive cannot be overlooked and should be specifically monitored under the supervision of an internist with special interest in inflammatory diseases.

  2. Current Concepts and Management Approaches in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar M. Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of liver dysfunction worldwide. NAFLD may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and in turn cirrhosis. Importantly, hepatic cancer can occur in NASH in the absence of cirrhosis. The cardinal histologic feature of NAFLD is the presence of an excessive accumulation of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in hepatocytes. The presence of obesity and insulin resistance lead to an increased hepatic-free fatty acid (FFA flux creating an environment appropriate for the development of NAFLD. The generation of toxic reactive oxygen species with the production of hepatic injury and inflammation as a consequence of FFA oxidation will ultimately lead to the initiation and progression of fibrosis. Lifestyle modifications specifically weight loss, physical exercise, and cognitive behavior therapy have been recommended as treatments for NASH. Dietary fructose is an independent risk factor for the development of NAFLD. Pioglitazone can be used to treat biopsy-proven NASH; however, its safety risks should be considered carefully. Greater consumption for coffee, independent of its caffeine component, has been associated with a significant reduced risk of advanced fibrosis in NASH. Additional data are needed before recommending bariatric surgery as an established option for the specific treatment of NASH.

  3. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  4. Dry dilute acid pretreatment by co-currently feeding of corn stover feedstock and dilute acid solution without impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanqing; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Impregnation of lignocellulose materials with dilute acid solution is a routine operation in conventional dilute acid pretreatment. The dry dilute acid pretreatment (DDAP) at high solids content up to 70% is naturally considered to require longer impregnation time. In this study, a co-currently feeding operation of corn stover and dilute sulfuric acid solution without any impregnation was tested for DDAP. The DDAP pretreated corn stover without impregnation is found to be essentially no difference in pretreatment efficiency compared to those with impregnation in the helically agitated reactor. The yield from cellulose to ethanol in SSF again shows no obvious difference between the DDAP pretreated corn stover with and without impregnation. This study suggests that impregnation in DDAP was not necessary under the helical agitation mixing. The results provided a useful way of cost reduction and process simplification in pretreatment.

  5. New approaches for itaconic acid production: bottlenecks and possible remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Richa; Pandey, R A

    2017-04-20

    Currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (IA), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. IA is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. IA and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Presently, industries are producing IA on the large scale by fermentation from glucose. However, due to the primary utility of glucose as a food, it cannot meet the global demand for IA production in an economical way. The main challenge, so far, has been the production technology, which does not support cost-effective and competitive production of IA. This review discusses the various bottlenecks faced during each step of IA production, along with possible remedies to deal with these problems. Furthermore, it reviews the recent progress in fermentative IA production and sheds light on different microorganisms used, potential substrates and fermentation conditions. The review also covers market potential for IA, which indicates that IA can be produced cost-effectively from sustainable substrates, and it has the potential to replace petrochemicals in the near future.

  6. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  7. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible.

  8. Cognitive enrichment and welfare: Current approaches and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay E. Clark

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available “Cognitive enrichment” is a subset of enrichment that has gained interest from researchers over the past decade, particularly those working in zoos. This review explores the forms of cognitive enrichment that have been attempted for laboratory, farmed and zoo animals with a focus on the latter, including various definitions, aims, and approaches. This review reveals the fundamental theoretical and practical problems associated with cognitive enrichment, leading to recommendations for further research in this field. Critically, more research is needed to elucidate what makes challenges appropriate for certain taxa, acknowledging that individual differences exist. Going forward, we should be prepared to incorporate more computer technology into cognitive tasks, and examine novel welfare indicators such as flow, competence, and agency.

  9. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh R. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K–12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  10. Current approaches on viral infection: proteomics and functional validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eZheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses could manipulate cellular machinery to ensure their continuous survival and thus become parasites of living organisms. Delineation of sophisticated host responses upon virus infection is a challenging task. It lies in identifying the repertoire of host factors actively involved in the viral infectious cycle and characterizing host responses qualitatively and quantitatively during viral pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry based proteomics could be used to efficiently study pathogen-host interactions and virus-hijacked cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, direct host and viral responses upon infection could be further investigated by activity based functional validation studies. These approaches involve drug inhibition of secretory pathway, immunofluorescence staining, dominant negative mutation of protein target, real time PCR, small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown, and molecular cloning studies. In this way, functional validation could gain novel insights into the high-content proteomic dataset in an unbiased and comprehensive way.

  11. Current approaches and future directions in the treatment of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobec SM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sophie M WorobecDepartment of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: This review surveys current treatments and future treatment trends in leprosy from a clinical perspective. The World Health Organization provides a multidrug treatment regimen that targets the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus which causes leprosy. Several investigational drugs are available for the treatment of drug-resistant M. leprae. Future directions in leprosy treatment will focus on: the molecular signaling mechanism M. leprae uses to avoid triggering an immune response; prospective studies of the side effects experienced during multiple-drug therapy; recognition of relapse rates post-completion of designated treatments; combating multidrug resistance; vaccine development; development of new diagnostic tests; and the implications of the recent discovery of a genetically distinct leprosy-causing bacillus, Mycobacterium lepromatosis.Keywords: epidemiology, leprosy, Hansen’s disease, multidrug resistance, multidrug therapy

  12. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naeem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1 mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV of quinolones; (2 plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3 chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV. In the case of

  13. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid

    2016-03-28

    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  14. Modulation of membrane currents and mechanical activity by niflumic acid in rat vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, A J; Edwards, G; Green, M E; Miller, M; Walker, S D; Weston, A H

    1996-12-12

    The effects of niflumic acid on whole-cell membrane currents and mechanical activity were examined in the rat portal vein. In freshly dispersed portal vein cells clamped at -60 mV in caesium (Cs+)-containing solutions, niflumic acid (1-100 microM) inhibited calcium (Ca2+)-activated chloride currents (IC1(Ca)) induced by caffeine (10 mM) and by noradrenaline (10 microM). In a potassium (K+)-containing solution and at a holding potential of - 10 mV, niflumic acid (10-100 microM) induced an outward K+ current (IK(ATP)) which was sensitive to glibenclamide (10-30 microM). At concentrations < 30 microM and at a holding potential of -2 mV, niflumic acid had no effect on the magnitude of the caffeine- or noradrenaline-stimulated current (IBK(Ca)) carried by the large conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel (BKCa). However, at a concentration of 100 microM, niflumic acid significantly inhibited IBK(Ca)) evoked by caffeine (10 mM) but not by NS1619 (1-(2'-hydroxy-5'-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-2(3 H) benzimidazolone; 20 microM). In Cs(+)-containing solutions, niflumic acid (10-100 microM) did not inhibit voltage-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In intact portal veins, niflumic acid (1-300 microM) inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity, an action which was partially antagonised by glibenclamide (1-10 microM), and contractions produced by noradrenaline (10 microM), an effect which was glibenclamide-insensitive. It is concluded that inhibition of ICl(Ca) and stimulation of IK(ATP) both contribute to the mechano-inhibitory actions of niflumic acid in the rat portal vein.

  15. A systematic review of current and emergent manipulator control approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajwad, Syed Ali; Iqbal, Jamshed; Ullah, Muhammad Imran; Mehmood, Adeel

    2015-06-01

    Pressing demands of productivity and accuracy in today's robotic applications have highlighted an urge to replace classical control strategies with their modern control counterparts. This recent trend is further justified by the fact that the robotic manipulators have complex nonlinear dynamic structure with uncertain parameters. Highlighting the authors' research achievements in the domain of manipulator design and control, this paper presents a systematic and comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art control techniques that find enormous potential in controlling manipulators to execute cuttingedge applications. In particular, three kinds of strategies, i.e., intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (PID) scheme, robust control and adaptation based approaches, are reviewed. Future trend in the subject area is commented. Open-source simulators to facilitate controller design are also tabulated. With a comprehensive list of references, it is anticipated that the review will act as a firsthand reference for researchers, engineers and industrialinterns to realize the control laws for multi-degree of freedom (DOF) manipulators.

  16. RECURRENT ORAL CANCER: CURRENT AND EMERGING THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Daniela Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer cavity (OCC is associated with high incidence of loco-regional recurrences, which account for the majority of treatment failures post-surgery and radiotherapy. The time-course of relapse manifestation and metastasis are unpredictable. Relapsed OCC represents a major clinical challenge in part due to their aggressive and invasive behaviors. Chemotherapy remains the only option for advanced OCC whenever salvage surgery or re-irradiation is not feasible, but its efficacy is limited as a result of the drug resistance development. Alternatives to use of different permutations of standard cytotoxic drugs or combinations with modulators of drug resistance have led to incremental therapeutic benefits. The introduction of targeted agents and biologics against selective targets that drive cancer progression has opened-up optimism to achieve superior therapeutic activity and overcome drug resistance because, unlike the non-selective cytotoxic, the target can be monitored at molecular levels to identify patients who can benefit from the drug. This review discusses the multifactorial aspects of clinical drug resistance and emerging therapeutic approaches in recurrent OCC, emphasizing recent advances in targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and potential relevance of new concepts such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell hypothesis to drug resistance.

  17. Current Approaches Toward Quantitative Mapping of the Interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Alexander; Trepte, Philipp; Klockmeier, Konrad; Schnoegl, Sigrid; Wanker, Erich E

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many, if not all, cellular processes. Disease is often caused by perturbation of PPIs, as recently indicated by studies of missense mutations. To understand the associations of proteins and to unravel the global picture of PPIs in the cell, different experimental detection techniques for PPIs have been established. Genetic and biochemical methods such as the yeast two-hybrid system or affinity purification-based approaches are well suited to high-throughput, proteome-wide screening and are mainly used to obtain qualitative results. However, they have been criticized for not reflecting the cellular situation or the dynamic nature of PPIs. In this review, we provide an overview of various genetic methods that go beyond qualitative detection and allow quantitative measuring of PPIs in mammalian cells, such as dual luminescence-based co-immunoprecipitation, Förster resonance energy transfer or luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping with bait control. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different techniques and their potential applications in biomedical research.

  18. Cytotherapies in multiple myeloma: a complementary approach to current treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Sabino; Caselli, Anna; Savonarola, Annalisa; Tamma, Antonella Valentina; Tucci, Marco; Silvestris, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Based on their tumor tropism, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as carriers of cytotoxic molecules in pioneering strategies of anti-cancer gene therapy. Similar to solid tumors, MSCs, genetically modified to stably express the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), have been applied to counter-attack multiple myeloma (MM) in vitro and envisioned as a promising strategy for future anti-MM treatments. Accumulating evidence based on the detection of genetic and functional abnormalities in MSCs from MM patients points to the supportive function of MSCs in both the development and progression of MM, driven by chronic interplays with malignant cells within the marrow milieu. In this review, we revisit the function of MSCs in the pathophysiology of MM and explore the pivotal mechanisms of their interaction with myeloma cells. We also discuss the therapeutic significance of novel strategies using TRAIL-engineered MSCs in this cancer model, dissecting their role as new tools for future treatments against MM. A cytotherapy based on TRAIL-engineered MSCs against MM may be successfully combined with either conventional approaches of autologous stem cell transplantation or with novel anti-MM drugs. Intensive preclinical investigations are required to identify the best sources as well as modalities of MSC administration, thus defining the translational suitability of this strategy in the clinical setting.

  19. Current approaches towards quantitative mapping of the interactome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eBuntru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play a key role in many, if not all, cellular processes. Disease is often caused by perturbation of PPIs, as recently indicated by studies of missense mutations. To understand the associations of proteins and to unravel the global picture of PPIs in the cell, different experimental detection techniques for PPIs have been established. Genetic and biochemical methods such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system or affinity purification-based approaches are well suited to high-throughput, proteome-wide screening and are mainly used to obtain qualitative results. However, they have been criticized for not reflecting the cellular situation or the dynamic nature of PPIs. In this review, we provide an overview of various genetic methods that go beyond qualitative detection and allow quantitative measuring of PPIs in mammalian cells, such as DULIP, FRET or LUMIER with BACON. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different techniques and their potential applications in biomedical research.

  20. Treatment of preeclampsia: current approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzan, Ecaterina; Doyle, Ross; Brown, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy, occurring in about 6-8 % of pregnancies. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that occurs after 20 weeks' gestation, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Preeclampsia can also occur superimposed upon chronic hypertension. Eclampsia is the convulsive form of preeclampsia, and affects 0.1 % of all pregnancies. In low-income and middle-income countries, preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with 10-15 % of direct maternal deaths. Women who develop preeclampsia in pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events even years after their pregnancies. There is significant progress in the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of preeclampsia, although its therapeutics remains challenging; delivery of the fetus is still the definitive treatment. Different international societies have produced recommendations and guidelines for clinicians treating preeclampsia, with an overall goal of improving maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review, we focus on the level of blood pressure at which to commence treatment and the current clinical management strategies available to treat and possibly prevent preeclampsia. We also briefly outline some newer perspectives on management of the disorder.

  1. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  2. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical features and current treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as Lou Gehring's disease, is the most common motor neuron disease characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the primary cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. This leads to widespread paralysis, respiratory insufficiency and death within an average of 3-5 years from disease onset. Majority of cases is sporadic and only 10% have a family story. One of the most interesting discovery in the field of neurodegeneration in recent years is genetic mutation in the C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene, the most common mutation found to be causative of frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and concomitant of these two diseases. Currently curative therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is lacking. To date, one medication, Riluzole, has been proved to prolong survival, approximately 3-5 months, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researches aim to slow disease progression by targeting known pathophysiological pathways or genetics defects. Only symptomatic care to improve quality of life and survival is suggested. These includes respiratory and nutrition support; dysphagia and gastrostomy management; communication and mobility programs; spasticity prevention; pain medication; management of cognitive dysfunction, depression, mood dysorders (especially apathy, fatigue, sleep disturbance and prevention of deep venous thrombosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 182-194

  4. The aetiology ofautism spectrum disorders. An overview of current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gołaska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great popularity of autism among researchers, its main cause still remains unknown. However, there are many theories which describe the mechanisms of this disorder. On the other hand, one who tries to integrate them seems to be helpless according to their contradictory and – in most cases – hypothetical status. In a context of this inac‑ curacy, focusing only on one of the concepts would be probably very disadvantageous. As many researchers suggest, the etiology of autism is complex and it is the interaction of multiple factors which implies the disorder appears. It seems that the nature of autism is equifinal and heterogeneous. Thus, the aim of this article is to present a review of current biological theories of autism etiology and to indicate the environmental as well as innate risk factors which may disturb the natural pathway of child development: prenatal (which increase the probability of autism emergence as early as in the first or second year of life or perinatal ones (low birth weight, hypoxia, age of the mother, her educational sta‑ tus. The foetal testosterone theory of autism and its general consequences for the child development will be described also. Finally, the neurological, neurochemical and neuroanatomical dysfunctions in autism will be presented.

  5. Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals.

  6. SAPHO Syndrome: Current Developments and Approaches to Clinical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firinu, Davide; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Del Giacco, Stefano R

    2016-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) is a rare autoimmune disease which, due to its clinical presentation and symptoms, is often misdiagnosed and unrecognized. Its main features are prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular manifestations. Treatments with immunosuppressive drugs have been used for the management of SAPHO with variable results. To date, the use of anti-TNF-α agents has proved to be an effective alternative to conventional treatment for unresponsive or refractory SAPHO cases. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and pivotal regulator of other cytokines, including IL-1 β, IL-6, and IL-8, involved in inflammation, acute-phase response induction, and chemotaxis. IL-1 inhibition strategies with anakinra have shown efficacy as first and second lines of treatment. In this review, we will describe the main characteristics of biological drugs currently used for SAPHO syndrome. We also describe some of the promising therapeutic effects of ustekinumab, an antibody against the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, after failure of multiple drugs including anti-TNF-α and anakinra. We discuss the use and impact of the new anti-IL-1 antagonists involved in the IL-17 blockade, in particular for the most difficult-to-treat SAPHO cases.

  7. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P Algazi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain P Algazi1, Christopher W Soon2, Adil I Daud11Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible.Keywords: melanoma, resection, immune modulation, small molecule kinase inhibitors, chemotherapy, clinical trials

  8. [Current approaches to explain the virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşık, Gülşah

    2011-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii which is one of the most frequent nosocomial pathogens, has drawn attention in the last years owing to multi-drug resistant strains. A.baumannii may give rise to nosocomial epidemics especially in intensive care units and may lead to treatment failure due to its increasing antimicrobial resistance. These gram-negative non-fermentative coccobacilli may be encountered also in community associated infections. However, they are frequently isolated in pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteremia, meningitis and wound infections that develop in patients hospitalized for serious diseases. Although detailed data about the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns related to this bacteria exist, relatively limited data is present about the virulence factors and environmental physiology of A.baumannii. The role of some bacterial virulence factors in the pathogenesis of Acinetobacter infections have been enlightened by recent investigations. Among these virulence factors, production of extracellular enzymes with lipolytic and cytolytic activities, outer membrane protein (AbOmpA) with apoptotic effects on epithelial cells, adhesion molecules (fimbria and AbOmpA) that function during attachment to epithelial cells, K1 type capsular structure, type-1 pili and AbOmpA induced biofilm formation, siderophore (acinetobactin) or hemin mediated iron acquisition mechanisms, quorum sensing system that functions by the help of N-acyl homoserine lacton signal molecules and cellular components that enable Acinetobacter species to live under inappropriate environmental conditions like dryness, low temperature, restricted nutritional elements, can be counted. New information about the virulence factors will help better understanding of the adaptive response of A.baumannii in the host setting. This review is focused on the current information about the virulence factors of of A.baumannii.

  9. Nucleic Acid-Based Therapy Approaches for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vagner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a dominant mutation that results in an unstable expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene leading to a toxic gain of function in huntingtin protein which causes massive neurodegeneration mainly in the striatum and clinical symptoms associated with the disease. Since the mutation has multiple effects in the cell and the precise mechanism of the disease remains to be elucidated, gene therapy approaches have been developed that intervene in different aspects of the condition. These approaches include increasing expression of growth factors, decreasing levels of mutant huntingtin, and restoring cell metabolism and transcriptional balance. The aim of this paper is to outline the nucleic acid-based therapeutic strategies that have been tested to date.

  10. The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Sidle, Douglas M

    2015-11-01

    The article is a detailed update regarding cosmetic injectable fillers, specifically focusing on hyaluronic acid fillers. Hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are used extensively for soft tissue volumizing and contouring. Many different hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are available on the market and differ in terms of hyaluronic acid concentration, particle size, cross-linking density, requisite needle size, duration, stiffness, hydration, presence of lidocaine, type of cross-linking technology, and cost. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of many soft tissues, is identical across species minimizing immunogenicity has been linked to wound healing and skin regeneration, and is currently actively being studied for tissue engineering purposes. The biomechanical and biochemical effects of HA on the local microenvironment of the injected site are key to its success as a soft tissue filler. Knowledge of the tissue-device interface will help guide the facial practitioner and lead to optimal outcomes for patients.

  11. Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Harris, William S; Puder, Mark; Freedman, Steven D; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    2017-02-08

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

  12. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  13. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  14. The assessment of acid-base analysis: comparison of the “traditional” and the “modern” approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Todorović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct approaches are currently used in assessing acid-base disorders: the traditional - physiological or bicarbonate-centered approach, the base-excess approach, and the “modern” physicochemical approach proposed by Peter Stewart, which uses the strong ion difference (particularly the sodium chloride difference and the concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (particularly albumin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 as independent variables in the assessment of acid-base status. The traditional approach developed from the pioneering work of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the base-excess are still most widely used in clinical practice, even though there are a number of problems identified with this approach. The approach works well clinically and is recommended for use whenever serum total protein, albumin and phosphate concentrations are normal. Although Stewart’s approach has been largely ignored by physiologists, it is increasingly used by anesthesiologists and intensive care specialists, and is recommended for use whenever serum’s total protein, albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal, as in critically ill patients. Although different in their concepts, the traditional and modern approaches can be seen as complementary, giving in principle, the same information about the acid-base status.

  15. Current ideas on the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis and its correction methods in gouty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Barskova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available output The paper describes current ideas on the pathogenesis and treatment of nephrolithiasis, virtually a constant attendant of gout. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is reported to be increasing worldwide. Among all cases of nephrolithiasis, the frequency of uric acid nephrolithiasis ranges from 5 to 40%; that of nephrolithiasis in gout is, according to the data by different authors, 7 to 10%. Hyperuricosuria, low urine volume, and low urine pH are considered to be classical risk factors for uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uric acid nephrolithiasis, including that in gout, even if asymptomatic, is noted to require active therapy. The paper presents the basic principles of treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis: to normalize urine pH; to eliminate or neutralize the sequels of hyperuricosuria, to correct comorbidities, and to increase urine.

  16. Meson-exchange currents and quasielastic predictions for charged-current neutrino-12C scattering in the superscaling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, G D; Moreno, O; Williamson, C F; Caballero, J A; Gonzalez-Jimenez, R; De Pace, A; Barbaro, M B; Alberico, W M; Nardi, M; Amaro, J E

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate and discuss the impact of meson-exchange currents (MEC) on charged-current quasielastic (QE) neutrino cross sections. We consider the nuclear transverse response arising from 2p-2h states excited by the action of electromagnetic, purely isovector meson-exchange currents in a fully relativistic framework, based on the work by the Torino collaboration [1]. An accurate parametrization of this MEC response as a function of the momentum and energy transfers involved is presented. Results of neutrino-nucleus cross sections using this MEC parametrization together with a recent scaling approach for the 1p-1h contributions (SuSAv2) are compared with experimental data (MiniBooNE, MINERvA, NOMAD and T2K Collaborations).

  17. Not Another Quiz: An Approach to Engage Today's Students in Meaningful Current Events Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Leigh L.; Shemberger, Melony; Price, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Journalism professors are concerned with how effectively students understand current news events and engage with mainstream news sources. This essay is based on a survey administered to students in a newswriting course and analyzed the kinds of current news that students followed in weekly assignments designed with a digital, interactive approach.…

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-03-07

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  19. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications.

  20. Current ideas on the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis and its correction methods in gouty patients

    OpenAIRE

    V G Barskova; M V Mukagova

    2011-01-01

    output The paper describes current ideas on the pathogenesis and treatment of nephrolithiasis, virtually a constant attendant of gout. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is reported to be increasing worldwide. Among all cases of nephrolithiasis, the frequency of uric acid nephrolithiasis ranges from 5 to 40%; that of nephrolithiasis in gout is, according to the data by different authors, 7 to 10%. Hyperuricosuria, low urine volume, and low urine pH are considered to be classical risk factors f...

  1. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of carboxylic acids: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Derek A; Zelle, Rintze M; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2009-12-01

    To meet the demands of future generations for chemicals and energy and to reduce the environmental footprint of the chemical industry, alternatives for petrochemistry are required. Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks has a huge potential for cleaner, sustainable industrial production of fuels and chemicals. Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for production of chemical building blocks that can replace their petrochemically derived equivalents. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not naturally produce organic acids in large quantities, its robustness, pH tolerance, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse make it an excellent candidate biocatalyst for such processes. Genetic engineering, along with evolution and selection, has been successfully used to divert carbon from ethanol, the natural endproduct of S. cerevisiae, to pyruvate. Further engineering, which included expression of heterologous enzymes and transporters, yielded strains capable of producing lactate and malate from pyruvate. Besides these metabolic engineering strategies, this review discusses the impact of transport and energetics as well as the tolerance towards these organic acids. In addition to recent progress in engineering S. cerevisiae for organic acid production, the key limitations and challenges are discussed in the context of sustainable industrial production of organic acids from renewable feedstocks.

  2. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  3. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  4. Cannabinoids inhibit acid-sensing ion channel currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available Local acidosis has been found in various pain-generating conditions such as inflammation and tissue injury. Cannabinoids exert a powerful inhibitory control over pain initiation via peripheral cognate receptors. However, the peripheral molecular targets responsible for the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids are still poorly understood. Here, we have found that WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. WIN55,212-2 dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs. WIN55,212-2 shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with an decrease of 48.6±3.7% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the EC(50 value. The inhibition of proton-gated current induced by WIN55,212-2 was almost completely blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM 281, but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Pretreatment of forskolin, an AC activator, and the addition of cAMP also reversed the inhibition of WIN55,212-2. Moreover, WIN55,212-2 altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, WIN55,212-2 attenuated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that WIN55,212-2 inhibits the activity of ASICs via CB1 receptor and cAMP dependent pathway in rat primary sensory neurons. Thus, cannabinoids can exert their analgesic action by interaction with ASICs in the primary afferent neurons, which was novel analgesic mechanism of cannabinoids.

  5. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching CTS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Congo Tak-Shing Ching,1,2 Kok-Khun Yong,3 Yan-Dong Yao,4 Huan-Ting Shen,3 Shiu-Man Hsieh,5 Deng-Yun Jheng,1 Tai-Ping Sun,1,6 Hsiu-Li Shieh11Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, 2Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Community College, Hong Kong; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Puli Christian Hospital, 6Department of Electronic Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Nantou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W, electroporation (100 V/cm2, and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2 was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2 demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 µA/mM for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894 was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the

  6. Hyodeoxycholic acid: a new approach to gallstone prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, C K; Mosbach, E H; Cohen, B I; Une, M; Stenger, R J; Singhal, A K

    1985-01-01

    Hyodeoxycholic acid and its isomer, 6 beta-hyodeoxycholic acid, when added to a lithogenic diet prevented the formation of cholesterol gallstones and crystals in prairie dogs. This beneficial effect occurred in the presence of bile supersaturated with cholesterol. Hyodeoxycholic acid abolished the feedback inhibition of hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and prevented elevations in serum and liver cholesterol observed in animals fed a 0.4 percent cholesterol diet. The gallbladder bile of the animals fed hyodeoxycholic acid and 6 beta-hyodeoxycholic acid contained abundant liquid crystals. This suggests that these bile acids prevented the transition of cholesterol from its liquid crystalline phase to solid crystals and stones.

  7. A frailty model approach for regression analysis of multivariate current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man-Hua; Tong, Xingwei; Sun, Jianguo

    2009-11-30

    This paper discusses regression analysis of multivariate current status failure time data (The Statistical Analysis of Interval-censoring Failure Time Data. Springer: New York, 2006), which occur quite often in, for example, tumorigenicity experiments and epidemiologic investigations of the natural history of a disease. For the problem, several marginal approaches have been proposed that model each failure time of interest individually (Biometrics 2000; 56:940-943; Statist. Med. 2002; 21:3715-3726). In this paper, we present a full likelihood approach based on the proportional hazards frailty model. For estimation, an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and simulation studies suggest that the presented approach performs well for practical situations. The approach is applied to a set of bivariate current status data arising from a tumorigenicity experiment.

  8. How to Improve Current Situation of the Communicative Approach in High School EFL Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative Approach has been used in EFL teaching of China for years; but still there are some problems centers around it when it is applied in high school English teaching. This paper explores the current situation of the Communicative Approach in Chinese high school EFL teaching by first looking at a simple case study, and then some suggestions are given as to how to improve this situation.

  9. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment...

  10. Niflumic acid reduces the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in rod photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T O; Yamada, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in newt rod photoreceptors. At 100 microM, NFA delayed the activation of I(h) induced by hyperpolarizing voltage pulses to -83 mV from a holding potential of -43 mV, and reduced the steady-state current. However, reduction by NFA was weakened when I(h) was activated by hyperpolarizing steps to -123 mV, suggesting that these effects were voltage-dependent. The suppressive effects of NFA on I(h) were accompanied by a negative shift in activation voltage. NFA also delayed the relaxation of I(h) tail currents, showing that this drug also inhibited deactivation of the current. The reversal potential and the fully activated conductance were not affected. These observations suggest that NFA reduces I(h) by modifying the gating kinetics of the underlying channels. The suppressive actions of NFA remained when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated, and the failure of suppression by NFA in inside-out patches suggests that the agent may act on the I(h) channel from the extracellular side. These results, obtained in rod photoreceptors, are consistent with similar effects of NFA on I(f) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that both currents share similar pharmacological properties.

  11. Longitudinal gradient coils with enhanced radial uniformity in restricted diameter: Single-current and multiple-current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Javier A.; Domínguez, Gabriela A.; Anoardo, Esteban

    2017-03-01

    An important requirement for a gradient coil is that the uniformity of the generated magnetic field gradient should be maximal within the active volume of the coil. For a cylindrical geometry, the radial uniformity of the gradient turns critic, particularly in cases where the gradient-unit has to be designed to fit into the inner bore of a compact magnet of reduced dimensions, like those typically used in fast-field-cycling NMR. In this paper we present two practical solutions aimed to fulfill this requirement. We propose a matrix-inversion optimization algorithm based on the Biot-Savart law, that using a proper cost function, allows maximizing the uniformity of the gradient and power efficiency. The used methodology and the simulation code were validated in a single-current design, by comparing the computer simulated field map with the experimental data measured in a real prototype. After comparing the obtained results with the target field approach, a multiple-element coil driven by independent current sources is discussed, and a real prototype evaluated. Opposed equispaced independent windings are connected in pairs conforming an arrangement of independent anti-Helmholtz units. This last coil seizes 80% of its radial dimension with a gradient uniformity better than 5%. The design also provides an adaptable region of uniformity along with adjustable coil efficiency.

  12. A Semiconductor Device Noise Model: A Deterministic Approach to Semiconductor Device Current Noise for Semiclassical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, B. A.; Korman, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to calculate terminal current noise characteristics in semiconductor devices in the framework of semiclassical transport based on the spherical harmonics of the Boltzmann Transport Equation. The model relies on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the frequency domain with special initial and boundary conditions. The terminal current fluctuation is directly related to scattering without the additional Langevin noise term added to the calculation. Simulation results are presented for the terminal current spectral density for a 1-D n+nn+ structure due to elastic-acoustic and intervally scattering.

  13. Quantum dot as a spin-current diode: A master-equation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, F.M.; Egues, J.C.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    We report a study of spin-dependent transport in a system composed of a quantum dot coupled to a normal metal lead and a ferromagnetic lead NM-QD-FM. We use the master equation approach to calculate the spin-resolved currents in the presence of an external bias and an intradot Coulomb interaction....... We find that for a range of positive external biases current flow from the normal metal to the ferromagnet the current polarization =I↑−I↓ / I↑+I↓ is suppressed to zero, while for the corresponding negative biases current flow from the ferromagnet to the normal metal attains a relative maximum value....... The system thus operates as a rectifier for spin-current polarization. This effect follows from an interplay between Coulomb interaction and nonequilibrium spin accumulation in the dot. In the parameter range considered, we also show that the above results can be obtained via nonequilibrium Green functions...

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid has influence on action potentials and transient outward potassium currents of ventricular myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Yu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many reports about the anti-arrhythmic effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, the mechanisms are still not completely delineated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of action potentials and transient outward potassium currents (Ito of Sprague-Dawley rat ventricular myocytes and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on action potentials and Ito. Methods The calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion. Action potentials and Ito of epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results 1. Action potential durations (APDs were prolonged from epicardial to endocardial ventricular myocytes (P 2. Ito current densities were decreased from epicardial to endocardial ventricular myocytes, which were 59.50 ± 15.99 pA/pF, 29.15 ± 5.53 pA/pF, and 12.29 ± 3.62 pA/pF, respectively at +70 mV test potential (P 3. APDs were gradually prolonged with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, however, APDs changes were not significant as DHA concentrations were in the range of 0 μmol/L to 1 μmol/L. 4. Ito currents were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, and its half-inhibited concentration was 5.3 μmol/L. The results showed that there were regional differences in the distribution of action potentials and Ito in rat epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes. APDs were prolonged and Ito current densities were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations. Conclusion The anti-arrhythmia mechanisms of DHA are complex, however, the effects of DHA on action potentials and Ito may be one of the important causes.

  15. Review of Current Status and Research Approaches to Nitrogen Pollution in Farmlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Sheng-wei; GAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Yuan-quan; SUI Peng; A Egrinya Eneji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the history, current status, and research approaches to nitrogen pollution were reviewed using systems analysis and deductions. The seriousness of N pollution world-wide was highlighted and recommendations were made to address the situation. A new hypothesis based on phytoremediation, which means the use of plants to directly or indirectly degrade or remove contaminats from soil and water, was proposed.

  16. Relevance of animal studies in regulatory toxicology : current approaches and future opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    With rapidly increasing knowledge of toxicological processes, the scientific value and relevance of toxicity studies for risk assessment must be re-evaluated. In this paper, it is proposed that the rigid risk evaluation currently required should be replaced by a more flexible, case-by-case approach,

  17. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  18. Interpretation of plasma amino acid profile using multiple marker approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Subbotina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plasma amino acid profile in a group of patients with left ventricular outflow tract pathology (n = 151 increased levels of serine, alanine, arginine, and lysine has been found. These metabolic shifts can be linked with the development of circulatory deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. The differentiation of the reference values intervals helps in the assessment of individual amino acid profiles.

  19. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  1. Potassium channel currents in intact stomatal guard cells: rapid enhancement by abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, M R

    1990-02-01

    Evidence of a role for abscisic acid (ABA) in signalling conditions of water stress and promoting stomatal closure is convincing, but past studies have left few clues as to its molecular mechanism(s) of action; arguments centred on changes in H(+)-pump activity and membrane potential, especially, remain ambiguous without the fundamental support of a rigorous electrophysiological analysis. The present study explores the response to ABA of K(+) channels at the membrane of intact guard cells of Vicia faba L. Membrane potentials were recorded before and during exposures to ABA, and whole-cell currents were measured at intervals throughout to quantitate the steady-state and time-dependent characteristics of the K(+) channels. On adding 10 μM ABA in the presence of 0.1, 3 or 10 mM extracellular K(+), the free-running membrane potential (V m) shifted negative-going (-)4-7 mV in the first 5 min of exposure, with no consistent effect thereafter. Voltage-clamp measurements, however, revealed that the K(+)-channel current rose to between 1.84- and 3.41-fold of the controls in the steady-state with a mean halftime of 1.1 ± 0.1 min. Comparable changes in current return via the leak were also evident and accounted for the minimal response in V m. Calculated at V m, the K(+) currents translated to an average 2.65-fold rise in K(+) efflux with ABA. Abscisic acid was not observed to alter either K(+)-current activation or deactivation.These results are consistent with an ABA-evoked mobilization of K(+) channels or channel conductance, rather than a direct effect of the phytohormone on K(+)-channel gating. The data discount notions that large swings in membrane voltage are a prerequisite to controlling guard-cell K(+) flux. Instead, thev highlight a rise in membrane capacity for K(+) flux, dependent on concerted modulations of K(+)-channel and leak currents, and sufficiently rapid to account generally for the onset of K(+) loss from guard cells and stomatal closure in ABA.

  2. Nucleic Acids in Human Glioma Treatment: Innovative Approaches and Recent Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catuogno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications, these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas.

  3. A Phase Current Reconstruction Approach for Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are widely used in renewable energy applications such as wind power generation, tidal energy and electric vehicles owing to their merits such as high efficiency, high precision and high reliability. To reduce the cost and volume of the drive system, techniques of reconstructing three-phase current using a single current sensor have been reported for three-phase alternating current (AC control system using the power converts. In existing studies, the reconstruction precision is largely influenced by reconstructing dead zones on the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM plane, which requires other algorithms to compensate either by modifying PWM modulation or by phase-shifting of the PWM signal. In this paper, a novel extended phase current reconstruction approach for PMSM drive is proposed. Six novel installation positions are obtained by analyzing the sampling results of the current paths between each two power switches. By arranging the single current sensor at these positions, the single current sensor is sampled during zero voltage vectors (ZVV without modifying the PWM signals. This proposed method can reconstruct the three-phase currents without any complex algorithms and is available in the sector boundary region and low modulation region. Finally, this method is validated by experiments.

  4. Expanding the reduced-current approach for thermoelectric generators to achieve higher volumetric power density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectrics are candidate niche electrical generator devices for energy management. At present, scientists are more focused on thermoelectric (TE) material development, but the TE module design procedure is still in a relatively virgin state. One of the most well-known methods is the reduced...... current approach (RCA) for TE module design, where the same current is induced through the p and n legs of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The current density of each element is manipulated by changing the area of both legs. This technique leads to a TE module architecture based on the most efficient...... configuration of both p and n legs. In the current paper, we apply an extended version of this technique, to show how a TE module with a higher volumetric power density can be designed, compared to the original RCA. Our studies indicate that for some combinations of p and n material properties, optima yielding...

  5. Towards Current Profile Control in ITER: Potential Approaches and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, E.; Barton, J. E.; Wehner, W. P.

    2014-10-01

    Many challenging plasma control problems still need to be addressed in order for the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) to be able to successfully achieve the ITER project goals. For instance, setting up a suitable toroidal current density profile is key for one possible advanced scenario characterized by noninductive sustainment of the plasma current and steady-state operation. The nonlinearity and high dimensionality exhibited by the plasma demand a model-based current-profile control synthesis procedure that can accommodate this complexity through embedding the known physics within the design. The development of a model capturing the dynamics of the plasma relevant for control design enables not only the design of feedback controllers for regulation or tracking but also the design of optimal feedforward controllers for a systematic model-based approach to scenario planning, the design of state estimators for a reliable real-time reconstruction of the plasma internal profiles based on limited and noisy diagnostics, and the development of a fast predictive simulation code for closed-loop performance evaluation before implementation. Progress towards control-oriented modeling of the current profile evolution and associated control design has been reported following both data-driven and first-principles-driven approaches. An overview of these two approaches will be provided, as well as a discussion on research needs associated with each one of the model applications described above. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0001334 and DE-SC0010661.

  6. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  7. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  8. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  9. Efficient non-hydrostatic modelling of 3D wave-induced currents using a subgrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Dirk P.; Smit, Pieter B.; Zijlema, Marcel; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-08-01

    Wave-induced currents are an ubiquitous feature in coastal waters that can spread material over the surf zone and the inner shelf. These currents are typically under resolved in non-hydrostatic wave-flow models due to computational constraints. Specifically, the low vertical resolutions adequate to describe the wave dynamics - and required to feasibly compute at the scales of a field site - are too coarse to account for the relevant details of the three-dimensional (3D) flow field. To describe the relevant dynamics of both wave and currents, while retaining a model framework that can be applied at field scales, we propose a two grid approach to solve the governing equations. With this approach, the vertical accelerations and non-hydrostatic pressures are resolved on a relatively coarse vertical grid (which is sufficient to accurately resolve the wave dynamics), whereas the horizontal velocities and turbulent stresses are resolved on a much finer subgrid (of which the resolution is dictated by the vertical scale of the mean flows). This approach ensures that the discrete pressure Poisson equation - the solution of which dominates the computational effort - is evaluated on the coarse grid scale, thereby greatly improving efficiency, while providing a fine vertical resolution to resolve the vertical variation of the mean flow. This work presents the general methodology, and discusses the numerical implementation in the SWASH wave-flow model. Model predictions are compared with observations of three flume experiments to demonstrate that the subgrid approach captures both the nearshore evolution of the waves, and the wave-induced flows like the undertow profile and longshore current. The accuracy of the subgrid predictions is comparable to fully resolved 3D simulations - but at much reduced computational costs. The findings of this work thereby demonstrate that the subgrid approach has the potential to make 3D non-hydrostatic simulations feasible at the scale of a

  10. Old and new approaches to the interpretation of acid-base metabolism, starting from historical data applied to diabetic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Lo Cicero, Marco; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The approach to acid-base chemistry in medicine includes several methods. Currently, the two most popular procedures are derived from Stewart's studies and from the bicarbonate/BE-based classical formulation. Another method, unfortunately little known, follows the Kildeberg theory applied to acid-base titration. By using the data produced by Dana Atchley in 1933, regarding electrolytes and blood gas analysis applied to diabetes, we compared the three aforementioned methods, in order to highlight their strengths and their weaknesses. The results obtained, by reprocessing the data of Atchley, have shown that Kildeberg's approach, unlike the other two methods, is consistent, rational and complete for describing the organ-physiological behavior of the hydrogen ion turnover in human organism. In contrast, the data obtained using the Stewart approach and the bicarbonate-based classical formulation are misleading and fail to specify which organs or systems are involved in causing or maintaining the diabetic acidosis. Stewart's approach, despite being considered 'quantitative', does not propose in any way the concept of 'an amount of acid' and becomes even more confusing, because it is not clear how to distinguish between 'strong' and 'weak' ions. As for Stewart's approach, the classical method makes no distinction between hydrogen ions managed by the intermediate metabolism and hydroxyl ions handled by the kidney, but, at least, it is based on the concept of titration (base-excess) and indirectly defines the concept of 'an amount of acid'. In conclusion, only Kildeberg's approach offers a complete understanding of the causes and remedies against any type of acid-base disturbance.

  11. Dimerization of Carboxylic Acids: An Equation of State Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotou, Costas

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently, the observed endothermic dissolution process is mainly attributed to the hindering of polar interactions. Furthermore, upon mixing of two carboxylic acids, the rearrangement of hydrogen bonds due to the formation of cross associating species results in an insignificant contribution to the heats...

  12. Current-induced forces in mesoscopic systems: A scattering-matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Bode

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanoelectromechanical systems are characterized by an intimate connection between electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom. Due to the nanoscopic scale, current flowing through the system noticeably impacts upons the vibrational dynamics of the device, complementing the effect of the vibrational modes on the electronic dynamics. We employ the scattering-matrix approach to quantum transport in order to develop a unified theory of nanoelectromechanical systems out of equilibrium. For a slow mechanical mode the current can be obtained from the Landauer–Büttiker formula in the strictly adiabatic limit. The leading correction to the adiabatic limit reduces to Brouwer’s formula for the current of a quantum pump in the absence of a bias voltage. The principal results of the present paper are the scattering-matrix expressions for the current-induced forces acting on the mechanical degrees of freedom. These forces control the Langevin dynamics of the mechanical modes. Specifically, we derive expressions for the (typically nonconservative mean force, for the (possibly negative damping force, an effective “Lorentz” force that exists even for time-reversal-invariant systems, and the fluctuating Langevin force originating from Nyquist and shot noise of the current flow. We apply our general formalism to several simple models that illustrate the peculiar nature of the current-induced forces. Specifically, we find that in out-of-equilibrium situations the current-induced forces can destabilize the mechanical vibrations and cause limit-cycle dynamics.

  13. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  14. Recovery of heavy metals from industrial sludge using various acid extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Kuo, C Y; Lo, S L

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals were removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction approaches. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper-extraction efficiency were assessed. Leaching with increased acid concentrations increased the yield of heavy metals from the industrial sludge. In microwave-assisted acid extraction, reducing the S/L ratio and sludge particle size increased copper-extraction efficiency. These experimental findings indicate that S/L ratio most strongly influenced microwave-assisted acid extraction. Both traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction demonstrate that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant, and the copper fraction in extracted sludge shifted from being primarily bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic-matter partition, to being mostly bound to organic matter, remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  15. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes from Top Predator Amino Acids Reveal Rapidly Shifting Ocean Biochemistry in the Outer California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Koch, Paul L.; Fiedler, Paul C.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure. PMID:25329915

  16. Sulfur - Containing Amino Acids Homocysteine And Taurine In Seizures: Current State Of The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncic, Dragan; Rasic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Macut, Duro; Mladenovic, Dusan; Susic, Veselinka; Djuric, Dragan; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2017-06-08

    Homocysteine and taurine are non-proteinogenic sulfur-containing amino acids with numerous important physiological roles. Homocysteine and taurine are considered to be neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the first showing clear hyperexcitability role, while the second is known by its inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this article we addressed the role of homocysteine and its related metabolite homocysteine thiolactone in the development of seizures, focusing on its experimental models in vivo, potential mechanisms of proepileptogenic activity via interactions with glutamatergic neurotransmission, sodium pump activity, oxidative stress, cholinergic system and NO-mediated neuronal signaling, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to modulate its proconvulsive activity. Additionally, herein we will focus on taurine neuroprotective effects linked with its anticonvulsive properties and mediated by taurine interactions with GABA-ergic and glutamatergic system and oxidative stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Current opinion in Alzheimer's disease therapy by nanotechnology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana; Perveen, Asma; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology typically deals with the measuring and modeling of matter at nanometer scale by incorporating the fields of engineering and technology. The most prominent feature of these engineered materials involves their manipulation/modification for imparting new functional properties. The current review covers the most recent findings of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics based on nanoscience and technology. Current studies involve the application of nanotechnology in developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for neurological disorders. Nanotechnology-based approaches can be exploited for limiting/reversing these diseases for promoting functional regeneration of damaged neurons. These strategies offer neuroprotection by facilitating the delivery of drugs and small molecules more effectively across the blood-brain barrier. Nanotechnology based approaches show promise in improving AD therapeutics. Further replication work on synthesis and surface modification of nanoparticles, longer-term clinical trials, and attempts to increase their impact in treating AD are required.

  18. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment of cancer metastasis. Numerous types of photothermal nanotherapeutics (PTN) have been developed with encouraging therapeutic efficacy on metastatic cancer in many preclinical animal experiments. We summarize the design and performance of various PTN in PTT alone and their combinational therapy. We also point out the lacking area and the most promising approaches in this challenging field. In conclusion, PTT or their combinational therapy can provide an essential promising therapeutic modality against cancer metastasis.

  19. Current Uses of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid in the Dental Field: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Justina Roxana Virlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA is a biodegradable polymer used in a wide range of medical applications. Specifically PLGA materials are also developed for the dental field in the form of scaffolds, films, membranes, microparticles, or nanoparticles. PLGA membranes have been studied with promising results, either alone or combined with other materials in bone healing procedures. PLGA scaffolds have been used to regenerate damaged tissues together with stem cell-based therapy. There is solid evidence that the development of PLGA microparticles and nanoparticles may be beneficial to a wide range of dental fields such as endodontic therapy, dental caries, dental surgery, dental implants, or periodontology. The aim of the current paper was to review the recent advances in PLGA materials and their potential uses in the dental field.

  20. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell

    1991-01-01

    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  1. Arachidonic acid modulates hippocampal calcium current via protein kinase C and oxygen radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, D O; Alger, B E

    1990-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a second messenger liberated via receptor activation of phospholipase A2 or diacylglycerol-lipase. We used whole-cell voltage clamp of acutely isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells to investigate the hypothesis that AA modulates Ca2+ channel current (ICa) via activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and generation of free radicals. AA depressed ICa in a dose- and time-dependent manner similar to that previously reported for the action of phorbol esters on ICa. A similar depression was seen with a xanthine-based free radical generating system. The specific PKC inhibitor PKCI (19-36), the protein kinase inhibitor H-7, and the superoxide free radical scavenger SOD each blocked ICa depression by 70%-80%. Complete block of the AA response occurred when SOD was used simultaneously with a PKC inhibitor. These data suggest that PKC and free radicals play a role in AA-induced suppression of ICa.

  2. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement.

  3. Expectation values of flavor-neutrino currents in field theoretical approach to oscillation problem -- formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kanji; Fujii, Kanji; Shimomura, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    As a possible approach to the neutrino oscillation on the basis of quantum field theory, the expectation values of the flavor-neutrino currents are investigated by employing the finite-time transition matrix in the interaction representation. Such expectation values give us in the simplest form a possible way of treating the neutrino oscillation without recourse to any one flavor-neutrino states. The present paper is devoted to presenting the formulation and the main structures of the relevant expectation values.

  4. Expectation values of flavor-neutrino currents in field theoretical approach to oscillation problem -- formulation

    OpenAIRE

    FUJII, Kanji; Shimomura, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    As a possible approach to the neutrino oscillation on the basis of quantum field theory, the expectation values of the flavor-neutrino currents are investigated by employing the finite-time transition matrix in the interaction representation. Such expectation values give us in the simplest form a possible way of treating the neutrino oscillation without recourse to any one flavor-neutrino states. The present paper is devoted to presenting the formulation and the main structures of the relevan...

  5. An adaptive finite element approach to modelling sediment laden density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, S.; Hill, J.; Allison, P. A.; Piggott, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling sediment-laden density currents at real-world scales is a challenging task. Here we present Fluidity, which uses dynamic adaptive re-meshing to reduce computational costs whilst maintaining sufficient resolution where and when it is required. This allows small-scale processes to be captured in large scale simulations. Density currents, also known as gravity or buoyancy currents, occur wherever two fluids with different densities meet. They can occur at scales of up to hundred kilometres in the ocean when continental shelves collapse. This process releases large quantities of sediment into the ocean which increase the bulk density of the fluid to form a density current. These currents can carry sediment hundreds of kilometres, at speeds of up to a hundred kilometres per hour, over the sea bed. They can be tsunamigenic and they have the potential to cause significant damage to submarine infrastructure, such as submarine telecommunications cables or oil and gas infrastructure. They are also a key process for movement of organic material into the depths of the ocean. Due to this, they play an important role in the global carbon cycle on the Earth, forming a significant component of the stratigraphic record, and their deposits can form useful sources of important hydrocarbons. Modelling large scale sediment laden density currents is a very challenging problem. Particles within the current are suspended by turbulence that occurs at length scales that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the current. Models that resolve the vertical structure of the flow require a very large, highly resolved mesh, and substantial computing power to solve. Here, we verify our adaptive model by comparison with a set of laboratory experiments by Gladstone et al. [1998] on the propagation and sediment deposition of bidisperse gravity currents. Comparisons are also made with fixed mesh solutions, and it is shown that accuracy can be maintained with fewer elements

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensit...

  7. Ionic channel current burst analysis by a machine learning based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Giuseppe; Bertolini, Simona; Sacile, Roberto; Giacomini, Mauro; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2011-09-01

    A new method to analyze single ionic channel current conduction is presented. It is based on an automatic classification by K-means algorithm and on the concept of information entropy. This method is used to study the conductance of multistate ion current jumps induced by tetanus toxin in planar lipid bilayers. A comparison is presented with the widely used Gaussian best fit approach, whose main drawback is the fact that it is based on the manual choice of the base line and of meaningful fragments of current signal. On the contrary, the proposed method is able to automatically process a great amount of information and to remove spurious transitions and multichannels. The number of levels and their amplitudes do not have to be known a priori. In this way the presented method is able to produce a reliable evaluation of the conductance levels and their characteristic parameters in a short time.

  8. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  9. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor R. Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The limited sensitivity of the historical treatment response criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML has resulted in a different paradigm for treatment compared with most other cancers presenting with widely disseminated disease. Initial cytotoxic induction chemotherapy is often able to reduce tumor burden to a level sufficient to meet the current criteria for “complete” remission. Nevertheless, most AML patients ultimately die from their disease, most commonly as clinically evident relapsed AML. Despite a variety of available salvage therapy options, prognosis in patients with relapsed or refractory AML is generally poor. In this review, we outline the commonly utilized salvage cytotoxic therapy interventions and then highlight novel investigational efforts currently in clinical trials using both pathway-targeted agents and immunotherapy based approaches. We conclude that there is no current standard of care for adult relapsed or refractory AML other than offering referral to an appropriate clinical trial.

  10. A Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The ability to diagnose and manage acid-base disorders rapidly and effectively is essential to the care of critically ill patients. This article presents an approach to the diagnosis of pure and mixed acid-base disorders, metabolic or respiratory. The approach taken is based on using the law of mass-action equation as it applies to the bicarbonate buffer system (Henderson equation), using sub-classifications for diagnostic purposes of causes of metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis, and ...

  11. B-group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria--current knowledge and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J G; Laiño, J E; del Valle, M Juarez; Vannini, V; van Sinderen, D; Taranto, M P; de Valdez, G Font; de Giori, G Savoy; Sesma, F

    2011-12-01

    Although most vitamins are present in a variety of foods, human vitamin deficiencies still occur in many countries, mainly because of malnutrition not only as a result of insufficient food intake but also because of unbalanced diets. Even though most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is now known that certain strains have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B-group (folates, riboflavin and vitamin B(12) amongst others). This review article will show the current knowledge of vitamin biosynthesis by LAB and show how the proper selection of starter cultures and probiotic strains could be useful in preventing clinical and subclinical vitamin deficiencies. Here, several examples will be presented where vitamin-producing LAB led to the elaboration of novel fermented foods with increased and bioavailable vitamins. In addition, the use of genetic engineering strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will also be discussed. This review will show that the use of vitamin-producing LAB could be a cost-effective alternative to current vitamin fortification programmes and be useful in the elaboration of novel vitamin-enriched products. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Novel polymer-graphite composite grid as a negative current collector for lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shukai; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Wenfeng; Cao, Gaoping; Zhao, Hailei; Yang, Yusheng

    2016-12-01

    We design a novel polymer-graphite composite grid as the negative current collector for lead-acid batteries. With this novel grid, the negative active material (NAM) can deliver a specific capacity of 170 mAh g-1 at a discharge rate of 0.1 C. After that, we conduct structural optimization and surface treatment on the grid to improve its performance. Through the structural optimization, additional lead pastes can be loaded and the cycle stability of the battery is enhanced. By using the optimized grid, the weight of the negative current collector can be remarkably reduced by more than 50%. To handle the serious hydrogen evolution on the graphite surface and the unfavorable adhesion between graphite and NAM, fine PbSO4 particles are coated onto the surface of the graphite grids by chemical deposition. The cells employing the PbSO4-deposition grids exhibit excellent cycling stability as well as low polarization and then high Coulombic efficiency. We present here a possible mechanism that how PbSO4 deposits effectively enhance the performance of negative plates based on the testing results.

  13. Niflumic acid-induced increase in potassium currents in frog motor nerve terminals: effects on transmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, F; Marsal, J; Peres, J; Solsona, C

    1996-04-01

    The actions of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug niflumic acid were studied on frog neuromuscular preparations by conventional electrophysiological techniques. Niflumic acid reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of endplate potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. Neuromuscular junctions pretreated with niflumic acid (0.05-0.5 mM) showed much less depression than control when they were stimulated with trains of impulses. Inhibition of acetylcholine release was reverted by raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration but not by simply washing out the preparations with niflumic acid-free solutions. Pretreatment with indomethacin (0.1 mM), another nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, did not affect the niflumic acid-induced inhibition of evoked responses. Niflumic acid (0.1 mM) did not change the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials and had a dual action on the frequency of miniatures: it decreased their frequency at 0.1 mM whereas it produced an enormous increase in the rate of spontaneous discharge at 0.5 mM. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) reversibly increased the amplitude and affected the kinetics of presynaptic voltage-activated K+ current and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in a concentration-dependent manner. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) irreversibly decreased the amplitude and reversibly affected the kinetics of the nodal Na(+) current. Indomethacin (0.1 mM) had no effect on presynaptic currents. In conclusion, niflumic acid reduces acetylcholine release by increasing presynaptic K+ currents. This may shorten the depolarizing phase of the presynaptic action potential and may reduce the entry of Ca(2+) with each impulse.

  14. Uncatalysed Production of Coumarin-3-carboxylic Acids: A Green Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A green contribution in short reaction times with moderate yields to produce coumarin-3-carboxylic acids is offered. Five different modes to activate the reactions (microwave, near-infrared, mechanical milling, and ultrasound were compared with mantle heating in the presence or absence of ethanol, a green solvent. Near-infrared and microwave irradiations deliver the best yields in contrast to ultrasound and mechanical milling; moreover, these four processes offered shorter reaction times in comparison with the conventional mantle heating method. It is also important to highlight that the obtained molecules were produced without the requirement of a catalyst and two nonconventional energies forms are presented as new processes.

  15. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids.

  16. Preparation of salvianolic acid A by the degradation reaction of salvianolic acid B in subcritical water integrated with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaizhi; Cheng, Yan; Dong, Hongjing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Jia; Gao, Qianshan

    2016-10-14

    Salvianolic acid A is the major bioactive compound in Danshen, however, due to the chemical instability and low content in Danshen, it is difficult to extract amount of salvianolic acid A. Therefore, this study was to establish an effective strategy for obtaining adequate amount of salvianolic acid A, subcritical water extraction was used to degrade salvianolic acid B and prepare salvianolic acid A. Different reaction conditions including temperature, time, concentration and pH value in subcritical water were investigated. Under 40mg/mL of reactant concentration, 180°C of temperature, 4.0 of pH value and 60min of reaction time, the highest yield rate of salvianolic acid A reached 34.86%. Then, the degradation products were successfully separated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with the solvent system Pet-EtAc-n-BuOH-H2O (2:3:1:9, v/v), where 10mM TFA was added in stationary phase and 10mM NH3·H2O in mobile phase. As a result, a total of 227.3mg of salvianolic acid A at 98.2% purity, 38.9mg of danshensu at 99.3% purity, 9.5mg of salvianolic acid D at 92.7% purity, and 32.8mg of protocatechuic aldehyde at 93.1% purity were obtained from 1.2g degradation products of salvianolic acid B by one-step purification. The results demonstrated that the combinative application of subcritical water and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography is a potential technique for the preparative separation of salvianolic acid A from salvianolic acid B.

  17. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide in acid medium: A mechanistic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puttaswamy; Nirmala Vaz

    2001-08-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids (glutamic acid (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > 0 60 mol dm-3, the rate levelled off indicating zero-order dependence on [H+] and, under these conditions, the rate has fractional order dependence on [amino acid]. Succinic and malonic acids have been identified as the products. Variation of ionic strength and addition of the reaction product benzenesulphonamide or halide ions had no significant effect on the reaction rate. There is positive effect of dielectric constant of the solvent. Proton inventory studies in H2O-D2O mixtures showed the involvement of a single exchangeable proton of the OH- ion in the transition state. Kinetic investigations have revealed that the order of reactivity is Asp > Glu. The rate laws proposed and derived in agreement with experimental results are discussed.

  18. Quark flavour mixing with right-handed currents: an effective theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Isidori, Gino

    2010-01-01

    The impact of right-handed currents in both charged- and neutral-current flavour-violating processes is analysed by means of an effective theory approach. More explicitly, we analyse the structure of dimension-six operators assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group, commuting with an underlying $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ global symmetry, broken only by two Yukawa couplings. The model contains a new unitary matrix controlling flavour-mixing in the right-handed sector. We determine the structure of this matrix by charged-current data, where the tension between inclusive and exclusive determinations of $|V_{ub}|$ can be solved. Having determined the size and the flavour structure of right-handed currents, we investigate how they would manifest themselves in neutral current processes, including particle-antiparticle mixing, $Z\\to b \\bar b$, $B_{s,d}\\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $B\\to {Xs,K,K*} \

  19. Conformational basis for the Li(+)-induced leak current in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the substrate-independent Li(+)-induced leak current was examined using two-electrode voltage clamp. The leak current was not affected by the addition of GABA and was not due to H(+) permeation. The ...... of Na(+) restrains the transporter from moving into a leak conductance mode as well as allowing maintenance of GABA-elicited transport-associated current....

  20. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  1. Person-centred health care: a critical assessment of current and emerging research approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmel M; Félix-Bortolotti, Margot

    2014-12-01

    Person-centred health care is prominent in international health care reforms. A shift to understanding and improving personal care at the point of delivery has generated debates about the nature of the person-centred research agenda. This paper purviews research paradigms that influence current person-centred research approaches and traditions that influence knowledge foundations in the field. It presents a synthesis of the emergent approaches and methodologies and highlights gaps between static academic research and the increasing accessibility of evaluation, informatics and big data from health information systems. Paradigms in health services research range from theoretical to atheoretical, including positivist, interpretive, postmodern and pragmatic. Interpretivist (subjective) and positivist (objectivist) paradigms have been historically polarized. Yet, integrative and pragmatic approaches have emerged. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to reductionism, and to reduce personal experiences to metrics in the positivist paradigm. Integrating personalized information into clinical systems is increasingly driven by the pervasive health information technology, which raises many issues about the asymmetry and uncertainty in the flow of information to support personal health journeys. The flux and uncertainty of knowledge between and within paradigmatic or pragmatic approaches highlights the uncertainty and the 'unorder and disorder' in what is known and what it means. Transdisciplinary, complex adaptive systems theory with multi-ontology sense making provides an overarching framework for making sense of the complex dynamics in research progress. A major challenge to current research paradigms is focus on the individualizing of care and enhancing experiences of persons in health settings. There is an urgent need for person-centred research to address this complex process. A transdisciplinary and complex systems approach provides a sense-making framework. © 2014 John

  2. A multi-faceted treatment approach for anterior reconstructions using current ceramics, implants, and adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajtó, Jan; Gehringer, Uwe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Of all developments in dental technology, fulfilling the esthetic and functional demands of the patient, especially regarding anterior reconstructions, is still a challenge for both dentists and dental technicians. This becomes more difficult for patients with a previous treatment history that is not ideal. This case presentation demonstrates reconstruction of an anterior zirconia resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis (RBFDP) for the mandible with a combined approach utilizing veneers for harmonized space distribution on the abutment teeth and an implant-supported zirconia fixed dental prosthesis in the anterior segment of the maxilla. Adhesive cementation of the restorations is also presented in a step-by-step approach based on the current state of the art.

  3. Biomarker approaches in major depressive disorder evaluated in the context of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Mike C; Van Buel, Erin M; Bosker, Fokko J; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Klein, Hans C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Ruhé, Eric G; Eisel, Uli L M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder, mostly diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria alone. It would be of great help when specific biomarkers for various subtypes and symptom clusters of depression become available to assist in diagnosis and subtyping of depression, and to enable monitoring and prognosis of treatment response. However, currently known biomarkers do not reach sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and often the relation to underlying pathophysiology is unclear. In this review, we evaluate various biomarker approaches in terms of scientific merit and clinical applicability. Finally, we discuss how combined biomarker approaches in both preclinical and clinical studies can help to make the connection between the clinical manifestations of depression and the underlying pathophysiology.

  4. Modelling of eddy-current interaction with cracks in the thin-skin regime. Two approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastorchio, S. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Research and Development Div.; Harfield, N. [Surrey Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-02-01

    EDF uses TRIFOU code for eddy current testing modelling. This general electromagnetic code is to be further adapted to Non Destructive Testing applications, not only for nuclear NDT but also in other fields such as aeronautical. This paper compares experimental data for aluminium and steel specimens with two methods of solving the forward problem in the thin-skin regime. The first approach is a 3D Finite Element / Boundary Integral Element method (TRIFOU) developed by EDF/RD Division (France). The second approach is specialized for the treatment of surface cracks in the thin-skin regime developed by the University of Surrey (England). In the thin-skin regime, the electromagnetic skin-depth is small compared with the depth of the crack. Such conditions are common in tests on steels and sometimes on aluminium. (K.A.) 4 refs.

  5. Charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions within the SuSAv2-MEC approach

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, G D; Barbaro, M B; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current (CC) neutrino-nucleus reactions in a fully relativis- tic framework and comparisons with recent experiments spanning an energy range from hundreds of MeV up to 100 GeV within the SuperScaling Approach, which is based on the analysis of electron- nucleus scattering data and has been recently improved with the inclusion of Relativistic Mean Field theory effects. We also evaluate and discuss the impact of two-particle two-hole meson-exchange currents (2p-2h MEC) on neutrino-nucleus interactions through the analysis of two-particle two-hole axial and vector contributions to weak response functions in a fully relativistic Fermi gas. The results show a fairly good agreement with experimental data over the whole range of neutrino energies.

  6. Variational approach to low-frequency kinetic-MHD in the current coupling scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Burby, J W

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid kinetic-MHD models describe the interaction of an MHD bulk fluid with an ensemble of hot particles, which is described by a kinetic equation. When the Vlasov description is adopted for the energetic particles, different Vlasov-MHD models have been shown to lack an exact energy balance, which was recently recovered by the introduction of non-inertial force terms in the kinetic equation. These force terms arise from fundamental approaches based on Hamiltonian and variational methods. In this work we apply Hamilton's variational principle to formulate new current-coupling kinetic-MHD models in the low-frequency approximation (i.e. large Larmor frequency limit). More particularly, we formulate current-coupling hybrid schemes, in which energetic particle dynamics are expressed in either guiding-center or gyrocenter coordinates.

  7. Modelling chloride penetration in concrete using electrical voltage and current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research programme aimed at giving a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the chloride penetration in cement-based materials. The general approach used was to solve the Nernst-Planck equation numerically for two physical ideal states that define the possible conditions under which chlorides will move through concrete. These conditions are named in this paper as voltage control and current control. For each condition, experiments and simulations were carried out in order to establish the importance of electrical variables such as voltage and current in modelling chloride transport in concrete. The results of experiments and simulations showed that if those electrical variables are included as key parameters in the modelling of chloride penetration through concrete, a better understanding of this complex phenomenon can be obtained.

  8. Variational approach to low-frequency kinetic-MHD in the current-coupling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronci, Cesare; Burby, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid kinetic-MHD models describe the interaction of an MHD bulk fluid with an ensemble of hot particles, which is described by a kinetic equation. When the Vlasov description is adopted for the energetic particles, different Vlasov-MHD models have been shown to lack an exact energy balance, unless non-inertial force terms are inserted in the kinetic equation. These force terms arise from fundamental approaches based on Hamiltonian and variational methods. In this work we apply Hamilton's variational principle to formulate new current-coupling kinetic-MHD models in the low-frequency approximation (i.e. large Larmor frequency limit). More particularly, we formulate current-coupling hybrid schemes, in which energetic particle dynamics are expressed in either guiding-center or gyrocenter coordinates. Financial support by the Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant No. 2014-112 is greatly acknowledged.

  9. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  10. Simple engineering design for complex thermoelectric generators based on reduced current approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are niche candidate for the field of energy management as electrical generator devices. Generally, comprehensive and accurate design techniques for TEGs (thermoelectric generators), such as reduced current approach (RCA), are complex and time consuming processes....... This study develops a simple, comprehensive and accurate TEG designing technique based on RCA. The proposed method can predict the most efficient TEG architecture with more than 97% accuracy comparing to the RCA over wide range of possible temperature and zT for present TEG applications. Moreover...

  11. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  12. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms. PMID:22920585

  13. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  14. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Singh, Rameshwar; Pophaly, Saurabh Dilip; Kaushik, Jai K; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-08-25

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  15. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  16. Low temperature dielectric relaxation of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) by Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra Patidar, Manju; Jain, Deepti; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2016-10-01

    Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester that can be produced by renewable resources, like corn. Being non-toxic to human body, PLLA is used in biomedical applications, like surgical sutures, bone fixation devices, or controlled drug delivery. Besides its application studies, very few experiments have been done to study its dielectric relaxation in the low temperature region. Keeping this in mind we have performed a low temperature thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) studies over the temperature range of 80K-400K to understand the relaxation phenomena of PLLA. We could observe a multi modal broad relaxation of small but significant intensity at low temperatures while a sharp and high intense peak around glass transition temperature, Tg∼ 333K, of PLLA has appeared. The fine structure of the low temperature TSDC peak may be attributed to the spherulites formation of crystallite regions inter twinned with the polymer as seen in AFM and appear to be produced due to an isothermal crystallization process. XRD analysis also confirms the semicrystalline nature of the PLLA film.

  17. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar; Kazemi, Sohrab; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2014-06-02

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment.

  18. A review of the current status of endoluminal therapy as a primary approach to obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Birk, John

    2013-07-01

    Gastroenterologists are expected to play a pivotal role in the management of the global obesity epidemic in coming years as novel endoscopic approaches become more widely available, safe, and effective. This review focuses on the recent advances in the field of endoluminal therapy as a primary approach to obesity management with the aim of providing the interventional endoscopist an overview of currently available evidence along with an insight into upcoming devices and techniques. The intragastric balloon appears to be safe and effective in the short term, especially as a bridge to bariatric surgery. Although early trials support the safety and feasibility of endoscopic gastroplasty, it is technically demanding and staple-line dehiscence continues to be a problem. Moreover, with ongoing technical innovations, most devices that have been used in published trials are no longer manufactured and results of studies using newer endoscopic suturing systems are currently awaited. The duodenojejunal bypass sleeve mimics the physiology of intestinal bypass and shares the metabolic advantages of intestinal diversion. A high rate of premature device withdrawal has been its major limiting factor. Therapeutic endoscopy may be the next paradigm of bariatric care. Combining restrictive and barrier endoscopic techniques can potentially improve efficacy and should be evaluated in the setting of appropriate clinical trials.

  19. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth). © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  20. Quark flavour mixing with right-handed currents: An effective theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, Andrzej J. [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Arcisstrasse 21, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Gemmler, Katrin [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Isidori, Gino, E-mail: isidori@lnf.infn.i [TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Arcisstrasse 21, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    The impact of right-handed currents in both charged- and neutral-current flavour-violating processes is analysed by means of an effective theory approach. More explicitly, we analyse the structure of dimension-six operators assuming a left-right symmetric flavour group, commuting with an underlying SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub B-L} global symmetry, broken only by two Yukawa couplings. The model contains a new unitary matrix controlling flavour-mixing in the right-handed sector. We determine the structure of this matrix by charged-current data, where the tension between inclusive and exclusive determinations of {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} can be solved. Having determined the size and the flavour structure of right-handed currents, we investigate how they would manifest themselves in neutral current processes, including particle-antiparticle mixing, Z{yields}bb-bar, B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, B{yields}{l_brace}X{sub s},K,K{sup *}{r_brace}{nu}{nu}-bar, and K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}-bar decays. The possibility to explain a non-standard CP-violating phase in B{sub s} mixing in this context, and the comparison with other predictive new-physics frameworks addressing the same problem, is also discussed. While a large S{sub {psi}{phi}} asymmetry can easily be accommodated, we point out a tension in this framework between {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} and S{sub {psi}}K.

  1. Current applications and different approaches for microbial L-asparaginase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Muso Cachumba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1 is an enzyme that catalysis mainly the asparagine hydrolysis in L-aspartic acid and ammonium. This enzyme is presented in different organisms, such as microorganisms, vegetal, and some animals, including certain rodent's serum, but not unveiled in humans. It can be used as important chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas (particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and has been a pivotal agent in chemotherapy protocols from around 30 years. Also, other important application is in food industry, by using the properties of this enzyme to reduce acrylamide levels in commercial fried foods, maintaining their characteristics (color, flavor, texture, security, etc. Actually, L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine, not allowing the reaction of reducing sugars with this aminoacid for the generation of acrylamide. Currently, production of L-asparaginase is mainly based in biotechnological production by using some bacteria. However, industrial production also needs research work aiming to obtain better production yields, as well as novel process by applying different microorganisms to increase the range of applications of the produced enzyme. Within this context, this mini-review presents L-asparaginase applications, production by different microorganisms and some limitations, current investigations, as well as some challenges to be achieved for profitable industrial production.

  2. Current and upcoming approaches to exploit the reversibility of epigenetic mutations in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahi, Fahimeh; van Kruchten, Michel; Martinet, Nadine; Hospers, Geke A P; Rots, Marianne G

    2014-07-29

    DNA methylation and histone modifications are important epigenetic modifications associated with gene (dys)regulation. The epigenetic modifications are balanced by epigenetic enzymes, so-called writers and erasers, such as DNA (de)methylases and histone (de)acetylases. Aberrant epigenetic alterations have been associated with various diseases, including breast cancer. Since aberrant epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible, they might represent targets for breast cancer therapy. Indeed, several drugs have been designed to inhibit epigenetic enzymes (epi-drugs), thereby reversing epigenetic modifications. US Food and Drug Administration approval has been obtained for some epi-drugs for hematological malignancies. However, these drugs have had very modest anti-tumor efficacy in phase I and II clinical trials in breast cancer patients as monotherapy. Therefore, current clinical trials focus on the combination of epi-drugs with other therapies to enhance or restore the sensitivity to such therapies. This approach has yielded some promising results in early phase II trials. The disadvantage of epi-drugs, however, is genome-wide effects, which may cause unwanted upregulation of, for example, pro-metastatic genes. Development of gene-targeted epigenetic modifications (epigenetic editing) in breast cancer can provide a novel approach to prevent such unwanted events. In this context, identification of crucial epigenetic modifications regulating key genes in breast cancer is of critical importance. In this review, we first describe aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications as two important classes of epigenetic mutations in breast cancer. Then we focus on the preclinical and clinical epigenetic-based therapies currently being explored for breast cancer. Finally, we describe epigenetic editing as a promising new approach for possible applications towards more targeted breast cancer treatment.

  3. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Folio, Les R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy–guided, and (e) machine learning–based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26172351

  4. Current Status of Pharmaceutical and Genetic Therapeutic Approaches to Treat DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichavant, Christophe; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Clemens, Paula R; Davies, Kay E; Dickson, George; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Wilton, Steve D; Wolff, Jon A; Wooddell, Christine I; Xiao, Xiao; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease affecting about one in every 3,500 boys. This X-linked pathology is due to the absence of dystrophin in muscle fibers. This lack of dystrophin leads to the progressive muscle degeneration that is often responsible for the death of the DMD patients during the third decade of their life. There are currently no curative treatments for this disease but different therapeutic approaches are being studied. Gene therapy consists of introducing a transgene coding for full-length or a truncated version of dystrophin complementary DNA (cDNA) in muscles, whereas pharmaceutical therapy includes the use of chemical/biochemical substances to restore dystrophin expression or alleviate the DMD phenotype. Over the past years, many potential drugs were explored. This led to several clinical trials for gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) allowing stop codon read-through. An alternative approach is to induce the expression of an internally deleted, partially functional dystrophin protein through exon skipping. The vectors and the methods used in gene therapy have been continually improving in order to obtain greater encapsidation capacity and better transduction efficiency. The most promising experimental approaches using pharmaceutical and gene therapies are reviewed in this article. PMID:21468001

  5. Improvement of identification methods for honeybee specific Lactic Acid Bacteria; future approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Olofsson, Tobias C.; Andersson, Anders F.; Forsgren, Eva; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees face many parasites and pathogens and consequently rely on a diverse set of individual and group-level defenses to prevent disease. The crop microbiota of Apis mellifera, composed of 13 Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB) species within the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, form a beneficial symbiotic relationship with each other and the honeybee to protect their niche and their host. Possibly playing a vital role in honeybee health, it is important that these honeybee specific Lactic Acid Bacterial (hbs-LAB) symbionts can be correctly identified, isolated and cultured, to further investigate their health promoting properties. We have previously reported successful identification to the strain level by culture-dependent methods and we recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of the 13 hbs-LAB. However, the hitherto applied techniques are unfortunately very time consuming, expensive and not ideal when analyzing a vast quantity of samples. In addition, other researchers have constantly failed to identify the 13 hbs-LAB from honeybee samples by using inadequate media and/or molecular techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing with insufficient discriminatory power. The aim of this study was to develop better and more suitable methods for the identification and cultivation of hbs-LAB. We compared currently used bacterial cultivation media and could for the first time demonstrate a significant variation in the hbs-LAB basic requirements for optimal growth. We also present a new bacterial identification approach based on amplicon sequencing of a region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform and an error correction software that can be used to successfully differentiate and rapidly identify the 13 hbs-LAB to the strain level. PMID:28346815

  6. A synthetic approach to carbon-14 labeled anti-bacterial naphthyridine and quinolone carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhato, I.V.; Huang, C.C. (Parke, Davis and Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Labeled versions of (S)-clinafloxacin (1) and two napththyridine carboxylic acid anti-bacterial compounds 2 and 3 which are currently in development were synthesized. Preparations started from hitherto unknown bromo compounds 22 and 10, from which the corresponding [sup 14]C-labeled aromatic carboxylic acids 23 and 12 were generated by metal-halogen exchange followed by carboxylation reaction. Details of these preparations are given. (author).

  7. Effects of unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current in gastric myocytes of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng Zheng; Xiang-Lan Li; Zheng-Yuan Jin; Jia-Bin Sun; Zai-Liu Li; Wen-Xie Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of exogenous unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current [Ik(Ca)]in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs.METHODS: Gastric myocytes were isolated by collagenase from the antral circular layer of guinea pig stomach. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record Ik(Ca)in the isolated single smooth muscle cells with or without different concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA).RESULTS: AA at concentrations of 2,5 and 10 μmol/L markedly increased IK(ca)in a dose-dependent manner. LA at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L also enhanced IK(Ca)in a dose-dependent manner. The increasing potency of AA, LA, and oleic acid (OA) on Ik(Ca) at the same concentration(10 μmol/L) was in the order of AA>LA>OA. AA (10 μmol/L)-induced increase of Ik(Ca) was not blocked by H-7 (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), or indomethacin (10 μmol/L),an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, and 17-octadecynoic acid (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 pathway, but weakened by nordihydroguaiaretic acid(10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway.CONCLUSION: Unsaturated fatty acids markedly increase Ik(Ca), and the enhancing potencies are related to the number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain. The lipoxygenase pathway of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism is involved in the unsaturated fatty acid-induced increase of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs.

  8. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  9. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si and amorphous silicon (a-Si thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells.

  10. Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

  11. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keya; Guo, Zhongyi; Liu, Shutian; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-07-22

    Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells.

  12. Current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Europe: the AIR survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Cottin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the results of the 2013 Advancing IPF Research (AIR survey, which assessed current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF by experienced physicians. A total of 149 physicians, predominantly from European countries, replied to the 28-question survey. The results of the AIR survey were compared with a similar survey of 509 French pulmonologists conducted by the French National Reference Centre and the Network of Regional Competence Centres for Rare Lung Diseases. A number of positive findings emerged from the AIR survey, including the high level of multidisciplinary team involvement in both diagnosis and management. This survey, when taken together with the French survey, suggests that there is still a need to improve earlier diagnosis of IPF.

  13. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective.

  14. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mazzoleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  15. Nucleic acid modulation of gene expression: approaches for nucleic acid therapeutics against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuji; Kim, Tae-Kon; Shetzline, Susan; Gewirtz, Alan M

    2005-01-01

    Most cancers are characterized by abnormal gene expression, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype; abnormal proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis. Silencing such genes would appear to be a rational approach to the therapy of cancer, and some preliminary clinical studies support this concept. Of the strategies available, the anti-mRNA gene silencing approach has attracted much attention and is the focus of this review. This strategy includes three types of agents: (1) single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides; (2) catalytically active oligonucleotides, such as ribozymes, and DNAzymes that possess inherent RNA cleaving activity; and (3) small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that induce RNA interference (RNAi). Among these agents, antisense oligonucleotides, especially phosphorothioate (PS) oligonucleotides, have been the most frequently used in clinical trials. In this article, we provide an overview of anti-mRNA gene silencing agents and their development for use as cancer therapeutics.

  16. A review on the current status and production technology of {sup 32,} {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, Hyun Soo; Cho, Woon Kap; Kuznetsov, Rostislav A

    2000-10-01

    The current status of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-Orthophosphoric acid production technology is reviewed. The following aspects of the technology are covered: - production of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33 using various nuclear reactions; - chemical properties of sulfur and phosphorus effecting the technology of radioactive phosphorus production; - chemical state of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P in neutron irradiated sulfur; - the technology of radioactive phosphorus isolation from neutron irradiated target and orthophosphoric acid production; - purification of {sup 32}, {sup 33}P-orthophosphoric acid from impurities and some related problems, like the nature of impurities, the storage of the final product, etc. - the quality control procedures of carrier-free ({sup 32}, {sup 33}P)-orthophosphoric acid preparations.

  17. Isolation of chlorogenic acid from Mutellina purpurea L. herb using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore proper isolation conditions of chlorogenic acid from the herb of Mutelina purpurea L. - a new source of this bioactive molecule. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 40% aqueous solution of methanol combined with high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was utilised for the efficient extraction and the separation of chlorogenic acid from the M. purpurea herb in less than 30 min. The structure of the obtained compound was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The preparative HPCCC was performed using the mixture of ethyl acetate, butanol and water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the reverse-phase mode. The chlorogenic acid was isolated from this herb for the first time, yielding 96% purity. The ASE with 40% methanol combined with HPCCC separation was proven to be a useful tool for quick and efficient isolation of chlorogenic acid from M. purpurea.

  18. Identifying ligands at orphan GPCRs: current status using structure-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Tony; Kufareva, Irina; Coleman, James Lj; Graham, Robert M; Abagyan, Ruben; Smith, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    GPCRs are the most successful pharmaceutical targets in history. Nevertheless, the pharmacology of many GPCRs remains inaccessible as their endogenous or exogenous modulators have not been discovered. Tools that explore the physiological functions and pharmacological potential of these 'orphan' GPCRs, whether they are endogenous and/or surrogate ligands, are therefore of paramount importance. Rates of receptor deorphanization determined by traditional reverse pharmacology methods have slowed, indicating a need for the development of more sophisticated and efficient ligand screening approaches. Here, we discuss the use of structure-based ligand discovery approaches to identify small molecule modulators for exploring the function of orphan GPCRs. These studies have been buoyed by the growing number of GPCR crystal structures solved in the past decade, providing a broad range of template structures for homology modelling of orphans. This review discusses the methods used to establish the appropriate signalling assays to test orphan receptor activity and provides current examples of structure-based methods used to identify ligands of orphan GPCRs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc.

  19. Current and future approaches to treat graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Franco; Lucarelli, Barbarella; Merli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    One significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is represented by graft failure, defined as either lack of initial engraftment of donor cells (primary graft failure) or loss of donor cells after initial engraftment (secondary graft failure). Graft failure mediated by host immune cells attacking donor stem cells is named graft rejection. Factors associated with graft failure include HLA disparity in the donor/recipient pair, underlying disease, viral infections, type of conditioning regimen and stem cell source employed. In this article, the experts summarize current approaches to treat graft failure/rejection after HSCT, and they discuss new strategies of graft manipulation and immune therapy of particular interest for preventing/treating this complication. A limited array of options is available to treat graft failure. The experts believe that re-transplantation from another donor or the same donor (if there is no evidence of immunologically mediated graft failure) is the treatment of choice for patients with primary graft failure or acute graft rejection. The experts think that strategies based on innovative approaches of graft manipulation, new agents or cellular therapies could render in the future graft failure a much less relevant problem for HSCT recipients.

  20. Modeling left and right atrial contributions to the ECG: A dipole-current source approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the mathematical formulation, the numerical validation and several illustrations of a forward-modeling approach based on dipole-current sources to compute the contribution of a part of the heart to the electrocardiogram (ECG). Clinically relevant applications include identifying in the ECG the contributions from the right and the left atrium. In a Courtemanche-based monodomain computer model of the atria and torso, 1000 dipoles distributed throughout the atrial mid-myocardium are found to be sufficient to reproduce body surface potential maps with a relative error approach enables fast offline computation of the ECG contribution of any anatomical part of the atria by applying the principle of superposition to the dipole sources. In the presence of a right-left activation delay (sinus rhythm), pulmonary vein isolation (sinus rhythm) or left-right differences in refractory period (atrial fibrillation), the decomposition of the ECG is shown to help interpret ECG morphology in relation to the atrial substrate. These tools provide a theoretical basis for a deeper understanding of the genesis of the P wave or fibrillatory waves in normal and pathological cases.

  1. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  2. Towards the design of 3D multiscale instructive tissue engineering constructs: Current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-11-01

    The design of 3D constructs with adequate properties to instruct and guide cells both in vitro and in vivo is one of the major focuses of tissue engineering. Successful tissue regeneration depends on the favorable crosstalk between the supporting structure, the cells and the host tissue so that a balanced matrix production and degradation are achieved. Herein, the major occurring events and players in normal and regenerative tissue are overviewed. These have been inspiring the selection or synthesis of instructive cues to include into the 3D constructs. We further highlight the importance of a multiscale perception of the range of features that can be included on the biomimetic structures. Lastly, we focus on the current and developing tissue-engineering approaches for the preparation of such 3D constructs: top-down, bottom-up and integrative. Bottom-up and integrative approaches present a higher potential for the design of tissue engineering devices with multiscale features and higher biochemical control than top-down strategies, and are the main focus of this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Controllable synthesis of metal particles by a direct current electrochemical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shapes of copper and silver particles were successfully controlled by using a very simple,effective direct-current electrochemical approach without introducing any additives or templates. A diverse range of shapes and also different inner structures were thus accessible. The products prepared at relatively high potentials have flowerlike morphologies and exhibit flakes as building blocks. The uniformly thick flakes intersect mutually,have smooth surfaces and outwardly wavy edges. The particle diameter and the flake density can be easily controlled by changing potential and/or deposition time. With a decrease of potential,the particles’ shapes changed from flower to bud,to sphere and to octahedron. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the supported metal particles were investigated by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was found that the copper octahedra exhibited three characteristic bands,and SERS effect increases with the number of flakes within individual particles. Based on the experimental results,the mechanism for direct-current electrochemical growth of metal nanostructures was discussed.

  4. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  5. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering-stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules-has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  6. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  7. Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction. 

  8. Marketing of library and information services in global era: A current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Karn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the marketing of library and information services in the global era. It discusses about the marketing concept of today's library and information centers covering various topics such as management of libraries and commitment to customer's satisfaction. It also defines the marketing and its current approach to library and information services at the global level. It also describes customer/user's topic such as customers' priorities, customers' expectations, individuality responsiveness, relationships, quality of services, professional skills and competencies and value added services. The 5 Ps of marketing mix, i.e. product, pricing, place, promotion and person (staff have been discussed. The marketing should aim at effective library and information services. The "service trinity", i.e. users (customers, the staff (service provider and information resources and system should be taken care of from the view of these services. In the modern age, the library and information services (LIS are customer (user oriented. Therefore, users' priorities, expectations and needs should be taken into account. The services should be value added according to the current requirement of the users. It is concluded that the modern libraries are information markets and the library users are consumers of information. The ultimate objective of the marketing of library and information services should be the dissemination of the right information to the right customer (user at the right time.

  9. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerman, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Technology

    2003-09-01

    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large.

  10. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  11. Current approaches to the management of new-onset ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchioni Beery R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Renée Marchioni Beery,1 Sunanda Kane21Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is an idiopathic, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease of the colon. As a chronic condition, UC follows a relapsing and remitting course with medical maintenance during periods of quiescent disease and appropriate escalation of therapy during times of flare. Initial treatment strategies must not only take into account current clinical presentation (with specific regard for extent and severity of disease activity but must also take into consideration treatment options for the long-term. The following review offers an approach to new-onset UC with a focus on early treatment strategies. An introduction to the disease entity is provided along with an approach to initial diagnosis. Stratification of patients based on clinical parameters, disease extent, and severity of illness is paramount to determining course of therapy. Frequent assessments are required to determine clinical response, and treatment intensification may be warranted if expected improvement goals are not appropriately reached. Mild-to-moderate UC can be managed with aminosalicylates, mesalamine, and topical corticosteroids with oral corticosteroids reserved for unresponsive cases. Moderate-to-severe UC generally requires oral or intravenous corticosteroids in the short-term with consideration of long-term management options such as biologic agents (as initial therapy or in transition from steroids or thiopurines (as bridging therapy. Patients with severe or fulminant UC who are recalcitrant to medical therapy or who develop disease complications (such as toxic megacolon should be considered for colectomy. Early surgical referral in severe or refractory UC is crucial, and colectomy may be a life-saving procedure. The authors provide

  12. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984-85 - Re-analysis of viral sequences using the current standard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Marja-Leena; Roivainen, Merja; Iber, Jane; Burns, Cara; Hovi, Tapani

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, a wild type 3 poliovirus (PV3/FIN84) spread all over Finland causing nine cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and one case of aseptic meningitis. The outbreak was ended in 1985 with an intensive vaccination campaign. By limited sequence comparison with previously isolated PV3 strains, closest relatives of PV3/FIN84 were found among strains circulating in the Mediterranean region. Now we wanted to reanalyse the relationships using approaches currently exploited in poliovirus surveillance. Cell lysates of 22 strains isolated during the outbreak and stored frozen were subjected to RT-PCR amplification in three genomic regions without prior subculture. Sequences of the entire VP1 coding region, 150 nucleotides in the VP1-2A junction, most of the 5' non-coding region, partial sequences of the 3D RNA polymerase coding region and partial 3' non-coding region were compared within the outbreak and with sequences available in data banks. In addition, complete nucleotide sequences were obtained for 2 strains isolated from two different cases of disease during the outbreak. The results confirmed the previously described wide intraepidemic variation of the strains, including amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites, as well as the likely Mediterranean region origin of the strains. Simplot and bootscanning analyses of the complete genomes indicated complicated evolutionary history of the non-capsid coding regions of the genome suggesting several recombinations with different HEV-C viruses in the past.

  13. Structure and tautomerism of tenuazonic acid – A synergetic computational and spectroscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, Hannes, E-mail: hannes.mikula@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/163-OC, 1060 Vienna (Austria); University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Horkel, Ernst; Hans, Philipp; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Getreidemarkt 9/163-OC, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Many published structures for tenuazonic acid (TeA) are incorrect. ► DFT calculations were used for quantum chemical treatment of tenuazonic acid. ► This article reports the confirmation of the main tautomeric structures of TeA. ► A synergetic computational and spectroscopic approach was applied. -- Abstract: All reasonable tautomers and rotamers of tenuazonic acid, which is considered to be of the highest toxicity amongst the Alternaria mycotoxins, were investigated by DFT calculations at different levels of theory in gas phase and in solution to obtain optimized geometries for further examinations. Calculated NMR spectra of tautomeric structures are being presented and compared to experimental data to finally achieve a synergetic computational and spectroscopic approach for structure elucidation of 3-acetyltetramic acids, affording the predominant tautomer of tenuazonic acid in aqueous solution. Furthermore we were able to simulate the less hindered rotation of the exocyclic acetyl group, which occurs after dissociation of tenuazonic acid in protic solvents.

  14. Efficient counter-current chromatographic isolation and structural identification of two new cinnamic acids from Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Li, JiaYin; Li, MiLu; Hu, Xia; Tan, Jun; Liu, Zhong Hua

    2012-10-01

    Two new cinnamic acids, 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-isoferuloyltartaric (3), and 2, 3-di-O-isoferuloyltartaric acid (5), along with three known caffeic acids, cichoric acid (1), 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-feruloyltartaric acid (2) and 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-p-coumaroyltartaric acid (4), have been successfully isolated and purified from Echinacea purpurea. In this study, we investigated an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of cinnamic acids from E. purpurea by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent composed of n-hexane-ethyl-acetate-methanol-0.5% aqueous acetic acid (1:3:1:4, v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. From 250 mg of crude extracts, 65.1 mg of 1, 8.3 mg of 2, 4.0 mg of 3, 4.5 mg of 4, and 4.3 mg of 5 were isolated in one-step, with purities of 98.5%, 97.7%, 94.6%, 94.3%, and 98.6%, respectively, as evaluated by HPLC-DAD. The chemical structures were identified by electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. HSCCC was very efficient for the separation and purification of the cinnamic acids from

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling...

  16. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anja Varmløse; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Determination of appropriate nutritional requirements is essential to optimize the productivity and longevity of lactating sows. The current recommendations for requirements do not consider the large variation between animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the amino acid...... recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement...... Monte Carlo simulation techniques. BW, back fat thickness of the sow, litter size (LS), average litter gain (LG), dietary energy density and feed intake were inputs to the model. The model was tested using results from the literature, and the values were all within ±1 s.d. of the estimated requirements...

  17. Nontargeted LC–MS Metabolomics Approach for Metabolic Profiling of Plasma and Urine from Pigs Fed Branched Chain Amino Acids for Maximum Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic response in plasma and urine of pigs when feeding an optimum level of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) for best growth performance is unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the metabolic phenotype associated with the BCAAs intake level that could be linked...... to the animal growth performance. Three dose–response studies were carried out to collect blood and urine samples from pigs fed increasing levels of Ile, Val, or Leu followed by a nontargeted LC–MS approach to characterize the metabolic profile of biofluids when dietary BCAAs are optimum for animal growth....... Results showed that concentrations of plasma hypoxanthine and tyrosine (Tyr) were higher while concentrations of glycocholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and taurocholic acid were lower when the dietary Ile was optimum. Plasma 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid and creatine were lower when dietary Leu...

  18. Current and future perspectives on the development, evaluation and application of in silico approaches for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major reasons of attrition in drug development. Non-testing approaches to predict toxicity could form part of the solution. This review provides a perspective of current status of non-testing approaches available for the predictio...

  19. Approaches to Grammar Instruction in Teaching Materials: A Study in Current L2 Beginning-Level Spanish Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how grammar instruction is conceptualized and applied in published Spanish materials. It sought to answer the following questions: What are the approaches to grammar instruction in current, college-level, beginning Spanish textbooks? How do they reflect current perspectives on grammar teaching? Six widely adopted Spanish…

  20. Approaches to Grammar Instruction in Teaching Materials: A Study in Current L2 Beginning-Level Spanish Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how grammar instruction is conceptualized and applied in published Spanish materials. It sought to answer the following questions: What are the approaches to grammar instruction in current, college-level, beginning Spanish textbooks? How do they reflect current perspectives on grammar teaching? Six widely adopted Spanish…

  1. Combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation: a novel approach for neuroplasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Yang, Ruiting; Pitcher, Julia B; Ridding, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation can induce functionally relevant plasticity in the human cortex, making it potentially useful as a therapeutic tool. However, the induced changes are highly variable between individuals, potentially limiting research and clinical utility. One factor that might contribute to this variability is the level of cortical inhibition at the time of stimulation. The alpha rhythm (~ 8-13 Hz) recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) is thought to reflect pulsatile cortical inhibition; therefore, targeting non-invasive brain stimulation to particular phases of the alpha rhythm may provide an approach to enhance plasticity induction. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to entrain cortical oscillations in a frequency-specific manner. We investigated whether the neuroplastic response to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was enhanced by timing bursts of stimuli to the peak or the trough of a tACS-imposed alpha rhythm. While motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were unaffected when cTBS was applied in-phase with the peak of the tACS-imposed oscillation, MEP depression was enhanced when cTBS was applied in-phase with the trough. This enhanced MEP depression was dependent on the individual peak frequency of the endogenous alpha rhythm recorded with EEG prior to stimulation, and was strongest in those participants classified as non-responders to standard cTBS. These findings suggest that tACS may be used in combination with cTBS to enhance the plasticity response. Furthermore, the peak frequency of endogenous alpha, as measured with EEG, may be used as a simple marker to pre-select those individuals likely to benefit from this approach.

  2. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELNABY ORABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA,El-Gammal F, Nassar M, Belal A, Farag W, El-Mesiry G, El-Haddad K, Orabi A, Abdelreheem A, Shaaban A. 2013. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity. Biodiversitas 14: 43-53. The increasing rates of coral mortality associated with the rise in stress factors and the lack of adequate recovery worldwide have urged recent calls for actions by the scientific, conservation, and reef management communities. This work reviews the current trends in coral transplantation. Transplantation of coral colonies or fragments, whether from aqua-, mariculture or harvesting from a healthy colony, has been the most frequently recommended action for increasing coral abundance on damaged or degraded reefs and for conserving listed or “at-risk” species. Phytoplanktons are important for providing transplanted corals with complex organic compounds through photosynthesis. Artificial surfaces like concrete blocks, wrecks or other purpose-designed structures can be introduced for larval settlement. New surfaces can also be created through electrolysis. Molecular biological tools can be used to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits. Surface chemistry and possible inputs of toxic leachate from artificial substrates are considered as important factors affecting natural recruitment. Transplants should be carefully maintained , revisited and reattached at least weekly in the first month and at least fortnightly in the next three months. Studies on survivorship and the reproductive ability of transplanted coral fragments are important for coral reef restoration. A coral nursery may be considered as a pool for local species that supplies reef-managers with unlimited coral colonies for sustainable management. Transplanting corals for making artificial reefs can be useful for increasing biodiversity, providing tourist diving, fishing and surfing; creating new artisanal and commercial fishing opportunities

  3. A broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Xi, De-Hui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Cao, Sen; Xu, Mo-Yun; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hui; Jia, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. However, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. We introduce an application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to RNA viruses. Applying 0.06 mM JA and then 0.1 mM SA 24 h later, enhanced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato and hot pepper. The inhibition efficiency to virus replication usually achieved up to 80-90%. The putative molecular mechanism was investigated. Some possible factors affecting the synergism of JA and SA have been defined, including WRKY53, WRKY70, PDF1.2, MPK4, MPK2, MPK3, MPK5, MPK12, MPK14, MKK1, MKK2, and MKK6. All genes involving in the synergism of JA and SA were investigated. This approach is safe to human beings and environmentally friendly and shows potential as a strong tool for crop protection against plant viruses.

  4. A modified approach for estimating the aquatic critical load of acid deposition in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Colin J.; Mowat, Aidan C.; Scott, Kenneth A.; Watmough, Shaun A.

    2016-12-01

    Acid-sensitive ecosystems are found in northern Saskatchewan, which lies downwind of major sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions sources associated with the oil sands extraction industry. In order to protect these ecosystems against acidification, tolerance to acid deposition must be quantified. The suitability of the central empirical relationship used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to predict historical sulphate (SO4) concentrations was investigated, and an alternate approach for determining aquatic critical loads of acidity (CL(A)) was employed for the study lakes (n = 260). Critical loads of acidity were often low, with median values of 12-16 mmolc m-2 yr-1, with the lower value reflecting a region-specific limit for acid-neutralizing capacity identified in this study. Uncertain levels of atmospheric deposition in the region, however, are problematic for characterizing acidification risk. Accurate S and chloride (Cl) deposition are needed to identify catchment sources (and sinks) of these elements in the new approach for CL(A) calculation. Likewise, accurate depiction of atmospheric deposition levels can prove useful for evaluation of lake runoff estimates on which estimates of CL(A) are contingent. While CL(A) are low and exceedance may occur according to projected increases in S deposition in the near-term, S retention appears to be an important feature in many catchments and risk of acidification may be overstated should long-term S retention be occurring in peatlands.

  5. Tetramer model of leukoemeraldine-emeraldine electrochemistry in the presence of trihalogenoacetic acids. DFT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nuno Almeida; Grzeszczuk, Maria; Wieczorek, Robert

    2015-01-15

    First results of the application of the DFT computational approach to the reversible electrochemistry of polyaniline are presented. A tetrameric chain was used as the simplest model of the polyaniline polymer species. The system under theoretical investigation involved six tetramer species, two electrons, and two protons, taking part in 14 elementary reactions. Moreover, the tetramer species were interacting with two trihalogenoacetic acid molecules. Trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, and tribromoacetic acids were found to impact the redox transformation of polyaniline as shown by cyclic voltammetry. The theoretical approach was considered as a powerful tool for investigating the main factors of importance for the experimental behavior. The DFT method provided molecular structures, interaction energies, and equilibrium energies of all of the tetramer-acid complexes. Differences between the energies of the isolated tetramer species and their complexes with acids are discussed in terms of the elementary reactions, that is, ionization potentials and electron affinities, equilibrium constants, electrode potentials, and reorganization energies. The DFT results indicate a high impact of the acid on the reorganization energy of a particular elementary electron-transfer reaction. The ECEC oxidation path was predicted by the calculations. The model of the reacting system must be extended to octamer species and/or dimeric oligomer species to better approximate the real polymer situation.

  6. Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management—An Insight into Future Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.

  7. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Systemic-Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SSc-PAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Vincent; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Despite the use of specific treatments, SSc-PAH survival remains poorer than in idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Recent therapeutic advances in PAH show a lower magnitude of response in SSc-PAH and a higher risk of adverse events, as compared to IPAH. The multifaceted underlying mechanisms and the multisystem nature of SSc probably explain part of the worse outcomes in SSc-PAH compared to IPAH. This review describes the current management of SSc-PAH with an emphasis on the impact of the different organ involvements in the prognosis and treatment response. An earlier detection of PAH and a better characterization of the clinical phenotypes of SSc-PAH are warranted in clinical practice and future trials. Determinants of prognosis, surrogate markers of clinical improvement or worsening, and relevance of the common endpoints used in clinical trials should be evaluated in this specific population. A multidisciplinary approach in expert referral centers is mandatory for SSc-PAH management.

  8. Application of Caco-2 Cell Line in Herb-Drug Interaction Studies: Current Approaches and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, C.; Fasinu, P.S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Caco-2 model is employed in pre-clinical investigations to predict the likely gastrointestinal permeability of drugs because it expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes, transporters, microvilli and enterocytes of identical characteristics to the human small intestine. The FDA recommends this model as integral component of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Most dedicated laboratories use the Caco-2 cell line to screen new chemical entities through prediction of its solubility, bioavailability and the possibility of drug-drug or herb-drug interactions in the gut lumen. However, challenges in the inherent characteristics of Caco-2 cell and inter-laboratory protocol variations have resulted to generation of irreproducible data. These limitations affect the extrapolation of data from pre-clinical research to clinical studies involving drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. This review addresses some of these caveats and enumerates the plausible current and future approaches to reduce the anomalies associated with Caco-2 cell line investigations focusing on its application in herb-drug interactions. PMID:24735758

  9. [Current methods in genetic analysis : an approach for genetics-based preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans-Georg; Rost, Imma

    2015-02-01

    Modern genetic analysis methods such as DNA arrays (gene chips) or high-throughput DNA sequencing of the next generation (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) have once again accelerated the pace of innovation that has been powered by genome research over the past 10 years of the "post-genomic era". The present paper introduces array and NGS methods as two important innovation driving methods and provides examples for their application in large-scale scientific projects. However, a broad application of these very powerful technologies for genetic screening for the purpose of disease prevention is currently not yet in sight. The complexity of the interaction of genes, gene products and the environment has so far exceeded all expectations, suggesting that reliable statements about the medical relevance of common genetic variants can presently only be made in a few areas such as pharmacogenetics and oncology. We also discuss ethical issues raised by genetic population screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief outline of the development of methods in molecular genetics to the now dominant modern technologies and present their applications in research, in the diagnosis of rare diseases, and in terms of screening approaches.

  10. Treatment of Thrombotic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The Rationale of Current Management-An Insight into Future Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighizola, Cecilia Beatrice; Ubiali, Tania; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.

  11. Weight management in type 2 diabetes: current and emerging approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed.

  12. Interventions to reduce the risk of violence toward emergency department staff: current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramacciati N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Ramacciati,1,2 Andrea Ceccagnoli,2 Beniamino Addey,3 Enrico Lumini,4 Laura Rasero1,5 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 2Emergency Department, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, 3Emergency Medical System, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia, 4Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, 5Research and Development Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy Introduction: The phenomenon of workplace violence in health care settings, and especially in the emergency department (ED, has assumed the dimensions of a real epidemic. Many studies highlight the need for methods to ensure the safety of staff and propose interventions to address the problem. Aim: The aim of this review was to propose a narrative of the current approaches to reduce workplace violence in the ED, with a particular focus on evaluating the effectiveness of emergency response programs. Methods: A search was conducted between December 1, 2015 and December 7, 2015, in PubMed and CINAHL. Ten intervention studies were selected and analyzed. Results: Seven of these interventions were based on sectoral interventions and three on comprehensive actions. Conclusion: The studies that have attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions have shown weak evidence to date. Further research is needed to identify effective actions to promote a safe work environment in the ED. Keywords: workplace violence, violence prevention and control, emergency department, aggression, security, review

  13. Old concepts, new molecules and current approaches applied to the bacterial nucleotide signalling field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Signalling nucleotides are key molecules that help bacteria to rapidly coordinate cellular pathways and adapt to changes in their environment. During the past 10 years, the nucleotide signalling field has seen much excitement, as several new signalling nucleotides have been discovered in both eukaryotic and bacterial cells. The fields have since advanced quickly, aided by the development of important tools such as the synthesis of modified nucleotides, which, combined with sensitive mass spectrometry methods, allowed for the rapid identification of specific receptor proteins along with other novel genome-wide screening methods. In this review, we describe the principle concepts of nucleotide signalling networks and summarize the recent work that led to the discovery of the novel signalling nucleotides. We also highlight current approaches applied to the research in the field as well as resources and methodological advances aiding in a rapid identification of nucleotide-specific receptor proteins. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672152

  14. A new approach to study the effect of generation rate on drain-source current of bilayer graphene transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Ghadiry, M.; AbdManaf, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to study the effect of impact ionization on the current of bilayer graphene field effect transistors. Analytical models for surface potential and current together with a Monte Carlo approach which include the edge effect scattering are used to calculate the current and generation rate in bilayer graphene transistors due to ionization. FlexPDE simulation is also employed for verification of surface potential modeling. Using the approach, the profile of generation rate, surface potential and current are plotted with respect to several structural parameters. We have shown that ignoring this effect in the modeling will result in an error of up to 10 % for a typical 30 nm bilayer graphene field effect transistor. As a result, we conclude that any analytical study ignoring the ionization is incomplete for bilayer graphene field effect transistors. The model presented here can be applied in optimization of photo detectors based on graphene.

  15. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available The poor bioavailability of Berberine (BBR and Betulinic acid (BA limits the development of these promising anticancer agents for clinical use. In the current study, BBR and BA in spray dried (SD mucoadhesive microparticle formulations were prepared.A patented dual channel spray gun technology established in our laboratory was used for both formulations. Gastrointestinal (GI permeability studies were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayer grown in in-vitro system. The oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of SD formulations were studied in Sprague Dawley rats. A549 orthotopic and H1650 metastatic NSCLC models were utilized for the anticancer evaluations.Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that BBR and BA SD formulations resulted in 3.46 and 3.90 fold respectively, significant increase in plasma Cmax concentrations. AUC levels were increased by 6.98 and 7.41 fold in BBR and BA SD formulations, respectively. Compared to untreated controls groups, 49.8 & 53.4% decrease in the tumor volumes was observed in SD formulation groups of BBR and BA, respectively. Molecular studies done on excised tumor (A549 tissue suggested that BBR in SD form resulted in a significant decrease in the survivin, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF and CD31 expressions. Cleaved caspase 3, p53 and TUNEL expressions were increased in SD formulations. The RT-PCR analysis on H1650 tumor tissue suggested that p38, Phospho-JNK, Bax, BAD, cleaved caspase 3&8 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in BA SD formulations. Chronic administration of BBR and BA SD formulations did not show any toxicity.Due to significant increase in oral bioavailability and superior anticancer effects, our results suggest that spray drying is a superior alternative formulation approach for oral delivery of BBR and BA.

  16. Ascorbic acid, cognitive function, and Alzheimer’s disease: a current review and future direction

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Gene L.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review appraises the human and animal studies implicating ascorbic acid (AA) in normal cognitive function and Alzheimer’s disease. A research framework for how nutrition affects brain aging is proposed with emphasis on AA intake, status, metabolism, and transport into brain tissue. A final synopsis highlights areas for future research regarding AA nourishment and healthy brain aging.

  17. Current legal and institutional issues in the commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmons, J. T.; Sheehy, K. D.; Singer, J. R.; Gardner, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Legal and institutional factors affecting the development and commercial diffusion of phosphoric acid fuel cells are assessed. Issues for future research and action are suggested. Perceived barriers and potential opportunities for fuel cells in central and dispersed utility operations and on-site applications are reviewed, as well as the general concept of commercialization as applied to emerging energy technologies.

  18. Direct electric current treatment under physiologic saline conditions kills Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms via electrolytic generation of hypochlorous acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Sandvik

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which a direct electrical current reduced the viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in conjunction with ciprofloxacin at physiologic saline conditions meant to approximate those in an infected artificial joint. Biofilms grown in CDC biofilm reactors were exposed to current for 24 hours in 1/10(th strength tryptic soy broth containing 9 g/L total NaCl. Dose-dependent log reductions up to 6.7 log(10 CFU/cm(2 were observed with the application of direct current at all four levels (0.7 to 1.8 mA/cm(2 both in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in log reductions for wells with ciprofloxacin compared to those without at the same current levels. When current exposures were repeated without biofilm or organics in the medium, significant generation of free chlorine was measured. Free chlorine doses equivalent to the 24 hour endpoint concentration for each current level were shown to mimic killing achieved by current application. Current exposure (1.8 mA/cm(2 in medium lacking chloride and amended with sulfate, nitrate, or phosphate as alternative electrolytes produced diminished kills of 3, 2, and 0 log reduction, respectively. Direct current also killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms when NaCl was present. Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application. A physiologically relevant NaCl concentration is thus a critical parameter in experimental design if direct current is to be investigated for in vivo medical applications.

  19. Direct electric current treatment under physiologic saline conditions kills Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms via electrolytic generation of hypochlorous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Elizabeth L; McLeod, Bruce R; Parker, Albert E; Stewart, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which a direct electrical current reduced the viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in conjunction with ciprofloxacin at physiologic saline conditions meant to approximate those in an infected artificial joint. Biofilms grown in CDC biofilm reactors were exposed to current for 24 hours in 1/10(th) strength tryptic soy broth containing 9 g/L total NaCl. Dose-dependent log reductions up to 6.7 log(10) CFU/cm(2) were observed with the application of direct current at all four levels (0.7 to 1.8 mA/cm(2)) both in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in log reductions for wells with ciprofloxacin compared to those without at the same current levels. When current exposures were repeated without biofilm or organics in the medium, significant generation of free chlorine was measured. Free chlorine doses equivalent to the 24 hour endpoint concentration for each current level were shown to mimic killing achieved by current application. Current exposure (1.8 mA/cm(2)) in medium lacking chloride and amended with sulfate, nitrate, or phosphate as alternative electrolytes produced diminished kills of 3, 2, and 0 log reduction, respectively. Direct current also killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms when NaCl was present. Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application. A physiologically relevant NaCl concentration is thus a critical parameter in experimental design if direct current is to be investigated for in vivo medical applications.

  20. [Diagnostic approach and treatment of inherited mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Quintana, L; Sanjurjo Crespo, P

    2001-12-01

    Inherited mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders are a complex set of genetically-based diseases in which up to 22 different entities are currently recognized. Their incidence is probably underestimated because a high level of diagnostic suspicion is required for their detection. Their clinical spectrum and prognosis are variable. In recent years knowledge of these diseases and improved treatment have reduced associated mortality. A common characteristic of all these diseases is hypoketotic hypoglycemia, although this is not constant and does not appear in the short-chain disorders and, sometimes, does not even appear in the medium-chain disorders. Cardiac or skeletal myopathy combined and/or hepatic involvement at periods of metabolic decompensation are typical, since these tissues depend on fatty acid oxidation. Diagnosis has been simplified by the study of acylcarnitines in blood, even in periods of metabolic stability. Determination of acylglycines, organic acids, carnitines, free fatty acids and 3-hydroxy-fatty acids, together with enzymic and genetic studies, complete the diagnosis. In certain circumstances, a provocation test should be carried out. Treatment basically consists of avoiding fasting, restricting fatty acid uptake and increasing carbohydrate uptake, depending on the type of metabolic disorder. Pharmacological treatment may also be added (carnitine, riboflavine or carbamylglutamate).

  1. [Isolation and preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. with high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqin; Li, Qiuyun; Jiang, Xinglong; Zhang, Kun; Guan, Ruizhang

    2014-12-01

    A separation method based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been established for the isolation and preparation of gallic acid from the ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. After comparing five kinds of solvent protocols of HSCCC, the two-phase system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:5:1:5, v/v/v/v) was finally chosen as the operating solvent of HSCCC for the separation of gallic acid, in which the lower phase was used as the mobile phase and the upper phase as stationary phase. The detection in the experiments was performed with an ultraviolet detector at 254 nm. Under the conditions of rotation speed of 850 r/min, lower phase flow rate of 2 mL/min, four peaks (I/II/III/IV) were displayed on HSCCC chromatogram. Among them, only peak III contained a large amount of gallic acid (about 96. 40%), which was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. As much as 8. 6 mg of gallic acid was obtained from 100 mg of the ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz., indicating the method is simple, robust and efficient for the preparation of gallic acid.

  2. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  3. Tranexamic Acid and Trauma: Current Status and Knowledge Gaps with Recommended Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Trauma 65:300Y308, 2008. 16. Ekeh AP, Dominguez KM, Markert RJ, McCarthy MC: Incidence and risk factors for deep venous thrombosis after moderate and...the impact of tranexamic acid and other risk factors . Can J Anaesth 59:6Y13, 2012. 22. Koster A, Börgermann J, Zittermann A, Lueth JU, Gillis...mortality were observed. As is common for retrospective database analyses, there were some confounding factors , including a change in clinical practice

  4. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.Eu.......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.297....

  5. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  6. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  7. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology.

  8. Silencing gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor alpha 1 subunit expression and outward potassium current in developing cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bo; Jiang Li; Jian Li; Xingfang Li; Kaihui Xing

    2011-01-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to disrupt synthesis of the cortical neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) α1 in rats during development, and measured outward K+ currents during neuronal electrical activity using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Three pairs of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for GABAAR α1 subunit were designed using OligoEngine RNAi software. This siRNA was found to effectively inhibited GABAAR α1 mRNA expression in cortical neuronal culture in vitro, but did not significantly affect neuronal survival. Outward K+ currents were decreased, indicating that GABAAR α1 subunits in developing neurons participate in neuronal function by regulating outward K+ current.

  9. [Hydrofluoric acid burns of the hands in the home environment: correct therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Pellegatta, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    The broad market penetration of products with components used primarily in the industrial sector requires the precise knowledge of their mechanism of action in order to perform a correct therapeutic approach. The article reports on three cases of domestic hydrofluoric acid burn that came to our Plastic Surgery Unit over the last three years. The treatment options are discussed in detail with emphasis on the importance of a constant update about such emerging diseases.

  10. Molecular approaches unravel the mechanism of acid soil tolerance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao; Bian; Meixue; Zhou; Dongfa; Sun; Chengdao; Li

    2013-01-01

    Acid soil is a worldwide problem to plant production. Acid toxicity is mainly caused by a lack of essential nutrients in the soil and excessive toxic metals in the plant root zone. Of the toxic metals, aluminum(Al) is the most prevalent and most toxic. Plant species have evolved to variable levels of tolerance to aluminum enabling breeding of high Al-tolerant cultivars.Physiological and molecular approaches have revealed some mechanisms of Al toxicity in higher plants. Mechanisms of plant tolerance to Al stress include: 1) exclusion of Al from the root tips, and 2) absorbance, but tolerance of Al in root cells. Organic acid exudation to chelate Al is a feature shared by many higher plants. The future challenge for Al tolerance studies is the identification of novel tolerance mechanisms and the combination of different mechanisms to achieve higher tolerance. Molecular approaches have led to significant progress in explaining mechanisms and detection of genes responsible for Al tolerance.Gene-specific molecular markers offer better options for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs than linked marker strategies. This paper mainly focuses on recent progress in the use of molecular approaches in Al tolerance research.

  11. Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances in End-Stage Liver Disease: A Physiopathological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José Víctor; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego Luis; Rosado-Canto, Rodrigo; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo; Kershenobich, David; Carrillo-Maravilla, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are frequent in patients with end-stage liver disease; the underlying physiopathological mechanisms are often complex and represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the physician. Usually, these disorders do not develop in compensated cirrhotic patients, but with the onset of the classic complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, renal failure, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and variceal bleeding, multiple electrolyte, and acid-base disturbances emerge. Hyponatremia parallels ascites formation and is a well-known trigger of hepatic encephalopathy; its management in this particular population poses a risky challenge due to the high susceptibility of cirrhotic patients to osmotic demyelination. Hypokalemia is common in the setting of cirrhosis: multiple potassium wasting mechanisms both inherent to the disease and resulting from its management make these patients particularly susceptible to potassium depletion even in the setting of normokalemia. Acid-base disturbances range from classical respiratory alkalosis to high anion gap metabolic acidosis, almost comprising the full acid-base spectrum. Because most electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are managed in terms of their underlying trigger factors, a systematic physiopathological approach to their diagnosis and treatment is required.

  12. Lipid binding protein response to a bile acid library: a combined NMR and statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Simona; Pagano, Katiuscia; Boulton, Stephen; Zanzoni, Serena; Melacini, Giuseppe; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Primary bile acids, differing in hydroxylation pattern, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and, once formed, can undergo extensive enzyme-catalysed glycine/taurine conjugation, giving rise to a complex mixture, the bile acid pool. Composition and concentration of the bile acid pool may be altered in diseases, posing a general question on the response of the carrier (bile acid binding protein) to the binding of ligands with different hydrophobic and steric profiles. A collection of NMR experiments (H/D exchange, HET-SOFAST, ePHOGSY NOESY/ROESY and (15) N relaxation measurements) was thus performed on apo and five different holo proteins, to monitor the binding pocket accessibility and dynamics. The ensemble of obtained data could be rationalized by a statistical approach, based on chemical shift covariance analysis, in terms of residue-specific correlations and collective protein response to ligand binding. The results indicate that the same residues are influenced by diverse chemical stresses: ligand binding always induces silencing of motions at the protein portal with a concomitant conformational rearrangement of a network of residues, located at the protein anti-portal region. This network of amino acids, which do not belong to the binding site, forms a contiguous surface, sensing the presence of the bound lipids, with a signalling role in switching protein-membrane interactions on and off.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children: a novel approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Radaelli, Giovanni; Soldati, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis. Indeed alteration of gut microbiota composition and increased intestinal permeability may rise the exposure of liver to gut-derived bacterial products, causing activation of signalling pathways implicated in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. This mechanism has been observed in vitro and animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease but also in a clinical study in adults. While evidence suggests that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation may decrease liver fat in adults, in pediatric population only a study examined this topic. In obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the possible efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid treatment, and underlying mechanisms, to identify the optimal required dose and to evaluate if the docosahexaenoic acid effect is limited to the duration of the treatment or it may continue after the end of treatment.

  14. Enrichment and separation of antitumor triterpene acids from the epidermis of Poria cocos by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjing; Wu, Panpan; Yan, Renyi; Xu, Qihua; Li, Hua; Zhang, Fangbo; Li, Jianrong; Yang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Triterpene acids were extracted from the epidermis of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. These acids were found to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. An efficient method for the preparative separation of antitumor triterpene acids was established that involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography. We used pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography to concentrate the triterpene acids using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:7:5:5, v/v/v/v), trifluoroacetic acid (10 mM) was added to the upper phase as a retainer, and ammonia (10 mM) was added to the lower phase as an eluter. As a result, 200 mg concentrate of triterpene acids was obtained from 1.0 g of crude extract. The concentrate was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography using a solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (0.8:1.2:1.2:0.9, v/v), yielding 50 mg of poricoic acid A and 5 mg of poricoic acid B from 120 mg concentrate, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the major compound on lung A549 cells was examined and poricoic acid A was found to significantly inhibit the growth of A 549 cells.

  15. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  16. Poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) from Aureobasidium spp. and its current proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Liu, Chen-Guang; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Poly(β-L-malic acid) is one natural biopolymer that has the outstanding features of biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, and non-immunogenicity, and it is easily chemically modified. So poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) and its derivatives may have a great potential application as a novel drug delivery system and in the production of advanced biomaterials which have attracted so much research attention. The fungi of Aureobasidium spp. have been discovered to be the most suitable candidates for PMLA production in large quantities which satisfy the demand of either research or industry. In this review, we will give an overall summary about the PMLA produced by Aureobasidium spp. based on related research in the last decades and the elaboration of this PMLA producer will also be accomplished. More importantly, the latest proceedings will be specified and some suggestions to the elucidation of a PMLA biosynthesis pathway which remains undefined up to date will be proposed. Finally, through this review, the further exploitation for the application of PMLA from Aureobasidium spp. can be emphasized and promoted.

  17. Soft and hard computing approaches for real-time prediction of currents in a tide-dominated coastal area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charhate, S.B.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.

    limited dataarchitecture, namely the feedforward type (Fig. 1), another, called the Jordan–Elman type (Fig. 3), was also are available [39]. Similarly, the feedforward type of network was trained using back propagation,used, since the latter architecture... of coastal current components. All the approaches employed performed muchmethods and architectures in the last 15 years has brought the ANN to its current level of usefulness. better than the traditional statistical method of harmonic analysis.Similar success...

  18. High Tc Superconducting Materials for Strong Current Applications: Approach at the First Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-xun

    2007-01-01

    Strong current and large-scale application is the most important prospect of high Tc superconductors (HTS). Practical HTS samples in various forms have been produced with high critical currents operated at economic cryogenic temperatures. Engineering applications of those HTS materials have been studied with various HTS prototype devices. The applicable HTS materials produced in different forms are verified in this paper with regard to their strong current characterizations, and the HTS applications are summarized along with the HTS prototypes made.

  19. Has Stewart approach improved our ability to diagnose acid-base disorders in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masevicius, Fabio D; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-02-04

    The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot). Accordingly, the pH and the bicarbonate levels (dependent variables) are only altered when one or more of the independent variables change. Moreover, the source of H(+) is the dissociation of water to maintain electroneutrality when the independent variables are modified. The basic principles of the Stewart approach in blood, however, have been challenged in different ways. First, the presumed independent variables are actually interdependent as occurs in situations such as: (1) the Hamburger effect (a chloride shift when CO2 is added to venous blood from the tissues); (2) the loss of Donnan equilibrium (a chloride shift from the interstitium to the intravascular compartment to balance the decrease of Atot secondary to capillary leak; and (3) the compensatory response to a primary disturbance in either independent variable. Second, the concept of water dissociation in response to changes in SID is controversial and lacks experimental evidence. In addition, the Stewart approach is not better than the conventional method for understanding acid-base disorders such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis secondary to a chloride-rich-fluid load. Finally, several attempts were performed to demonstrate the clinical superiority of the Stewart approach. These studies, however, have severe methodological drawbacks. In contrast, the largest study on this issue indicated the interchangeability of the Stewart and

  20. Modulating Endogenous Electric Currents in Human Corneal Wounds—A Novel Approach of Bioelectric Stimulation Without Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O.; Mannis, Mark J.; Zhao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To measure electric current in human corneal wounds and test the feasibility of pharmacologically enhancing the current to promote corneal wound healing. Methods Using a noninvasive vibrating probe, corneal electric current was measured before and after wounding of the epithelium of donated postmortem human corneas. The effects of drug aminophylline and chloride-free solution on wound current were also tested. Results Unwounded cornea had small outward currents (0.07 μA/cm2). Wounding increased the current more than 5 fold (0.41 μA/cm2). Monitoring the wound current over time showed that it seemed to be actively regulated and maintained above normal unwounded levels for at least 6 hours. The time course was similar to that previously measured in rat cornea. Drug treatment or chloride-free solution more than doubled the size of wound currents. Conclusions Electric current at human corneal wounds can be significantly increased with aminophylline or chloride-free solution. Because corneal wound current directly correlates with wound healing rate, our results suggest a role for chloride-free and/or aminophylline eyedrops to enhance healing of damaged cornea in patients with reduced wound healing such as the elderly or diabetic patient. This novel approach offers bioelectric stimulation without electrodes and can be readily tested in patients. PMID:21099404

  1. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  2. 肽核酸的研究现状%Current Situation of Peptide Nucleic Acid Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 何凤田

    2001-01-01

    @@ 肽核酸(peptide nucleic acid,PNA)是一种新型的DNA结构类似物,是继寡聚脱氧核苷酸(oligodeoxynucleotide,ODN)以来更为有效和稳定的反义和反基因制剂.PNA与核酸的结合具有高度的特异性和高度的亲和力,且不易被核酸酶和蛋白酶降解.PNA对转录和翻译的调节,可有效抑制癌基因的表达、病毒基因的复制和转录.PNA的广泛生物学效应显示其在基因治疗方面有很好的应用前景.

  3. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  4. A One-Bead-One-Catalyst Approach to Aspartic Acid-Based Oxidation Catalyst Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtor, Phillip A.; Miller, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an approach to the high-throughput screening of asymmetric oxidation catalysts. The strategy is based on application of the one-bead-one-compound library approach, wherein each of our catalyst candidates is based on a peptide scaffold. For this purpose we rely on a recently developed catalytic cycle that employs an acid-peracid shuttle. In order to implement our approach, we developed a compatible linker and demonstrated that the library format is amenable to screening and sequencing of catalysts employing partial Edman degradation and MALDI mass spectrometry analysis. The system was applied to the discovery (and re-discovery) of catalysts for the enantioselective oxidation of a cyclohexene derivative. The system is now poised for application to unprecedented substrate classes for asymmetric oxidation reactions. PMID:21417485

  5. Lysophosphatidic acid increases the electrophysiological instability of adult rabbit ventricular myocardium by augmenting L-type calcium current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has diverse actions on the cardiovascular system and is widely reported to modulate multiple ion currents in some cell types. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. This study investigated whether LPA has electrophysiological effects on isolated rabbit myocardial preparations. The results indicate that LPA prolongs action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90 in a concentration- and frequency-dependent manner in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The application of extracellular LPA significantly increases the coefficient of APD(90 variability. LPA increased L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L density without altering its activation or deactivation properties. In contrast, LPA has no effect on two other ventricular repolarizing currents, the transient outward potassium current (I(to and the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K. In arterially perfused rabbit left ventricular wedge preparations, the monophasic action potential duration, QT interval, and Tpeak-end are prolonged by LPA. LPA treatment also significantly increases the incidence of ventricular tachycardia induced by S(1S(2 stimulation. Notably, the effects of LPA on action potentials and I(Ca,L are PTX-sensitive, suggesting LPA action requires a G(i-type G protein. In conclusion, LPA prolongs APD and increases electrophysiological instability in isolated rabbit myocardial preparations by increasing I(Ca,L in a G(i protein-dependent manner.

  6. Role of arachidonic acid in hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents in gastric myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng YANG; Wen-xie XU; Xing-lan LI; Hui-ying XU; Jia-bin SUN; Bin MEI; Hai-feng ZHENG; Lian-hua PIAO; De-gang XING; Zhai-liu LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites on the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) in gastric myocytes. Methods: Membrane currents were recorded by using a conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique in gastric myocytes isolated with collagenase. Results: Hyposmotic membrane stretch and AA increased both IK(Ca) and spontaneous transient outward currents significantly.Exogenous AA could potentiate the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca). The hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca) was significantly suppressed by dimethyleicosadienoic acid (100 μmol/L in pipette solution), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, significantly suppressed AA and hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increases in IK(Ca). External calcium-free or gadolinium chloride, a blocker of stretch-activated channels, blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca) significantly, but it was not blocked by nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker. Ryanodine, a calcium-induced calcium release agonist, completely blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca); however, heparin, a potent inhibitor of inositol triphosphate receptor, did not block the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca). Conclusion:Hyposmotic membrane stretch may activate phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to ultimately produce AA; AA as a second messenger mediates Ca2+ influx, which triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and elicits activation of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of the guinea pig.

  7. Effect of compounding approaches on fiber dispersion and performance of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystal composite blown films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal S. Karkhanis; Laurent M. Matuana; Nicole M. Stark; Ronald C. Sabo

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the best approach for incorporating cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix by examining two different CNC addition approaches. The first approach consisted of melt blending PLA and CNCs in a three-piece internal mixer whereas the second method involved the direct dry mixing of PLA and CNCs. The prepared...

  8. Caustic-based approach to understanding bunching dynamics and current spike formation in particle bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, T. K.; Paganin, D. M.; Dowd, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    Current modulations, current spikes, and current horns, are observed in a range of accelerator physics applications including strong bunch compression in Free Electron Lasers and linear colliders, trains of microbunching for terahertz radiation, microbunching instability and many others. This paper considers the fundamental mechanism that drives intense current modulations in dispersive regions, beyond the common explanation of nonlinear and higher-order effects. Under certain conditions, neighboring electron trajectories merge to form caustics, and often result in characteristic current spikes. Caustic lines and surfaces are regions of maximum electron density, and are witnessed in accelerator physics as folds in phase space of accelerated bunches. We identify the caustic phenomenon resulting in cusplike current profiles and derive an expression which describes the conditions needed for particle-bunch caustic formation in dispersive regions. The caustic expression not only reveals the conditions necessary for caustics to form but also where in longitudinal space the caustics will form. Particle-tracking simulations are used to verify these findings. We discuss the broader implications of this work including how to utilize the caustic expression for manipulation of the longitudinal phase space to achieve a desired current profile shape.

  9. A diagrammatic description of the equations of motion, current and noise within the second-order von Neumann approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlstrom, O.; Emary, C.; Zedler, P.

    2013-01-01

    comparison sheds light on the validity of all these self-consistent second-order approaches. We analyze the discrepancy between the noise calculated by our method and the exact Levitov formula for a simple non-interacting quantum dot model. Furthermore, we study the noise of the canyon of current suppression...

  10. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eLoens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0% to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies.Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice.

  12. PREPARATION OF LEAD-ACID BATTERY USING ELECTROPLATED RETICULATED SiC AS THE POSITIVE CURRENT COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zou; X.M. Cao; C. Tian; J.S. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of using Pb-electroplated reticulated SiC as the positive current collector for lead-acid batteries was investigated. Reticulated SiC with two aperture sizes (3 and 2mm) were tested as the substrate of positive electrode. It was found that the reticulated SiC has an excellent corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution, and the Pb layer electroplated on reticulated SiC showed analogous electrochemical behavior to metal Ph. Preliminary test of the battery performance indicated that the utilization efficiency of the positive active mass of new designed batteries are improved compared with the conventional batteries. The improvement could be ascribed to the high specific surface area of the reticulated structured positive current collector, which was further supported by the even better performance of the battery made from a smaller aperture size (2mm) reticulated SiC as the substrate of the positive electrode.

  13. Synchronized Current Oscillations of Formic Acid Electro-oxidation in a Microchip-based Dual-Electrode Flow Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, István Z.; Munjal, Neil; Martin, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the oscillatory electro-oxidation of formic acid on platinum in a microchip-based dual-electrode cell with microfluidic flow control. The main dynamical features of current oscillations on single Pt electrode that had been observed in macro-cells are reproduced in the microfabricated electrochemical cell. In dual-electrode configuration nearly in-phase synchronized current oscillations occur when the reference/counter electrodes are placed far away from the microelectrodes. The synchronization disappears with close reference/counter electrode placements. We show that the cause for synchronization is weak albeit important, bidirectional electrical coupling between the electrodes; therefore the unidirectional mass transfer interactions are negligible. The experimental design enables the investigation of the dynamical behavior in micro-electrode arrays with well-defined control of flow of the electrolyte in a manner where the size and spacing of the electrodes can be easily varied. PMID:20160883

  14. Synchronized Current Oscillations of Formic Acid Electro-oxidation in a Microchip-based Dual-Electrode Flow Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, István Z; Munjal, Neil; Martin, R Scott

    2009-12-30

    We investigate the oscillatory electro-oxidation of formic acid on platinum in a microchip-based dual-electrode cell with microfluidic flow control. The main dynamical features of current oscillations on single Pt electrode that had been observed in macro-cells are reproduced in the microfabricated electrochemical cell. In dual-electrode configuration nearly in-phase synchronized current oscillations occur when the reference/counter electrodes are placed far away from the microelectrodes. The synchronization disappears with close reference/counter electrode placements. We show that the cause for synchronization is weak albeit important, bidirectional electrical coupling between the electrodes; therefore the unidirectional mass transfer interactions are negligible. The experimental design enables the investigation of the dynamical behavior in micro-electrode arrays with well-defined control of flow of the electrolyte in a manner where the size and spacing of the electrodes can be easily varied.

  15. Amino Acid Prodrugs: An Approach to Improve the Absorption of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Lopinavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor systemic concentrations of lopinavir (LPV following oral administration occur due to high cellular efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs and extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 enzymes. In this study, amino acid prodrugs of LPV were designed and investigated for their potential to circumvent efflux processes and first pass effects. Three amino acid prodrugs were synthesized by conjugating isoleucine, tryptophan and methionine to LPV. Prodrug formation was confirmed by the LCMS/MS and NMR technique. Interaction of LPV prodrugs with efflux proteins were carried out in P-gp (MDCK-MDR1 and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2 transfected cells. Aqueous solubility studies demonstrated that prodrugs generate higher solubility relative to LPV. Prodrugs displayed higher stability under acidic conditions and degraded significantly with rise in pH. Uptake and transport data suggested that prodrugs carry significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Moreover, prodrugs exhibited higher liver microsomal stability relative to LPV. Hence, amino acid prodrug modification might be a viable approach for enhancing LPV absorption across intestinal epithelial and brain endothelial cells which expresses high levels of P-gp and MRP2.

  16. Current state of purification, isolation and analysis of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Stankevičius, Mantas; Bimbiraitė-Survilienė, Kristina; Naujokaitytė, Gintarė; Šernienė, Loreta; Mulkytė, Kristina; Malakauskas, Mindaugas; Maruška, Audrius

    2017-02-01

    The scientific interest for the search of natural means of microbial inhibitors has not faded for several years. A search of natural antibiotics, so-called bacteriocins which are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gains a huge attention of the scientists in the last century, in order to reduce the usage of synthetic food additives. Pure bacteriocins with wide spectra of antibacterial activity are promising among the natural biopreservatives. The usage of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB as starter culture for the fermentation of some food products, in order to increase their shelf-life, when synthetic preservatives are not allowable, is also possible. There are a lot of studies focusing on the isolation of new bacteriocins from traditional fermented food, dairy products and other foods or sometimes even from unusual non-food matrices. Bacteriocins producing bacteria have been isolated from different sources with the different antibacterial activity against food-borne microorganisms. This review covers the classification of bacteriocins, diversity of sources of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB, antibacterial spectra of isolated bacteriocins and analytical methods for the bacteriocin purification and analysis within the last 15 years.

  17. Evaluation of the Current Status of the Combinatorial Approach for the Study of Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of using the high throughput combinatorial approach for preparing phase diagrams of thin film and bulk materials. Our evaluation is based primarily on examples of combinatorial phase diagrams that have been reported in the literature as well as based on our own laboratory experiments. Various factors that affect the construction of these phase diagrams are examined. Instrumentation and analytical approaches needed to improve data acquisition and data analysis are summarized.

  18. A new approach for modeling of dark current characteristics of quantum wire infrared photodetectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Barickaby; A. Zarifkar; M. H. Sheikhi

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the dark current characteristics in a quantum wire infrared photodetector (QRIP), the average number of electrons in quantum wires (QRs) must be got, which is mostly too complicated. In this paper we give a simple formula to calculate the average number of carriers in a quantum wire (QR) that can be easily evaluated by mathematical softwares, and then we use this formula to study dark current characteristics ora quantum wire infrared photodetector (QRIP).

  19. Vapour and acid components separation from gases by membranes principles and engineering approach to membranes development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagramanov, G. G.; Storojuk, I. P.; Farnosova, E. N.

    2016-09-01

    The modern commercially available polymer membranes and membrane modules for purification of gases, containing acid components, simultaneously with dehumidification of treated gas streams, were developed and commercialized in the very end of XXth century. The membranes basic properties - selectivity (separation factor) and permeation flow rates - are relatively far from satisfying the growing and modern-scale industrial need in purification technologies and corresponding equipments. The attempt to formulate the basic principles, scientific and engineering approaches to the development of prospective membranes for the purification of gases, especially such as natural and oil gases, from acid components, simultaneously with drying them, was being made. For this purpose the influence of various factors - polymer nature, membrane type, structure, geometrical and mass-transfer characteristics, etc. - were studied and analyzed in order to formulate the basic principles and demands for development of membranes, capable to withstand successfully the sever conditions of exploitation.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid on the Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes and HERG Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Licorice has long been used to treat many ailments including cardiovascular disorders in China. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac actions of licorice can be attributed to its active component, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. However, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Aim. The effects of GA on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK, the rapidly activating (IKr and slowly activating (IKs components of IK, and the HERG K+ channel expressed in HEK-293 cells were investigated. Materials and Methods. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from guinea pig myocardium using enzymolysis. The wild type HERG gene was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell patch clamping was used to record IK (IKr, IKs and the HERG K+ current. Results. GA (1, 5, and 10 μM inhibited IK (IKr, IKs and the HERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion. GA significantly inhibited the potassium currents in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner, suggesting that it exerts its antiarrhythmic action through the prolongation of APD and ERP owing to the inhibition of IK (IKr, IKs and HERG K+ channel.

  1. The aminoglycosides modulate the acid-sensing ionic channel currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Aníbal; López-Ramírez, Omar; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Acid-sensing ionic channels (ASICs) have been shown to have a significant role in a growing number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nociception, synaptic transmission and plasticity, mechanosensation, and acidosis-induced neuronal injury. The discovery of pharmacological agents targeting ASICs has significant therapeutic potential and use as a research tool. In our work, we studied the action of transient perfusion (5-15 s) of aminoglycosides (AGs) (streptomycin and neomycin) on the proton-gated ionic currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of the rat and in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. In DRG neurons, streptomycin and neomycin (30 microM) produced a significant, concentration-dependent, and reversible reduction in the amplitude of the proton-gated current, and a slowing of the desensitization rate of the ASIC current. Gentamycin (30 microM) also showed a significant reversible action on the ASIC currents. The curves of the pH effect for streptomycin and neomycin indicated that their effect was not significantly affected by pH. In HEK-293 cells, streptomycin (30 microM) produced a significant reduction in the amplitude of the proton-gated current. Neomycin and gentamycin had no significant action. Reduction of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration produced a significant increase in the action of streptomycin and neomycin on the desensitization time course of ASIC currents. These results indicate that ASICs are molecular targets for AGs, which may contribute to the understanding of their actions on excitable cells. Moreover, AGs may constitute a source to develop novel molecules with a greater affinity, specificity, and selectivity for the different ASIC subunits.

  2. Metalloprotein and metallo-DNA/RNAzyme design: current approaches, success measures, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-12-11

    Specific metal-binding sites have been found in not only proteins but also DNA and RNA molecules. Together these metalloenzymes consist of a major portion of the enzyme family and can catalyze some of the most difficult biological reactions. Designing these metalloenzymes can be both challenging and rewarding because it can provide deeper insights into the structure and function of proteins and cheaper and more stable alternatives for biochemical and biotechnological applications. Toward this goal, both rational and combinatorial approaches have been used. The rational approach is good for designing metalloenzymes that are well characterized, such as heme proteins, while the combinatorial approach is better at designing those whose structures are poorly understood, such as metallo-DNA/RNAzymes. Among the rational approaches, de novo design is at its best when metal-binding sites reside in a scaffold whose structure has been designed de novo (e.g., alpha-helical bundles). Otherwise, design using native scaffolds can be equally effective, allowing more choices of scaffolds whose structural stability is often more resistant to multiple mutations. In addition, computational and empirical designs have both enjoyed successes. Because of the limitation in defining structural parameters for metal-binding sites, a computational approach is restricted to mostly metal-binding sites that are well defined, such as mono- or homonuclear centers. An empirical approach, even though it is less restrictive in the metal-binding sites to be designed, depends heavily on one's knowledge and choice of templates and targets. An emerging approach is a combination of both computational and empirical approaches. The success of these approaches can be measured not only by three-dimensional structural comparison between the designed and target enzymes but also by the total amount of insight obtained from the design process and studies of the designed enzymes. One of the biggest advantages of

  3. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  4. Engineering the properties of D-amino acid oxidases by a rational and a directed evolution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Sacchi, Silvia; Caldinelli, Laura; Boselli, Angelo; Pilone, Mirella S; Piubelli, Luciano; Molla, Gianluca

    2007-12-01

    D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is a FAD-containing flavoprotein that dehydrogenates the D-isomer of amino acids to the corresponding imino acids, coupled with the reduction of FAD. The cofactor then reoxidizes on molecular oxygen and the imino acid hydrolyzes spontaneously to the alpha-keto acid and ammonia. In vitro DAAO displays broad substrate specificity, acting on several neutral and basic D-amino acids: the most efficient substrates are amino acids with hydrophobic side chains. D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid are not substrates for DAAO. Through the years, it has been the subject of a number of structural, functional and kinetic investigations. The most recent advances are represented by site-directed mutagenesis studies and resolution of the 3D-structure of the enzymes from pig, human and yeast. The two approaches have given us a deeper understanding of the structure-function relationships and promoted a number of investigations aimed at the modulating the protein properties. By a rational and/or a directed evolution approach, DAAO variants with altered substrate specificity (e.g., active on acidic or on all D-amino acids), increased stability (e.g., stable up to 60 degrees C), modified interaction with the flavin cofactor, and altered oligomeric state were produced. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent research on the engineering of DAAOs to illustrate their new intriguing properties, which also have enabled us to pursue new biotechnological applications.

  5. Gas Antisolvent Approach for the Precipitation of α -Methoxyphenylacetic Acid – ( R -1-Cyclohexylethylamine Diateromeric Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zodge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of diastereomeric salt precipitation based enantioseparation is the time and solvent requirement of crystallization. In the gas antisolvent (GAS approach, supercritical carbon dioxide is applied as an antisolvent, and the precipitation takes place in a couple of minutes. By setting the process parameters diastereomeric excess, yields, and selectivity can be controlled. Applicability of the process is demonstrated on the resolution of racemic 2-methoxyphenylacetic acid with enantiopure (R-(−-1-cyclohexylethylamine. Diastereomeric excess values over 55 % along with 80 % yields were achieved at optimal conditions in a single step.

  6. Variational approach to low-frequency kinetic-MHD in the current coupling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, Joshua W.; Tronci, Cesare

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid kinetic-MHD models describe the interaction of an MHD bulk fluid with an ensemble of hot particles, which obeys a kinetic equation. In this work we apply Hamilton’s variational principle to formulate new current-coupling kinetic-MHD models in the low-frequency approximation (i.e. large Larmor frequency limit). More particularly, we formulate current-coupling schemes, in which energetic particle dynamics are expressed in either guiding center or gyrocenter coordinates. When guiding center theory is used to model the hot particles, we show how energy conservation requires corrections to the standard magnetization term. On the other hand, charge and momentum conservation in gyrokinetic-MHD lead to extra terms in the usual definition of the hot current density as well as modifications to conventional gyrocenter dynamics. All these new features arise naturally from the underlying variational structure of the proposed models.

  7. Current conservation in electrodisintegration of a bound system in the Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2014-01-01

    Using our solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with OBE kernel in Minkowski space both for the bound and scattering states, we calculate the transition form factors for electrodisintegration of the bound system which determine the electromagnetic current J of this process. Special emphasis is put on verifying the gauge invariance which should manifest itself in the current conservation. We find that for any value of the momentum transfer q the contributions of the plane wave and the final state interaction to the quantity J.q cancel each other thus providing J.q=0. However, this cancellation is obtained only if the initial Bethe-Salpeter amplitude (bound state), the final one (scattering state) and the current operator are strictly consistent with each other. A reliable result for the transition form factor can be found only in this case.

  8. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers-current magnetic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessalova, Valentina; Perov, Nikolai; Rodionova, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers-Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10-11 A m2 at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates.

  9. Master Equation Approach to Current-Voltage Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangchul; Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad; Kais, Sabre

    2015-03-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of solar cells is obtained using quantum master equations for electrons, holes, and excitons, in which generation, recombination, and transport processes are taken into account. As a first example, we simulate a photocell with a molecular aggregate donor to investigate whether a delocalized quantum state could enhance the efficiency. As a second example, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of conventional p-n junction solar cells and perovskite solar cells using the master equation. The connection between the drift-diffusion model and the master equation method is established. The short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage are calculated numerically as a function of the intensity of the sunlight and material properties such as energy gaps, diffusion constants, etc.

  10. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  11. New active-only grounded inductance simulator employing current-mode approach suitable for wide band operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Ozcan, Sadri; Kuntman, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an active-only grounded lossless inductance simulator operating in current-mode is presented. The circuit uses only a current operational amplifier (COA) and an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). The novelty of the proposed circuit is that it uses a COA instead of a voltage operational amplifier (VOA) to take the wider frequency operation advantage of the current-mode approach. The simulation results obtained through SPICE with 0.5 μm standard CMOS technology verify that the designed circuit can be operated up to 30 MHz, which is much higher than the operation frequency of previously reported inductance simulators utilising VOAs. The inductance value of the presented circuit can be adjusted electronically between 3.9 μH and 37 μH via the biasing current of the OTA. A parallel resonance circuit application is also given validating the operation of the proposed inductance simulator.

  12. Current molecular and emerging nanobiotechnology approaches for the detection of microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Jacques; Eugene Cloete, Thomas; de Kwaadsteniet, Michele

    2010-11-01

    Waterborne microbial diseases are escalating worldwide increasing the need for powerful and sensitive diagnostics tools. Molecular methodologies, including immunological and nucleic acid-based methods, have only recently been applied in the water sector. Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have opened the door for the development of new diagnostic tools with increased sensitivity and speed, and reduced cost and labor. Quantum dots, flo dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and nanocantilevers, with their unique optical and physical properties, have already been applied in nanodiagnostics. Nanobiotechnology, once remaining technical and practical problems has been addressed, will play an important role in the detection of microbial pathogens.

  13. Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

  14. Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education--Trends and Current Situation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Gerhard; Grafe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as…

  15. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  16. Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

  17. Overview of current multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging approach in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily based on the utility and validity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of prostate gland tumors. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging, useful approach for evaluating and detecting prostate cancers. It also aids in the management of a tumor and improve the care and follow-up of patients.

  18. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.; Angst, I. de; Schreuder, H.; Schout, B.M.A.; Draaisma, W.; Verweij, L.; Hendrikx, A.; Poel, H. van der

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  19. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brinkman (Willem); I. de Angst (Isabel); H.W.R. Schreuder (Henk); B. Schout (Barbara); W.A. Draaisma (Werner); L.M. Verweij (Lisanne); A.J.M. Hendrikx (A. J M); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary

  20. Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation. Current treatment results and new mechanism-based surgical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Zijlstra, Felix; Mariani, Massimo A.; Ebels, Tjark

    2010-01-01

    Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) remains one of the most complex and unresolved aspects in the management of ischaemic heart disease. This review provides an overview of the present knowledge about the different aspects of CIMR with an emphasis on mechanisms, current surgical treatment

  1. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special emph

  2. Extreme precipitation and temperature responses to circulation patterns in current climate: statistical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Photiadou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the frequency of extreme extremes - temperature, precipitation and hydrological extremes, which implies increasing risks for flood and drought events in Europe. In current climate, European countries were often not sufficiently prepared to deal with the great so

  3. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.; Angst, I. de; Schreuder, H.; Schout, B.M.A.; Draaisma, W.; Verweij, L.; Hendrikx, A.; Poel, H. van der

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  4. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Willem; de Angst, Isabel; Schreuder, Henk; Schout, Barbara; Draaisma, Werner; Verweij, Lisanne; Hendrikx, Ad; van der Poel, Henk

    Introduction The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  5. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brinkman (Willem); I. de Angst (Isabel); H.W.R. Schreuder (Henk); B. Schout (Barbara); W.A. Draaisma (Werner); L.M. Verweij (Lisanne); A.J.M. Hendrikx (A. J M); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary

  6. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...

  7. Current Approaches to the Assessment of Graphic Design in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloi, Susan; du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current trends in assessment practice within the field of graphic design. The demands placed on educators to apply sound assessment practice for Higher Education subjects is as intense in the field of graphic design as in any other. Forcing the assessment of creative visual work into existing assessment…

  8. Random-matrix-theory approach to mesoscopic fluctuations of heat current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Kottos, Tsampikos; Shapiro, Boris

    2013-08-01

    We consider an ensemble of fully connected networks of N oscillators coupled harmonically with random springs and show, using random-matrix-theory considerations, that both the average phonon heat current and its variance are scale invariant and take universal values in the large N limit. These anomalous mesoscopic fluctuations is the hallmark of strong correlations between normal modes.

  9. Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are important natural enemies of many pests in crop ecosystems throughout the world. Although several species are currently mass-reared and sold by biocontrol companies, there is an urgent need to reduce rearing costs. Cost effective mass rearing of...

  10. Trade reform, policy uncertainty, and the current account: a non expected-utility approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid and comprehensive reduction in barriers to international trade has often been followed by a sharp deterioration in the current account. The macroeconomic counterpart of the deterioration has typically been a decline in private savings; no clear response pattern has been observed for private in

  11. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Willem; de Angst, Isabel; Schreuder, Henk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815977; Schout, Barbara; Draaisma, Werner; Verweij, Lisanne; Hendrikx, Ad; van der Poel, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  12. On wind Turbine failure detection from measurements of phase currents: a permutation entropy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ram, Sumit Kumar; Molinas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the applicability of Permutation Entropy based complexity measure of a time series for detection of fault in wind turbines. A set of electrical data from one faulty and one healthy wind turbine were analysed using traditional FastFourier analysis in addition to Permutation Entropy analysis to compare the complexity index of phase currents of the two turbines over time. The 4 seconds length data set did not reveal any low frequency in the spectra of currents, neither did they show any meaningful differences of spectrum between the two turbine currents. Permutation Entropy analysis of the current waveforms of same phases for the two turbines are found to have different complexity values over time, one of them being clearly higher than the other. The work of Yan et. al. in has found that higher entropy values related to thepresence of failure in rotary machines in his study. Following this track, further efforts will be put into relating the entropy difference found in our study to possible...

  13. Current Approaches to the Assessment of Graphic Design in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloi, Susan; du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current trends in assessment practice within the field of graphic design. The demands placed on educators to apply sound assessment practice for Higher Education subjects is as intense in the field of graphic design as in any other. Forcing the assessment of creative visual work into existing assessment…

  14. The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, C; Griffiths, P

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made. PMID:12499451

  15. CHOICE OF SURGICAL APPROACH FOR ACETABULAR COMPONENT’S IMPLANTATION USING CURRENT CLASSIFICATION FOR ARTHRITIS FOLLOWING ACETABULAR FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative-dystrophic changes in hip after treatment of acetabular fracture, over the time, develops about in 60% of affected people. In such cases, total hip replacement is used. Existing classifications (for example AO or Letournel are good for fracture treatment, but not for arthritis following acetabular fracture. The group of patients, with post traumatic arthritis, is heterogeneous with severity of post traumatic anatomic changes. Basis for surgical approach, could be current classification for post traumatic changes – taking into account features of anatomic functional changes in hip and the bone defects of acetabulum. In this article is demonstrated X-ray and clinical basing for current classification.

  16. Risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. Current approaches and future strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Larsen, John Christian; Meyer, Otto A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is based on toxicological evaluation of the single compounds and no internationally accepted procedure exists for evaluation of cumulative exposure to multiple residues of pesticides in crops, except for a few groups of pesticides sharing a group...... several approaches are available for the risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. However, no single simple approach is available to judge upon potential interactions at the low doses that humans are exposed to from pesticide residues in food. In these cases, PBTK models could be useful as tools...... to assess combined tissue doses and to help predict potential interactions including thresholds for such effects. This would improve the quality of the risk assessment....

  17. Overcoming resistance to targeted therapies in NSCLC: current approaches and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Paolo; Sacco, Paola Claudia; Sgambato, Assunta; Casaluce, Francesca; Rossi, Antonio; Gridelli, Cesare

    2015-09-01

    The discovery that a number of aberrant tumorigenic processes and signal transduction pathways are mediated by druggable protein kinases has led to a revolutionary change in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are the targets of several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), some of them approved for treatment and others currently in clinical development. First-generation agents offer, in target populations, a substantial improvement of outcomes compared with standard chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Unfortunately, drug resistance develops after initial benefit through a variety of mechanisms. Novel generation EGFR and ALK inhibitors are currently in advanced clinical development and are producing encouraging results in patients with acquired resistance to previous generation agents. The search for new drugs or strategies to overcome the TKI resistance in patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements is to be considered a priority for the improvement of outcomes in the treatment of advanced NSCLC.

  18. Melioidosis and glanders modulation of the innate immune system: barriers to current and future vaccine approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbroich, Sophie A; Lafontaine, Eric R; Hogan, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are pathogenic bacteria causing fatal infections in animals and humans. Both organisms are classified as Tier 1 Select Agents owing to their highly fatal nature, potential/prior use as bioweapons, severity of disease via respiratory exposure, intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, and lack of a current vaccine. Disease manifestations range from acute septicemia to chronic infection, wherein the facultative intracellular lifestyle of these organisms promotes persistence within a broad range of hosts. This ability to thrive intracellularly is thought to be related to exploitation of host immune response signaling pathways. There are currently considerable gaps in our understanding of the molecular strategies employed by these pathogens to modulate these pathways and evade intracellular killing. A better understanding of the specific molecular basis for dysregulation of host immune responses by these organisms will provide a stronger platform to identify novel vaccine targets and develop effective countermeasures.

  19. Transition electromagnetic form factor and current conservation in the Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2015-01-01

    The transition form factor for electrodisintegration of a two-body bound system is calculated in the Bethe-Salpeter framework. For the initial (bound) and the final (scattering) states, we use our solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space which were first obtained recently. The gauge invariance, which manifests itself in the conservation of the transition electromagnetic current Jq = 0, is studied numerically. It results from a cancellation between the plane wave and the final state interaction contributions. This cancellation takes place only if the initial bound state BS amplitude, the final scattering state and the operator of electromagnetic current are strictly consistent with each other, that is if they are found in the same dynamical framework. A reliable result for the transition form factor can be obtained in this case only.

  20. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas: A review of current approaches and hopes for the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Pierre Skarbnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphomas comprise a heterogeneous group of NHLs, with different clinical and biological behaviors, but with a common denominator of poor overall prognosis and lack of potentially curable approaches outside of the realm of stem cell transplantation. Recent data have elicited renewed hope in the treatment of this disease. The authors review the standard of care in treating PTCL, as well as novel therapeutic modalities.

  1. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood; Abordagem diagnostica atual dos tumores osseos na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1995-09-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Our Approach to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Review of Current Treatment Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a clinical entity which has a 30 to 40 % mortality rate, with necrolysis affecting the entire epidermis. Antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants are offender drugs in TEN etiology. A standard treatment protocol with proven efficacy is still lacking. In this study, current treatment practice and our treatment strategy for TEN is discussed and eight patients treated in our clinic between the years 2001 and 2008 are reviewed.

  3. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale-dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients $\\beta_i$ of the QCD $\\beta$-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all $\\beta_i$-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules $C^{\\rm Bjp}_{\\rm NS}(a_s)$ the $\\beta_i$-dependent...

  4. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessalova, Valentina [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perov, Nikolai [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10{sup −11} A m{sup 2} at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  5. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Special Report: Current approaches to measuring quality of care in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Gregory, Kimberly D; Srinivas, Sindhu; Westover, Thomas; Grobman, William A; Saade, George R

    2016-09-01

    Heath care measurement and evaluation is an integral piece of the health care system. The creation and assessment of care performance metrics are important and relevant for the obstetric community including both clinicians and patients. Careful deliberation is required to create a measurement system that results in optimal care for women and families. This article reviews the current approaches to measuring quality in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Combined EOF/Variational Approach for Mapping Radar-Derived Sea Surface Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    assess the method’s skill and compare it with the conventional 2d variational (2dVar) approach. It is shown that the proposed technique consistently...radial velocities are interpolated on the regular grid. Experiments with simulated and real data are used to assess the method’s skill and compare it...velocities v(x,) observed outside the gap (x, efl \\<u) are expanded in Kr "resolved" eigenfunctions e* of C: find otk: £ v(Xj)- ]T 0Lke"(x,) X, . I/lU

  8. Current Trends in Psychological and Educational Approaches for Training and Teaching Students with Autism in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha SUGITA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the United States, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD has seen a dramatic increase over the past twenty years. As the prevalence rate of ASD increases, an increased need for expertise in the field of education has become apparent. Psychological and educational practices for training and teaching students with ASD continue to evolve in California however, a significant gap between theory and practice remains. This article provides a historical perspective of ASD and its prevalence rates. In addition, this article examines the current shifts in teacher training and provides an overview of evidence-based strategies to support students with ASD.

  9. Choosing Wisely: assessment of current US top five list recommendations’ trustworthiness using a pragmatic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Jeitler, Klaus; Abuzahra, Muna E; Posch, Nicole; Domke, Andreas; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identification of sufficiently trustworthy top 5 list recommendations from the US Choosing Wisely campaign. Setting Not applicable. Participants All top 5 list recommendations available from the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation website. Main outcome measures/interventions Compilation of US top 5 lists and search for current German highly trustworthy (S3) guidelines. Extraction of guideline recommendations, including grade of recommendation (GoR), for suggestions comparable to top 5 list recommendations. For recommendations without guideline equivalents, the methodological quality of the top 5 list development process was assessed using criteria similar to that used to judge guidelines, and relevant meta-literature was identified in cited references. Judgement of sufficient trustworthiness of top 5 list recommendations was based either on an ‘A’ GoR of guideline equivalents or on high methodological quality and citation of relevant meta-literature. Results 412 top 5 list recommendations were identified. For 75 (18%), equivalents were found in current German S3 guidelines. 44 of these recommendations were associated with an ‘A’ GoR, or a strong recommendation based on strong evidence, and 26 had a ‘B’ or a ‘C’ GoR. No GoR was provided for 5 recommendations. 337 recommendations had no equivalent in the German S3 guidelines. The methodological quality of the development process was high and relevant meta-literature was cited for 87 top 5 list recommendations. For a further 36, either the methodological quality was high without any meta-literature citations or meta-literature citations existed but the methodological quality was lacking. For the remaining 214 recommendations, either the methodological quality was lacking and no literature was cited or the methodological quality was generally unsatisfactory. Conclusions 131 of current US top 5 list recommendations were found to be sufficiently trustworthy. For a substantial number

  10. Choosing Wisely: assessment of current US top five list recommendations' trustworthiness using a pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Jeitler, Klaus; Abuzahra, Muna E; Posch, Nicole; Domke, Andreas; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2016-10-07

    Identification of sufficiently trustworthy top 5 list recommendations from the US Choosing Wisely campaign. Not applicable. All top 5 list recommendations available from the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation website. Compilation of US top 5 lists and search for current German highly trustworthy (S3) guidelines. Extraction of guideline recommendations, including grade of recommendation (GoR), for suggestions comparable to top 5 list recommendations. For recommendations without guideline equivalents, the methodological quality of the top 5 list development process was assessed using criteria similar to that used to judge guidelines, and relevant meta-literature was identified in cited references. Judgement of sufficient trustworthiness of top 5 list recommendations was based either on an 'A' GoR of guideline equivalents or on high methodological quality and citation of relevant meta-literature. 412 top 5 list recommendations were identified. For 75 (18%), equivalents were found in current German S3 guidelines. 44 of these recommendations were associated with an 'A' GoR, or a strong recommendation based on strong evidence, and 26 had a 'B' or a 'C' GoR. No GoR was provided for 5 recommendations. 337 recommendations had no equivalent in the German S3 guidelines. The methodological quality of the development process was high and relevant meta-literature was cited for 87 top 5 list recommendations. For a further 36, either the methodological quality was high without any meta-literature citations or meta-literature citations existed but the methodological quality was lacking. For the remaining 214 recommendations, either the methodological quality was lacking and no literature was cited or the methodological quality was generally unsatisfactory. 131 of current US top 5 list recommendations were found to be sufficiently trustworthy. For a substantial number of current US top 5 list recommendations, their trustworthiness remains unclear. Methodological

  11. Current Research and Classroom Practice: Toward More Inclusive Approaches to Literacy Development in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Booth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available research-based strategies and classroom interventions that can effectively support both boys and girls in their literacy development. 

  12. Agulhas Current variability determined from space: a multi-sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ]) or altimetry (de Ruijter et al. [1999]; van Leeuwen et al. [2000]), as well as from numerical modelling experiments (Biastoch et al. [2008b]; Tsugawa and Hasumi [2010]). More recent studies on Natal Pulses have shown that these offshore meanders originate.... In particular, they have been linked to the formation of Agulhas Rings (van Leeuwen et al. [2000]) and on some occasion to early retroflections (Lutjeharms and van Ballegooyen [1988]). In the southern Agulhas, south of 35oS, the Agulhas Current is no longer...

  13. Separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yanhua; Liang, Yizeng; Ren, Dabing; Qiu, Ximin; Li, Xi

    2015-09-15

    In this work, eleven compounds were successfully separated from Trollius chinensis Bunge by using a two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method. NRTL-SAC (nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient) method, a newly developed solvent system selection strategy, was applied to screening the suitable biphasic liquid systems. Hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:7:3:7, v/v) solvent system was used in the first step, while the hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:2:1:2, 1:4:1:4, 1:9:1:9, v/v) systems were employed in the second step. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were identified by UV, high resolution ESI-MS and MS/MS data. The separated compounds are 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (1), vanillic acid (2), orientin (3), vitexin (4), veratric acid (5), 2″-O-(3‴, 4‴-dimethoxybenzoyl) orientin (6), 2″-O-feruloylorientin (7), 2″-O-feruloylvitexin (8), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) vitexin (9), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertiajaponin (10), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertisin (11). The results demonstrate that HSCCC is a powerful tool for the separation of compounds from extremely complex samples.

  14. 3D cell culture: a review of current approaches and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, John W

    2011-01-01

    Cell culture in two dimensions has been routinely and diligently undertaken in thousands of laboratories worldwide for the past four decades. However, the culture of cells in two dimensions is arguably primitive and does not reproduce the anatomy or physiology of a tissue for informative or useful study. Creating a third dimension for cell culture is clearly more relevant, but requires a multidisciplinary approach and multidisciplinary expertise. When entering the third dimension, investigators need to consider the design of scaffolds for supporting the organisation of cells or the use of bioreactors for controlling nutrient and waste product exchange. As 3D culture systems become more mature and relevant to human and animal physiology, the ability to design and develop co-cultures becomes possible as does the ability to integrate stem cells. The primary objectives for developing 3D cell culture systems vary widely - and range from engineering tissues for clinical delivery through to the development of models for drug screening. The intention of this review is to provide a general overview of the common approaches and techniques for designing 3D culture models.

  15. Current approaches to managing partial breast defects: the role of conservative breast surgery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Filassi, José Roberto; Gemperli, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Recently breast surgeons can offer patients a variety of treatment and reconstructive alternatives when early breast cancer is diagnosed. In fact, advances in reconstructive techniques have reduced surgical trauma and thus are capable of preserving the breast form as well as quality of life. Depending on a variety of different factors, including stage, tumor size, location, hystological type, but also breast volume, a reconstructive schedule is established. The main techniques are related to volume displacement or replacement procedures including local flaps, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and reduction mammaplasty/ masthopexy. Regardless of the fact that there are is no consensus over the best approach, the criteria are determined by the surgeon's experience and the size of the defect in relation to the size of the remaining breast. Aim of every reconstructive procedure decision should be breast preservation and an adequate aesthetic outcome. Additionally, reconstruction permits wider excision of the tumor, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and potentially reducing the incidence of margin involvement. The objective of this review is to give an overview of reconstructive modalities for conservative breast surgery, based not only on traditional but also on the latest studies regarding the outcome of the main techniques employed. Surgical approaches, as well as conservative treatment options, such as lumpectomy and quadrantectomy, are further discussed. Surgical planning should include the patients' preferences, while chiefly addressing individual reconstructive requirements, and enabling each patient to receive an individual "custom-made" reconstruction.

  16. Neonatal infections due to multi-resistant strains: Epidemiology, current treatment, emerging therapeutic approaches and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzialla, Chryssoula; Borghesi, Alessandro; Pozzi, Margherita; Stronati, Mauro

    2015-12-07

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units. The benefits of antibiotic therapy when indicated are clearly enormous, but the continued and widespread use of antibiotics has generated over the years a strong selective pressure on microorganisms, favoring the emergence of resistant strains. Health agencies worldwide are galvanizing attention toward antibiotic resistance in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Infections in neonatal units due to multidrug and extensively multidrug resistant bacteria are rising and are already seriously challenging antibiotic treatment options. While there is a growing choice of agents against multi-resistant gram-positive bacteria, new options for multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria in the clinical practice have decreased significantly in the last 20 years making the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens challenging mostly in neonates. Treatment options are currently limited and will be some years before any new treatment for neonates become available for clinical use, if ever. The aim of the review is to highlight the current knowledge on antibiotic resistance in the neonatal population, the possible therapeutic choices, and the prevention strategies to adopt in order to reduce the emergency and spread of resistant strains.

  17. Current approaches for RNA labeling in vitro and in cells based on click reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Rentmeister, Andrea

    2014-11-03

    Over recent years, click reactions have become recognized as valuable and flexible tools to label biomacromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and glycans. Some of the developed strategies can be performed not only in aqueous solution but also in the presence of cellular components, as well as on (or even in) living cells. These labeling strategies require the initial, specific modification of the target molecule with a small, reactive moiety. In the second step, a click reaction is used to covalently couple a reporter molecule to the biomolecule. Depending on the type of reporter, labeling by the click reaction can be used in many different applications, ranging from isolation to functional studies of biomacromolecules. In this minireview, we focus on labeling strategies for RNA that rely on the click reaction. We first highlight click reactions that have been used successfully to label modified RNA, and then describe different strategies to introduce the required reactive groups into target RNA. The benefits and potential limitations of the strategies are critically discussed with regard to possible future developments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Adamberg, Kaarel; Arike, Liisa; Nahku, Ranno; Aller, Kadri; Vilu, Raivo

    2011-02-24

    Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS) microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific growth rate dependent metabolism of L. lactis including utilization of amino acids was studied based on extracellular metabolome, global transcriptome and proteome analysis. A new growth medium was designed with reduced amino acid concentrations to increase precision of measurements of consumption of amino acids. Consumption patterns were calculated for all 20 amino acids and measured carbon balance showed good fit of the data at all growth rates studied. It was observed that metabolism of L. lactis became more efficient with rising specific growth rate in the range 0.10-0.60 h(-1), indicated by 30% increase in biomass yield based on glucose consumption, 50% increase in efficiency of nitrogen use for biomass synthesis, and 40% reduction in energy spilling. The latter was realized by decrease in the overall product formation and higher efficiency of incorporation of amino acids into biomass. L. lactis global transcriptome and proteome profiles showed good correlation supporting the general idea of transcription level control of bacterial metabolism, but the data indicated that substrate transport systems together with lower part of glycolysis in L. lactis were presumably under allosteric control. The current study demonstrates advantages of the usage of strictly controlled continuous cultivation methods combined with multi-omics approach for quantitative understanding of amino acid and energy metabolism of L. lactis which is a valuable new knowledge for development of balanced growth media, gene manipulations for desired product formation etc. Moreover, collected dataset is an excellent

  19. Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arike Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Results Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific growth rate dependent metabolism of L. lactis including utilization of amino acids was studied based on extracellular metabolome, global transcriptome and proteome analysis. A new growth medium was designed with reduced amino acid concentrations to increase precision of measurements of consumption of amino acids. Consumption patterns were calculated for all 20 amino acids and measured carbon balance showed good fit of the data at all growth rates studied. It was observed that metabolism of L. lactis became more efficient with rising specific growth rate in the range 0.10 - 0.60 h-1, indicated by 30% increase in biomass yield based on glucose consumption, 50% increase in efficiency of nitrogen use for biomass synthesis, and 40% reduction in energy spilling. The latter was realized by decrease in the overall product formation and higher efficiency of incorporation of amino acids into biomass. L. lactis global transcriptome and proteome profiles showed good correlation supporting the general idea of transcription level control of bacterial metabolism, but the data indicated that substrate transport systems together with lower part of glycolysis in L. lactis were presumably under allosteric control. Conclusions The current study demonstrates advantages of the usage of strictly controlled continuous cultivation methods combined with multi-omics approach for quantitative understanding of amino acid and energy metabolism of L. lactis which is a valuable new knowledge for development of balanced growth media, gene manipulations for desired product

  20. Upper extremity sarcoma: impact of current practice guidelines and controversies on reconstructive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobke Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of sarcoma management include both a cure and the functional preservation of involved tissues and adjacent critical structures with common opinions favoring immediate reconstruction. The question arises whether these goals are contradictory. This paper discusses the question based on the experience of 28 patients with different types of extremity sarcoma, with 24 surgically treated by the University of California San Diego (UCSD orthopedic and plastic surgery team (2011–2016 and the collection of evidence from published practice guidelines, reviews, case studies, and clinical trials. Included are the impact of limb-sparing and functional reconstructive concepts, efforts regarding the adequacy of surgical margins, and the rationale of immediate versus delayed reconstructive approaches, and the disease-free status of sarcoma management.

  1. Multiple, sclerosis: clinical feature, pathogenesis and current therapeutical approaches; Encephalomyelitis disseminata: Klinik, Pathogenese und aktuelle Therapiekonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkelbach, S.; Koelmel, C.; Schimrigk, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Caused by central nervous system demyelination and axonal damage varying clinical signs do occur either with relapsing-remitting or with chronic progressive course. Based on pathogenetic considerations immunomodulative and immunosuppressive therapeutical approaches are used to limit the disease progression. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, pathogenetical considerations, and consecutive therapeutical interventions are summarized. (orig.) [German] Die Encephalomyelitis disseminata oder Multiple Sklerose (ED oder MS) gilt als T-Zell-vermittelte Autoimmunerkrankung. Schubfoermig oder chronisch progredient kommt es im Zentralnervensystem infolge einer Demyelinisierung der weissen Substanz und axonaler Schaedigungen zu einer Vielzahl neurologischer Symptome. Basierend auf pathogenetischen Erkenntnissen werden derzeit immunmodulative und immunsuppressive Therapien eingesetzt, die den Krankheitsverlauf zumindest bremsen. Klinische Symptome, diagnostische Kriterien, pathogenetische Ueberlegungen und sich daraus ableitende Therapiekonzepte werden zusammenfassend dargestellt. (orig.)

  2. Current approach to metastasis of extra-genital system malignancies to the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Güngördük

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the female genital tract from extra-genital malignancies are very uncommon and have a poor prognosis. The most common extra-genital primary sites are breast and gastrointestinal system. The ovaries are frequent targets of metastasis for malignant tumors. Distinction between primary and metastatic tumors is important because misinterpretation of a metastatic tumor as primary tumor may lead to inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment outcome. The routes of tumor spread to the genital system are variable such as lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis or direct extension. Multidisciplinary approach is required to management and follow-up for these patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 406-413

  3. Pharmacological chaperone approaches for rescuing GPCR mutants: Current state, challenges, and screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerepoot, Pieter; Nazari, Reza; Salahpour, Ali

    2017-03-01

    A substantial number of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) genetic disorders are due to mutations that cause misfolding or dysfunction of the receptor product. Pharmacological chaperoning approaches can rescue such mutant receptors by stabilizing protein conformations that behave similar to the wild type protein. For example, this can be achieved by improving folding efficiency and/or interaction with chaperone proteins. Although efficacy of pharmacological chaperones has been demonstrated in vitro for a variety of GPCRs, translation to clinical use has been limited. In this paper we discuss the history of pharmacological chaperones of GPCR's and other membrane proteins, the challenges in translation to the clinic, and the use of different assays for pharmacological chaperone discovery.

  4. Surpassing the current limitations of biohydrogen production systems: The case for a novel hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Lakatos, Gergely; Pap, Bernadett; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2016-03-01

    The steadily increase of global energy requirements has brought about a general agreement on the need for novel renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and carriers. Among the alternatives to a fossil fuel-based economy, hydrogen gas is considered a game-changer. Certain methods of hydrogen production can utilize various low-priced industrial and agricultural wastes as substrate, thus coupling organic waste treatment with renewable energy generation. Among these approaches, different biological strategies have been investigated and successfully implemented in laboratory-scale systems. Although promising, several key aspects need further investigation in order to push these technologies towards large-scale industrial implementation. Some of the major scientific and technical bottlenecks will be discussed, along with possible solutions, including a thorough exploration of novel research combining microbial dark fermentation and algal photoheterotrophic degradation systems, integrated with wastewater treatment and metabolic by-products usage.

  5. An Overview of Current Screening and Management Approaches for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Omar N; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fourth leading cause of mortality in Australian men. The prevalence and incidence is increasing in both developed and developing nations, thus there is a need for better screening and management of this disorder. While there is no direct known cause of prostate cancer, management is largely focused on early detection and treatment strategies. Of particular concern is advanced prostate cancer which can manifest as castrate resistant prostate cancer characterized by therapy resistance. This short review outlines the global epidemiology of prostate cancer, clinical manifestations, risk factors, current screening strategies including first line clinical screening as well as the use of circulating biomarkers, and treatment of prostate cancer through mainstream therapeutics as well as the cutting edge peptide and nano-technology based therapeutics that are being implemented or in the process of development to overcome therapeutic obstacles in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. Hyponatremia in the neurocritical care patient: An approach based on current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, W; Aramendi, I; Langlois, P L; Biestro, A

    2015-05-01

    In the neurocritical care setting, hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder, which is associated with significant morbimortality. Cerebral salt wasting and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone have been classically described as the 2 most frequent entities responsible of hyponatremia in neurocritical care patients. Nevertheless, to distinguish between both syndromes is usually difficult and useless as volume status is difficult to be determined, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully understood, fluid restriction is usually contraindicated in these patients, and the first option in the therapeutic strategy is always the same: 3% hypertonic saline solution. Therefore, we definitively agree with the current concept of "cerebral salt wasting", which means that whatever is the etiology of hyponatremia, initially in neurocritical care patients the treatment will be the same: hypertonic saline solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  8. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  9. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...... criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...... the dominating resin types in plastic packaging. The suggested washing procedure caused a decrease of 70% of the ash content of the plastic material. The analysed metals and nutrients were reduced by up to 24%...

  10. Path to facilitate the prediction of functional amino acid substitutions in red blood cell disorders--a computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajith B

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major area of effort in current genomics is to distinguish mutations that are functionally neutral from those that contribute to disease. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are amino acid substitutions that currently account for approximately half of the known gene lesions responsible for human inherited diseases. As a result, the prediction of non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs that affect protein functions and relate to disease is an important task. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of deleterious SNPs at both functional and structural level in the respective genes associated with red blood cell metabolism disorders using bioinformatics tools. We analyzed the variants in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and isoforms of Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR & PKM2 genes responsible for major red blood cell disorders. Deleterious nsSNPs were categorized based on empirical rule and support vector machine based methods to predict the impact on protein functions. Furthermore, we modeled mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein for evaluation of protein structure stability. SIGNIFICANCE: We argue here that bioinformatics tools can play an important role in addressing the complexity of the underlying genetic basis of Red Blood Cell disorders. Based on our investigation, we report here the potential candidate SNPs, for future studies in human Red Blood Cell disorders. Current study also demonstrates the presence of other deleterious mutations and also endorses with in vivo experimental studies. Our approach will present the application of computational tools in understanding functional variation from the perspective of structure, expression, evolution and phenotype.

  11. Pharmacological approaches to improving cognitive function in Down syndrome: current status and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner KJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Katheleen J Gardiner Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Human Medical Genetics and Genomics Program, Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Down syndrome (DS, also known as trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID. Although ID can be mild, the average intelligence quotient is in the range of 40–50. All individuals with DS will also develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by the age of 30–40 years, and approximately half will display an AD-like dementia by the age of 60 years. DS is caused by an extra copy of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 and the consequent elevated levels of expression, due to dosage, of trisomic genes. Despite a worldwide incidence of one in 700–1,000 live births, there are currently no pharmacological treatments available for ID or AD in DS. However, over the last several years, very promising results have been obtained with a mouse model of DS, the Ts65Dn. A diverse array of drugs has been shown to rescue, or partially rescue, DS-relevant deficits in learning and memory and abnormalities in cellular and electrophysiological features seen in the Ts65Dn. These results suggest that some level of amelioration or prevention of cognitive deficits in people with DS may be possible. Here, we review information from the preclinical evaluations in the Ts65Dn, how drugs were selected, how efficacy was judged, and how outcomes differ, or not, among studies. We also summarize the current state of human clinical trials for ID and AD in DS. Lastly, we describe the genetic limitations of the Ts65Dn as a model of DS, and in the preclinical testing of pharmacotherapeutics, and suggest additional targets to be considered for potential pharmacotherapies. Keywords: Ts65Dn, pharmacotherapy, clinical trials, Hsa21

  12. Assessing the reliability of ecotoxicological studies: An overview of current needs and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moermond, Caroline; Beasley, Amy; Breton, Roger; Junghans, Marion; Laskowski, Ryszard; Solomon, Keith; Zahner, Holly

    2016-11-21

    In general, reliable studies are well designed and well performed, and enough details on study design and performance are reported to assess the study. For hazard and risk assessment in various legal frameworks, many different types of ecotoxicity studies need to be evaluated for reliability. These studies vary in study design, methodology, quality, and level of detail reported (e.g., reviews, peer-reviewed research papers, or industry-sponsored studies documented under Good Laboratory Practice [GLP] guidelines). Regulators have the responsibility to make sound and verifiable decisions and should evaluate each study for reliability in accordance with scientific principles regardless of whether they were conducted in accordance with GLP and/or standardized methods. Thus, a systematic and transparent approach is needed to evaluate studies for reliability. In this paper, 8 different methods for reliability assessment were compared using a number of attributes: categorical versus numerical scoring methods, use of exclusion and critical criteria, weighting of criteria, whether methods are tested with case studies, domain of applicability, bias toward GLP studies, incorporation of standard guidelines in the evaluation method, number of criteria used, type of criteria considered, and availability of guidance material. Finally, some considerations are given on how to choose a suitable method for assessing reliability of ecotoxicity studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag. ©2016 SETAC.

  13. Missing Data in Substance Abuse Treatment Research: Current Methods and Modern Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Burns, G. Leonard; Howell, Donelle; Roll, John

    2013-01-01

    Two common procedures for the treatment of missing information, listwise deletion and positive urine analysis (UA) imputation (e.g., if the participant fails to provide urine for analysis, then score the UA positive), may result in significant biases during the interpretation of treatment effects. To compare these approaches and to offer a possible alternative, these two procedures were compared to the multiple imputation (MI) procedure with publicly available data from a recent clinical trial. Listwise deletion, single imputation (i.e., positive UA imputation), and MI missing data procedures were used to comparatively examine the effect of two different buprenorphine/naloxone tapering schedules (7- or 28-days) for opioid addiction on the likelihood of a positive UA (Clinical Trial Network 0003; Ling et al., 2009). The listwise deletion of missing data resulted in a nonsignificant effect for the taper while the positive UA imputation procedure resulted in a significant effect, replicating the original findings by Ling et al. (2009). Although the MI procedure also resulted in a significant effect, the effect size was meaningfully smaller and the standard errors meaningfully larger when compared to the positive UA procedure. This study demonstrates that the researcher can obtain markedly different results depending on how the missing data are handled. Missing data theory suggests that listwise deletion and single imputation procedures should not be used to account for missing information, and that MI has advantages with respect to internal and external validity when the assumption of missing at random can be reasonably supported. PMID:22329556

  14. IMRT dose fractionation for head and neck cancer: Variation in current approaches will make standardisation difficult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Kean F. (Academic Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Fowler, Jack F. (Dept. of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Wisconsin (United States)); Sykes, Andrew J.; Yap, Beng K.; Lee, Lip W.; Slevin, Nick J. (Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    Introduction. Altered fractionation has demonstrated clinical benefits compared to the conventional 2 Gy/day standard of 70 Gy. When using synchronous chemotherapy, there is uncertainty about optimum fractionation. IMRT with its potential for Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) adds further to this uncertainty. This survey will examine international practice of IMRT fractionation and suggest possible reasons for diversity in approach. Material and methods. Fourteen international cancer centres were surveyed for IMRT dose/fractionation practised in each centre. Results. Twelve different types of dose fractionation were reported. Conventional 70-72 Gy (daily 2 Gy/fraction) was used in 3/14 centres with concurrent chemotherapy while 11/14 centres used altered fractionation. Two centres used >1 schedule. Reported schedules and number of centres included 6 fractions/week DAHANCA regime (3), modest hypofractionation (=2.2 Gy/fraction) (3), dose-escalated hypofractionation (=2.3 Gy/fraction) (4), hyperfractionation (1), continuous acceleration (1) and concomitant boost (1). Reasons for dose fractionation variability include (i) dose escalation; (ii) total irradiated volume; (iii) number of target volumes; (iv) synchronous systemic treatment; (v) shorter overall treatment time; (vi) resources availability; (vii) longer time on treatment couch; (viii) variable GTV margins; (ix) confidence in treatment setup; (x) late tissue toxicity and (xi) use of lower neck anterior fields. Conclusions. This variability in IMRT fractionation makes any meaningful comparison of treatment results difficult. Some standardization is needed particularly for design of multi-centre randomized clinical trials.

  15. Therapeutic Approach in the Improvement of Endothelial Dysfunction: The Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radenković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium has a central role in the regulation of blood flow through continuous modulation of vascular tone. This is primarily accomplished by balanced release of endothelial relaxing and contractile factors. The healthy endothelial cells are essential for maintenance of vascular homeostasis involving antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-fibrinolytic, anti-adhesive, or anticoagulant effects. Oppositely, endothelial dysfunction is primarily characterized by impaired regulation of vascular tone as a result of reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase activity, lack of cofactors for NO synthesis, attenuated NO release, or increased NO degradation. So far, the pharmacological approach in improving/reversal of endothelial dysfunction was shown to be beneficial in clinical trials that have investigated actions of different cardiovascular drugs. The aim of this paper was to summarize some of the latest clinical findings related to therapeutic possibilities for improving endothelial dysfunction in different pathological conditions. In the majority of presented clinical investigations, the assessment of improvement or reversal of endothelial dysfunction was performed through the flow-mediated dilatation measurement, and in some of those endothelial progenitor cells’ count was used for the same purpose. Still, given the fast and continuous development of this field, the evidence acquisition included the MEDLINE data base screening and the selection of articles published between 2010 and 2012.

  16. Pros and cons of current approaches for detecting peroxynitrite and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmiao Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxynitrite, a representative of reactive nitrogen species, plays important roles in the physiological and pathological processes of many oxidative stress-related diseases. It is generated from the reaction of nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (O2·– and is far more active than its precursors. Peroxynitrite can be further decomposed into other cytotoxic reactive species. Peroxynitrite and its derivatives can interact with various biomolecules such as DNA and proteins. Due to its high reactivity and short lifetime, accurate detection of peroxynitrite in biological systems is a challenge task. In the last decade, huge efforts have been made to develop reliable techniques to assess the generation of peroxynitrite in various cellular and animal experiments. There are three major approaches for peroxynitrite detection, including electrochemical sensors, detection of nitrotyrosine formation, and fluorescent probes. Particularly, progress has been made in developing novel fluorescent probes to detect peroxynitrite with relatively high sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we review the recent progress made in peroxynitrite detection methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. The development of these techniques will offer new opportunities for understanding the roles of peroxynitrite in the oxidative stress-related physiological and pathological conditions and provide platforms for drug discovery targeting peroxynitrite and other free radicals for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Current approaches of managing microbial diseases:focus on nanosciences technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience is a fast growing research area that focuses on producing and utilizing nano-sized particles, which are measured in nanometers. Recently, nanoparticles are used in various fields. Therefore, studies on the effect of nanoparticles on microorganisms are worthy of analysis. However, using many antimicrobial agents has been avoided because of their methodical harmful effect. Hence, this review paper focuses on the use of some nanomaterials to manage microbial diseases. The discussed nanomaterials as antimicrobial agents include sliver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and copper nanoparticles. This review also explains the mechanisms of action of some nanotechnological products to inhibit microorganisms. There are many problems in the development of an evaluation for the effect of nanomaterials on environment. Nevertheless, the defect of the approaches used to analyze nanomaterials toxicity gives no ground for hampering the development of nanotechnologies for safety using. In order to overcome this problem, ecotoxicological studies should be extended to include the analysis of the biological safety of nanomaterials in environment and accumulate experimental data.

  18. Current Treatment Approaches to HCC with a Special Consideration to Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. T. P. R.; Silva, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The mainstay of treatment of HCC has been both resectional and transplantation surgery. It is well known that, in selected, optimized patients, hepatectomy for HCC may be an option, even in patients with underlying cirrhosis. Resectable patients with early HCC and underlying liver disease are however increasingly being considered for transplantation because of potential for better disease-free survival and resolution of underlying liver disease, although this approach is limited by the availability of donor livers, especially in resectable patients. Outcomes following liver transplantation improved dramatically for patients with HCC following the implementation of the Milan criteria in the late 1990s. Ever since, the rather restrictive nature of the Milan criteria has been challenged with good outcomes. There has also been an increase in the donor pool with marginal donors including organs retrieved following cardiac death being used. Even so, patients still continue to die while waiting for a liver transplant. In order to reduce this attrition, bridging techniques and methods for downstaging disease have evolved. Additionally new techniques for organ preservation have increased the prospect of this potentially curative procedure being available for a greater number of patients. PMID:27413539

  19. Current Treatment Approaches to HCC with a Special Consideration to Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The mainstay of treatment of HCC has been both resectional and transplantation surgery. It is well known that, in selected, optimized patients, hepatectomy for HCC may be an option, even in patients with underlying cirrhosis. Resectable patients with early HCC and underlying liver disease are however increasingly being considered for transplantation because of potential for better disease-free survival and resolution of underlying liver disease, although this approach is limited by the availability of donor livers, especially in resectable patients. Outcomes following liver transplantation improved dramatically for patients with HCC following the implementation of the Milan criteria in the late 1990s. Ever since, the rather restrictive nature of the Milan criteria has been challenged with good outcomes. There has also been an increase in the donor pool with marginal donors including organs retrieved following cardiac death being used. Even so, patients still continue to die while waiting for a liver transplant. In order to reduce this attrition, bridging techniques and methods for downstaging disease have evolved. Additionally new techniques for organ preservation have increased the prospect of this potentially curative procedure being available for a greater number of patients.

  20. How to measure the international development of palliative care? A critique and discussion of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucka, Martin; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A number of research projects have been conducted that aim to gather data on the international development of palliative care. These data are important for policy makers and palliative care advocates. The aim of this article was to provide a critical comparative analysis of methodological approaches used to assess the development and status of palliative care services and infrastructure at an international level. A selective literature review that focused on the methodological features of eight identified reports was undertaken. Reviewed reports were found to differ in adopted methodologies and provided uneven amounts of methodological information. Five major methodological limitations were identified (lack of theory, use of experts as source of information, grey literature, difficulties in ranking, and the problematic nature of data on service provision). A set of recommendations on how to deal with these issues in future research is provided. Measuring the international development of palliative care is a difficult and challenging task. The results of this study could be used to improve the validity of future research in this field. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The "Biogenetic Law" in zoology: from Ernst Haeckel's formulation to current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S; Hoßfeld, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level. But their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the Modern Synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in 'idealistic morphology', usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. We end our review with a brief look at the present situation in which molecular data are used to test the "hour-glass model", which can be seen as a modern version of the biogenetic law.

  2. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacological Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Current Approaches, Unsolved Issues, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreuter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating condition with a 5-year survival of approximately 20%. The disease primarily occurs in elderly patients. IPF is a highly heterogeneous disorder with a clinical course that varies from prolonged periods of stability to episodes of rapid deterioration. In the last decade, improved understanding of disease mechanisms along with a more precise disease definition has allowed the design and completion of a number of high-quality clinical trials. Yet, until recently, IPF was essentially an untreatable disease. Finally, pirfenidone and nintedanib, two compounds with antifibrotic properties, have consistently proven effective in reducing functional decline and disease progression in IPF. This is a major breakthrough for patients and physicians alike, but there is still a long way to go. In fact, neither pirfenidone nor nintedanib is a cure for IPF, and most patients continue to progress despite treatment. As such, comprehensive care of patients with IPF, including management of comorbidities/complications and physical debility and timely referral for palliative care or, in a small number of highly selected patients, lung transplantation, remains essential. Several agents with high potential are currently being tested and many more are ready to be evaluated in clinical trials.

  4. The Metabolism of Anticancer Drugs by the Liver: Current Approaches to the Drug Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, Mariusz; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide scientific community is in agreement that the activities of metabolic enzymes greatly impact the efficacies of anticancer drugs. Elucidation of the influences of these drugs on metabolism, especially that occurring in the liver, appears to be an extremely important step in the development of new anticancer drugs. Considering the continuous need to search for safe and effective chemotherapeutics, studies of the metabolism of new potent drugs are very important and should be included in the modern, innovative drug development pipeline. This article summarizes most of the current metabolic case studies involving anticancer drug development. Firstly, the impacts of diverse metabolic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450, and the utilities of a few model in vitro enzymatic systems are described. Then, different analytical techniques, with particular emphasis on liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry detection and structural elucidation, are discussed. Finally, some computer-aided strategies for decision making in the drug design process are described. Recent advances in drug development, including microdosing, in vitro-in vivo correlation and pharmacologic audit trail, are also discussed in relation to metabolic studies.

  5. Current and previous eating practices among women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimitrov Ulian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how women, who have recovered from anorexia nervosa, perceive and describe their current eating practices, as well as the ones developed during the eating disorder period. METHODS: Seven women were interviewed individually with the objective of investigating their eating practices, transition phases and all relevant aspects that somewhat contributed to the habit-forming; experiences, feelings and perceptions related to mealtime and the influence that food has had over the present subjects' life. The interviews were analyzed by the discourse of the collective subject method. RESULTS: The results brought up the following topics: a control; b concerns and feelings; c deprivation d beauty dictatorship; e eating competence; f importance of food; g food cacophony. CONCLUSIONS: What stands out is a multiplicity of eating practices, which during the eating disorder were similar to and characterized by restriction; however, after recovery, part of the subjects seem to have developed a higher eating competence, whereas others show a practice similar to the one acquired during the anorexia nervosa, such as the difficulty in realizing when they are satisfied and a feeling of discomfort when facing social interactions.

  6. New Approach to Low-Power & Leakage Current Reduction Technique for CMOS Circuit Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Prajapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power dissipation has become major portion of total power consumption in the integrated device and is expected to grow exponentially in the next decade as per International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (IRTS. This directly affects the battery operated devices as it has long idle times. Thus by scaling down the threshold voltage has tremendously increased the sub threshold leakage current thereby making the static power dissipation very high. To overcome this problem several techniques has been proposed to overcome this high leakage power dissipation. A comprehensive survey and analysis of various leakage power minimization techniques is presented in this paper. Of the available techniques, eight techniques are considered for the analysis namely, Multi Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS, Super Cut-off CMOS (SCCMOS, Forced Transistor Stacking (FTS and Sleepy Stack (SS, Sleepy keeper (SK, Dual Stack (OS, and LECTOR. From the results, it is observed that Lector techniques produces lower power dissipation than the other techniques due to the ability of power gating.

  7. Efficient Green's-function approach to finding the currents in a random resistor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang; Bradley, R. Mark

    1994-02-01

    Using Green's functions, we reformulate Kirchhoff's laws for a two-component random resistor network in which a fraction p of the resistors has conductance σ- and the remainder have conductance σ+. In this Green's-function formulation (GFF), the current correlation between any two resistors in the network is explicitly taken into account. The GFF yields a linear system equivalent to Kirchhoff's laws but with a smaller number of variables. In the dilute case (pGFF. For general p, a variety of algorithms can be used to solve the GFF linear system. We present the technical details of solving the GFF linear system using the conjugate gradient method (method A). Our extensive numerical work shows that method A consistently requires fewer iterations than solving Kirchhoff's laws directly using the conjugate gradient method (method B). For example, for a 128×128 grid with p>=0.65 and σ-/σ+<=10-4, the number of iterations needed to achieve a precision of 10-10 is more than 100 times smaller in method A than in method B.

  8. Transport approach to the reconstruction of the neutrino kinematics in current oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Tina; Buss, Oliver; Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Alvarez-Ruso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia - CSIC (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation results depend on the neutrino energy - a quantity which can not be measured directly but has to be reconstructed from the hadronic debris coming out of the neutrino-nucleus reaction inside the detector. A reliable reconstruction of the neutrino kinematics and the initial scattering process has to account for in-medium modifications and, in particular, for final state interactions inside the target nucleus. They can, e.g. through intranuclear rescattering, change particle multiplicities and also redistribute their energy. Those effects can be simulated with our fully coupled channel GiBUU transport model where the neutrino first interacts with a bound nucleon producing secondary particles which are then transported out of the nucleus. We use a relativistic formalism that incorporates recent form factor parametrizations, and apply, besides Fermi motion, full in-medium kinematics, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. In this talk, we compare the reconstructed quantities obtained within our framework to the ones obtained by the current experiments, which, as e.g. MiniBooNE, mostly rely on simple two-body kinematics. We then discuss how these uncertainties influence not only the cross section measurements but also the oscillation results.

  9. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  10. A Review of Current Neuromorphic Approaches for Vision, Auditory, and Olfactory Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarse, Anup; Osseiran, Adam; Rassau, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Conventional vision, auditory, and olfactory sensors generate large volumes of redundant data and as a result tend to consume excessive power. To address these shortcomings, neuromorphic sensors have been developed. These sensors mimic the neuro-biological architecture of sensory organs using aVLSI (analog Very Large Scale Integration) and generate asynchronous spiking output that represents sensing information in ways that are similar to neural signals. This allows for much lower power consumption due to an ability to extract useful sensory information from sparse captured data. The foundation for research in neuromorphic sensors was laid more than two decades ago, but recent developments in understanding of biological sensing and advanced electronics, have stimulated research on sophisticated neuromorphic sensors that provide numerous advantages over conventional sensors. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in neuromorphic implementation of vision, auditory, and olfactory sensors and identify key contributions across these fields. Bringing together these key contributions we suggest a future research direction for further development of the neuromorphic sensing field.

  11. Approach for removing ghost-images in remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q. W.; Shi, Y. B.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic pipes based on remote field eddy currents, an array of sensing coils is often used to detect local defects. While testing, the image that is obtained by sensing coils exhibits a ghost-image, which originates from both the transmitter and sensing coils passing over the same defects in pipes. Ghost-images are caused by transmitters and lead to undesirable assessments of defects. In order to remove ghost-images, two pickup coils are coaxially set to each other in remote field. Due to the time delay between differential signals tested by the two pickup coils, a Wiener deconvolution filter is used to identify the artificial peaks that lead to ghost-images. Because the sensing coils and two pickup coils all receive the same signal from one transmitter, they all contain the same artificial peaks. By subtracting the artificial peak values obtained by the two pickup coils from the imaging data, the ghost-image caused by the transmitter is eliminated. Finally, a relatively highly accurate image of local defects is obtained by these sensing coils. With proposed method, there is no need to subtract the average value of the sensing coils, and it is sensitive to ringed defects.

  12. An efficient approach to the quantitative analysis of humic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Li, Bao Qiong; Zhai, Hong Lin; Xiong, Meng Yi; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rayleigh and Raman scatterings inevitably appear in fluorescence measurements, which make the quantitative analysis more difficult, especially in the overlap of target signals and scattering signals. Based on the grayscale images of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, the linear model with two selected Zernike moments was established for the determination of humic acid, and applied to the quantitative analysis of the real sample taken from the Yellow River. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) and leave-one-out cross validation correlation coefficient (R(2)cv) were up to 0.9994 and 0.9987, respectively. The average recoveries were reached 96.28%. Compared with N-way partial least square and alternating trilinear decomposition methods, our approach was immune from the scattering and noise signals owing to its powerful multi-resolution characteristic and the obtained results were more reliable and accurate, which could be applied in food analyses.

  13. Acid-base disorder analysis during diabetic ketoacidosis using the Stewart approach--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szrama, Jakub; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents a 49 year-old female with type 1 diabetes admitted to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure and severe diabetic ketoacidosis with an initial measurement of blood glucose level of 1,200 mg L⁻¹, pH 6.78, serum HCO₃ ⁻ 3.2 mmoL L⁻¹ and BE -31.2 mmoL L⁻¹. Analysis of the blood gasometric parameters with the Stewart approach and the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch concept enabled the discovery of metabolic acidosis caused by unidentified anions (mainly ketons). A treatment protocol with intensive fluid management with 0.9% NaCl, intensive intravenous insulin therapy, and potassium supplementation was administered. Analysis of the gasometric parameters after 12 hours of treatment according to the Stewart approach compared to the Henderson-Hasselbalch concept disclosed that metabolic acidosis caused by the unidentified anions has resolved almost completely and been replaced by metabolic hyperchloremic acidosis. The hyperchloremic acidosis was caused by the intensive fluid resuscitation with 0.9% NaCl, which contains a high chloride load, exceeding the chloride levels observed in human serum. Fluid management with balanced fluids other than saline was continued, together with intravenous insulin infusion, potassium supplementation, and 5% glucose administration. Analysis of this case study revealed the advantages of the Stewart approach to acid base abnormalities compared to the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch concept. The Stewart approach allows the diagnosis of the exact causes of severe life-threatening metabolic acidosis and the appropriate modification of the therapeutic mangement of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  14. Multi-parametric approach to identify coffee components that regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Seebach, Elisabeth; Somoza, Mark M; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CA), caffeine (CAFF), pyrogallol (PYR), catechol (CAT), (β)N-alkanoyl-hydroxytryptamides (C5HT) and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) were evaluated for their influence on mechanisms of gastric acid secretion as single compounds and in biomimetic mixtures. Compounds were tested in coffee representative concentrations. Human gastric cancer cells (HGT-1) were used to study the proton secretory activity by Ussing chamber experiments and FACS analysis. For activation of EGFr, Akt1, ERK1/2, ATF-2 and cAMP levels, we performed pathway screening assays. Time-dependent expression of related genes were determined by real-time PCR. Part of the data was used for neural network modeling to identify the most relevant compounds. N-MP increased the expression of the anti-secretory somatostatin receptor by 114%, whereas C5HT decreased its expression by 52%. N-MP down-regulated the pro-secretory CHRM3 receptor by 36% and the H⁺,K⁺-ATPase by 36%. CAFF stimulated the secretory activity in the functional assays, whereas N-MP and CA decreased proton secretion. After applying a pathway analysis, we were able to discriminate between CAFF, CA, CAT, C5HT, PYR and histamine-activating EGFr signaling and N-MP-associated ERK1/2 signaling. By applying a multi-parametric approach, N-MP was shown to effectively down-regulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion in human parietal gastric cells. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A combinatorial approach to detect coevolved amino acid networks in protein families of variable divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baussand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.

  16. Enhanced conformational sampling of nucleic acids by a new Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curuksu, Jeremy; Zacharias, Martin

    2009-03-14

    Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied frequently to study flexible molecules, the sampling of conformational states separated by barriers is limited due to currently possible simulation time scales. Replica-exchange (Rex)MD simulations that allow for exchanges between simulations performed at different temperatures (T-RexMD) can achieve improved conformational sampling. However, in the case of T-RexMD the computational demand grows rapidly with system size. A Hamiltonian RexMD method that specifically enhances coupled dihedral angle transitions has been developed. The method employs added biasing potentials as replica parameters that destabilize available dihedral substates and was applied to study coupled dihedral transitions in nucleic acid molecules. The biasing potentials can be either fixed at the beginning of the simulation or optimized during an equilibration phase. The method was extensively tested and compared to conventional MD simulations and T-RexMD simulations on an adenine dinucleotide system and on a DNA abasic site. The biasing potential RexMD method showed improved sampling of conformational substates compared to conventional MD simulations similar to T-RexMD simulations but at a fraction of the computational demand. It is well suited to study systematically the fine structure and dynamics of large nucleic acids under realistic conditions including explicit solvent and ions and can be easily extended to other types of molecules.

  17. Current methodological approaches to determining the environmental competitiveness of products and manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Harichkov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop methodological approaches to environmental assessments and enterprise competitiveness.The results of the analysis. Ensuring environmental competitiveness of producers and their products should be based on the creation of conditions for access to restricted environmentally friendly natural resources as factors of production. Environmentally friendly products may not be carried out under conditions of companies that pollute the environment. Environmental competitiveness of producers is provided based on two of its constituent factors. First it's impact on the environment: the value of economic - environmental damage inflicted terms of air emissions, discharges into water, waste disposal in water and land facilities, depletion of all natural resources in the process of extraction and application economic-environmental damage to the environment in the extraction of natural resources. The second factor is the production of environmentally viable products. Environmental competitiveness of goods is determined by environmental parameters as a commodity and its price are acceptable to consumers and appropriate to the effective demand for certain markets in certain time periods. An important condition for the formation of the competitive nature of the process is the qualitative state factors of production, which, in turn, depends on the environmental component condition, performance, environment, sustainability of natural resource base of the national economy.To environmental performance include:level (content contaminants in combustion engines of vehicles, equipment, machinery, facilities,the probability of harmful particles, gases emissions during storage, transportation, use or consumption of goods;radioactivity of the final product and others.Methods of assessing the environmental performance of the enterprise should consist of the following steps:Gathering and analyzing baseline information

  18. STUDY OF CURRENT APPROACHES FOR WEB PUBLISHING OF OPEN SCIENTIFIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Mouromtsev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The subject of study of this work is closely related to the development of tools and technologies for Internet publishing of open data in machine-readable formats with regard to data of universities, educational and research organizations and scientific laboratories. We analyze the trends in the publishing formats most commonly used including not only popular formats such as pdf, csv, excel, but also the Semantic Web formats such as RDF. The paper describes the way of scientific data publication in semantic formats on the example of import and convertation of the information from University database. Methods. We describe the methods of publication for scientific open data in the network consisting of a set of transformations of the original data sets to the final semantic representation. These transformation steps include data upload from a relational database, data mapping on the ontological model (schema and the generation of a set of RDF-triples corresponding to the initial database fragment. A description is given to the popular open data publishing systems, such as CKAN, VIVO, and others. OpenLink Virtuoso system is selected as the primary storage and data publication. The description of RDF data model is used as a way of presenting open data of ITMO University. Main Results. The authors have described the methods of scientific open data publication and identified their shortcomings. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method of university open data publication, a software prototype has been developed available online at: http://lod.ifmo.ru/. The example of the system usage is also given. Practical Relevance. Implementation of the proposed approach will improve significantly the effect of the publication of university open data and make it available for third-party applications, such as applications for information retrieval about educational activities and research results, analysis of scientific activities in

  19. Crohn`s disease: current imaging approach; Die radiologische Abklaerung des Morbus Crohn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, E.; Turetschek, K. [Klinische Abt. Roentgen fuer konservative Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria); Mostbeck, G. [Roentgeninstitut, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder, Eisenstadt (Austria)

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of Crohn`s disease (CD). Methods: We present a concept, which emphasizes different diagnostic aspects with regard to primary diagnosis, follow-up and assessment of complications of CD. The most effective imaging approach to various diagnostic problems of CD is discussed in detail. Discussion: With regard to the primary diagnosis barium studies should contribute to differentiate between CD and ulcerative colitis. Beyond that, these studies should evaluate location and extent of disease. During the follow-up bowel sonography provides staging of disease and enables the detection of complications at an early stage. CT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of complications, such as fistuale and abscesses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Uebersichtsarbeit soll die Rolle bildgebender radiologischer Modalitaeten bei der interdiziplinaeren Betreuung von Patienten mit Morbus Crohn (MC) diskutieren. Es wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, welches die unterschiedlichen Anforderungen an die bildgebende Diagnostik im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose, der Verlaufskontrolle sowie bei der Erfassung von Komplikationen eines MC definiert. Davon ausgehend wird versucht, fuer die einzelnen Fragestellungen die jeweils effektivste radiologische Abklaerung vorzuschlagen. Mehrere Tabellen ermoeglichen einen raschen und komprimierten Ueberblick der diagnostischen Problemstellungen im Rahmen einer schrittweisen Abklaerung der Erkrankung. Im Rahmen der Erstdiagnostik soll die radiologische Duenndarmdarstellung bei der Differentialdiagnose (MC vs. Colitis ulcerosa) hilfreich sein und das genaue Ausmass des Duenndarmbefalles eruieren. Im Rahmen der klinischen Verlaufskontrolle ist die Darmsonographie ideal zur Ueberwachung der Erkrankung sowie zur fruehen Erfassung von Komplikationen geeignet. Bei geringstem Verdacht auf eine Komplikation sollte sofort eine CT durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  20. Where should Momma go? Current nursing home performance measurement strategies and a less ambitious approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home performance measurement systems are practically ubiquitous. The vast majority of these systems aspire to rank order all nursing homes based on quantitative measures of quality. However, the ability of such systems to identify homes differing in quality is hampered by the multidimensional nature of nursing homes and their residents. As a result, the authors doubt the ability of many nursing home performance systems to truly help consumers differentiate among homes providing different levels of quality. We also argue that, for consumers, performance measurement models are better at identifying problem facilities than potentially good homes. Discussion In response to these concerns we present a proposal for a less ambitious approach to nursing home performance measurement than previously used. We believe consumers can make better informed choice using a simpler system designed to pinpoint poor-quality nursing homes, rather than one designed to rank hundreds of facilities based on differences in quality-of-care indicators that are of questionable importance. The suggested performance model is based on five principles used in the development of the Consumers Union 2006 Nursing Home Quality Monitor. Summary We can best serve policy-makers and consumers by eschewing nursing home reporting systems that present information about all the facilities in a city, a state, or the nation on a website or in a report. We argue for greater modesty in our efforts and a focus on identifying only the potentially poorest or best homes. In the end, however, it is important to remember that information from any performance measurement website or report is no substitute for multiple visits to a home at different times of the day to personally assess quality.

  1. Phage therapy--history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Felix d'Herelle proposed the use of bacteriophages for the therapy of human and animal bacterial infections at the beginning of the 20th century. This approach, however, was not widely accepted in the West. After the emergence of antibiotics in 1940s, phage research was diverted to a more fundamental level. At the same time, phage therapy was widely practiced in the Soviet Union due to collaboration of Felix d'Herelle with his Georgian colleagues. The majority of the articles dedicated to this subject are from the 1930s and 1940s. The old Soviet literature indicates that phage therapy was used extensively to treat a wide range of bacterial infections in the areas of dermatology (Beridze, 1938), ophthalmology (Rodigina, 1938), urology (Tsulukidze, 1938), stomatology (Ruchko and Tretyak, 1936), pediatrics (Alexandrova et al., 1935; Lurie, 1938), otolaryngology (Ermolieva, 1939), and surgery (Tsulukidze, 1940, 1941). These articles were published in Russian and thus were not readily available to Western scientists. The Western skepticism toward phage therapy itself was again followed by renewed interest and reappraisal, mainly due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Often the experiments described in the old Soviet articles were not designed properly: the use of placebos and the coding of preparations were absent from most of the studies, number of patients in the experimental and control groups was unequal or missing, sometimes no control groups were used at all, or patients treated previously unsuccessfully with antibiotics were employed as an experimental group and as control. The results obtained and the efficiency of phage prophylaxis were estimated by comparing with results obtained in previous years. In most publications, phage titers and descriptions of methods used for evaluation of the results are not specified. Nevertheless, past experience indicates some effectiveness of phage therapy and prophylaxis. Therefore, these clinical results should not

  2. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. Methods The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: “Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale” (ATS-18, “Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire” (SEQ-12, “Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy” scale (ANRT-12, number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Results A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker. Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. Conclusions The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  3. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  4. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  5. Current concepts and future approaches to the development of autologous/autogenous vaccines for veterinary use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M

    2004-01-01

    Current classification of autologous/autogenous (A/A) vaccines is commonly based on the concept of strain/antigen specificity associated with targeted treatment of a restricted number of animals. However, fulfilling these two conditions is not sufficient for immune-veterinary immunebiologicals to be excluded from the provisions of Directive 2001/82/EC. Indeed, non-inactivated A/A vaccines are not automatically considered out of the scope of the community code relating to veterinary medicinal products, in particular to immune-biologicals. As a major consequence of the "regulatory" exclusion from the requirements of EU rules, A/A vaccines can be usually manufactured and distributed without having obtained a marketing authorization by the competent authority of a Member State. Furthermore, strain specificity enables veterinarians to consider the use of these vaccines in quite a large variety of epidemiological circumstances where no "conventional" vaccines are yet available or are considered efficacious. In addition, in contrast to "conventional" vaccines, which are considered exclusively as a preventive tool against infectious diseases, A/A vaccines can also be used to treat "continuing" infections. Although the limited scientific value of these products and the poor investigations of the effector mechanisms involved are widely recognized, their use is still claimed in conditions where disorders in the immune system are suspected. Today, a more appropriate definition of A/A vaccines is one that takes into account their historical tradition and practical use, such as stable- or herd-specific vaccines, custom ("..ized") vaccines, therapeutic vaccines, pharmavaccines, vaccines used for biological therapy, etc. Although acknowledging the "regulatory autonomy" of A/A vaccines versus "conventional" vaccines, here it will be presented as an overview of the necessary points to consider, to guarantee an acceptable standard in the development and control of this particular

  6. Impact of a board-game approach on current smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Prezzemolo, Roberto; Zebouni, Fadi; Edel, Yves; Jacquet, Johan; Ruggeri, Ornella; Burnens, Emilie; Monney, Grégoire; Protti, Anne-Sylvie; Etter, Jean-François; Khan, Riaz; Cornuz, Jacques; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-01-17

    The main objective of our study was to assess the impact of a board game on smoking status and smoking-related variables in current smokers. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the game group with a psychoeducation group and a waiting-list control group. The following measures were performed at participant inclusion, as well as after a 2-week and a 3-month follow-up period: "Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale" (ATS-18), "Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" (SEQ-12), "Attitudes Towards Nicotine Replacement Therapy" scale (ANRT-12), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stages of change, quit attempts, and smoking status. Furthermore, participants were assessed for concurrent psychiatric disorders and for the severity of nicotine dependence with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). A time × group effect was observed for subscales of the ANRT-12, ATS-18 and SEQ-12, as well as for the number of cigarettes smoked per day. At three months follow-up, compared to the participants allocated to the waiting list group, those on Pick-Klop group were less likely to remain smoker.Outcomes at 3 months were not predicted by gender, age, FTND, stage of change, or psychiatric disorders at inclusion. The board game seems to be a good option for smokers. The game led to improvements in variables known to predict quitting in smokers. Furthermore, it increased smoking-cessation rates at 3-months follow-up. The game is also an interesting alternative for smokers in the precontemplation stage.

  7. The crucial role of habits in energy consumption: an evolutionary approach on changing current patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, Kevin (Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment (CESSE), Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Univ. d' Europe (Belgium)). e-mail: kevin.marechal@ulb.ac.be

    2009-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has shown that our behaviour is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behaviour - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as they make it unlikely that consumers be capable of exercising control over their energy consumption in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in the evolutionary perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constraints and shapes consumers' choices through structural forces. Habits being potentially 'counterintentional', they may explain the 'efficiency paradox' in energy as well as the continued increase of energy consumption despite the rising environmental awareness among the population. Policies aiming at reducing energy consumption should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. For instance, targeting new residents has proven to be more effective given that their preceding habits have been disturbed. The results of our empirical analysis confirm this idea by showing how a change of context makes people more receptive to a proposed measure. Our analysis of the role played by habits also suggests that individuals do not consider the need to change existing habits as an obstacle even though this is contradicted implicitly in the answers they provided to open questions. This 'unconsciousness' is one of the most delicate features of habits and it should thus be accounted for when designing measures. Given the other characteristics of habits, the joint use of feedbacks and commitment strategies appears promising.

  8. Long-term catheterization: current approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of port-related infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cesar Bustos,1 Aitziber Aguinaga,1 Francisco Carmona-Torre,2 Jose Luis Del Pozo1,3 1Department of Clinical Microbiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Abstract: Since the first description in 1982, totally implanted venous access ports have progressively improved patients' quality of life and medical assistance when a medical condition requires the use of long-term venous access. Currently, they are part of the standard medical care for oncohematologic patients. However, apart from mechanical and thrombotic complications, there are also complications associated with biofilm development inside the catheters. These biofilms increase the cost of medical assistance and extend hospitalization. The most frequently involved micro-organisms in these infections are gram-positive cocci. Many efforts have been made to understand biofilm formation within the lumen catheters, and to resolve catheter-related infection once it has been established. Apart from systemic antibiotic treatment, the use of local catheter treatment (ie, antibiotic lock technique is widely employed. Many different antimicrobial options have been tested, with different outcomes, in clinical and in in vitro assays. The stability of antibiotic concentration in the lock solution once instilled inside the catheter lumen remains unresolved. To prevent infection, it is mandatory to perform hand hygiene before catheter insertion and manipulation, and to disinfect catheter hubs, connectors, and injection ports before accessing the catheter. At present, there are still unresolved questions regarding the best antimicrobial agent for catheter-related bloodstream infection treatment and the duration of concentration stability of the antibiotic solution within the lumen of the port. Keywords: catheter-related infection, bacteremia, biofilm

  9. Critical loads of acidity for 90,000 lakes in northern Saskatchewan: A novel approach for mapping regional sensitivity to acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, H.; Aherne, J.; Jeffries, D. S.; Scott, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from large point sources are the primary concern for acidic deposition in western Canada, particularly in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) where prevailing winds may potentially carry SO2 over acid-sensitive lakes in northern Saskatchewan. A novel catchment-scale regression kriging approach was used to assess regional sensitivity and critical loads of acidity for the total lake population of northern Saskatchewan (89,947 lakes). Lake catchments were delineated using Thiessen polygons, and surface water chemistry was predicted for sensitivity indicators (calcium, pH, alkalinity, and acid neutralizing capacity). Critical loads were calculated with the steady state water chemistry model using regression-kriged base cations, sulphate, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations modelled from surface water observations (n > 800) and digital landscape-scale characteristics, e.g., climate, soil, vegetation, landcover, and geology maps. A large region (>13,726 km2) of two or more indicators of acid sensitivity (pH acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, calcium acidic deposition in excess of their critical loads and many of them may be at risk of ecosystem damage owing to their sensitivity.

  10. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  11. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  12. Estimation of seismic quality factor: Artificial neural networks and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Eray; Saatçılar, Ruhi; Ergintav, Semih

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate soil attenuation using alternatives to traditional methods, to compare results of using these methods, and to examine soil properties using the estimated results. The performances of all methods, amplitude decay, spectral ratio, Wiener filter, and artificial neural network (ANN) methods, are examined on field and synthetic data with noise and without noise. High-resolution seismic reflection field data from Yeniköy (Arnavutköy, İstanbul) was used as field data, and 424 estimations of Q values were made for each method (1,696 total). While statistical tests on synthetic and field data are quite close to the Q value estimation results of ANN, Wiener filter, and spectral ratio methods, the amplitude decay methods showed a higher estimation error. According to previous geological and geophysical studies in this area, the soil is water-saturated, quite weak, consisting of clay and sandy units, and, because of current and past landslides in the study area and its vicinity, researchers reported heterogeneity in the soil. Under the same physical conditions, Q value calculated on field data can be expected to be 7.9 and 13.6. ANN models with various structures, training algorithm, input, and number of neurons are investigated. A total of 480 ANN models were generated consisting of 60 models for noise-free synthetic data, 360 models for different noise content synthetic data and 60 models to apply to the data collected in the field. The models were tested to determine the most appropriate structure and training algorithm. In the final ANN, the input vectors consisted of the difference of the width, energy, and distance of seismic traces, and the output was Q value. Success rate of both ANN methods with noise-free and noisy synthetic data were higher than the other three methods. Also according to the statistical tests on estimated Q value from field data, the method showed results that are more suitable. The Q value can be estimated

  13. The North Atlantic Data Portal: A Current Approach To Improving Marine Geophysical Data Discovery And Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, J. H.; Cartwright, J.; Varner, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Exploring, understanding, and managing the global oceans are a challenge when hydrographic maps are available for only 5% of the world's oceans. Seafloor mapping is expensive and most government and academic budgets continue to tighten. The first step for any mapping program, before setting out to map uncharted waters, should be to identify if data currently exist in the area of interest. There are many reasons why this seemingly simple suggestion is easier said than done.While certain datasets are accessible online (e.g., NOAA's NCEI, EMODnet, IHO-DCDB), many are not. In some cases, data that are publicly available are difficult to discover and access. No single agency can successfully resolve the complex and pressing demands of ocean and coastal mapping and the associated data stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an active participant in numerous campaign mapping projects whose goals are to carry out coordinated and comprehensive ocean mapping efforts. One of these international programs is an outcome of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation signed by the European Union, Canada, and the United States in 2013. At NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), resources are focused on ensuring the security and widespread availability of the Nation's scientific marine geophysical data through long-term stewardship. NCEI draws on a variety of software technologies and adheres to international standards to meet this challenge. The result is a geospatial framework built on spatially-enabled databases, standards-based web services, and International Standards Organization (ISO) metadata. Through the use of industry standards, the services are constructed such that they can be combined and re-used in a variety of contexts. For example, users may leverage the services in desktop analysis tools, web applications created by the hosting organizations (e.g. the North Atlantic Data Portal), or in custom

  14. CURRENT APPROACHES TO THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES: ROLE OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    .The alternative therapies of RD include the use of low-molecular-weight chemically synthesized agents that suppress the activity of tyrosine kinases. The important area of this therapy is to restore immunological tolerance and to correct autoimmune disorders by means of autologous hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells, regulatory T and B cells, gene therapy, and peptide antigens. The prospects for the laboratory diagnosis of RD are associated with the necessity of harmonizing and standardizing the current methods to determine autoantibodies and with the search for and clinical validation of novel proteomic, transcriptomic, and genomic biomarkers.

  15. Bioprinting of artificial blood vessels: current approaches towards a demanding goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Eva; Tovar, Günter E M; Borchers, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Free-form fabrication techniques, often referred to as '3D printing', are currently tested with regard to the processing of biological and biocompatible materials in general and for fabrication of vessel-like structures in particular. Such computer-controlled methods assemble 3D objects by layer-wise deposition or layer-wise cross-linking of materials. They use, for example, nozzle-based deposition of hydrogels and cells, drop-on-demand inkjet-printing of cell suspensions with subsequent cross-linking, layer-by-layer cross-linking of synthetic or biological polymers by selective irradiation with light and even laser-induced deposition of single cells. The need of vessel-like structures has become increasingly crucial for the supply of encapsulated cells for 3D tissue engineering, or even with regard to future application such as vascular grafts. The anticipated potential of providing tubes with tailored branching geometries made of biocompatible or biological materials pushes future visions of patient-specific vascularized tissue substitutions, tissue-engineered blood vessels and bio-based vascular grafts. We review here the early attempts of bringing together innovative free-form manufacturing processes with bio-based and biodegradable materials. The presented studies provide many important proofs of concepts such as the possibility to integrate viable cells into computer-controlled processes and the feasibility of supplying cells in a hydrogel matrix by generation of a network of perfused channels. Several impressive results in the generation of complex shapes and high-aspect-ratio tubular structures demonstrate the potential of additive assembly methods. Yet, it also becomes obvious that there remain major challenges to simultaneously match all material requirements in terms of biological functions (cell function supporting properties), physicochemical functions (mechanical properties of the printed material) and process-related (viscosity, cross

  16. Combined approach to counteract experimental cancer cachexia: eicosapentaenoic acid and training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Pin, Fabrizio; Toledo, Miriam; Baccino, Francesco M; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle protein, depletion of lipid stores, anorexia, weakness, and perturbations of the hormonal homeostasis. Despite several therapeutic approaches described in the past, effective interventions countering cancer cachexia are still lacking. METHODS: The present work was aimed to verify the ability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to prevent the muscle depletion in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice and to test the ability of endurance exercise training to increase the EPA effect. RESULTS: EPA alone did not prevent the muscle loss induced by tumor growth while the combination with exercise induced a partial rescue of muscle strength and mass. Moreover, the association of EPA and exercise reduced the dramatic PAX-7 accumulation and stimulated the increase of PCG-1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present data suggest that exercise is an effective tool that should be added for combined therapeutic approaches against cancer cachexia. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-011-0028-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  17. A Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol Content of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bağci, Eyüp

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol composition in the seed oil of Cannabis sativa L., which is traded under the common name hemp seed oil, were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. While a- linolenic, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid were the main fatty acid components, g - linolenic (18:3 n-6) and stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) were found as unusual minor fatty acids in the seed oil. g - linolenic acid is an important fatty acid used both as a healthy nutrient an...

  18. A Green Approach to the Production of Hybrid Diindolylmethane-Phenylboronic Acids via a 3MCR: Promising Antineoplasic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Zarco Juarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current role of the “Green Chemistry Protocol” in multicomponent reactions is first highlighted. Then, the green approach to the production of three novel hybrid diindolylmethanes-phenylboronic acids via a 3MCR is discussed, which features the following: solventless conditions, the use of microwave irradiation to activate the reactions, the absence of catalyst, and an efficient atom economy. The products were achieved with moderate yields (41–61% within a short time frame (5 min and appropriately characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods (NMR: 1H, 13C, 11B; MS: EI, CI, FAB+, HRMS. During the FAB+ MS determinations, various artifacts that are associated with the boron atom via an interaction with thioglycerol from the matrix were noted in the corresponding FAB+ mass spectra; in addition, the accurate mass determination of these adducts unequivocally confirmed the presence of the target molecules. Moreover, the activity of these target molecules was evaluated in the presence of six cancer cell lines (U251 = glia of the central nerve system, PC-3 = prostate, K562 = leukemia, HCT-15 = colon, MCF-7 = breast, and SKLU-1 = lung, which resulted in the meta-regioisomer being the most active. Finally, the products were also analyzed using computational chemistry in order to determine their most stable geometries and reactivities by computing the respective molecular electrostatic potentials.

  19. Enhancement in the critical current density of C-doped MgB2 wire using a polyacrylic acid dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Won; Joo, Jinho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Chan-Joong; Hong, Gye-Won

    2012-02-01

    C-doped MgB2 wires were fabricated from a polyacrylic acid (PAA) using a conventional in-situ PIT technique. The effects of the PAA content on the lattice parameter, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) were examined. With increasing PAA content, the amount of MgO in the sample increased but the crystallinity, a-axis lattice parameter, and Tc of MgB2 wires decreased, indicating that the C that decomposed from PAA during heat treatment had substituted for B. All doped samples exhibited a higher Jc than the undoped sample at high magnetic field, and the Jc(B) property improved with increasing PAA content: for the 7 wt% doped sample, the Jc was approximately 3-times higher than that of the pristine sample (1.28 kA/cm2 vs. 3.43 kA/cm2) at 5 K and 6.6 T. The improved Jc(B) of the doped sample was attributed to the decreased grain size, enlarged lattice distortion and increased C doping level.

  20. Action of niflumic acid on evoked and spontaneous calcium-activated chloride and potassium currents in smooth muscle cells from rabbit portal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R. C.; Wang, Q.; Large, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of niflumic acid was studied on spontaneous and evoked calcium-activated chloride (ICl(Ca)) and potassium (IK(Ca)) currents in rabbit isolated portal vein cells. 2. With the nystatin perforated patch technique in potassium-containing solutions at a holding potential of -77 mV (the potassium equilibrium potential), niflumic acid produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous transient inward current (STIC, calcium-activated chloride current) amplitude. The concentration to reduce the STIC amplitude by 50% (IC50) was 3.6 x 10(-6) M. 3. At -77 mV holding potential, niflumic acid converted the STIC decay from a single exponential to 2 exponential components. In niflumic acid the fast component of decay was faster, and the slow component was slower than the control decay time constant. Increasing the concentration of niflumic acid enhanced the decay rate of the fast component and reduced the decay rate of the slow component. 4. The effect of niflumic acid on STIC amplitude was voltage-dependent and at -50 and +50 mV the IC50 values were 2.3 x 10(-6) M and 1.1 x 10(-6) M respectively (cf. 3.6 x 10(-6) M at -77 mV). 5. In K-free solutions at potentials of -50 mV and +50 mV, niflumic acid did not induce a dual exponential STIC decay but just increased the decay time constant at both potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. Niflumic acid, in concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) M, had no effect on spontaneous calcium-activated potassium currents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921628

  1. A Novel Approach in Cinnamic Acid Synthesis: Direct Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids from Aromatic Aldehydes and Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in the Presence of Boron Tribromide

    OpenAIRE

    Onciu, M.; Tanasa, F.; C. Chiriac

    2005-01-01

    Cinnamic acids have been prepared in moderate to high yields by a new direct synthesis using aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids, in the presence of boron tribromide as reagent, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP) and pyridine (Py) as bases and N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP) as solvent, at reflux (180-190°C) for 8-12 hours.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ACID CONCENTRATION, TEMPERATURE, AND TIME ON THE CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID HYDROLYSIS OF PINEWOOD AND ASPENWOOD: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kando K. Janga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects on sugar yields of acid concentration, temperature, and time in the first (decrystallization stage of a two-stage concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of softwood (Scots pine and hardwood (aspen were investigated. The study focused on the multi-variable effects of the decrystallization stage and applied a statistical modeling with Central Composite Face (CCF design of experiment to systematically study and simulate the effect of decrystallization reaction conditions on hydrolysis products and degradation products. The models were statistically significant and showed that for both aspen and pine, the reaction temperature and acid concentration were the most influential variables on monosaccharides and total sugar yields compared to the reaction time. The interaction between temperature and acid concentration was the most important for both species. The sugar degradation products were much influenced by the decrystallization temperature on both aspen and pine. The models were validated by a test-set and showed a good agreement between the experimental and predicted values. The optimum predicted total sugar yields were 56 g / 100 g d.w for aspen (74% theoretical and 64 g / 100 g d.w for pine (91% theoretical.

  3. System approaches to study root hairs as a single cell plant model: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakhawat eHossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of plant functional genomics derives primarily from measurements of gene, protein and/or metabolite levels averaged over the whole plant or multicellular tissues. These approaches risk diluting the response of specific cells that might respond strongly to the treatment but whose signal is diluted by the larger proportion of non-responding cells. For example, if a gene is expressed at a low level, does this mean that it is indeed lowly expressed or is it highly expressed, but only in a few cells? In order to avoid these issues, we adopted the soybean root hair cell, derived from a single, differentiated root epidermal cell, as a single-cell model for functional genomics. Root hair cells are intrinsically interesting since they are major conduits for root water and nutrient uptake and are also the preferred site of infection by nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria. Although a variety of other approaches have been used to study single plant cells or single cell types, the root hair system is perhaps unique in allowing application of the full repertoire of functional genomic and biochemical approaches. In this mini review, we summarize our published work and place this within the broader context of root biology, with a significant focus on understanding the initial events in the soybean-rhizobium interaction.

  4. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, P K; Hansen, C F; Kebreab, E

    2015-08-01

    Determination of appropriate nutritional requirements is essential to optimize the productivity and longevity of lactating sows. The current recommendations for requirements do not consider the large variation between animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the amino acid recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement for maintenance and milk. The energy balance of the sows was either negative or zero depending on feed intake being a limiting factor. Some parameters in the model were sow-specific and others were population-specific, depending on state of knowledge. Each simulation was for 1000 sows repeated 100 times using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. BW, back fat thickness of the sow, litter size (LS), average litter gain (LG), dietary energy density and feed intake were inputs to the model. The model was tested using results from the literature, and the values were all within ±1 s.d. of the estimated requirements. Simulations were made for a group of low- (LS=10 (s.d.=1), LG=2 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)), medium- (LS=12 (s.d.=1), LG=2.5 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)) and high-producing (LS=14 (s.d.=1), LG=3.5 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)) sows, where the average requirement was the result. In another simulation, the requirements were estimated for each week of lactation. The results were given as the median and s.d. The average daily standardized ileal digestible (SID) protein and lysine requirements for low-, medium- and high-producing sows were 623 (CV=2.5%) and 45.1 (CV=4.8%); 765 (CV=4.9%) and 54.7 (CV=7.0%); and 996 (CV=8.5%) and 70.8 g/day (CV=9.6%), respectively. The SID protein and lysine requirements were lowest at week 1, intermediate at week 2 and 4 and the highest at week 3 of lactation. The

  5. Rotor Current Control of DFIG for Improving Fault Ride - Through Using a Novel Sliding Mode Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guowei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Deyou

    2013-11-01

    The doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have been recognized as the dominant technology used in wind power generation systems with the rapid development of wind power. However, continuous operation of DFIG may cause a serious wind turbine generators tripping accident, due to destructive over-current in the rotor winding which is caused by the power system fault or inefficient fault ride-through (FRT) strategy. A new rotor current control scheme in the rotor-side converter (RSC) ispresented to enhance FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Due to the strongly nonlinear nature of DFIG and insensitive to DFIG parameter's variations, a novel sliding mode controller was designed. The controller combines extended state observer (ESO) with sliding model variable structure control theory. The simulation is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control approach under various types of grid disturbances. It is shown that the proposed controller provides enhanced transient features than the classic proportional-integral control. The proposed control method can effectively reduce over-current in the RSC, and the transient pulse value of electromagnetic torque is too large under power grid fault.

  6. Purely Chemical Approach for Preparation of d-α-Amino Acids via (S)-to-(R)-Interconversion of Unprotected Tailor-Made α-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yong; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Shengbin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Shuni; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Kawashima, Aki; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-06

    Unnatural (R)-α-amino acids (α-AAs) are in growing demand in the biomedical research and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, we present development of a purely chemical approach for preparation of (R)-α-AAs via (S)-to-(R)-interconversion of natural and tailor-made (S)-α-AAs. The method can be used on free, unprotected α-AAs and features a remarkable structural generality including substrates bearing tertiary alkyl chains and reactive functional groups. These attractive characteristics, combined with simplicity of reaction conditions and virtually complete stereochemical outcome, constitute a true methodological advance in this area, rivaling previously reported chemical and biocatalytic approaches.

  7. Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid-base disorders are frequently encountered in clinical practice and have a significant impact on patient morbidity ... The first step in assessment of the arterial blood gas profile is .... amino acids in hyperalimentation are metabolised to HCl ...

  8. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uyl, Tess E; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying mechanisms by including behavioral (craving, implicit associations, approach tendencies) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials) measurements. The analytical sample consisted of 78 hazardous drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test >8) randomly assigned to 4 conditions in a 2-by-2 factorial design (control/active CBM and sham/active tDCS). The intervention consisted of 3 sessions of CBM, specifically alcohol approach bias retraining, combined with 15 minutes 1 mA tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was a pre- and postassessment before and after the intervention that included experimental tasks (Approach Avoidance Task, Implicit Association Task) and an electroencephalogram with an oddball and cue-reactivity task. tDCS decreased cue-induced craving (but not overall craving) on postassessment. CBM did not induce an avoidance bias during assessment. During the training, active and control-CBM only differed in bias score during the first session. We found no enhancement effects of tDCS on CBM. Electrophysiological data showed no clear effects of active tDCS or CBM on the P300. There were no electrophysiological or behavioral effects of repeated CBM and/or tDCS, except for an effect of tDCS on craving. Applied in these specific ways these techniques appear to have limited effects in a hazardous drinking population. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Incorporation of post-translational modified amino acids as an approach to increase both chemical and biological diversity of conotoxins and conopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael J; Cabalteja, Chino C; Sugai, Christopher K; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides from Conus venom contain a natural abundance of post-translational modifications that affect their chemical diversity, structural stability, and neuroactive properties. These modifications have continually presented hurdles in their identification and characterization. Early endeavors in their analysis relied on classical biochemical techniques that have led to the progressive development and use of novel proteomic-based approaches. The critical importance of these post-translationally modified amino acids and their specific assignment cannot be understated, having impact on their folding, pharmacological selectivity, and potency. Such modifications at an amino acid level may also provide additional insight into the advancement of conopeptide drugs in the quest for precise pharmacological targeting. To achieve this end, a concerted effort between the classical and novel approaches is needed to completely elucidate the role of post-translational modifications in conopeptide structure and dynamics. This paper provides a reflection in the advancements observed in dealing with numerous and multiple post-translationally modified amino acids within conotoxins and conopeptides and provides a summary of the current techniques used in their identification.

  10. General approach for the determination of the magneto-angular dependence of the critical current of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhong, Z.; Ruiz, H. S.; Geng, J.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    The physical understanding and numerical modelling of superconducting devices which exploit the high performance of second generation high temperature superconducting tapes (2G-HTS), is commonly hindered by the lack of accurate functions which allow the consideration of the in-field dependence of the critical current. This is true regardless of the manufacturer of the superconducting tape. In this paper, we present a general approach for determining a unified function I c(B, θ), ultimately capable of describing the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of commercial 2G-HTS tapes in the Lorentz configuration. Five widely different superconducting tapes, provided by three different manufacturers, have been tested in a liquid nitrogen bath and external magnetic fields of up to 400 mT. The critical current was recorded at 90 different orientations of the magnetic field ranging from θ = 0°, i.e., with B aligned with the crystallographic ab-planes of the YBCO layer, towards ±90°, i.e., with B perpendicular to the wider surfaces of the 2G-HTS tape. The whole set of experimental data has been analysed using a novel multi-objective model capable of predicting a sole function I c(B, θ). This allows an accurate validation of the experimental data regardless of the fabrication differences and widths of the superconducting tapes. It is shown that, in spite of the wide set of differences between the fabrication and composition of the considered tapes, at liquid nitrogen temperature the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of YBCO-based 2G-HTS tapes, can be described by a universal function I c(f(B), θ), with a power law field dependence dominated by the Kim’s factor B/B 0, and an angular dependence moderated by the electron mass anisotropy ratio of the YBCO layer.

  11. Dietary fatty acids affecting hepatic metabolism and atherosclerosis - mechanisms unravelled using a proteomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, G.; Roos, B. de

    2009-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids play an important role in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. The effects of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism are well described, but additional or alternative mechanisms relating to potential influence on coronary heart disease are not known. This review describes how proteomics techniques have been used to identify proteins that are differentially regulated by dietary fatty acids. Such proteins may reveal pathways by which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. (Author) 40 refs.

  12. Possible hazardous effects of hydrofluoric acid and recommendations for treatment approach: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Allahbeickaraghi, Arezo; Dündar, Mine

    2012-02-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is commonly used for conditioning the glass ceramics either prior to cementation or for intraoral repair in prosthetic and restorative dentistry. The present study offers a review of chemical properties of HF used, highlight the possible hazardous effects of this agent, and to recommend the treatment approach for potential risks. Available published information documented in PubMed, Medline, and Picarta literature databases was reviewed. Additional information was derived from scientific reports, medical and chemical textbooks, handbooks, product information, manufacturers' instructions, Internet web sites of the HF manufacturers. No report was found on the incidence of the hazardous effects of HF in dentistry. Reports from other fields presented incidences of acute and chronic symptoms in exposure to HF. While acute symptoms include skin or nail burns, chronic ones involve systemic toxicity, eye injuries, inhalation and ingestion-related symptoms that can be even fatal. HF can be harmful and particularly aggressive to soft tissues, but symptoms may not be apparent immediately after exposure. The hazardous effects are not based on the pH value, but on the toxicity of HF. Potential hazards of HF known from other applications than dentistry should be considered also in dental applications. Especially the clinicians, who often deal with adhesive cementation or repair of glass ceramics, should take necessary precautions for possible hazards of HF.

  13. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • A new method for synthesis of the BPEI-CuNCs is established. • A facile approach for Fe{sup 3+} ion sensing by fluorescence quenching is developed. • The method for Fe{sup 3+} sensing has high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5–1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe{sup 3+} permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe{sup 3+} in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%.

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the exception of patient relapse, the longer-term (eg, >2 years effects of these approaches on most psychosocial outcomes are not well-established among these patients. Despite the fact that patients' perspectives on treatment and care have been increasingly concerned, not many studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on this perspective, and where they did, the findings were inconclusive. To conclude, current approaches to psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia have their strengths and weaknesses, particularly indicating limited evidence on long-term effects. To improve the longer-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia, future treatment strategies should focus on risk identification, early intervention, person-focused therapy, partnership with family caregivers, and the integration of evidence-based psychosocial interventions into existing services. Keywords: schizophrenia, psychosocial intervention, patient-focused perspectives

  15. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick Kk; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    exception of patient relapse, the longer-term (eg, >2 years) effects of these approaches on most psychosocial outcomes are not well-established among these patients. Despite the fact that patients' perspectives on treatment and care have been increasingly concerned, not many studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on this perspective, and where they did, the findings were inconclusive. To conclude, current approaches to psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia have their strengths and weaknesses, particularly indicating limited evidence on long-term effects. To improve the longer-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia, future treatment strategies should focus on risk identification, early intervention, person-focused therapy, partnership with family caregivers, and the integration of evidence-based psychosocial interventions into existing services.

  16. Dynamical Approach to Multiequilibria Problems for Mixtures of Acids and Their Conjugated Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rainer E.; Delarosa, Marco A.; Salau, Ahmed Olasunkanmi; Chicone, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical methods are described for the determination of steady-state concentrations of all species in multiequilibria systems consisting of several acids and their conjugated bases in aqueous solutions. The main example consists of a mixture of a diprotic acid H[subscript 2]A, a monoprotic acid HB, and their conjugate bases. The reaction…

  17. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  18. A Novel Approach in Cinnamic Acid Synthesis: Direct Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids from Aromatic Aldehydes and Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in the Presence of Boron Tribromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onciu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acids have been prepared in moderate to high yields by a new direct synthesis using aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids, in the presence of boron tribromide as reagent, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP and pyridine (Py as bases and N-methyl-2-pyrolidinone (NMP as solvent, at reflux (180-190°C for 8-12 hours.

  19. Lewis Acid-Base Adduct Approach for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-02-16

    Since the first report on the long-term durable 9.7% solid-state perovskite solar cell employing methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), mesoporous TiO2, and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) in 2012, following the seed technologies on perovskite-sensitized liquid junction solar cells in 2009 and 2011, a surge of interest has been focused on perovskite solar cells due to superb photovoltaic performance and extremely facile fabrication processes. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells reached 21% in a very short period of time. Such an unprecedentedly high photovoltaic performance is due to the intrinsic optoelectronic property of organolead iodide perovskite material. Moreover, a high dielectric constant, sub-millimeter scale carrier diffusion length, an underlying ferroelectric property, and ion migration behavior can make organolead halide perovskites suitable for multifunctionality. Thus, besides solar cell applications, perovskite material has recently been applied to a variety fields of materials science such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasing, X-ray imaging, resistive memory, and water splitting. Regardless of application areas, the growth of a well-defined perovskite layer with high crystallinity is essential for effective utilization of its excellent physicochemical properties. Therefore, an effective methodology for preparation of high quality perovskite layers is required. In this Account, an effective methodology for production of high quality perovskite layers is described, which is the Lewis acid-base adduct approach. In the solution process to form the perovskite layer, the key chemicals of CH3NH3I (or HC(NH2)2I) and PbI2 are used by dissolving them in polar aprotic solvents. Since polar aprotic solvents bear oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, they can act as a Lewis base. In addition, the main group compound PbI2 is known to be a Lewis acid. Thus, PbI2 has a chance

  20. Review of the History and Current Status of Cell-Transplant Approaches for the Management of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J. Eaton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of sensory neuropathies, whether inherited or caused by trauma, the progress of diabetes, or other disease states, are among the most difficult problems in modern clinical practice. Cell therapy to release antinociceptive agents near the injured spinal cord would be the logical next step in the development of treatment modalities. But few clinical trials, especially for chronic pain, have tested the transplant of cells or a cell line to treat human disease. The history of the research and development of useful cell-transplant-based approaches offers an understanding of the advantages and problems associated with these technologies, but as an adjuvant or replacement for current pharmacological treatments, cell therapy is a likely near future clinical tool for improved health care.

  1. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  2. A Personalized Approach in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: The Current Status of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Patti, Francesco; Zanghì, Aurora; Zappia, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Using the term of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), we considered a combined population of persons with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). These forms of MS cannot be challenged with efficacy by the licensed therapy. In the last years, several measures of risk estimation were developed for predicting clinical course in MS, but none is specific for the PMS forms. Personalized medicine is a therapeutic approach, based on identifying what might be the best therapy for an individual patient, taking into account the risk profile. We need to achieve more accurate estimates of useful predictors in PMS, including unconventional and qualitative markers which are not yet currently available or practicable routine diagnostics. The evaluation of an individual patient is based on the profile of disease activity.Within the neurology field, PMS is one of the fastest-moving going into the future. PMID:27763513

  3. Neurocognitive and Social Cognitive Approaches for Improving Functional Outcome in Early Psychosis: Theoretical Considerations and Current State of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali F. Bartholomeusz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed.

  4. A Personalized Approach in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: The Current Status of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele D’Amico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the term of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS, we considered a combined population of persons with secondary progressive MS (SPMS and primary progressive MS (PPMS. These forms of MS cannot be challenged with efficacy by the licensed therapy. In the last years, several measures of risk estimation were developed for predicting clinical course in MS, but none is specific for the PMS forms. Personalized medicine is a therapeutic approach, based on identifying what might be the best therapy for an individual patient, taking into account the risk profile. We need to achieve more accurate estimates of useful predictors in PMS, including unconventional and qualitative markers which are not yet currently available or practicable routine diagnostics. The evaluation of an individual patient is based on the profile of disease activity.Within the neurology field, PMS is one of the fastest-moving going into the future.

  5. Current Perspectives on Novel Drug Delivery Systems and Approaches for Management of Cervical Cancer: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Bhosale, Rohit R; Shivakumar, Hosakote Gurumallappa; Kulkarni, Parthasarathi K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is uterine cervix carcinoma, the second deadly cancer and has a high incidence and mortality rate. In the developing world conventional treatment strategies such as surgical intervention and chemoradiotherapy are less widely available. Currently cancer research focuses on improving treatment of cervical cancer using various therapies such as gene therapy, recombinant protein therapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and delivery of chemotherapeutic agents using nanoparticles, hydrogel and liposomal based delivery systems and also localized delivery systems which exist in a variety of forms such as intravaginal rings, intravaginal patches, intravaginal films, etc. in order to improve the drug delivery in a controlled manner to the diseased site thereby reducing systemic side effects. The present review encloses existing diverse delivery systems and approaches intended for treatment of cervical cancer.

  6. Electrolytic deposition of calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on titanium alloy: Growth kinetics and influence of current density, acetic acid, and chitosan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiawei; Apeldoorn, van Aart; Groot, de Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate/chitosan coating demonstrated good bone marrow stromal cell attachment. The aim of this study was to understand the coating's growth kinetics as well as the effects of current density, acetic acid, and chitosan on the coating's formation. The scanning ele

  7. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  8. Higher harmonic large-amplitude Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry: analytical attributes derived from studies of the oxidation of ferrocenemethanol and uric acid at a glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, Anthony P; Zhang, Jie; Brajter-Toth, Anna; Bond, Alan M

    2008-06-15

    An analytical evaluation of the higher ac harmonic components derived from large amplitude Fourier transformed voltammetry is provided for the reversible oxidation of ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH) and oxidation of uric acid by an EEC mechanism in a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The small background current in the analytically optimal fifth harmonic is predominantly attributed to faradaic current associated with the presence of electroactive functional groups on the GC electrode surface, rather than to capacitive current which dominates the background in the dc, and the initial three ac harmonics. The detection limits for the dc and the first to fifth harmonic ac components are 1.9, 5.89, 2.1, 2.5, 0.8, and 0.5 microM for FcMeOH, respectively, using a sine wave modulation of 100 mV at 21.46 Hz and a dc sweep rate of 111.76 mV s (-1). Analytical performance then progressively deteriorates in the sixth and higher harmonics. For the determination of uric acid, the capacitive background current was enhanced and the reproducibility lowered by the presence of surface active uric acid, but the rapid overall 2e (-) rather than 1e (-) electron transfer process gives rise to a significantly enhanced fifth harmonic faradaic current which enabled a detection limit of 0.3 microM to be achieved which is similar to that reported using chemically modified electrodes. Resolution of overlapping voltammetric signals for a mixture of uric acid and dopamine is also achieved using higher fourth or fifth harmonic components, under very low background current conditions. The use of higher fourth and fifth harmonics exhibiting highly favorable faradaic to background (noise) current ratios should therefore be considered in analytical applications under circumstances where the electron transfer rate is fast.

  9. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  10. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  11. AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status and Realities of Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Mwamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

  12. Current challenges and innovative approaches in the development of peripheral regions in Bulgaria: The case of Ivaylovgrad municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrova Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches territorial cohesion in SEE from the perspective of social equity with regard to the opportunity to choose to live in one’s native place without compromising the quality of life. It is interested in border areas - both physical and virtual; in real life situations as meeting points of theories and policies influencing human lives; and in the emerging challenges there that often make us question once and again our concepts and actions as experts. Based on the Bulgarian case-study analysis, the authors discuss the effectiveness and current challenges of real-life implementation of EU and national policies aimed at sustainable development of peripheral regions. The rural peripheral municipality of Ivaylovgrad is an indicative case study for the ongoing processes in the peripheral regions of Bulgaria and the efforts to overcome a continuing loss of working places, services, markets and further isolation from the rest of the country since the early 1990s. The paper presents a critical view of initiatives and projects undertaken by interest and local groups in the period 2006-2010. Possible innovative approaches for regional revival are considered and conclusions are drawn about the importance of creating development strategies sensitive to the existing and emerging socio-cultural patterns.

  13. Current status of the SBS PCM approach to self-navigation of lasers on injected IFE pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalal, Milan; Martinkova, Michaela; Slezak, Ondrej; Kong, Hong Jin; Yoon, Jin Woo; Shin, Jae Sung; Rostislavovna Koresheva, Elena; Aleksandrovich Startsev, Sergei

    2010-08-01

    Current status of SBS PCM based IFE approach proposed recently as an alternative to the IFE classical approach is presented. This technology is of particular importance to the direct drive scheme taking care of automatic self-navigation of every individual laser beam on the injected pellets with no need for any final optics adjustment. Conceptual design of one typical laser driver is shown and its features discussed. In comparison with the earlier design an upgraded scheme was developed with the low energy illumination laser beam (glint) entering the reactor chamber through the same entrance window as used by the corresponding high energy irradiation laser beam. Results of experimental verification of this improved design are reported. In these experiments for the fist time a complete setup including the pellet (realized by the static steel ball) was employed. The pellet survival conditions in the period between its low energy illumination and subsequent high energy irradiation were studied and the upper limits on the allowed energies absorbed were found for both DD and DT fuels.

  14. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  15. Tidal currents and mixing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence : an application of the incremental approach to data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Thompson, K.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Inst. of Oceanography; Wright, D.G. [Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The physical factors that control the distribution and abundance of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) were studied. The species is an important component of the region's marine pelagic food web. In this study, the positions of baroclinic fronts formed by tidal mixing in the GSL were studied to determine if the tidal fronts, which are regions of convergence and enhanced biological activity, have important implications for the spatial distribution of biomass. The study also presented a new and effective method of data assimilation that makes it possible to convert standard physical information, (such as tidal heights) into a more biologically meaningful product, such as a map of tidal fronts. The method could be used assimilate sparse measurements of zooplankton abundance into biological models embedded within circulation models. Tidal heights from 19 tide gauges were assimilated into a fully nonlinear, three-dimensional model using the incremental approach to data assimilation. Tidal currents were predicted with good accuracy. The maps of predicted tidal currents can be used to identify regions of mixed and stratified water in the GSL using a version of the Simpson-Hunter stability parameter. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. A metabolic-based approach to improve xylose utilization for fumaric acid production from acid pretreated wheat bran by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyi; Huang, Di; Li, Yong; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, wheat bran (WB) was utilized as feedstock to synthesize fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae. Firstly, the pretreatment process of WB by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis undertaken at 100°C for 30min offered the best performance for fumaric acid production. Subsequently, through optimizing the seed culture medium, a suitable morphology (0.55mm pellets diameter) of R. oryzae was obtained. Furthermore, a metabolic-based approach was developed to profile the differences of intracellular metabolites concentration of R. oryzae between xylose (the abundant sugar in wheat bran hydrolysate (WBH)) and glucose metabolism. The xylitol, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, proline and serine were responsible for fumaric acid biosynthesis limitation in xylose fermentation. Consequently, regulation strategies were proposed, leading to a 149% increase in titer (up to 15.4g/L). Finally, by combinatorial regulation strategies the highest production was 20.2g/L from WBH, 477% higher than that of initial medium.

  17. Genetic parameters for fatty acids in Danish Holstein cattle based on SNP markers using a Bayesian approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2013-01-01

    For several years, in human nutrition there has been a focus on the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) found in bovine milk. The positive health-related properties of UFA versus SFA have increased the demand for food products with a higher proportion of UFA...... data and/or a genomic relationship matrix in the context of a REML approach. SFA and UFA expressed a strong negative phenotypic correlation and a weaker genetic correlation. This is in accordance with the theory that SFA is synthesized de novo, while UFA can be regulated independently from...

  18. Citric acid as the last therapeutic approach in an acute life-threatening metabolic decompensation of propionic acidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeyer, Manuela; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Terpe, Friederike; Beblo, Skadi; Gebhardt, Rolf; Schlensog-Schuster, Franziska; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle represents the key enzymatic steps in cellular energy metabolism. Once the TCA cycle is impaired in case of inherited metabolic disorders, life-threatening episodes of metabolic decompensation and severe organ failure can arise. We present the case of a 6 ½-year-old girl with propionic acidaemia during an episode of acute life-threatening metabolic decompensation and severe lactic acidosis. Citric acid given as an oral formulation showed the potential to sustain the TCA cycle flux. This therapeutic approach may become a treatment option in a situation of acute metabolic crisis, possibly preventing severe disturbance of energy metabolism.

  19. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Margarine and spread products with oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid – organogel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels have drawn increasing interest as alternatives to trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids-containing hardstocks used in structured food products such as margarine, spread and shortening. In this research, organogels formed by plant wax and vegetable oil were evaluated in an actual mar...

  1. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    performed in 10 healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly during the loading studies for the measurement of electrolytes and acid-base status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were...

  2. General Acid Catalysis: A Flexible Experiment, Adaptable to Student Ability and Various Teaching Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-vinyl pyrrolidone provides a simple spectrophotometric kinetic experiment to introduce general acid catalysis, solvent isotope effects, and other aspects of ionic reactions in solution in advanced courses. The Bronsted equation and concept of linear free-energy changes is also covered. (SK)

  3. Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayakonvikom, Monta; Fuangvut, Parin; Cannell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    ERP training is a critical success factor in ERP implementation. The current ERP training was largely ineffective and caused user resistance and ERP implementation failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the current ERP training approach can accommodate the cultural learning behaviors of end-users. Hofstede's cultural…

  4. Analytical approaches to support current understanding of exposure, uptake and distributions of engineered nanoparticles by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Carolin; Powell, Kate; Crossley, Alison; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Read, Daniel; Tyne, William; Lahive, Elma; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2015-03-01

    Initiatives to support the sustainable development of the nanotechnology sector have led to rapid growth in research on the environmental fate, hazards and risk of engineered nanoparticles (ENP). As the field has matured over the last 10 years, a detailed picture of the best methods to track potential forms of exposure, their uptake routes and best methods to identify and track internal fate and distributions following assimilation into organisms has begun to emerge. Here we summarise the current state of the field, focussing particularly on metal and metal oxide ENPs. Studies to date have shown that ENPs undergo a range of physical and chemical transformations in the environment to the extent that exposures to pristine well dispersed materials will occur only rarely in nature. Methods to track assimilation and internal distributions must, therefore, be capable of detecting these modified forms. The uptake mechanisms involved in ENP assimilation may include a range of trans-cellular trafficking and distribution pathways, which can be followed by passage to intracellular compartments. To trace toxicokinetics and distributions, analytical and imaging approaches are available to determine rates, states and forms. When used hierarchically, these tools can map ENP distributions to specific target organs, cell types and organelles, such as endosomes, caveolae and lysosomes and assess speciation states. The first decade of ENP ecotoxicology research, thus, points to an emerging paradigm where exposure is to transformed materials transported into tissues and cells via passive and active pathways within which they can be assimilated and therein identified using a tiered analytical and imaging approach.

  5. Single molecule conductivity: the role of junction-orbital degeneracy in the artificially high currents predicted by ab initio approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gemma C; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S

    2004-10-01

    A priori evaluations, using Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field (SCF) theory or density-functional theory (DFT), of the current passing between two electrodes through a single bridging molecule result in predicted conductivities that may be up to one to two orders of magnitude larger than observed ones. We demonstrate that this is, in part, often due to the improper application of the computational methods. Conductivity is shown to arise from tunneling between junction states of the electrodes through the molecule; these states are inherently either quasi two-fold or four-fold degenerate and always comprise the (highest occupied molecular orbital) HOMO band at the Fermi energy of the system. Frequently, in previous cluster based molecular conduction calculations, closed-shell SCF or Kohn-Sham DFT methods have been applied to systems that we demonstrate to be intrinsically open shell in nature. Such calculations are shown to induce artificial HOMO-LUMO (LUMO-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) band splittings that Landauer-based formalisms for steady-state conduction interpret as arising from extremely rapid through-molecule tunneling at the Fermi energy, hence, overestimating the low-voltage conductivity. It is demonstrated that these shortcomings can be eliminated, dramatically reducing calculated current magnitudes, through the alternate use of electronic-structure calculations based on the spin-restricted open-shell formalism and related multiconfigurational SCF of DFT approaches. Further, we demonstrate that most anomalies arising in DFT implementations arise through the use of hybrid density functionals such as B3LYP. While the enhanced band-gap properties of these functionals have made them the defacto standard in molecular conductivity calculations, we demonstrate that it also makes them particularly susceptible to open-shell anomalies.

  6. A novel approach for rapidly and cost-effectively assessing toxicity of toxic metals in acidic water using an acidophilic iron-oxidizing biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2.5. The colorimetric acidophilic IOB biosensor was based on the inhibition of the iron oxidizing ability of Strain Y10, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, by metals toxicity. Our results showed that Strain Y10 is acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium. Thiobacillus caldus medium (TCM) (pH 2.5) supplied with both S4O6(2-) and glucose was the optimum growth medium for Strain Y10. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Strain Y10 was 45 °C and pH 2.5, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the color-based acidophilic IOB biosensor can be semi-quantitatively observed by eye or quantitatively measured by spectrometer to detect toxicity from multiple toxic metals at pH 2.5 within 45 min. Our study shows that monitoring toxic metals in acidic water is possible by using the acidophilic IOB biosensor. Our study thus provides a novel approach for rapid and cost-effective detection of toxic metals in acidic conditions that can otherwise compromise current methods of chemical analysis. This method also allows for increased efficiency when screening large numbers of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe; Jackson, Alan A

    2004-05-01

    -limited, falling to 0.050 for 1-year-old children. The reference P/E ratio for men and women increases with age, is higher for females than males, is higher for small compared with large adults at any age and decreases with physical activity. Thus if a particular diet is potentially limiting in protein, protein deficiency is most likely in large, elderly sedentary women followed by the adolescent female and least likely in moderately active young children, the opposite of what has usually been assumed. Within the currently accepted framework, the diets do not meet the protein needs of the entire population of the UK, have a significant risk of deficiency throughout India for all except extremely active small adults, and are grossly inadequate for all population groups, apart from physically active young children in West Bengal, regardless of body weight or level of food intake. The lysine limitation of the cereal-based Indian diets is dependent on the choice of lysine requirement values from the published range. We consider that the value selected is too high, because of uncertainties and inconsistencies in the approaches used. A more appropriate choice from the lower end of the range would remove the lysine limitation of cereal-based diets, and reduce some of the perceived risk of deficiency. However, diets remain limited by the amount of digestible protein for many population groups, especially in West Bengal. In the context of risk management, one option would be to accept the current values and the conceptual metabolic framework within which they have been derived. This would have major implications for the supplies of high-quality protein to the developing countries. An alternative option would be to re-evaluate the currently proposed values for the requirements for protein and amino acids. We conclude that the choice of values for the adult lysine requirement should be re-evaluated and that serious consideration should be given to the extent to which adaptive mechanisms

  8. Small-scale spatial variability of phenoxy acid mineralization potentials in transition zones with a multidisciplinary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu

    , the challenge of small-scale spatial variability occurs in terms of microbiological and physicochemical properties. We used genomic- and metagenomic-based approaches to reveal the effects of long-term phenoxy acid in situ exposure on the small-scale spatial variability of herbicide mineralization potentials...... communities depending on the landfill impact could be used as microbial ecological indicators for more advanced risk assessment analysis. In conclusion, this PhD thesis provided information about the mineralization potential of phenoxy acids depending on the long-term in situ herbicide exposure and bacterial......The phenoxy acid group of herbicides is widely used to control broadleaf weeds, and it contaminates groundwater and surface water by leaching from agricultural soil or landfills. Due to the distinct vertical and horizontal gradients in nutrients and hydrologic exchange in transition zones...

  9. Conformational analysis of glutamic acid: a density functional approach using implicit continuum solvent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Başak; Selçuki, Cenk

    2014-09-01

    Amino acids are constituents of proteins and enzymes which take part almost in all metabolic reactions. Glutamic acid, with an ability to form a negatively charged side chain, plays a major role in intra and intermolecular interactions of proteins, peptides, and enzymes. An exhaustive conformational analysis has been performed for all eight possible forms at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. All possible neutral, zwitterionic, protonated, and deprotonated forms of glutamic acid structures have been investigated in solution by using polarizable continuum model mimicking water as the solvent. Nine families based on the dihedral angles have been classified for eight glutamic acid forms. The electrostatic effects included in the solvent model usually stabilize the charged forms more. However, the stability of the zwitterionic form has been underestimated due to the lack of hydrogen bonding between the solute and solvent; therefore, it is observed that compact neutral glutamic acid structures are more stable in solution than they are in vacuum. Our calculations have shown that among all eight possible forms, some are not stable in solution and are immediately converted to other more stable forms. Comparison of isoelectronic glutamic acid forms indicated that one of the structures among possible zwitterionic and anionic forms may dominate over the other possible forms. Additional investigations using explicit solvent models are necessary to determine the stability of charged forms of glutamic acid in solution as our results clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding and its type have a major role in the structure and energy of conformers.

  10. Parents as partners in adolescent HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa: an evaluation of the current United Nations' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-11-10

    The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-à-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.

  11. Novel Approach: Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticle as a Catalyst for Malonic Acid Ester Synthesis via Ozonolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal A. Wasmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malonic acid ester was synthesized via the one-step ozonolysis of palm olein. Malonic acid ester was spectroscopically characterized using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were used as the catalyst, which was characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Tungsten oxide provided several advantages as a catalyst for the esterification malonic acid such as simple operation for a precise ozonation method, an excellent yield of approximately 10%, short reaction times of 2 h, and reusability due to its recyclability.

  12. Synthesis of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates designed for photo-CIDNP experiments by a phosphotriester approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Abramova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugates of 2’-deoxyguanosine, L-tryptophan and benzophenone designed to study pathways of fast radical reactions by the photo Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (photo-CIDNP method were obtained by the phosphotriester block liquid phase synthesis. The phosphotriester approach to the oligonucleotide synthesis was shown to be a versatile and economic strategy for preparing the required amount of high quality samples of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates.

  13. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (EMREE=0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of erythorbic acid, gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Italy: a stepwise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, C; Arcella, D; Turrini, A

    2000-12-01

    The three recent EU directives which fixed maximum permitted levels (MPL) for food additives for all member states also include the general obligation to establish national systems for monitoring the intake of these substances in order to evaluate their use safety. In this work, we considered additives with primary antioxidant technological function for which an acceptable daily intake (ADI) was established by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF): gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and erythorbic acid. The potential intake of these additives in Italy was estimated by means of a hierarchical approach using, step by step, more refined methods. The likelihood of the current ADI to be exceeded was very low for erythorbic acid, BHA and gallates. On the other hand, the theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of BHT was above the current ADI. The three food categories found to be main potential sources of BHT were "pastry, cake and biscuits", "chewing gums" and "vegetables oils and margarine"; they overall contributed 74% of the TMDI. Actual use of BHT in these food categories is discussed, together with other aspects such as losses of this substance in the technological process and percentage of ingestion in the case of chewing gums.

  15. Multi-step constant-current charging method for electric vehicle, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries during night time for load-levelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power, Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power, Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power, Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power, Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power, Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs), the conditions for charging EV batteries with available current patterns should allow complete charging in a short time, i.e., less than 5 to 8 h. Therefore, in this study, a new charging condition is investigated for the EV valve-regulated lead/acid battery system, which should allow complete charging of EV battery systems with multi-step constant currents in a much shorter time with longer cycle life and higher energy efficiency compared with two-step constant-current charging. Although a high magnitude of the first current in the two-step constant-current method prolongs cycle life by suppressing the softening of positive active material, too large a charging current magnitude degrades cells due to excess internal evolution of heat. A charging current magnitude of approximately 0.5 C is expected to prolong cycle life further. Three-step charging could also increase the magnitude of charging current in the first step without shortening cycle life. Four-or six-step constant-current methods could shorten the charging time to less than 5 h, as well as yield higher energy efficiency and enhanced cycle life of over 400 cycles compared with two-step charging with the first step current of 0.5 C. Investigation of the degradation mechanism of the batteries revealed that the conditions of multi-step constant-current charging suppressed softening of positive active material and sulfation of negative active material, but, unfortunately, advanced the corrosion of the grids in the positive plates. By adopting improved grids and cooling of the battery system, the multistep constant-current method may enhance the cycle life. (orig.)

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETABLE WASTES FOR LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION: A LABORATORY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Daharbha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables wastes are organic materials which are not utilized as vegetables and are discarded at all stages of production, processing and marketing. These wastes form a major part of municipal solid wastes and are cause of foul smell and growth of microorganisms due to their high organic contents. The vegetable wastes can be utilized in many different ways to produces different products. We have shown that they can be utilized for production of lactic acid using anaerobic digestion. The 2nd day was the optimum day for recovery of lactic acid while 1:1 ratio of slurry and water was found to the best ratio for production of lactic acid from vegetable wastes. Effect of salts on lactic acid was also studied and it was found that the production decreased in all the concentrations of salts.

  17. Managing Used Lead Acid Batteries in India: Evaluation of EPR-DRS Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamini Gupt; Samraj Sahay

    2015-01-01

    ...) for recycling used lead acid batteries (ULABs). However, the presence of an informal sector and lack of monitoring have resulted in an ineffective system of recycling mainly driven by the interests of the informal sector. Objectives...

  18. Biocatalyzed approach for the surface functionalization of poly(L-lactic acid) films using hydrolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Alessandro; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Weber, Hansjoerg; Obersriebnig, Michael; Breinbauer, Rolf; Srebotnik, Ewald; Guebitz, Georg M

    2015-09-01

    Poly(lactic acid) as a biodegradable thermoplastic polyester has received increasing attention. This renewable polyester has found applications in a wide range of products such as food packaging, textiles and biomedical devices. Its major drawbacks are poor toughness, slow degradation rate and lack of reactive side-chain groups. An enzymatic process for the grafting of carboxylic acids onto the surface of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films was developed using Candida antarctica lipase B as a catalyst. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the PLLA film using Humicola insolens cutinase in order to increase the number of hydroxyl and carboxylic groups on the outer polymer chains for grafting was also assessed and showed a change of water contact angle from 74.6 to 33.1° while the roughness and waviness were an order of magnitude higher in comparison to the blank. Surface functionalization was demonstrated using two different techniques, (14) C-radiochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using (14) C-butyric acid sodium salt and 4,4,4-trifluorobutyric acid as model molecules, respectively. XPS analysis showed that 4,4,4-trifluorobutyric acid was enzymatically coupled based on an increase of the fluor content from 0.19 to 0.40%. The presented (14) C-radiochemical analyses are consistent with the XPS data indicating the potential of enzymatic functionalization in different reaction conditions.

  19. Measurement error adjustment in essential fatty acid intake from a food frequency questionnaire: alternative approaches and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Jessie A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed at assessing the degree of measurement error in essential fatty acid intakes from a food frequency questionnaire and the impact of correcting for such an error on precision and bias of odds ratios in logistic models. To assess these impacts, and for illustrative purposes, alternative approaches and methods were used with the binary outcome of cognitive decline in verbal fluency. Methods Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, we conducted a sensitivity analysis. The error-prone exposure – visit 1 fatty acid intake (1987–89 – was available for 7,814 subjects 50 years or older at baseline with complete data on cognitive decline between visits 2 (1990–92 and 4 (1996–98. Our binary outcome of interest was clinically significant decline in verbal fluency. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were compared between naïve and measurement-error adjusted odds ratios of decline with every SD increase in fatty acid intake as % of energy. Two approaches were explored for adjustment: (A External validation against biomarkers (plasma fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and (B Internal repeat measurements at visits 2 and 3. The main difference between the two is that Approach B makes a stronger assumption regarding lack of error correlations in the structural model. Additionally, we compared results from regression calibration (RCAL to those from simulation extrapolation (SIMEX. Finally, using structural equations modeling, we estimated attenuation factors associated with each dietary exposure to assess degree of measurement error in a bivariate scenario for regression calibration of logistic regression model. Results and conclusion Attenuation factors for Approach A were smaller than B, suggesting a larger amount of measurement error in the dietary exposure. Replicate measures (Approach B unlike concentration biomarkers (Approach A may lead to imprecise odds ratios due to larger

  20. Dual actions of enflurane on postsynaptic currents abolished by the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta3(N265M) point mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Berthold; Jurd, Rachel; Rudolph, Uwe; Antkowiak, Bernd

    2006-08-01

    At concentrations close to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)-immobility, volatile anesthetics display blocking and prolonging effects on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents. It has been proposed that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie these dual actions. The authors investigated whether the blocking or the prolonging effect of enflurane is altered by a point mutation (N265M) in the beta3 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor. Furthermore, the role of the beta3 subunit in producing the depressant actions of enflurane on neocortical neurons was elucidated. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents were sampled from neocortical neurons in cultured slices derived from wild-type and beta3(N265M) mutant mice. The effects of 0.3 and 0.6 mm enflurane on decay kinetics, peak amplitude, and charge transfer were quantified. Furthermore, the impact of enflurane-induced changes in spontaneous action potential firing was evaluated by extracellular recordings in slices from wild-type and mutant mice. In slices derived from wild-type mice, enflurane prolonged inhibitory postsynaptic current decays and decreased peak amplitudes. Both effects were almost absent in slices from beta3(N265M) mutant mice. At clinically relevant concentrations between MAC-awake and MAC-immobility, the anesthetic was less effective in depressing spontaneous action potential firing in slices from beta3(N265M) mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. At concentrations between MAC-awake and MAC-immobility, beta3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors contribute to the depressant actions of enflurane in the neocortex. The beta3(N265M) mutation affects both the prolonging and blocking effects of enflurane on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neocortical neurons.