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Sample records for acids composition including

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altuntaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control, 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77. Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7 and C18:1 (n-9 in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in the egg yolk.

  2. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  4. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  5. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  6. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  7. A composite model including visfatin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen, hyaluronic acid, and hematological variables for the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.

  8. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  9. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  10. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  11. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  12. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  13. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  14. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ronghuan; Qingfeng, Li; Gang, Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) and PBI composite membranes have been prepared in the present work. The PBI composites contain inorganic proton conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2·nH2O), phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40·nH2O) and silicotungstic acid (Si...

  15. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  16. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Petrović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Undecylenic acid (UA, known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida. Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate (PMMA as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached and planktonic (free-floating Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3–12%. We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA. Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida. Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90 was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA.

  17. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Milica; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    Undecylenic acid (UA), known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida. Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached) and planktonic (free-floating) Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3–12%). We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA). Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida. Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA. PMID:29316713

  18. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Milica; Bonvin, Debora; Hofmann, Heinrich; Mionić Ebersold, Marijana

    2018-01-08

    Undecylenic acid (UA), known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida . Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached) and planktonic (free-floating) Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3-12%). We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA). Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida . Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA.

  19. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  20. Composition of amino acid using carbon monoxide. Amide carbonylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Kunisuke (Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    Amide carbonylation reaction is a method to compose N-acyl-{alpha}-amino acid from aldehyde, carboxylic acid amide, and carbon monoxide in a phase and with high yield. Unlike the conventional Strecker reaction, this method does not use HCN which is in question on public pollution and does not require hydrolysis. This amide carbonylation reaction was discovered by Wakamatsu and others of Ajinomoto Co.,Ltd. Present application examples of this method are the composition of N-acetyl amino acid from the aldehyde class, the composition of N-Acyl amino acid from olefin, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid from the raw material of alcohol and the halide class, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid via the isomerization of epoxide and allyl alcohol, the composition of amino dicarboxylic acid, applying deoxidation of ring acid anhydride, the composition of N-acyl amino acid from the raw material of the amine class, the stereoselective composition of -substitution ring-{alpha}-amino acid, and the composition of amino aldehyde. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lauric Acid Hybridizing Fly Ash Composite for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash includes different mineral phases. This paper reported on the preparation of a novel lauric acid (LA/fly ash (FA composite by vacuum impregnation as a form-stable phase change material (PCM for thermal energy, and especially investigated the effect of the hydrochloric acid-treated fly ash (FAh on the thermal energy storage performance of the composites. The morphology, crystalline structure, and porous textures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that hydrochloric acid treatment was beneficial to the increase of loading capacity and crystallinity of LA in the LA/FAh composite, which caused an enhanced thermal storage capacity with latent heats for melting and freezing of LA/FAh (80.94 and 77.39 J/g, higher than those of LA/FA (34.09 and 32.97 J/g, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was investigated in detail.

  2. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  3. Amino acid compositional shifts during streptophyte transitions to terrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Across the streptophyte lineage, which includes charophycean algae and embryophytic plants, there have been at least four independent transitions to the terrestrial habitat. One of these involved the evolution of embryophytes (bryophytes and tracheophytes) from a charophycean ancestor, while others involved the earliest branching lineages, containing the monotypic genera Mesostigma and Chlorokybus, and within the Klebsormidiales and Zygnematales lineages. To overcome heat, water stress, and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which must have accompanied these transitions, adaptive mechanisms would have been required. During periods of dehydration and/or desiccation, proteomes struggle to maintain adequate cytoplasmic solute concentrations. The increased usage of charged amino acids (DEHKR) may be one way of maintaining protein hydration, while increased use of aromatic residues (FHWY) protects proteins and nucleic acids by absorbing damaging UV, with both groups of residues thought to be important for the stabilization of protein structures. To test these hypotheses we examined amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins representing both mitochondrion- and plastid-encoded proteomes across streptophytic lineages. We compared relative differences within categories of amino acid residues and found consistent patterns of amino acid compositional fluxuation in extra-membranous regions that correspond with episodes of terrestrialization: positive change in usage frequency for residues with charged side-chains, and aromatic residues of the light-capturing chloroplast proteomes. We also found a general decrease in the usage frequency of hydrophobic, aliphatic, and small residues. These results suggest that amino acid compositional shifts in extra-membrane regions of plastid and mitochondrial proteins may represent biochemical adaptations that allowed green plants to colonize the land.

  4. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  5. Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

    2009-01-01

    Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil...

  6. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  7. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  8. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic protontic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    2003-01-01

    contain inorganic protonic conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2. nH2O); phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40. nH2O); and silicotungstic acid (SiWA), (H4SiW12O40 . nH2O). The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped PBI and PBI composite membranes was found to be dependent on the acid...

  9. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  10. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  11. Oil hyphae of endolithic lichens and their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, E; Tietz, A; Galun, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of medullary oil hyphae of twelve endolithic lichen species, belonging to different taxa and colonizing different habitats, was examined by light and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of lipids isolated from the oil hyphae and from two corresponding mycobionts grown in culture was determined. The oil hyphae of the various species appeared in different forms and contained large amounts of lipid in the form of oil globules. The hyphae of mycobionts isolated from two of the endoliths and grown in culture also contained large amounts of lipids. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid component in all the organisms examined. Hexadecanoic acid was the main saturated fatty acid; octadecenoic acid and octadecdienoic acid the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Tetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic and octadectrienoic acids were also detected. The fatty acid distribution pattern appeared unaffected by the nature of substrate and climatic conditions. There is a certain similarity in the fatty acid composition in related species. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.

  13. 3-D FEM Modeling of fiber/matrix interface debonding in UD composites including surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupurs, A; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    Fiber/matrix interface debond growth is one of the main mechanisms of damage evolution in unidirectional (UD) polymer composites. Because for polymer composites the fiber strain to failure is smaller than for the matrix multiple fiber breaks occur at random positions when high mechanical stress is applied to the composite. The energy released due to each fiber break is usually larger than necessary for the creation of a fiber break therefore a partial debonding of fiber/matrix interface is typically observed. Thus the stiffness reduction of UD composite is contributed both from the fiber breaks and from the interface debonds. The aim of this paper is to analyze the debond growth in carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy UD composites using fracture mechanics principles by calculation of energy release rate G II . A 3-D FEM model is developed for calculation of energy release rate for fiber/matrix interface debonds at different locations in the composite including the composite surface region where the stress state differs from the one in the bulk composite. In the model individual partially debonded fiber is surrounded by matrix region and embedded in a homogenized composite.

  14. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane.

  16. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  17. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  18. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...

  19. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  20. Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds (Short communication). NOM Tshipuliso, LJ Alexander, TW Geary, VM Snelling, DC Rule, JE Koltes, BE Mote, MD MacNeil ...

  1. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Agilent Auto Analyzer 7683 B series, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, Calif, USA) into ..... laboratory facilities and financial support. ... supplementation on fatty acid composition and gene expression in adipose tissue of growing ...

  2. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  3. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  4. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species, viz, Centaurea behen, C. saligna, C. depressa, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana and C. aggregata subsp. aggregata, from Elaz.., Turkey. Methods: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of the oil extracts of four Centaurea species were ...

  7. Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Water Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein and amino acids composition of seeds and pulp of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus were analyzed using Kjeldahl method and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) respectively. The protein contents (% dry matter) of seeds and pulp were found to be 24.23 and 1.05% respectively. The results of amino acids ...

  8. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  9. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of sesame accessions from different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kurt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil content and fatty acid composition are very important parameters for the human consumption of oilseed crops. Twenty-four sesame accessions including seven collected from various geographical regions of Turkey and 11 from different countries were investigated under field conditions for two consecutive years (2015 and 2016. The sesame accessions varied widely in their oil content and fatty acid compositions. The oil content varied between 44.6 and 53.1% with an average value of 48.15%. The content of oleic acids, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid,and stearic acid varied between 36.13–43.63%, 39.13–46.38%, 0.28–0.4%, 8.19–10.26%, and 4.63–6.35%, respectively. When total oil content and fatty acid composition were compared, Turkish sesame showed wide variation in oil and fatty acid compositions compared to those from other countries. However, the accessions from other countries were fewer compared to those from Turkey. It is essential to compare oil and fatty acid composition using a large number of germ plasm from different origins. In sesame oil, the average contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 39.02% and 43.64%, respectively, and their combined average content was 82.66%, representing the major fatty acid components in the oil from the sesame accessions used in the present study. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the identification of better parents with high linoleic and oleic acid contents for developing elite sesame varieties with traits which are beneficial to consumer health.

  10. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  11. Is the fatty acid composition of Daphnia galeata determined by the fatty acid composition of the ingested diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, P.M.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia galeata and their algal food was analysed and showed many similarities, however, some significant differences were also found in the relative abundance of the FA C16:4 omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Their relative abundances were much lower in

  12. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  13. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  14. Characterization of Polylactic Acid/ Microcrystalline Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Arjmandi; Azman Hassan; Haafiz, M.K.M.; Zainoha Zakaria; Inuwa, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of montmorillonite (MMT)/ microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hybrid fillers on mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) composites. PLA/ MMT nano composites and PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites were prepared by solution casting method. Morphology and tensile properties of PLA composites were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Instron tensile testing machine. The maximum tensile strength of PLA/ MMT nano composites was obtained with 5 phr contents of MMT, which corresponding to 30.75 MPa. Based on optimized formulation of PLA/ MMT nano composites (5 phr MMT contents), various amounts of MCC (0 to 7 phr) were added into optimum formulation of PLA/ MMT in order to produce PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some level of interaction between PLA and both MMT and MCC in the hybrid composites. However, the percent elongation at break of the hybrid composites was generally higher than PLA/ MMT nano composites. Additionally, Young's modulus of the PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites increased gradually with increasing of MCC contents and was higher than PLA/ MMT at all compositions. The present results are the first among a series of experiments that have been designed in order to probe the effect of MMT and MCC in the PLA. (author)

  15. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Petrović; Debora Bonvin; Heinrich Hofmann; Marijana Mionić Ebersold

    2018-01-01

    Undecylenic acid (UA), known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida. Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached) and planktonic (free-floating) Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by de...

  17. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  18. Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

  19. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  20. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino;  , Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanica...

  1. Amino acid composition of protein-enriched dried pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Vidrih, Rajko; Filip, Sebastjan

    2016-01-01

    Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbo...

  2. Prediction of Protein Submitochondrial Locations by Incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's General Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Waris, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrion is the key organelle of eukaryotic cell, which provides energy for cellular activities. Submitochondrial locations of proteins play crucial role in understanding different biological processes such as energy metabolism, program cell death, and ionic homeostasis. Prediction of submitochondrial locations through conventional methods are expensive and time consuming because of the large number of protein sequences generated in the last few decades. Therefore, it is intensively desired to establish an automated model for identification of submitochondrial locations of proteins. In this regard, the current study is initiated to develop a fast, reliable, and accurate computational model. Various feature extraction methods such as dipeptide composition (DPC), Split Amino Acid Composition, and Composition and Translation were utilized. In order to overcome the issue of biasness, oversampling technique SMOTE was applied to balance the datasets. Several classification learners including K-Nearest Neighbor, Probabilistic Neural Network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used. Jackknife test is applied to assess the performance of classification algorithms using two benchmark datasets. Among various classification algorithms, SVM achieved the highest success rates in conjunction with the condensed feature space of DPC, which are 95.20 % accuracy on dataset SML3-317 and 95.11 % on dataset SML3-983. The empirical results revealed that our proposed model obtained the highest results so far in the literatures. It is anticipated that our proposed model might be useful for future studies.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  4. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  6. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyeye, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  7. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  8. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  9. Fatty acid composition of Dioscorea dumetorum (Pax) varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the fatty acid compositions of edible and wild Dioscorea dumetorum (Pax) varieties harvested from farms and forests of Ikot Akpanabia village in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria in order to evaluate their nutritional and biochemical significance. Tubers were conveyed from farm ...

  10. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suaeda acuminata produces two morphologically distinct types of seeds on the same plant. This study was conducted to compare oil content and fatty acid composition of the two seed morphs. Though oil characteristics between dimorphic seeds showed statistically significant difference, these differences were relatively ...

  11. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Fatty acids composition of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris can be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Varying culture methods of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has been associated with different nutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acid contents and other nutrients of CV subjected to various culturing conditions. We found that CV cultured under 24 h light and 10% CO2 showed the best growth rates ...

  13. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  14. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  15. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  16. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  18. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  19. The influence of roasting and baking on fatty acids composition of consumer oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mikołajczak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Foods rich in nutrients have a positive effect on the human body. They are beneficial both for the health and the mind of human. Good sources of essential fatty acids and other biologically active compounds are oilseeds. It is important to include them in your daily diet. They can be added to dishes or serve as a snack. Brief description of the state of knowledge: The aim of this study was to evaluate of fatty acid composition in selected consumer oilseeds: sunflower, sesame, flax after application of typical technological processes such as roasting and baking, in different temperature, power and time ranges. In the research materials (before and after modification, the fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Summary: Based on obtained results, it was found that roasting and baking have an influence on the change in the content and composition of fatty acids. The strength of influence was dependent on the parameters (e.g. type of seed, temperature, time, power, which were used in the research. The roasting in the oven caused changes in the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, both in flax and sunflower seeds. The roasting in the microwave at 900 W affected on saturated fatty acids composition in flax seeds, similarly sunflower. In the case of sesame seeds, the influence of time on the content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was noted. The baking process caused significant changes in the fatty acid composition in the seeds from the crust of bread (flax seeds, sunflower seeds.

  20. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  1. Terahertz absorption in graphite nanoplatelets/polylactic acid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychanok, D.; Angelova, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Meisak, D.; Shashkova, L.; Demidenko, M.; Plyushch, A.; Ivanov, E.; Krastev, R.; Kotsilkova, R.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Kuzhir, P.

    2018-04-01

    The electromagnetic properties of composite materials based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA) filled with graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were investigated in the microwave (26–37 GHz) and terahertz (0.2–1 THz) frequency ranges. The maximum of the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity was observed close to 0.6 THz for composites with 1.5 and 3 wt.% of GNP. The experimental data of complex dielectric permittivity of GNP/PLA composites was modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett theory. The effects of fine dispersion, agglomeration, and percolation in GNP-based composites on its electromagnetic constitutive parameters, presence, and position of THz absorption peak are discussed on the basis of the modeling results and experimental data. The unique combination of conductive and geometrical parameters of GNP embedded into the PLA matrix below the percolation threshold allow us to obtain the THz-absorptive material, which may be effectively used as a 3D-printing filament.

  2. Including granulometric sediment coastal data composition into the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Elena; Khaliulin, Alexey; Krylenko, Marina; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Zodiatis, George; Nikolaidis, Marios; Nikolaidis, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50-200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010-2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, "virtual" points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.

  3. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  4. Amino acid composition in determination of collagen origin and assessment of physical factors effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauza-Włodarczyk, Marlena; Kubisz, Leszek; Włodarczyk, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The amino acid composition of collagen is a characteristic feature of this protein. Collagen, irrespective of its origin, contains 19 amino acids, including hydroxyproline which does not occur in other proteins. Its atypical amino acid composition is characterized by high content of proline and glycine, as well as the absence of cysteine. This paper shows the comparison of qualitative composition of amino acids of fish skin (FS) collagen, bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen, and bone collagen. Results demonstrate that FS collagen as well as BAT collagen contains no cysteine and significantly different amount of hydroxyproline. In BAT collagen hydroxyproline content is 30% higher than hydroxyproline content of FS collagen. In bone collagen the amount of hydroxyproline is two times more than in FS collagen. Furthermore, it is shown that sensitivity to radiation of individual amino acids varies and depends on the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. The changes observed in the amino acid composition become very intense for the doses of 500kGy and 1000kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting membrane protein types by fusing composite protein sequence features into pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Asifullah

    2011-02-21

    Membrane proteins are vital type of proteins that serve as channels, receptors, and energy transducers in a cell. Prediction of membrane protein types is an important research area in bioinformatics. Knowledge of membrane protein types provides some valuable information for predicting novel example of the membrane protein types. However, classification of membrane protein types can be both time consuming and susceptible to errors due to the inherent similarity of membrane protein types. In this paper, neural networks based membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Composite protein sequence representation (CPSR) is used to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid composition, sequence length, 2 gram exchange group frequency, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, and R-group. Principal component analysis is then employed to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. The probabilistic neural network (PNN), generalized regression neural network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used as classifiers. A high success rate of 86.01% is obtained using SVM for the jackknife test. In case of independent dataset test, PNN yields the highest accuracy of 95.73%. These classifiers exhibit improved performance using other performance measures such as sensitivity, specificity, Mathew's correlation coefficient, and F-measure. The experimental results show that the prediction performance of the proposed scheme for classifying membrane protein types is the best reported, so far. This performance improvement may largely be credited to the learning capabilities of neural networks and the composite feature extraction strategy, which exploits seven different properties of protein sequences. The proposed Mem-Predictor can be accessed at http://111.68.99.218/Mem-Predictor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiling Abscisic Acid-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Composition in Mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suhas; Devaiah, Shivakumar; Kilaru, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    In plants, change in lipid composition is a common response to various abiotic stresses. Lipid constituents of bryophytes are of particular interest as they differ from that of flowering plants. Unlike higher plants, mosses have high content of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such lipids are considered to be important for survival of nonvascular plants. Here, using abscisic acid (ABA )-induced changes in lipid composition in Physcomitrella patens as an example, a protocol for total lipid extraction and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) is described.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ≥ 20 carbons, ≥ 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the Δ19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red

  9. CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Fergal J; Verniere, Mélanie; Devocelle, Marc; Bernard, Elise; Shields, Denis C; Chubb, Anthony J

    2011-04-25

    We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural commercially available amino acids. The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. The stand-alone software, and the Web interface for evaluating these empirical properties of a single peptide, are available at http://bioware.ucd.ie .

  10. Amino acid composition of cottage cheese and whey with bifidobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking condition intestinal flora, the simplest way to create sensitive parts of the body microbiocenosis caused by various factors. Reasons for people microecology imbalances – antibiotics, preservatives, stress. The result is an imbalance – the number of gastrointestinal disorders, immune deficiency disorders metabolic processes in the body. Therapeutic effect of probiotic microorganisms is the result of exogenous and endometabolitov synthesis the character of the protein. Acid activity information probiotic microorganisms and the distribution of amino acids between the products and intermediates in biopotential evaluation process foods produced with probiotic microflora by fermentation. Test results from the amino acid composition of whey and quark are obtained by fermenting raw milk probiotics bifidobacterias. It was found that during the fermentation of the quark consortium, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum Y enriched curd 4 of leucine and glutamine. Rate of transfer amino acids in serum to 2–6% of essential amino acids is irrelevant 3–7%. The highest value observed transient threonine, isoleucyl, lysine, valine, alanine, glycine, proline, serine. The mean value of the prototype amino acid protein curd and whey protein biological value was 71.89 and 74.58. Preservation of active forms of probiotic microorganisms after heating the bunch to 53–55 °C, lg concentration of not less than 7 (in 1 g in cottage cheese and serum. The received data are actual for formation of an information data bank, necessary for the development of prescription-component solutions of eubiotic products.

  11. Modified Polyacrylic Acid-Zinc Composites: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylic acid (PAA is an important industrial chemical, which has been extensively applied in various fields, including for several biomedical purposes. In this study, we report the synthesis and modification of this polymer with various phenol imides, such as succinimide, phthalimide and 1,8-naphthalimide. The as-synthesized derivatives were used to prepare polymer metal composites by the reaction with Zn+2. These composites were characterized by using various techniques, including NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and DSC. The as-prepared PAA-based composites were further evaluated for their anti-microbial properties against various pathogens, which include both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and different fungal strains. The synthesized composites have displayed considerable biocidal properties, ranging from mild to moderate activities against different strains tested.

  12. On basicity and composition of molybdogermanium heteropoly acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, F.V.; Tarayan, V.M.; Petrosyam, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The data on the number of single-charged cations of the basic dye (BD) associated by anion of molybdogermanium heteropoly acid equal to effective acid basicity, as well as the data on chemical analysis of formed solid-phase BD-MGA compounds were used to establish that composition and basicity of MGA depend on the nature of dye-precipitator. The use of acridine orange results in stabilization and precipitation of octasubstituted 12MGA salt, and acriflavine-tetrasubstituted 8MGA salt. Formation of the last ones is independent of medium acidity in its wide range: pH 0.45-4.80 and pH 0-3.8 respectively

  13. Effect of phosphoric acid on the morphology and tensile properties of halloysite-polyurethane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Luaibi, Hasan Mohammed; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.

    2018-06-01

    The high aspect ratio of nanoscale reinforcements enhances the tensile properties of pure polymer matrix. The composites were first made by adding halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) at low weight percentages of 1, 2, and 3 wt% to thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Then, HNTs were phosphoric acid-treated before adding to TPU at same weight percentage to create phosphoric acid HNTs-TPU composites. The samples were fabricated using injection moulding. The HNTs-TPU composites were characterized according to the tensile properties including tensile strength, tensile strain and Young's modulus. The loading has shown its highest tensile values at 2 wt% HNTs loading and same findings are shown with the samples that treated with phosphoric acid. The tensile strength increased to reach 24.65 MPa compare with the 17.7 MPa of the neat TPU showing about 26% improvement. For the phosphoric acid-treated composites, the improvement has reached 35% compared to the neat sample. Regarding the tensile stain, the improvement was about 83% at 2 wt% HNTs loading. For Young's modulus, the results obtained in this study have shown that Young's modulus is linearly improved with either the loading content or the phosphoric acid treated achieving its highest values at 3 wt% HNTs of 14.53 MPa and 16.27 MPa for untreated and treated, respectively. FESEM results showed that HNTs were well dispersed in TPU matrix. Thus, HNTs-TPU has improved tensile properties compared with pure TPU due to the addition of nanofiller.

  14. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  15. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  16. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  17. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization.

  18. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance.

  19. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  20. Assessing diet compositions of Lake Ontario predators using fatty acid profiles of prey fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Austin; Pattridge, Robert; Rinchard, Jacques; Walsh, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles are used in food web studies to assess trophic interactions between predator and prey. The present study provides the first comprehensive fatty acid dataset for important prey and predator species in Lake Ontario. Three major prey fish (alewife, rainbow smelt, and round goby) were collected at three sites along the southern shore of Lake Ontario during the spring and fall of 2013, and predator species were collected in similar locations during the summer of 2013. Fatty acid compositions were compared among all prey species, all predator species, and information from both predator and prey was used to infer foraging differences among predators. Seasonal differences in fatty acids were found within each prey species studied. Differences among prey species were greater than any spatio-temporal differences detected within species. Fatty acids of predators revealed species-specific differences that matched known foraging habits. Chinook and Coho salmon, which are known to select alewife as their dominant prey item, had relatively little variation in fatty acid profiles. Conversely, brown trout, lake trout, yellow perch and esocids had highly variable fatty acid profiles and likely highly variable diet compositions. In general, our data suggested three dominant foraging patterns: 1) diet composed of nearly exclusively alewife for Chinook and Coho Salmon; 2) a mixed diet of alewife and round goby for brown and lake trout, and both rock and smallmouth bass; 3) a diet that is likely comprised of forage fishes other than those included in our study for northern pike and chain pickerel.

  1. Should Pharmacies Be Included in Medication Reconciliation? A Report of Recurrent Valproic Acid Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tate Cutshall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Including outpatient pharmacies in the medication reconciliation process upon hospital discharge is not commonly performed. This case highlights the consequences of a patient refilling a discontinued prescription for valproic acid (VPA. We present a 32-year old male found unresponsive after ingesting delayed release divalproex sodium. Cerebral edema was visualized on magnetic resonance imaging. Hemodialysis and levo-carnitine treatment led to improved mental status, and VPA was discontinued. The same patient presented with VPA overdose eight months later after he continued to fill an outdated prescription. This case highlights consequences of VPA toxicity; it also demonstrates an opportunity to improve patient safety and high-value care by collaborating with outpatient pharmacies in the medication reconciliation process upon hospital discharge.

  2. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  3. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax.

  4. Advanced composite materials based on polyhydroxybutyrate and polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaeva, P. M.; Olkhov, A. A.; Podzorova, M. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the main characteristics of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polylactic acid (PLA) as well as the prospects and possibility of the medical use of PHB-PLA compositions as these polymers are most relevant to such application. The study establishes the main thermophysical parameters of PHB and PLA. It is found that PHB and PLA are hydrophobic enough. The study by the electron paramagnetic resonance method reveals a small amount of the radical infiltrated in PLA and PHB, which indicates the chain rigidity of both polymeric structures. Mechanical properties of PLA and PHB are characterized by high strength and low elasticity.

  5. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Hibiscus trionum L. (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Sibel Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L., and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L. as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seed oil yield is low (4.7% since linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67,5%, it can still be used as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seed oil .

  7. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  8. Composition of diesel exhaust with particular reference to particle bound organics including formation of artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lies, K H; Hartung, A; Postulka, A; Gring, H; Schulze, J

    1986-01-01

    For particulate emissions, standards were established by the US EPA in February 1980. Regulations limiting particulates from new light duty diesel vehicles are valid by model year 1982. The corresponding standards on a pure mass basis do not take into account any chemical character of the diesel particulate matter. Our investigation of the material composition shows that diesel particulates consist mainly of soot (up to 80% by weight) and adsorptively bound organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The qualitative and quantitative nature of hydrocarbon compounds associated with the particulates is dependent not only on the combustion parameters of the engine but also to an important degree on the sampling conditions when the particulates are collected (dilution ratio, temperature, filter material, sampling time etc.). Various methods for the analyses of PAH and their oxy- and nitro-derivatives are described including sampling, extraction, fractionation and chemical analysis. Quantitative comparison of PAH, nitro-PAH and oxy-PAH from different engines are given. For assessing mutagenicity of particulate matter, short-term biological tests are widely used. These biological tests often need a great amount of particulate matter requiring prolonged filter sampling times. Since it is well known that facile PAH oxidation can take place under the conditions used for sampling and analysis, the question rises if these PAH-derivates found in particle extracts partly or totally are produced during sampling (artifacts). Various results concerning nitro- and oxy-PAH are presented characterizing artifact formation as a minor problem under the conditions of the Federal Test Procedure. But results show that under other sampling conditions, e.g. electrostatic precipitation, higher NO2-concentrations and longer sampling times, artifact formation can become a bigger problem. The more stringent particulate standard of 0.2 g/mi for model years 1986 and 1987 respectively

  9. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  10. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  11. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye; Khashab, Niveen M.; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets

  12. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  13. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  14. Poly (lactic acid organoclay nano composites for paper coating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatcha Sonjui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid or PLA is a well-known biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources such as corn strach, tapioca strach, and sugar cane. PLA is the most extensively utilized biodegradable polyester with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. However, PLA has some drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor gas barrier properties. Nano composite polymers have experience and increasing interest due to their characteristics, especially in mechanical and thermal properties. The objectives of this research were to prepare PLA formulations using three different PLAs. The formulas giving high gloss coating film were selected to prepare nano composite film by incorporated with different amount of various types of organoclays. The physical properties of the PLA coating films were studied and it was found that the PLA 7000D with 0.1%w/w of Cloisite 30B provided decent viscosity for coating process. In addition, the nano composite coating films showed good physical properties such as high gloss, good adhesion, and good hardness. There is a possibility of using the obtained formulation as a paper coating film.

  15. Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures including failure criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work extends the Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization approach to structural optimization problems where strength considerations in the form of failure criteria are taken into account for laminated composite structures. It takes offset in the density approaches applied for stress...... constrained topology optimization of single-material problems and develops formulations for multi-material topology optimization problems applied for laminated composite structures. The method can be applied for both stress- and strain-based failure criteria. The large number of local constraints is reduced...

  16. Proximate analysis and fatty acid composition of nigella sativa (kalonji) seed oil growing in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleema, R.; Sultana, R.; Begum, A.

    2007-01-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics including fatty acid composition of samples of seven commercially available Nigella sativa oil-and three freshly extracted seed oil, collected from different localities, were determined by gas liquid chromatography. The average and standard deviations found were: refractive index at 20 degree C, 1.473 +- 0.0018; specific gravity at 20 degree C, 0.9166 +- 0.0002; iodine value (IV, WiJ's), 119.98 +- 1.8; saponification value, 201.80 +-2.2 and unsaponifiable matter, 0.61% +- 0.05. Fatty acid (FA) profile was based on high levels of unsaturated FA like oleic acid, 24.17% +- 0.61; linoleic acid, 53.64% +-0.799 and eicosadienoic acid, 2.3%+-0.37. Saturated FA such as palmitic acid and stearic acid amounted to 14.82%+-0.49 and 2.95% +- 0.37, respectively. Myristic and palmitoleic acids were also detected in minor quantity. (author)

  17. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  18. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  20. Asymmetric synthesis including enzymatic catalysis of 11C and 13N labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstrom, B.; Antonio, G.; Bjurling, P.; Fasth, K.J.; Westerberg, G.; Watanabe, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Use of asymmetric synthesis in production of 11 C- and 13 N-labelled amino acids has been shown to be a useful approach in order to prepare amino acids routinely for PET-studies. Such PET-studies are focused either on problems related to amino acid transport, protein synthesis rate or the turnover of neurotransmitters from amino acids. The paper discusses matters regarding synthetic strategies and techniques involving production of precursors, labelled intermediates and main reaction sequences. In synthesis using the short-lived β + -emitters like 11 C and 13 N with T 1/2 of 20.3 and 10.0 min respectively, many special aspects have to be considered. The use of enzymes as catalysts has shown to be a useful tool in such preparations. The design of the labelled amino acids especially considering the stereochemistry, the position of the label will be addressed since these points are important both with regard to the application of the labelled amino acids as well as to the synthesis itself. In this presentation of the synthesis of labelled amino acids these various aspects are discussed

  1. Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet; Karaipekli, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ► Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ► The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ► The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal

  2. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  3. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function. PMID:25795911

  4. Electrochemical performance of electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu{sup 2+} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ying [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Li, Fangfei [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hanlon, Ashley M.; Berda, Erik B. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Liu, Xincai; Wang, Ce [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Chao, Danming, E-mail: chaodanming@jlu.edu.cn [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu{sup 2+} (EPAA-Cu) composites on the substrates have been prepared, whose electrochemical properties, including electroactivity, electrochromism and anticorrosion, reveal drastic enhancement after incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • The electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu{sup 2+} (EPAA-Cu) composites were prepared. • A significant current enhancement phenomenon of EPAA-Cu/ITO electrodes was observed. • EPAA-Cu/ITO electrochromic electrodes reveals a shorter switching times. • Excellent corrosive protection for the CS was achieved by incorporating Cu{sup 2+} ions. - Abstract: Electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu{sup 2+} (EPAA-Cu) composites on substrates were successfully prepared via nucleophilic polycondensation followed by the use of an immersing method. Analysis of the structure properties of EPAA-Cu composites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR). A significant current enhancement phenomenon of EPAA-Cu/ITO electrodes was found as evident from cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, Cu{sup 2+} ions were incorporated into the composites and had a positive effect on their electrochromic behaviors decreasing their switching times. The anticorrosive performance of EPAA-Cu composites coatings on the carbon steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were also investigated in detail using tafel plots analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anticorrosive ability of these coatings significantly enhanced through the incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} ions.

  5. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  6. Influence of ethanol and temperature on the cellular fatty acid composition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baleiras Couto, M.M.; Huis in 't Veld, J.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile of Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains, isolated from different sources, after growth at increasing concentrations of ethanol and/or decreasing temperatures were determined. Differences in fatty acid composition between Zygosaccharomyces bailii strains at standard

  7. Composition of ribonucleic acid from various parts of spider oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDSTROM, J E

    1960-09-01

    Microphoretic purine-pyrimidine analyses of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, cytoplasm, and yolk nuclei of spider oocytes have been carried out. The material necessary for the analyses was isolated by micromanipulation. Determinations of the amounts of RNA in the different parts of the cell were also performed. No differences between the composition of RNA in the nucleolus and the cytoplasm could be disclosed. Nucleoplasmic RNA was, on the other hand, distinctly different from that in the nucleolus and in the cytoplasm. The difference lies in the content of adenine, which is highest in nucleoplasmic RNA. The few analyses carried out on yolk nuclei showed their RNA to be variable in composition with a tendency to high purine values. The cytoplasm contains about 99 per cent of the total RNA in these cells, the nucleoplasm about 1 per cent, and the nucleolus not more than 0.3 per cent, although the highest concentrations are found in these latter structures. When considered in the light of other recent findings the results are compatible with the view that nucleolar RNA is the precursor of cytoplasmic RNA.

  8. New type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane for gallic acid encapsulation and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Radu, G L

    2014-01-01

    A new type of chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin composite membrane have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of gallic acid. The morphology of the composite membrane was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas swelling gallic acid and release properties were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The release behavior with pH changes was also explored. The composite membrane based on chitosan/2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with gallic acid included showed improved antioxidant capacities compared to plain chitosan membrane. The information obtained in this study will facilitate the design and preparation of composite membrane based on chitosan and could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical (biodegradable soft porous scaffolds for enhance the surrounding tissue regeneration), pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

  9. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  10. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    several studies reported multiple adverse effects of TFAs on human health, limited  nformation is available about total fatty acid composition, particularly TFAs, in Iranian edible oils. Our findings indicated higher content of TFAs in Iranian commercially available PHVOs.

  • KEYWORDS: Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils, Trans Fats.
  • Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

  • Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  • Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.

  • Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  • Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more

  • pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryová, Halka; Chalupský, Karel; Žbodáková, Olga; Kanchev, Ivan; Jiroušková, Markéta; Gregor, Martin; Sedláček, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, 30.10.2013 (2013), s. 155-155 ISSN 1471-230X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/2143; GA ČR GAP303/10/2044; GA AV ČR IAA500520812; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ursodeoxycholic acid * ADAM17 * shedding * cholestasis * liver Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2013

  • Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  • Bamboo–Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  • Bamboo-Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

    1. Bamboo–Polylactic Acid (PLA Composite Material for Structural Applications

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Angel Pozo Morales

      2017-11-01

      Full Text Available Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at

    2. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the thermal degradation behaviour of poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid) microfibrillar composites

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Luyt, A. S.; Kelnar, Ivan

      2017-01-01

      Roč. 60, July (2017), s. 166-172 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(lactic acid) * poly(epsilon-caprolactone) * halloysite nanotubes Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

    3. Changes in cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipid in irradiated rat

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ohashi, Shigeru

      1979-01-01

      The effect of a single dose of whole body irradiation on the serum cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in rats was investigated. A change in the fatty acid composition of liver lipids was also observed. After 600 rad of irradiation, the cholesterol content increased, reached a maximum 3 days after irradiation, and then decreased. After irradiation, an increase in cholesterol content and a marked decrease in triglyceride content were observed, bringing about a change in the amount of total serum lipids. The fatty acid compositions of normal and irradiated rat sera were compared. The relative percentages of palmitic and oleic acids in total lipids decreased while those of stearic and arachidonic acids increased. Serum triglyceride had trace amounts of arachidonic acid and the unsaturated fatty acid component decreased after irradiation. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid in cholesterol ester increased after irradiation, while linoleic and arachidonic acids made up 29% and 22% in the controls and 17% and 61% after irradiation, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total liver lipids after irradiation showed a decrease in palmitic and oleic acids and an increase in stearic and arachidonic acids, the same trend as observed in serum lipid fatty acid. Liver cholesterol ester showed trace amounts of linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in short-chain fatty acid after irradiation. The major component of serum phospholipids was phosphatidylcholine while palmitostearyl lecithine and unsaturated fatty acid were minor components. Moreover, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major components of liver phospholipids, having highly unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in fatty acid composition were similar to the changes in total phospholipids. (J.P.N.)

    4. Synthesis of Patchouli Biochar Cr2O3 Composite Using Double Acid Oxidators for Paracetamol Adsorption

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tutik Setianingsih

      2018-01-01

      Full Text Available Composite built by patchouli biochar and metal oxide, Cr2O3, is a potential material for remediation of contaminated wasterwater. Oxidation of biochar using acid or salt oxidators can improve its surface polar functional groups. This treatment may be able to increase impregnation of metal cation (as salt before calcination to form its oxide. In this research, 3 types of oxidators were used to oxidize the biochar before impregnation with purpose to study its influence toward physichochemistry and adsorption performance of the composite. Preparation of the composite included 3 steps, including preparation of biochar by pyrolisis of patchouli biomass using ZnCl2 activator at 450 oC, oxidation of the biochar using 3 different oxidators (H2SO4-HNO3, H3PO4-HNO3, H2O2–HNO3 at 60 oC, impregnation of the oxidized biochar using CrCl3 followed by calcination process to form biochar–Cr2O3 composite at 600 oC. Characterization using X-ray diffraction indicated that the composite containes the Cr2O3 structure. FTIR spectrophotometry characterization indicates the different content of C=O, C-O, and –OH on the composite surface. SEM images shows irregular micro ball shapes. EDX characterization indicates the different Cr content in the composite with same sequence with FTIR absorbances of both C-O and –OH. Adsorption of paracetamol indicates effect of Cr2O3 showing the same sequence of both.

    5. Re-Examination of the BEST Trial Using Composite Outcomes, Including Emergency Department Visits

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Mogensen, Ulrik M.

      2017-01-01

      that included emergency department (ED) visits. We also undertook an analysis of recurrent events primarily using the Lin, Wei, Ying, and Yang model. Results Overall, 448 (33%) patients on placebo and 411 (30%) patients on bucindolol died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 1.02; p...... = 0.11). A total of 730 (54%) patients experienced CVD/HFH on placebo and 624 (46%) on bucindolol (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.89; p 0.90; p

    6. The bile acid composition of crane gallbladder bile

      Science.gov (United States)

      Serafin, J.A.

      1983-01-01

      1. The biliary bile acids of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Florida sandhill crane (G. canadensis pratensis) have been examined.2. Cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDOCA) and lithocholic acid were found in bile from both species of these North American cranes.3. CDOCA and CA were the primary bile acids in both species, together constituting 70% or more of the bile acids by weight.4. The primary bile acids of cranes appear to be the same as those that have been identified in other avian species.

    7. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yuan, Liming; Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Deyuan

      2016-01-01

      In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

    8. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yuan, Liming, E-mail: lming_y@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

      2016-12-01

      In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core–shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core–shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of suspensions with core-shell inclusions were studied. • Less diluted suspensions were considered. • Flaky Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were studied. • The microwave properties could be simulated successfully.

    9. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

      2016-01-01

      This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    10. Amino acid composition of casein isolated from the milks of different species

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lauer, B H; Baker, B E

      1977-01-01

      Casein was isolated from the milks of the following species: cow, horse, pig, reindeer, caribou, moose, harp seal, musk-ox, polar bear, dall sheep, and fin whale. The caseins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, the resultant amino acids were converted to their n-butyl-N-trifluoroacetyl esters, and the amino acid composition of the caseins was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of these esters. Notable among the results was the close similarity, with respect to amino acid composition, of reindeer and caribou caseins. The results of the amino acid analyses of the other caseins are presented and discussed.

    11. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Karla A. Bascuñán

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

    12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

      2014-11-07

      Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

    13. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

    14. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Van Dooremalen, C.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

      2009-01-01

      A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

    15. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van Dooremalen, J.A.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

      2009-01-01

      A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids

    16. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

      2013-07-01

      The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

    17. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

      2013-01-01

      PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

    18. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

      2016-01-01

      Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka.

    19. Effect of Nitrogen and biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Fatty acid Composition of Sesame cultivars under Yazd conditions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E Shakeri

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizers Azotobacter sp. and Azosprillum sp. on seed yield, oil yield and its percent and fatty acid composition in three sesame (Sesamum indicum L. cultivars an experiment was conducted using splite plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural Resources Reasearch Center of Yazd in 2009 cropping season. The treatments included : cultivars ( Darab-14, Jiroft and Yazdi assigned to main plots, nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25 and 50 kg ha-1 and biofertilizer (inoculation and no-inoculation as factorial were randomized in sub-plots. Oil percent was measured using the Soxhlet method and fatty acid composition was measured using GC method. Results showed the significant differenc among three varieties concerning seed yield, oil yield and four fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearis acid. Seed yield, oil yield, Oleic, Linolenic and Arasshidic acid significantly increased with applying N fertilizer. Seed yield, oil yield and linolenic acid percent significantly increased with applying biofertilizer. Oleic acid percent had negative and significant correlation with Linoleic acid (r = -0.759** and stearic acid (r=-0.774** percent. Generally, results showed the importance of applying biofertilizers against chemical fertilizers to protect the environment from harmful chemical pollution.

    20. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Deepak Kumar Verma

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

    1. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

    2. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maryam Boshtam

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

    3. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is associated with fatty acid composition of high density lipoprotein.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Boshtam, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

      2013-01-01

      Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω 6 fatty acids of HDL. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

    4. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

      2017-02-01

      OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

    5. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fan, Wei; Lam, Sin Man; Xin, Jingxue; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Shui, Guanghou; Huang, Xun

      2017-03-01

      The general transcription factor TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and its associated factors (TAFs) together form the TFIID complex, which directs transcription initiation. Through RNAi and mutant analysis, we identified a specific TBP family protein, TRF2, and a set of TAFs that regulate lipid droplet (LD) size in the Drosophila larval fat body. Among the three Drosophila TBP genes, trf2, tbp and trf1, only loss of function of trf2 results in increased LD size. Moreover, TRF2 and TAF9 regulate fatty acid composition of several classes of phospholipids. Through RNA profiling, we found that TRF2 and TAF9 affects the transcription of a common set of genes, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes that affect phospholipid fatty acid composition. We also found that knockdown of several TRF2 and TAF9 target genes results in large LDs, a phenotype which is similar to that of trf2 mutants. Together, these findings provide new insights into the specific role of the general transcription machinery in lipid homeostasis.

    6. Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Omolara Olusola Oluwaniyi

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the fillet and oil from Clarias gariepinus (Catfish and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia were determined. The moisture content ranged from 76.27 % for catfish to 79.97 % for tilapia while the oil content ranged from 7.80 % for tilapia and 11.00 % for catfish. Ash content was in the range 8.03 – 9.16 % and the protein content was 15.83 - 18.48 %. Cooking – boiling, roasting or frying – resulted in a variation in the nutrient composition but with no significant effect on the amino acid composition except for the samples fried with palm oil which resulted in significantly reduced essential amino acids contents. All the fish samples – both fresh and processed – have amino acid scores less than 100, with lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids being among the limiting amino acids. Both fish samples contain more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids.

    7. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

      Science.gov (United States)

      eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

    8. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders.

    9. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. ... urbanization are creating increased demand for food as concerns are rising about malnutrition in peri-urban areas (FAO, 1983). Vegetables are sources of vitamins, ascorbic acid, ... authenticated at the International Institute of.

    10. Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of star fruit ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... refractive index (1.421), acid value (0.68), free fatty acid (0.84), iodine value (140.50 ... The fatty acid profiles were revealed using Gas Chromatography Mass ... The outcome of this study showed that Averrohoa carambola seed oil may find wider industrial application and ...

    11. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      use

      2011-12-12

      Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

    12. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      of assessing the balance of amino acids, each is presented as a percentage of the requirements of broilers up to 3 weeks of age. ... nutritional importance of the total sulphur amino acids .... out and the primary amino acid analysis result sheet.

    13. Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maitree Suttajit

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of α-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

    14. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

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      Amira Abdulbari Kassem

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

    15. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

      2012-01-01

      The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

    16. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

      2012-01-01

      The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

    17. Results of breeding for modified C18-fatty acid composition in sunflower

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Schmidt, L.; Marquard, R.; Friedt, W.

      1990-01-01

      Full text: In an earlier experiment, KUEBLER was able to select sunflower lines with modified fatty acid composition after induced mutagenesis. From this material, genotypes with more than 80% linoleic acid content could be selected, whereas the highest level of oleic acid obtained was 30% under field conditions and up to 50% in the phytotron. Recently, inbred lines with up to 90% oleic acid could be selected from a progeny of the Russian cultivar Pervenets, which has high oleic acid content inherited by one major, partially dominant gene. The inheritance of oleic/linoleic acid content in our own material is not fully understood yet, but is highly heritable. (author)

    18. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Man-Chin Hua

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

    19. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Janaćković Peđa

      2017-04-01

      Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

    20. Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of akamu, a fermented maize food.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Obinna-Echem, Patience C; Kuri, Victor; Beal, Jane

      2014-01-30

      Akamu is a lactic acid-fermented cereal-based food that constitutes a major infant complementary food in most West African countries. The identities of LAB populations from DGGE analysis and conventionally isolated LAB and yeasts from traditionally fermented akamu were confirmed by PCR sequencing analysis. The relationships between pH, acidity and lactic acid levels and proximate composition of the akamu samples were investigated. The LAB communities in the akamu samples comprised mainly Lactobacillus species, including Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus, as well as Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. Identified yeasts were Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Clavispora lusitaniae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Low pH (3.22-3.95) was accompanied by high lactic acid concentrations (43.10-84.29 mmol kg⁻¹). Protein (31.88-74.32 g kg⁻¹) and lipid (17.74-36.83 g kg⁻¹ contents were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (897.48-926.20 g kg⁻¹, of which ≤1 g kg⁻¹ was sugars). Ash was either not detected or present only in trace amounts (≤4 g kg⁻¹). Energy levels ranged from 17.29 to 18.37 kJ g⁻¹. The akamu samples were predominantly starchy foods and had pH < 4.0 owing to the activities of fermentative LAB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

    1. Crambe tataria sebeók seeds and plants grown in vitro and in vivo fatty acid composition comparison

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nadia Oleksandrivna Pushkarova

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available Methods of in vitro conservation offer a number of advantages for endangered species preservation. Crambe tataria Sebeók biochemistry study (fatty acid (FA composition, antioxidant activity (AOA, polyfructan and total soluble protein content is fairly importaint and could show the potential value of this species in agriculture, Food and Chemical Industry or pharmacology including its use as a source of valuble genetic material and could lead to new promising sources of biofuel discovery. Also, comparison of in vitro and in vivo cultured plants could point out to the effect of in vitro culture methods on plants biochemical composition Fatty acid (FA content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Obtained data showed that C. tataria plants had high AOA and total soluble protein content along with high total FA content along with high content of α-Linolenic acid and absence of erucic acid. Difference in biochemical composition between plants grown in aseptic and not aseptic conditions was shown. 

    2. Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

      2017-07-01

      The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage. Contents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (i.e. from 50.8% to 64.5%, from 7.2% to 9.1% and from 1.5% to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg -1 , chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg -1 , vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg -1 , caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg -1 , p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg -1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg -1 were obtained. Methyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as an alternative postharvest technique to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    3. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Javier delBarco-Trillo

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid. Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

    4. Brain and liver fatty acid composition changes upon consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ivanovic, Nevena; Minic, Rajna; Djuricic, Ivana; Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Zivkovic, Irena; Djordjevic, Brizita

      2015-02-01

      Recent reports suggest that the metabolic activity of the enteric microbiota may influence the fatty acid composition of the host tissue. There are many studies dealing with the influence of lactobacilli on various pathological conditions, and some of the effects are strain-specific. This study was designed to test the effects of a particular Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA68 on fatty acid composition of the liver and the brain of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of an underlying pathological condition. Female mice were supplemented with live L. rhamnosus LA68 bacteria for the duration of 1 month. Serum biochemistry was analyzed and liver and brain fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Significant changes in liver and brain fatty acid composition were detected. In the liver tissue we detected an increase in palmitoleic acid (p = 0.038), while in the brain compartment we found an increase in palmitic (p = 0.042), stearic (p = 0.017), arachidonic acid (p = 0.009) and docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.004) for control versus experimental group. These results show discrete changes caused by LA68 strain consumption. Even short duration of administration of LA68 influences the fatty acid composition of the host which adds to the existing knowledge about Lactobacillus host interaction, and adds to the growing knowledge of metabolic intervention possibilities.

    5. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Turgut Kılıç

      2007-05-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

    6. PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. Poir SEED KERNEL OIL AND THEIR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tri Joko Raharjo

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available The phospholipids (PL of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch Poir seed kernel and their fatty acid composition were investigated. The crude oil was obtained by maceration with isopropanol followed by steps of extraction yielded polar lipids. The quantitative determination of PLs content of the dried pumpkin seed kernel and their polar lipids were calculated based on the elemental phosphorus (P contents which was determined by means of spectrophotometric methods. PL classes were separated from polar lipids via column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of individual PL was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The total of PL in the pumpkin seed kernels was 1.27% which consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE. The predominant fatty acids of PL were oleic and palmitic acid in PC and PE while PS's fatty acid were dominantly consisted of oleic acid and linoleic acid.

    7. The fatty acid composition of a Vibrio alginolyticus associated with the alga Cladophora coelothrix. Identification of the novel 9-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carballeira, N M; Sostre, A; Stefanov, K; Popov, S; Kujumgiev, A; Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S; Tosteson, C G; Tosteson, T R

      1997-12-01

      The fatty acid composition of a new strain of Vibrio alginolyticus, found in the alga Cladophora coelothrix, was studied. Among 38 different fatty acids, a new fatty acid, 9-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid and the unusual 11-methyl-12-octadecenoic acid, were identified. Linear alkylbenzene fatty acids, such as 10-phenyldecanoic acid, 12-phenyldodecanoic acid and 14-phenyltetradecanoic acid, were also found in V. alginolyticus. The alga contained 43% saturated fatty acids, and 28% C16-C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 and n-6 families.

    8. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      G. O. Magomedov

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

    9. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

      OpenAIRE

      G. O. Magomedov; M. K. Sadigova; S. I. Lukina; V. Y. Kustov

      2013-01-01

      The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

    10. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Maynard (1954), Fisher & Scott (1954), Forbes &. Rao (1959), Hartsook & Mitchell (1956). King (1963) showed that individual amino acids in the carcass could differ widely from the requirement by the anirnal for those particular amino acids used for purposes other than protein synthesis and subsequent retention. How-.

    11. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

      Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

      PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

      . The fatty acids specific to the above mentioned fungi can be used as biomarkers for taxonomic purposes. High concentrations of C18 PUFAs (18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9) together with relatively high concentrations of saturated fatty acids like palmitic (16...

    12. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

      2014-12-01

      To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

    13. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

      OpenAIRE

      Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

      2011-01-01

      The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

    14. A Procedure to Determine the Coordinated Chromium and Calcium Isotopic Composition of Astromaterials Including the Chelyabinsk Meteorite

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tappa, M. J.; Mills, R. D.; Ware, B.; Simon, J. I.

      2014-01-01

      The isotopic compositions of elements are often used to characterize nucelosynthetic contributions in early Solar System objects. Coordinated multiple middle-mass elements with differing volatilities may provide information regarding the location of condensation of early Solar System solids. Here we detail new procedures that we have developed to make high-precision multi-isotope measurements of chromium and calcium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and characterize a suite of chondritic and terrestrial material including two fragments of the Chelyabinsk LL-chondrite.

    15. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

      Science.gov (United States)

      Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

      2012-01-01

      In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

    16. Composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Kasen, M.B.

      1983-01-01

      This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

    17. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid/expanded graphite composites as thermal energy storage materials

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xu

      2010-01-01

      Stearic acid/expanded graphite composites with different mass ratios were prepared by absorbing liquid stearic acid into the expanded graphite. In the composite materials, the stearic acid was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and the expanded graphite acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermal diffusivity measurement were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalline phase, microstructure and thermal diffusivity of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis results indicated that the materials exhibited the same phase transition characteristics as the stearic acid and their latent heats were approximately the same as the values calculated based on the weight fraction of the stearic acid in the composites. The microstructural analysis results showed that the stearic acid was well absorbed in the porous network of the expanded graphite, and there was no leakage of the stearic acid from the composites even when it was in the molten state.

    18. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

      2012-01-01

      Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

    19. The relationship between fatty acid compositions and thermal stability of extra virgin olive oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fayegh Moulodi

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids are one of the most important compounds in edible oils. Further, the stability of oils depends on the composition of fatty acids. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition on the oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils during the heating process. Methods: In total, eight samples of extra virgin olive oil were studied. To evaluate their thermal stability, the oils were heated at 120 ° C for 4 h and sampling was carried out in 2-hour intervals. Then, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, anisidine value and totox value were evaluated according to Iranian national standards. Results: Results showed a significantly direct correlation between Palmitoleic acid and Totox index in the second (r=0.786 and fourth hours (r=0.762, and between linoleic and Totox index in the second (r=0.643 and fourth hours (r=0.786. However, there was a significantly inverse relationship between oleic acid and Totox index in the fourth hour (r=-0.833. Conclusion: Result indicated that linoleic and Palmitoleic acids had a reducing effect on thermal stability of extra virgin olive oil after the second hour. But, Oleic acid caused a positive effect on thermal stability after the fourth hour. Thus, it is concluded that unsaturated fatty acids especially oleic acid affect the thermal stability at final hours.

    20. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Timmen, H; Patton, S

      1988-07-01

      Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

    1. Effect of enzymatic treatment of extracted sunflower proteins on solubility, amino acid composition, and surface activity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Conde, José Miñones; Escobar, María del Mar Yust; Pedroche Jiménez, Justo J; Rodríguez, Francisco Millán; Rodríguez Patino, Juan M

      2005-10-05

      Industrial proteins from agriculture of either animal or vegetable origin, including their peptide derivatives, are of great importance, from the qualitative and quantitative point of view, in food formulations (emulsions and foams). A fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and functional properties of these proteins is essential if the performance of proteins in foods is to be improved and if underutilized proteins, such as plant proteins (and their hydrolysates and peptides derivatives), are to be increasingly used in traditional and new processed food products (safe, high-quality, health foods with good nutritional value). In this contribution we have determined the main physicochemical characteristics (solubility, composition, and analysis of amino acids) of a sunflower protein isolate (SPI) and its hydrolysates with low (5.62%), medium (23.5%), and high (46.3%) degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic treatment with Alcalase 2.4 L for DH 5.62 and 23.5% and with Alcalase 2.4 L and Flavorzyme 1000 MG sequentially for DH 46.3%. The protein concentration dependence on surface pressure (surface pressure isotherm), a measure of the surface activity of the products (SPI and its hydrolysates), was obtained by tensiometry. We have observed that the degree of hydrolysis has an effect on solubility, composition, and content of the amino acids of the SPI and its hydrolysates. The superficial activity and the adsorption efficiency were also affected by the degree of hydrolysis.

    2. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

      OpenAIRE

      Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

      1991-01-01

      The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

    3. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      USER

      2010-06-21

      Jun 21, 2010 ... depression is associated with lowered ω3 PUFA levels. (Hibbeln, 1998; Maes ... The amount of long chain ω3 PUFAs differs among and can be influenced ..... composition of some Malaysian freswater fish. Food Chem. 54(1):.

    4. Morphology and thermal degradation study of poly(lactic acid)/synthetic mica composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Souza, D.H.S.; Dias, M.L.

      2010-01-01

      Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/synthetic mica composites has been little studied in the literature. In this work, an organophilic synthetic mica was used to prepare PLA nanocomposites. The composites were obtained at an internal mixer containing 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt% of mica. The materials were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeation chromatography. (author)

    5. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Petanidou, T.; Van Laere, A.; Ellis, W.; Smets, E.

      2006-01-01

      We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer

    6. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

    7. Changes in fatty acid content and composition in silage maize during grain filling

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Khan, M.A.; Struik, P.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

      2011-01-01

      Background: The stage of maturity at harvest has a major effect on the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of forage plants consumed by dairy cows. The present study investigated the dynamics of FA content and composition in stover (leaves and stem) and ears (cob, shank and husks) of two maize

    8. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

      2012-12-15

      The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    9. Development and characterisation of a novel composite electrode material consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) including Au nanoparticles

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Zanardi, C.; Terzi, F.; Pigani, L.; Heras, A.; Colina, A.; Lopez-Palacios, J.; Seeber, R.

      2008-01-01

      Composite material consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), including Au nanoparticles encapsulated by N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonium-1-propanesulphonate (SB12) is synthesised by constant-current method on ITO glass, in aqueous medium, leading to an electrode coating. The synthesis process is followed by UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry, both in normal-beam and in parallel-beam configurations. Under the same experimental conditions PEDOT is also synthesised by electropolymerisation only in the presence of LiClO 4 supporting electrolyte, as well in solutions also containing SB12. The data relative to the electrosynthesis of the three materials are compared. The composite material based on the conductive polymer matrix including Au nanoparticles has been characterised by SEM, TEM, ICP, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The behaviour of the three different electrode coatings with respect to p-doping process has been studied by conventional electrochemical techniques and by potentiostatic and potentiodynamic UV-vis spectroelectrochemical methods. Conclusions are drawn out about the effect of the presence of the surfactant and of Au nanoparticles on the electrochemical properties of the electrode system

    10. Investigation of the fatty acid composition of the snail Succinea putris L.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

      1969-01-01

      1. 1. The incorporation of 1-14C-acetate into some classes of lipids by Succinea putris L. is investigated. 2. 2. This snail is able to synthesize fatty acids from injected acetate. 3. 3. The acetate is also used for the synthesis of non-saponifiable lipids. 4. 4. The fatty acid composition of

    11. Fatty acid composition of the pollen lipids of Cycas revoluta Thunb

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Sidorov, R.A.; Kuznetsova, E.I.; Pchelkin, V.P.; Zhukov, A.V.; Gorshkova, E.N.; Tsydendambaev, V.D.

      2016-01-01

      The fatty acid (FA) composition of total extractable and non extractable with chloroform lipids of C. revoluta pollen was determined. Among other minor FAs, unusual Δ5 polymethylene-interrupted FA, Δ5, 11-octadecadienoic acid was found. This FA was found in the seed lipids of C. revoluta earlier, but it was discovered for the first time in pollen lipids. [es

    12. Essential fatty acid composition and correlates in children with severe acute malnutrition

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mortensen, Charlotte Gylling

      2016-01-01

      Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a common condition in children living in low-income countries and may be associated with reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) blood levels. The purpose of this study was to describe whole blood fatty acid composition and correlates of PUFA...

    13. EFFECT OF FERTILIZER ELEMENTS ON LIPIDS ACCUMULATION AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN SEEDS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. M. Nadezhkin

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on pumpkin seeds lipids accumulation and their fatty acids com position is investigated. The influence of nutrition's composition on the seeds size, lipids content and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was shown.

    14. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

    15. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

      2014-11-01

      Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

    16. Influence of nonylphenol on the fatty acids and hydrocarbon composition of aquatic plants

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      І. О. Osinna

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available Composition of surface lipids of aquatic plants Acorus calamus L., Typha latifolia L. and Carex acuta L. was investigated under the influence of nonylphenol strong solution. Experimental plants showed some significant changes in the surface lipids composition in comparison with a control. Change in the fatty acids composition, decrease of hydrocarbons content and biosynthetical disorder in the elongation processes of some certain components were revealed.

    17. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

      2009-04-01

      Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    18. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

      OpenAIRE

      Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

      2010-01-01

      Titer and cloud point Distilled Oleic Acid’s higher than standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design 3 independent variables 3 X 2 X 3, twice repeating’s applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. On the optimum C16 feed composition at 5.20 % was produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside it...

    19. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jovanović Petar Lj.

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

    20. THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGH AQUATIC PLANTS FROM ANGARA RIVER

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kirichenko K.A.

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid content in Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. has been carried out during 24 hours of the treatment with 0,05 M cadmium chloride. Changes in a fatty acids composition in response to toxic influence have been shown. The differences in change dynamics of the fatty acids content under the treatment with cadmium chloride have been detected in investigated species.

    1. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

      2014-03-01

      Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

    2. Effect of salinity stress on growth, lipid productivity, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties in Acutodesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pandit, Priti Raj; Fulekar, Madhusudan H; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi

      2017-05-01

      Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 49 and 43% in BG11 amended with 0.4 M NaCl. The microalgal strains C. vulgaris and A. obliquus grow better at 0.06 M NaCl concentration than control condition. At 0.06 M NaCl, improved dry biomass content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 0.92 and 0.68 gL -1 , respectively. Stress biomarkers like reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also lowest at 0.06 M NaCl concentration revealing that both the microalgal strains are well acclimatized at 0.06 M NaCl concentration. The fatty acid composition of the investigated microalgal strains was also improved by increased NaCl concentration. At 0.4 M NaCl, palmitic acid (37%), oleic acid (15.5%), and linoleic acid (20%) were the dominant fatty acids in C. vulgaris while palmitic acid (54%) and stearic acid (26.6%) were major fatty acids found in A. obliquus. Fatty acid profiling of C. vulgaris and A. obliquus significantly varied with salinity concentration. Therefore, the study showed that salt stress is an effective stress that could increase not only the lipid content but also improved the fatty acid composition which could make C. vulgaris and A. obliquus potential strains for biodiesel production.

    3. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

      2010-01-01

      The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

    4. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

      2010-01-01

      The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

    5. The relationship between fatty acid compositions and thermal stability of extra virgin olive oils

      OpenAIRE

      Fayegh Moulodi; Peyman Qajarbeigi; Ashraf Haj Hosseini Babaei; Asghar Mohammadpoor Asl

      2014-01-01

      Background: Fatty acids are one of the most important compounds in edible oils. Further, the stability of oils depends on the composition of fatty acids. So, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition on the oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils during the heating process. Methods: In total, eight samples of extra virgin olive oil were studied. To evaluate their thermal stability, the oils were heated at 120 ° C for 4 h and sampling was carried o...

    6. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Huska Dalibor

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode.

    7. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y

      2017-05-01

      We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

    8. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

      2003-01-01

      To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

    9. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

      2015-02-01

      Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

    10. Membrane fatty acid composition and radiation response of Bp8 sarcoma ascites tumour cells

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Harms-Ringdahl, M.

      1987-01-01

      Radiation responses of Bp8 sarcoma ascites tumour cells with differences in membrane fatty acid composition was studied. The cells were grown i.p. in NMRI mice and their membrane composition was changed in response to different dietary regimes provided to the hosts. Cell survival, varied insignificantly between the four dietary groups, while repair capacity differed significantly. Increased repair capacity was observed for ascites cells grown in animals on diets enriched in sunflower seed oil and coconut oil, compared with cells from mice fed the hydrogenated lard diet or from cells from the control animals. The membrane fatty acid composition of the cells from the two dietary groups with increased levels of repair capacity differed extensively, and in general there was no correlation between radiation response and the membrane fatty acid composition of the four groups. For coconut oil and control groups with marked differences in membrane fatty acid composition, the effects of irradiation on ascites tumour growth rate and cell cycle distribution were followed in vivo. For none of the parameters was an effect on membrane fatty acid composition on radiation response observed. (author)

    11. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

      Science.gov (United States)

      Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

      2016-01-12

      The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

    12. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

      2017-09-12

      The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

    13. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA.

      Science.gov (United States)

      SIGAL, N; SENEZ, J C; LEGALL, J; SEBALD, M

      1963-06-01

      Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315-1318. 1963-The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin ("nigrificans" and "orientis") are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively.

    14. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chanida Lamaisri

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

    15. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      rahim aydin

      Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

    16. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

      2012-07-04

      The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

    17. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ping Feng

      2016-08-01

      Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

    18. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

      2008-12-01

      Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

    19. Volume 10 No. 8 August 2010 2956 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      user

      2010-08-08

      Aug 8, 2010 ... Total fat content was low in both varieties with the wild ... the teaming Nigerian population if it is processed for consumption or ... use of yam as food had increased because of the significance of its .... Plant fatty acids serve as good and healthy fat .... Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factor, and the rate of ...

    20. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed on a Hewlett Packard Agilent 6890 N gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) and fitted to a Supelco. SP-2380 fused silica capillary column (60 m,. 0.25 mm i.d. and 0.2 µm). Injector and detector temperatures were set at 250 and 260ºC,.

    1. Influencing fatty acid composition of yeasts by lanthanides

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Kolouchová, I.; Sigler, Karel; Zimola, M.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Matatková, O.; Masák, J.

      2016-01-01

      Roč. 32, č. 8 (2016), s. 126 ISSN 0959-3993 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fatty acids * Lanthanides * Microbial lipids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2016

    2. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      At. Kraevska

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

    3. Effects of smoking on fatty acids composition of croaker ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      ... smoked croakers analysed without skin (skinless).The relationship of PUFA to SFA for fresh and smoked croakers were greater than 0.4 and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios of both the fresh and smoked croaker were far less than one (1) thus constituting an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and a highly healthy food.

    4. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      ACSS

      Les rapports d'oléiques au linoléiques (O/L) et les valeurs d'iode ont été calculées à partir des données des acides gras. ... complex lipids, play a number of key roles in metabolism, as major ... hydroxide, followed by transmethylation with.

    5. Variations in fatty acid composition during maturation of cumin ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the North-Eastern region of Tunisia (Menzel Temim). The fruits matured in 49 Days after flowering (DAF). The first results show a rapid oil accumulation started in newly formed fruits (8.2%) and continued until their full ...

    6. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

      2011-08-01

      The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

    7. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      User

      2015-02-23

      Feb 23, 2015 ... FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose .... frozen at −20 ºC, pending FA analysis. Samples of the .... The synthesis and metabolism of FAs in the ruminant ...

    8. Comparative study on fatty acid composition of olive (Olea europaea L.), with emphasis on phytosterol contents.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kulak, Muhittin; Bindak, Recep

      2017-08-01

      The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars, namely Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv. In this context, olive fruits from 34 locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0). Significant differences were observed in the contents of oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2) but not for stearic acid content in comparison both oils (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in terms of unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). The seven phytosterols - cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ-5-avenasterol, Δ-7-stigmastenol and Δ-7-avenasterol - were studied in both oil sources. The predominant sterols were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol in the samples analysed. However, no significant differences were found in the levels of the phytosterols between the two olive cultivars. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    9. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sri Purwaningsih

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

    10. Fatty acids profile and nutritional composition of two tropical diatoms from the Costa Rican Pacific Coast

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      K. Rodríguez-Núñez

      2017-09-01

      Full Text Available Microalgae represent an important nutritional source for diverse organisms, therefore, their nutritional value, and more specifically, total lipid and fatty acid contents, must be considered. This study evaluated the nutritional contents and potential growth under controlled conditions of Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Tropical microalgae, isolated from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In both strains, the nutritional composition and the fatty acid profile were evaluated in exponential and stationary phases. With regards to fatty acids, v sp. had more Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA in both the exponential (32.80% and stationary (27.20% phases. The results in growth rate, production and biochemical composition indicated two tropical microalgae strains suitable for cultivation under controlled conditions. The studies of the phytoplankton in this geographical area is highly relevant because of its importance in the primary production of nutrients and the importance of finding sources of fatty acids such as the EPA.

    11. Fatty acids profile and nutritional composition of two tropical diatoms from the Costa Rican Pacific Coast

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rodríguez-Núñez, K.; Toledo-Aguero, P.

      2017-01-01

      Microalgae represent an important nutritional source for diverse organisms, therefore, their nutritional value, and more specifically, total lipid and fatty acid contents, must be considered. This study evaluated the nutritional contents and potential growth under controlled conditions of Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Tropical microalgae, isolated from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In both strains, the nutritional composition and the fatty acid profile were evaluated in exponential and stationary phases. With regards to fatty acids, Nitzschia sp. had more Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) in both the exponential (32.80%) and stationary (27.20%) phases. The results in growth rate, production and biochemical composition indicated two tropical microalgae strains suitable for cultivation under controlled conditions. The studies of the phytoplankton in this geographical area is highly relevant because of its importance in the primary production of nutrients and the importance of finding sources of fatty acids such as the EPA. [es

    12. Impact of region on the composition of milk fatty acids in China.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yang, Yongxin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yuan, Tingjie; Bu, Dengpan; Yang, Jinhui; Zhou, Lingyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Juanxia

      2013-08-30

      Milk composition and its fatty acid profile have received much attention with respect to improving human health. However, limited work has been conducted to assess the composition of milk fat in China, which is the third largest producer of milk in the world. In this study the effects of geographical region and seasonal changes (spring and summer) on the fatty acid composition of milk samples collected from six Chinese farms were investigated. Milk fat and protein contents, as well as some individual fatty acids and five fatty acid groups, were found to be unaffected by season, but they did show significant differences by geographical region. Levels of milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid decreased in summer and increased in spring, increased in north (Hohhot), northeast (Harbin), north centre (Beijing) and northwest (Xi'an) China and decreased in far northwest (Urumqi) and east (Chuzhou) China. Monounsaturated fatty acids increased in east and northwest China and decreased in northeast China, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in far northwest and north centre China and decreased in northeast China. This study provides relevent information that contributes to the understanding of parameters affecting variability of milk fatty acid profiles. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

    13. Fatty acids composition of Colonnata Lard from two different swine breeds

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      P. Secchiari

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available The study compares the fatty acid composition of the Colonnata lard obtained from two different swine breeds, Large White (LW and Cinta Senese (CS, during a one year long curing period. Samples of backfat were obtained from the carcass of three animals per breed and disposed into six different marble boxes according to the procedure of the disciplinary production of PGI “Lardo di Colonnata”. During curing period individual lard samples were collected monthly from each marble box. The fatty acid composition of pig backfat reflected the differences in the dietary regimen and in the rearing system of the two breeds. LW swine, in fact, were fed a commercial concentrate and reared in an intensive system, whereas CS swine were fed a diet composed by a commercial concentrate supplemented with acorn and reared in an outdoor system. Lard from LW contained higher amount of saturated fatty acids than lard from CS, whereas the content of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly monounsaturated fatty acids was lower. During the curing period the trend of lard fatty acids composition was different in the two breeds: the lard from CS seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of fatty acids than lard from LW, especially for the monounsaturated fatty acids, while the lard from LW seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of PUFA n-3.

    14. Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid of natural isotopic composition in phosphoric acid medium

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Zielinski, M.; Czarnota, G.; Papiernik-Zielinska, H.; Kasprzyk, G.; Gumolka, L.; Staedter, W.

      1993-01-01

      The 13 C kinetic isotope effect fractionation in the decarbonylation of lactic acid (LA) of natural isotopic composition by concentrated phosphoric acids (PA) and by 85% H 3 PO 4 has been studied in the temperature interval of 60-150 deg C. The values of the 13 C (1) isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid in 100% H 3 PO 4 , in pyrophosphoric acid and in more concentrated phosphoric acids are intermediate between the values calculated assuming that the C (1)- OH bond is broken in the rate-controlling step of dehydration and those calculated for rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in the transition state. In the temperature interval of 90-130 deg C the experimental 13 C fractionation factors determined in concentrated PA approach quite closely the 13 C fractionation corresponding to C (2)- C (1) bond scission. The 13 C (1) kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of LA in 85% orthophosphoric acid in the temperature range of 110-150 deg C coincide with the 13 C isotope effects calculated assuming that the frequency corresponding to the C (1) -OH vibration is lost in the transition state of decarbonylation. A change of the mechanism of decarbonylation of LA in going from concentrated PA medium to 85% H 3 PO 4 has been suggested. A possible secondary 18 O and a primary 18 O kinetic isotope effect in decarbonylation of lactic acid in phosphoric acids media have been discussed, too. (author) 21 refs.; 3 tabs

    15. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

      2014-03-01

      Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

    16. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gonçalo S. Marinho

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014. Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05 in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%, 14:0 (11.07%–29.37% and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME. This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3, but also arachidonic (ARA and stearidonic acid (SDA, which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon and lean fish (cod this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables.

    17. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

      Science.gov (United States)

      De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

      2017-08-01

      Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

    18. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

    19. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

      2009-01-01

      We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

    20. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

      2016-01-01

      Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

    1. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

      2017-01-15

      The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    2. FT-midIR determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in bakery products after focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

      2006-08-01

      A study of the feasibility of Fourier transform medium infrared spectroscopy (FT-midIR) for analytical determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, is presented. The training and validation sets-75% (102 samples) and 25% (36 samples) of the samples once the spectral outliers have been removed-to develop FT-midIR general equations, were built with samples from 140 commercial and home-made bakery products. The concentration of the analytes in the samples used for this study is within the typical range found in these kinds of products. Both sets were independent; thus, the validation set was only used for testing the equations. The criterion used for the selection of the validation set was samples with the highest number of neighbours and the most separation between them (H/=0.90, SEP=1-1.5 SEL and R (2)=0.70-0.89, SEP=2-3 SEL, respectively. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those provided by the conventional method based on GC-MS. At 95% significance level, the differences between the values obtained for the different fatty acids were within the experimental error.

    3. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gecgel, U., E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.tr [Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

      2013-05-15

      Meatball samples were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 Degree-Sign C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

    4. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gecgel, Umit

      2013-06-01

      Meatball samples were irradiated using a (60)Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4°C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation.

    5. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Gecgel, U.

      2013-01-01

      Meatball samples were irradiated using a 60 Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

    6. Brittle and ductile adjustable cement derived from calcium phosphate cement/polyacrylic acid composites.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ju, Chien-Ping; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

      2008-12-01

      Bone filler has been used over the years in dental and biomedical applications. The present work is to characterize a non-dispersive, fast setting, modulus adjustable, high bioresorbable composite bone cement derived from calcium phosphate-based cement combined with polymer and binding agents. This cement, we hope, will not swell in simulated body fluid and keep the osteogenetic properties of the dry bone and avoid its disadvantages of being brittle. We developed a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (TTCP/DCPA)-polyacrylic acid with tartaric acid, calcium fluoride additives and phosphate hardening solution. The results show that while composite, the hard-brittle properties of 25wt% polyacrylic acid are proportional to CPC and mixing with additives is the same as those of the CPC without polyacrylic acid added. With an increase of polyacrylic acid/CPC ratio, the 67wt% samples revealed ductile-tough properties and 100wt% samples kept ductile or elastic properties after 24h of immersion. The modulus range of this development was from 200 to 2600MPa after getting immersed in simulated body fluid for 24h. The TTCP/DCPA-polyacrylic acid based CPC demonstrates adjustable brittle/ductile strength during setting and after immersion, and the final reaction products consist of high bioresorbable monetite/brushite/calcium fluoride composite with polyacrylic acid.

    7. Fatty acid concentration and proximate composition of acid silage from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) waste, farmed in Indaiatuba – SP

      OpenAIRE

      Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Park, Kil Jin; Universidade Estadual de Campinas; de Morais, Selene Maia; Universidade Estadual de Ceará

      2013-01-01

      This study was conducted to determine the composition and fatty acid profile of the Nile tilapia waste silage with the aim of investigating its nutritional potential. Four lots (5 kg each) of Nile tilapia waste was ground with 3% (w/w) formic acid, stored at 27°C room temperature for 90 days in polyethylene boxes with holes, through which gases went out and then the levels of moisture, protein, ash and total lipids were analyzed obtaining: 77.25, 16.31, 3.17 and 3.26% respectively. 22 types o...

    8. Composite harm to plants by sulfurous acid gas and oxidant

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Matsushima, J

      1971-01-01

      The composite effects on plants of sulfur dioxide and ozone, SO/sub 2/ and PAN, SO/sub 2/ and nitrogen dioxide, and NO/sub 2/ and ozone were studied. Pinto bean plants were exposed to SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/ only, to each gas alternately, and to a mixture of the two. The degree of injury by the gas or gases was indicated in percentage by area of the leaves damaged. In cases where no geometric effect occurred the damage to the plant by the individual gas had been great; damage from the individual gas had been slight in these cases where such an effect was observed. The geometric effect is produced when the density of SO/sub 2/ is rather low, generally 0.05-0.25 ppm. A mixture of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ was applied to a tabacco plant; it affected fully grown leaves. In experiments on the composite effects of SO/sub 2/ and PAN on bean, tomato and pepper plants, PAN affected mainly young leaves while SO/sub 2/ affected mature ones. These effects were arithmetric rather then geometric. The SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ were also studied in the same manner. When SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ were mixed, a geometric effect was conspicuous in damage to vegetables, the symptoms of damage by either of the two appeared about the same, younger leaves being affected less. When treated with the two gases alternately, the damage was greater if the plants were first treated with NO/sub 2/; possible causes for this effect are discussed. No significant composite effect of NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ was observed.

    9. Influence of a peracetic acid-based immersion on indirect composite resin.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Fracaro, Gisele Baggio; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Campregher, Ulisses Bastos

      2011-06-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of immersion in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant on the three-point flexural strength, water sorption and water solubility of an indirect composite resin. Specimens were produced according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications and were divided in two groups: Control group, with no disinfection and Disinfected group, with three 10 min immersions in the peracetic acid intercalated with 10 min immersions in sterile distilled water. All evaluations were conducted in compliance with ISO specifications. Three-point flexural strength, water sorption and solubility of indirect composite resin before and after immersion showed no statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) and met ISO standard requirements. Immersion in peracetic acid solution showed no influence in indirect composite resin tested properties.

    10. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

      2015-04-15

      Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    11. The electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline/polysulfone composite films and electrocatalytic activity for ascorbic acid oxidation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hu Zhongai; Shang Xiuli; Yang Yuying; Kong Chao; Wu Hongying

      2006-01-01

      Polyaniline (PANI)/polysulfone (PSF) composite films with asymmetric porous structure were successfully prepared by electropolymerization. The back face (in contact with the electrode) of the freestanding composite film is green while the outer face is white. The chemical component and the morphology of the surfaces were characterized by FTIR spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was shown that replicate films gave reproducible voltammetry in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 . The influence of the electrolyte and the acidic concentration on the redox peak currents of polyaniline were investigated in detail. The composite film electrode showed good electrocatalytic activity for ascorbic acid, which the anodic overpotential was evidently reduced compared with that obtained at bare Pt electrode. The diffusion coefficient of ascorbic acid was 1.38 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1

    12. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

      Science.gov (United States)

      Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

      1987-01-01

      The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

    13. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

      2011-01-01

      Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

    14. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

      2011-04-01

      Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

    15. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gecgel, Umit [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

      2011-04-15

      Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

    16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin

      2012-01-01

      The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.......The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...

    17. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B

      2001-01-01

      This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised...... muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.......1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0...

    18. Homozygous and heterozygous GH transgenesis alters fatty acid composition and content in the liver of Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Manabu Sugiyama

      2012-08-01

      Growth hormone (GH transgenic Amago (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, containing the sockeye GH1 gene fused with metallothionein-B promoter from the same species, were generated and the physiological condition through lipid metabolism compared among homozygous (Tg/Tg and heterozygous GH transgenic (Tg/+ Amago and the wild type control (+/+. Previously, we have reported that the adipose tissue was generally smaller in GH transgenic fish compared to the control, and that the Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase gene was down-regulated in the Tg/+ fish. However, fatty acid (FA compositions have not been measured previously in these fish. In this study we compared the FAs composition and content in the liver using gas chromatography. Eleven kinds of FA were detected. The composition of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7, and cis-vaccenic acid (cis-18:1n-7 was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in GH transgenic Amago. On the other hand, the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3 was significantly (P<0.05 increased. Levels of serum glucose and triacylglycerol were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the GH transgenics compared with +/+ fish. Furthermore, 3′-tag digital gene expression profiling was performed using liver tissues from Tg/Tg and +/+ fish, and showed that Mid1 interacting protein 1 (Mid1ip1, which is an important factor to activate Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, was down-regulated in Tg/Tg fish, while genes involved in FA catabolism were up-regulated, including long-chain-fatty-acid–CoA ligase 1 (ACSL1 and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 (ACOX3. These data suggest that liver tissue from GH transgenic Amago showed starvation by alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism due to GH overexpression. The decrease of serum glucose suppressed Mid1ip1, and caused a decrease of de novo FA synthesis, resulting

    19. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

      2010-07-01

      Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

    20. Oat raw materials and bakery products - amino acid composition and celiac immunoreactivity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mickowska, Barbara; Litwinek, Dorota; Gambuś, Halina

      2016-01-01

      The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical and immunochemical properties of avenins in some special oat raw materials and additionally the possibility of using them as a raw material for the gluten-free bakery products. The compared oat raw materials were - oat flakes, commercial oat flours (including gluten-free oat flour) and residual oat flour, which is by-product of β-glucan preparation. Biochemical characteristic included amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE profiles of extracted avenins. The immunochemical reactivity with polyclonal anti-gluten and monoclonal anti-gliadin antibodies was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by immunoblotting and ELISA methods. Additionally, experimental bakery products made of examined raw materials were assessed according to their suitability for the celiac patients' diet. The highest protein content was measured in the β-glucan preparation "Betaven" and gluten-free oat flour. Proteins of all materials are rich in glutamic and aspartic acid, leucine and arginine. Proportions of amino acids in avenins extracted from most of oat raw materials are similar, excluding gluten-free oat flour, which has a very low avenin content and proportions of individual amino acids are different. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern consisted of proteins with molecular weight of about 25-35 kDa. Polyclonal anti-gluten anti-body recognized all protein fractions of molecular weight higher than 20 kDa. Quantitative ELISA analysis shows that the majority of samples has a gliadin-like protein content within the range of 80-260 mg/kg, excluding gluten-free flours and corresponding bakery products. Altogether, β-glucan preparation has extremely high level of gliadin-like proteins. In the examined oat raw materials and foods the contents of immunoreactive amino acid sequences exceeded the limit of 20 mg/kg (considered as gluten-free) except for gluten-free flours (oat and  the prepared mixture) and the bakery products based on gluten

    1. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

      2013-01-01

      Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

    2. Evolution of proteomes: fundamental signatures and global trends in amino acid compositions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yeramian Edouard

      2006-12-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary characterization of species and lifestyles at global levels is nowadays a subject of considerable interest, particularly with the availability of many complete genomes. Are there specific properties associated with lifestyles and phylogenies? What are the underlying evolutionary trends? One of the simplest analyses to address such questions concerns characterization of proteomes at the amino acids composition level. Results In this work, amino acid compositions of a large set of 208 proteomes, with significant number of representatives from the three phylogenetic domains and different lifestyles are analyzed, resorting to an appropriate multidimensional method: Correspondence analysis. The analysis reveals striking discrimination between eukaryotes, prokaryotic mesophiles and hyperthemophiles-themophiles, following amino acid usage. In sharp contrast, no similar discrimination is observed for psychrophiles. The observed distributional properties are compared with various inferred chronologies for the recruitment of amino acids into the genetic code. Such comparisons reveal correlations between the observed segregations of species following amino acid usage, and the separation of amino acids following early or late recruitment. Conclusion A simple description of proteomes according to amino acid compositions reveals striking signatures, with sharp segregations or on the contrary non-discriminations following phylogenies and lifestyles. The distribution of species, following amino acid usage, exhibits a discrimination between [high GC]-[high optimal growth temperatures] and [low GC]-[moderate temperatures] characteristics. This discrimination appears to coincide closely with the separation of amino acids following their inferred early or late recruitment into the genetic code. Taken together the various results provide a consistent picture for the evolution of proteomes, in terms of amino acid usage.

    3. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

      2013-04-15

      Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

    4. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

      2012-01-01

      Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

    5. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

      2017-09-15

      A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    6. Fatty acid composition of Achene oils from five Moroccan climatic cultivars of Cannabis.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Merzouki, A.

      1997-06-01

      Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of achene oil from five Cannabis climatic cultivars cultivated in the nort of Morrocco is determined. Linoleic acid predominated (40 to 45%, followed by linolenic (12 to 17% and oleic (7 to 10% acids. Differences in the fatty acid composition of oils are attributed to environmental factors.

      Se estudia la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de los aquenios de cinco variedades climáticas del cáñamo (Cannabis sativa L cultivadas en el norte de Marruecos. Predomina el ácido linoleico (40 a 45% seguido por el linolénico (12 a 17% y el oleico (7 a 10%. Las diferencias en la composición de los ácidos grasos del aceite se atribuyen a factores ambientales.

    7. Growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile Cerastoderma edule (L.) fed live microalgae diets with different fatty acid profiles

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Reis Batista, dos I.C.; Kamermans, P.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

      2014-01-01

      The importance of dietary 20:5n-3 (EPA), 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA) for growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile cockles (Cerastoderma edule) was investigated. Cockles of 6.24 ± 0.04 mm and 66.14 ± 0.34 mg (live weight) were distributed into three treatments where live microalgae

    8. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

      OpenAIRE

      Halász, Katalin; Csóka, Levente

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid) composites. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG400), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC) were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorim...

    9. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

      OpenAIRE

      Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this work was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of meat products elaborated in the northeast of Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, PUFA/SFA ratio, n-6/n-3 relation, and CLA content. Thirty traditional meat products from different processes were used. Samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage), chorizos (raw sausage), chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked s...

    10. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

      Science.gov (United States)

      J. E. Winandy

      2006-01-01

      Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

    11. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

      2017-01-01

      Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO 2 ], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    12. Nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marc R Van Gilst

      2005-02-01

      Full Text Available Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs, such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory networks has been limited, however, by a lack of genetically tractable experimental systems. Here we show that deletion of the Caenorhabditis elegans NHR gene nhr-49 yielded worms with elevated fat content and shortened life span. Employing a quantitative RT-PCR screen, we found that nhr-49 influenced the expression of 13 genes involved in energy metabolism. Indeed, nhr-49 served as a key regulator of fat usage, modulating pathways that control the consumption of fat and maintain a normal balance of fatty acid saturation. We found that the two phenotypes of the nhr-49 knockout were linked to distinct pathways and were separable: The high-fat phenotype was due to reduced expression of enzymes in fatty acid beta-oxidation, and the shortened adult life span resulted from impaired expression of a stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Despite its sequence relationship with the mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 receptor, the biological activities of nhr-49 were most similar to those of the mammalian PPARs, implying an evolutionarily conserved role for NHRs in modulating fat consumption and composition. Our findings in C. elegans provide novel insights into how NHR regulatory networks are coordinated to govern fat metabolism.

    13. Nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Gilst, Marc R; Hadjivassiliou, Haralambos; Jolly, Amber; Yamamoto, Keith R

      2005-02-01

      Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory networks has been limited, however, by a lack of genetically tractable experimental systems. Here we show that deletion of the Caenorhabditis elegans NHR gene nhr-49 yielded worms with elevated fat content and shortened life span. Employing a quantitative RT-PCR screen, we found that nhr-49 influenced the expression of 13 genes involved in energy metabolism. Indeed, nhr-49 served as a key regulator of fat usage, modulating pathways that control the consumption of fat and maintain a normal balance of fatty acid saturation. We found that the two phenotypes of the nhr-49 knockout were linked to distinct pathways and were separable: The high-fat phenotype was due to reduced expression of enzymes in fatty acid beta-oxidation, and the shortened adult life span resulted from impaired expression of a stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Despite its sequence relationship with the mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 receptor, the biological activities of nhr-49 were most similar to those of the mammalian PPARs, implying an evolutionarily conserved role for NHRs in modulating fat consumption and composition. Our findings in C. elegans provide novel insights into how NHR regulatory networks are coordinated to govern fat metabolism.

    14. A nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua; He, Yong-Ming

      2013-01-01

      Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log–log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (β) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and β. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately. (paper)

    15. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heinzelmann, Sandra M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Danielle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

      2015-01-01

      Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids enriched in deuterium (D) while photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids depleted in D compared to the water in the culture medium (growth water). However, the impact of factors other than metabolism have not been investigated. Here, we evaluate the impact of growth phase compared to metabolism on the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids of different environmentally relevant microorganisms with heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolisms. Fatty acids produced by heterotrophs are enriched in D compared to growth water with εlipid/water between 82 and 359‰ when grown on glucose or acetate, respectively. Photoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −149 and −264‰) and chemoautotrophs (εlipid/water between −217 and −275‰) produce fatty acids depleted in D. Fatty acids become, in general, enriched by between 4 and 46‰ with growth phase which is minor compared to the influence of metabolisms. Therefore, the D/H ratio of fatty acids is a promising tool to investigate community metabolisms in nature. PMID:26005437

    16. Erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid composition is associated with depression and FADS genotype in Caucasians.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cribb, Lachlan; Murphy, Jenifer; Froud, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Bousman, Chad A; Ng, Chee H; Sarris, Jerome

      2017-05-29

      Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), related, in part, to their role in inflammatory systems. The enzymes δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase are the rate-limiting steps in the metabolism of PUFAs and are encoded in the genes fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and 2, respectively. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes within the FADS gene cluster have been shown to influence PUFA composition. The objective of this study was to determine whether key omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids may be associated with depression, and to explore the role of FADS genotype in PUFA variation. Four erythrocyte long chain (LC) fatty acids (linoleic acid [LA], α-linolenic acid [ALA], arachidonic acid [AA] and Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), as well as six SNPs (rs174537, rs174547, rs174570, rs174575, rs498793 and rs3834458) within the FADS gene cluster were measured in a sample of 207 participants (154 with MDD versus 53 non-depressed controls). The precursor LC-PUFAs LA and ALA appeared to be negatively associated with depression (P depression (P Precursor LC-PUFAs, LA and ALA, appear to be associated with MDD and potentially modulated by genetic variation in the FADS gene cluster. These results provide support for the consideration of PUFA composition, diet and FADS genetic variation in the pathophysiology of MDD.

    17. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

      OpenAIRE

      Bee , Giuseppe

      2001-01-01

      International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

    18. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bistra B Nankova

      Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

    19. Titanium dioxide nanotubes/polyhydroxyfullerene composites for formic acid photodegradation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hamandi, Marwa [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Berhault, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.berhault@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l’Environnement de Lyon, IRCELYON, CNRS, University of Lyon I, Villeurbanne 69100 (France); Dappozze, Frederic; Guillard, Chantal [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l’Environnement de Lyon, IRCELYON, CNRS, University of Lyon I, Villeurbanne 69100 (France); Kochkar, Hafedh, E-mail: h_kochkar@yahoo.fr [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Valorisation des Matériaux Utiles, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux (CNRSM), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia)

      2017-08-01

      Highlights: • Polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) decorating TiO{sub 2} nanostructured materials. • PHF helps to maintain surface oxygen vacancies at the TiO{sub 2} surface. • PHF improves the faradic current across the semiconductor interface. • Higher photocatalytic activity is achieved for monolayer PHF onto TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. - Abstract: The influence of polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) on the photocatalytic properties of calcined hydrogenotitanate nanotubes (HNT) were evaluated in the present study. PHF-HNT nanocomposites were first characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, electron paramagnetic resonance and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and photocurrent experiments. Correlation was then established with the photocatalytic properties of PHF-HNT nanocomposites during the photodegradation of formic acid.

    20. Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines: effect on grape amino acid composition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

      2018-04-01

      Elicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe), to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition. The results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe. The influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to grapevines on grape amino acid concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    1. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Valeriano Domenech

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

    2. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

      2012-01-01

      Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

    3. Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

      2015-02-01

      The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

    4. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mara Cristina Romero

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.

    5. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ivanova, S.; Miteva, D.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

      2011-01-01

      The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

    6. Chemical variability of fatty acid composition of seabuckthorn berries oil from different locations by GC-FID

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Shafi, N.; Kanwal, F.; Siddique, M.; Ghauri, E.G.; Akram, M.

      2008-01-01

      For determining the chemical composition of seabuckthorn oil of different origins, samples of seabuckthorn berries (red and yellow varieties) were collected from different locations of northern areas of Pakistan. Among eight different fatty acids, palmitoleic acid (32.4%) and palmitic acid (36.52 %) were found to be the major fatty acids present along with other important fatty acids i.e., oleic acid (37.07%), linoleic acid (12.36%) and linolenic acid (0.73%). Quantities of unsaturated fatty acids were higher than that of saturated analogues. (author)

    7. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid)/rice husk ash hydrogels composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rodrigues, Francisco H.A.; Lopes, Gabriel V.; Pereira, Antonio G.B.; Fajardo, Andre R.; Muniz, Edvani C.

      2011-01-01

      According to environmental concerns, super absorbent hydrogel composites were synthesized based on rice husk ash (RHA), an industrial waste, and Chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid). The WAXS and FTIR data confirmed the syntheses of hydrogel composites. The effect of crystalline or amorphous RHA on water uptake was investigated. It was found that the RHA in crystalline form induces higher water capacity (W eq ) of composites hydrogels due to the fact that the intra-interactions among silanol groups on RHA make available new sites in the polymer matrix, which could interact to water. (author)

    8. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Liping Sun

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA to TAA was 0.13–0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%–54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

    9. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Meilan Xue

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

    10. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

      2012-09-14

      Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

    11. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

      2012-01-01

      Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings

    12. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dong-Hoon Lee

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

    13. Organosulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Nuntang, Sakdinun; Poompradub, Sirilux [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Butnark, Suchada [PTT Research and Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited, Wangnoi, Ayutthaya 13170 (Thailand); Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: Chawalit.Ng@Chula.ac.th [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

      2014-10-15

      This study is the first report on synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). In comparison with propylsulfonic acid-functionalized HMS (HMS-SO{sub 3}H), a series of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared via an in situ sol–gel process using tetrahydrofuran as the synthesis media. Tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source, was simultaneously condensed with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane in a solution of NR followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to achieve the mesoporous composites containing propylsulfonic acid groups. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results verified that the silica surfaces of the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were functionalized with propylsulfonic acid groups and covered with NR molecules. After the incorporation of NR and organo-functional group into HMS, the hexagonal mesostructure remained intact concomitantly with an increased framework wall thickness and unit cell size, as evidenced by the X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated a high interparticle porosity of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites. The textural properties of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H were affected by the amount of MPTMS loading to a smaller extent than that of HMS-SO{sub 3}H. NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited higher hydrophobicity than HMS-SO{sub 3}H, as revealed by H{sub 2}O adsorption–desorption measurements. Moreover, the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H catalysts possessed a superior specific activity to HMS-SO{sub 3}H in the esterification of lauric acid with ethanol, resulting in a higher conversion level. - Highlights: • Acidic NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared by in situ sol–gel process. • Propylsulfonic acid was functionalized onto HMS surface by direct co-condensation. • NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited a hexagonal

    14. The composition of bile acids in patients with cholelithiasis according to the data of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      V. M. Klymenko

      2017-12-01

      Full Text Available Bile acids play a leading role in the physical and colloidal properties of bile stabilization. Lack of bile acids consequences result in the formation of cholesterol stones in the gall bladder, diarrhea and steatorrhea, fat-soluble vitamins impaired absorption, and kidney stones formation (oxalates. Investigation of altered bile composition, especially the content of bile acids, in patients with gallstone disease by means of modern analytical analysis methods (liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection would complement the modern ideas about mechanisms of lithogenesis and aim efforts at prevention of stone formation in the gall bladder, that was the purpose of our work. Materials and methods. Bile samples were tested for bile acid content using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. 14 samples of bile from patients with cholelithiasis were included in the main group, and control group consisted of 7 bile samples from practically healthy persons. Results. In patients with cholelithiasis there is an increase in the content of conjugated forms of bile acids – glycolic acid in 2 times (p = 0.002, taurocholic acid in 1.57 times (p = 0.062 compared with practically healthy persons. In patients with cholelithiasis, the ratio of taurocholic to glycolic acidі content (0.95 vs. 1.27, p = 0.0179, as well as glycogenodeoxycholic to glycodeoxycholic acid (1.11 vs. 1.58, p = 0.027 is significantly less than that in practically healthy persons. In addition, one in two patients with cholelithiasis does not reveal the presence of ursodeoxycholic acid in the bile. Conclusions. The lithogenic properties of bile are primarily caused by conjugated forms of cholic acid with glycine and taurine content violation. The ratio of taurocholic to glycolic acid content in patients with cholelithiasis is significantly lower than the similar index in practically healthy persons (0.95 vs. 1.27, p = 0.0179. The ratio of glycine conjugated bile acids

    15. Amino-acid composition after loop deletion drives domain swapping.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nandwani, Neha; Surana, Parag; Udgaonkar, Jayant B; Das, Ranabir; Gosavi, Shachi

      2017-10-01

      Rational engineering of a protein to enable domain swapping requires an understanding of the sequence, structural and energetic factors that favor the domain-swapped oligomer over the monomer. While it is known that the deletion of loops between β-strands can promote domain swapping, the spliced sequence at the position of the loop deletion is thought to have a minimal role to play in such domain swapping. Here, two loop-deletion mutants of the non-domain-swapping protein monellin, frame-shifted by a single residue, were designed. Although the spliced sequence in the two mutants differed by only one residue at the site of the deletion, only one of them (YEIKG) promoted domain swapping. The mutant containing the spliced sequence YENKG was entirely monomeric. This new understanding that the domain swapping propensity after loop deletion may depend critically on the chemical composition of the shortened loop will facilitate the rational design of domain swapping. © 2017 The Protein Society.

    16. Synthesis of water dispersible polyaniline/poly(styrenesulfonic acid) modified graphene composite and its electrochemical properties

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Luo, Jing; Jiang, Sisi; Liu, Ren; Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Xiaoya

      2013-01-01

      A novel water-dispersible polyaniline (PANI)/graphene composite was prepared by the in situ polymerization of aniline on the surface of poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) coated graphene nanosheets (PSS-GR). The characterization of atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of PANI/PSS-GR composites and strong interaction between PANI and PSS-GR. The as-synthesized PANI/PSS-GR composite is readily dispersible in water and forms a homogeneous aqueous dispersion which is stable for more than one month. More interestingly, PSS-GR can dope PANI effectively and shift its electroactivity to a neutral or even alkaline environment, making them promising candidates for biological application. In addition, the PANI/PSS-GR composite shows improved electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability compared to the neat polyaniline. Furthermore, the potential use of this composite for detection of ascorbic acid (AA) was investigated. A low detection limit of 5 × 10 −6 M and a linear detection range between 1 × 10 −4 M and 1 × 10 −3 M was attained, indicating the high electrocatalytic ability of this composite. Anticipatedly, the synthesized composite will find promising applications as a novel electrode material in sensors and other devices in virtue of their outstanding characteristics of water-dispersibility, good cycle stability, electroactivity in neutral solution and excellent electrocatalytic ability

    17. Effects of rye bran addition on fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat meatballs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yılmaz, Ismail

      2004-06-01

      Rye bran was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. The effect of rye bran addition on the fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total fat, some physico-chemical and sensory properties of the samples was studied. Meatballs were produced with four different formulations including 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% rye bran addition. Control samples were formulated with 10% fat addition. Meatballs containing rye bran had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Meatballs made with addition of 20% rye bran had the highest protein, ash contents, L value (lightness), b value (yellowness), and the lowest moisture, salt content and weight losses and a value (redness). There was a significant difference among the meatball samples in respect to sensory properties and 5%, 10% rye bran added meatballs and control samples had high acceptability.

    18. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of Gammarus lacustris inhabiting lakes with and without fish.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Makhutova, O N; Sharapova, T A; Kalachova, G S; Shulepina, S P; Gladyshev, M I

      2016-01-01

      The effect of a biotic factor--the presence of predatory fish in water--on the composition and content of fatty acids in crustaceans was studied in the populations of the lake amphipod Gammarus lacustris from two lakes with fish and three lakes without fish. It was found that, at an overall increase in the quantity and quality of food resources (namely, increase in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the biomass), the relative rate of DHA accumulation in gammarids in the lakes without fish is higher than in the lake with fish.

    19. Gamma radiation effects on fattly acid composition of lipids in cotton leaves

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Arslanova, S.V.; Stepanenko, G.A.; Umarov, A.K.; Nazirov, N.N.

      1976-01-01

      The mechanism of high irradiation dose (30 kR) effect on the lipid fatty acid composition of cotton leaves was studied in the ontogenesis. The experiment was carried out in vegetation vials (capacity 25 kg, humidity level - 65% of full water capacity). Before seeding, each vial was fertilized with 5g P 2 O 5 , 3g K 2 O and 5gN as an auxillary nutrition during vegetation. The test vials also contained 0.4 - 0.5 g CaO per kg of soil. A portion of irradiated seeds was soaked in 1.5% solution of CaO and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 before seeding. The cotton seeds were gamma-irradiated at 50 R/sec in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Usbec SSR Academy of Sciences. The fatty acid composition of mature leaf lipids determined by gas-liquid chromatography proved to change in the blooming phase. Leaves of irradiated plants contained traces of myristic acid, higher levels of palmitic, palmitoleinic and strearinic acids and lower levels of oleinic and linoleic acids. Lower content of fatty acids with long carbon chains seemed to handicap the renewal of membranes and their components, especially in mitochondria. When irradiated seeds were soaked in calcium salt solution and CaO is added to the soil, the amount of unsaturated long chain fatty acids increased. The fact probably promotes the membrane renewal in irradiated plants

    20. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND PROSTAGLANDIN CONTENT OF THE RED SEAWEED Gracilaria sp. FROM INDONESIA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Muhammad Ikbal Illijas

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available High content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids are typical for the red alga. Analysis of fatty acid composition and prostaglandin content was conducted in the red alga Gracilaria sp. from Indonesia. Total lipid of the alga was extracted with CHCl3-MeOH (2:1, v/v. Analysis of the fatty acids composition was performed on gas chromatography (GC equipped with omega wax column (30 m x 0,32 mm i.d., Supelco, PA, USA and analysis of prostaglandins were carried out by HPLC on ODS column (Mightysil RP-18 GP, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm. The content of fatty acids high for were palmitic acid (50% and arachidonic acid (26.9%, whereas prostaglandin E2 was identified and found lower concentration (44.2 μg/gram total lipid.

    1. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sharma Mukesh

      2009-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

    2. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daniil N. Olennikov

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

    3. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

      2015-04-01

      Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

    4. CONTENT OF LONG CHAIN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOME IRANIAN CANNED FISH

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bahar Nazari

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Ecological studies have found a negative correlation between the risk of developing heart disease and fish consumption because of their long chain omega-3 fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine the amounts of the common fatty acid content of several commercial canned fish marketing in Iran, with particular attention to long chain omega-3 fatty acids.    METHODS: The most consumed available brands of canned fish were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets. Total lipids were extracted by using the Folch method and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Individual fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography (GC with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector.    RESULTS: The most common saturated fatty acids (SFA in Iranian canned fish was palmitic acid (C16:0 followed by stearic acid (C18:0. The amount of all trans fatty acids (TFAs except elaidic acid (C18:1 9t was 0%. The highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs related to long chain omega-3 fatty acids include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs were oleic acid (C18:1 9c.     CONCLUSION: This study showed higher contents of EPA and DHA in Iranian commercially available canned fish compared to the canned fish in other countries.      Keywords: Iranian canned fish, fatty acids, long chain omega-3 fatty acids, gas chromatography.  

    5. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the fatty acid (FA) composition of two types of muscles, longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST), of Mangalitsa pigs reared in an extensive system. Fourteen Mangalitsa castrated pigs, 55 ± 8 kg, 240 ± 12 days of age, were randomly assigned ...

    6. Influence of Frozen Storage on the Fatty Acid Composition of Ostrich ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the duration (24 hours, 60 days and 120 days) of frozen storage (−20 ºC) on the fatty acid composition of meat from ostriches supplemented with linseed and rapeseed. The study was carried out on muscles of 40 ostriches raised on five dietary groups: control with no ...

    7. Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Shuaiyang; Ren, Junli; Li, Weiying; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Shijie

      2014-03-15

      Composite films of xylan and polyvinyl alcohol were produced with citric acid as a new plasticizer or a cross-linking agent. The effects of citric acid content and polyvinyl alcohol/xylan weight ratio on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, solubility, degree of swelling and water vapor permeability of the composite films were investigated. The intermolecular interactions and morphology of composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The results indicated that polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films had good compatibility. With an increase in citric acid content from 10% to 50%, the tensile strength reduced from 35.1 to 11.6 MPa. However, the elongation at break increased sharply from 15.1% to 249.5%. The values of water vapor permeability ranged from 2.35 to 2.95 × 10(-7)g/(mm(2)h). Interactions between xylan and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of citric acid become stronger, which were caused by hydrogen bond and ester bond formation among the components during film forming. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    8. Dietary fatty acids alter blood pressure, behavior and brain membrane composition of hypertensive rats

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      de Wilde, MC; Hogyes, E; Kiliaan, AJ; Farkas, T; Luiten, PGM; Farkas, E; Wilde, Martijn C. de; Hőgyes, Endre; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

      2003-01-01

      The beneficial effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on developing hypertension has been repeatedly demonstrated. However. related changes in brain membrane composition and its cognitive correlates have remained unclear. Our study aimed at a comprehensive analysis of behavior and

    9. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as affected by organic and conventional rearing systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... A lower protein, but higher fat content was measured in the thigh meat of slow-growing broilers reared both in the organic and conventional systems, ...

    10. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

      2014-01-01

      Abstract

      Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

      Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large

    11. Differences in fatty acid composition between cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs after fish oil feeding

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Dullemeijer, Carla; Zock, Peter L.; Coronel, Ruben; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Brummer, Robert-Jan M.; Kok, Frans J.; Beekman, Jet; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

      2008-01-01

      Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile

    12. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

      2016-08-01

      The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    13. Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Genetic diversity in seed oil content and fatty acid composition in six wild species of genus Sesamum viz., Sesamum mulayanum, Sesamum capense, Sesamum laciniatum, Sesamum latifolium, Sesamum occidentale and Sesamum schinzianum were studied and compared with the cultivated species Sesamum indicum or ...

    14. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for phytoplankton: application for inferring phytoplankton composition

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Dijkman, N.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

      2006-01-01

      Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) are widely used as chemotaxonomic markers in microbial ecology. In this paper we explore the use of PLFA as chemotaxonomic markers for phytoplankton species. The PLFA composition was determined for 23 species relevant to estuarine phytoplankton. The taxonomic

    15. Effects of age/weight and castration on fatty acids composition in ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      This study investigates the effects of age/weight and castration on the fatty acid composition and the qualities of pork and pork fat. Thirty hybrid male pigs (50% Meishan x 50% Large White) were used. Fifteen were castrated within the first two days of age and the other fifteen remained entire. At 12 weeks of age, the pigs ...

    16. Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice

      Science.gov (United States)

      Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B. M.; Kenagy, G. J.; Hiebert, Sara M.

      2007-04-01

      Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (˜18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 ± 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 ± 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 ± 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in ˜50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter.

    17. Amino acid and mineral composition of meat from rabbits ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Diets 1 4 contained cooked tallow seed meal (CTSM) included at 75 % PKC: 25 % CTSM, 50 % PKC: 50% CTSM, 25% PKC:75 % CTSM and 0 % PKC: 100 ... It was concluded that eat from rabbits fed processed tallow seed meal based diets had low cholesterol level irrespective of processing method and it is of high ...

    18. Fatty Acid Composition of Dried Fruits of Sclerocarya birrea, Diospyros blancoi and Landolphia kirkii

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Athanasia O. Matemu

      2017-11-01

      Full Text Available Wild fruits are commonly consumed in the rural communities of South Africa. The information on their nutritionally important fatty acids is, however, limited. Three wild fruit species, Diospyros blancoi, Landolphia kirkii and Sclerocarya birrea from Limpopo Province were selected for evaluation of fatty acid content. Fatty acids composition of dried fruits of Diospyros blancoi (Db, Landolphia kirkii (Lk and ripe and/or overripe Sclerocarya birrea (Sb were evaluated by a gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometer (GC-TOF-MS. Hexadecanoic acid (C16:0 was found in highest abundance in L. kirkii (57.73–73.55%, followed by S. birrea (55.92–71.31% and D. blancoi (46.31–62.05%, respectively. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0 was of second highest abundance, with 24.71–100% in D. blancoi, L. kirkii (31.03–41.60% and S. birrea (9.11–17.0%. The 9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1n-9 was the major unsaturated fatty acid in both S. birrea (5.33–18.82%, D. blancoi (8.22–8.92%, and L. kirkii (3.84–8.63%. The 9,-12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2n-6 was the major unsaturated fatty acid in D. blancoi (22.34%. The 9,-12,-15-octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3n-3 was found in L. kirkii (3.51% and S. birrea (2.79%. From the results, saturated fatty acids were the most dominant, whereas mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids were the minor constituents. Therefore, presence of nutritionally important essential fatty acids from S. birrea, D. blancoi and L. kirkii has been shown.

    19. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Deen, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

      2014-02-15

      Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties.

    20. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Deen, I.; Zhitomirsky, I.

      2014-01-01

      Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties

    1. Effects of bovine pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of milk: the significance for humans needs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barreiro, R; Regal, P; Díaz-Bao, M; Vázquez, B I; Cepeda, A

      2017-04-01

      Milk from 40 Holstein dairy cows was collected from two different farms in Galicia (Spain). The differences in the fatty acid composition of two groups of cows, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant, was studied to determine whether pregnancy status is a determinant factor that can alter the fatty acid profile of milk. Gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID) was used for the determination of the fatty acids. Differences in the milk fatty acids between pregnant and non-pregnant cows were pronounced showing statistically significant differences for some fatty acids and the total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Milk from non-pregnant cows was lower in saturated fatty acids and higher in monounsaturated fatty acids (unlike milk from pregnant cows). The effects of the consumption of bovine milk, particularly milk fat, on human health have been studied in depth and sometimes are associated with negative effects, but milk has also several beneficial characteristics linked to some fatty acids.

    2. Desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent, 1

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Sakane, Kohji; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

      1984-01-01

      An investigation was carried out on the desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent by the batch process. The rate of desorption of uranium with acidic eluent depended on temperature, showing an increase as the temperature was raised. But the rate of desorption with acidic eluent was less dependent on temperature than that obtained when mixed eluent of sodium carbonate-sodium hydrogencarbonate was used. The rate of desorption of uranium did not vary in the range of concentration from 0.3 to 0.5 N, and the rate of desorption with sulfuric acid was slightly higher than that obtained when hydrochloric acid was used. The amount of dissolved titanium decreased as the ratio of adsorbent to eluent (RAE) was increased. At RAE of 10 %, the percentage of dissolved titanium (DTI) was below 0.38 % with sulfuric acid, below 0.7 % with hydrochloric acid. These values were found to be higher than the ones with the carbonate eluent. The elements except uranium, which were adsorbed on the adsorbent, were eluted simultaneously with acidic eluent. The regeneration of the adsorbent after desorption, therefore, was found to be unnecessary. In a repeated test of adsorption-desorption treatment up to five times, the percentage of uranium adsorbed from natural sea water was approximately constant of 85 %. From these results, the application of column process to the desorption of uranium with acidic eluent at room temperature was proposed to be feasible. (author)

    3. Desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent, (1)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Sakane, Kohji; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

      1983-01-01

      An investigation was carried out on the desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent by the batch process. The rate of desorption of uranium with acidic eluent depended on temperature, showing an increase as the temperature was raised. But the rate of desorption with acidic eluent was less dependent on temperature than that obtained when mixed eluent of sodium carbonate-sodium hydrogencarbonate was used. The difference of the rate of desorption of uranium in the range of concentration from 0.3 to 0.5N was not found, and the rate of desorption with sulfuric acid was slightly higher than that obtained when hydrochloric acid was used. The amount of dissolved titanium decreased as the ratio of adsorbent to eluent (RAE) was increased. At RAE of 10%, the percentage of dissolved titanium (DTI) was below 0.38% with sulfuric acid, below 0.7% with hydrochloric acid. These values were found to be higher than the ones with the carbonate eluent. The elements except uranium, which were adsorbed on the adsorbent, were eluted simultaneously with acidic eluent. The regeneration of the adsorbent after desorption, therefore, was found to be unnecessary. In a repeated test of adsorption-desorption treatment up to five times, the percentage of uranium adsorbed from natural sea water was approximately constant of 85%. From these results, the application of column process to the desorption of uranium with acidic eluent at room temperature was proposed to be feasible. (author)

    4. The influence of hen age on fatty acid composition of commercial eggs

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tina Lešić

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition of commercial eggs from Lohman Brown hens through fat and fatty acid content analysis, as well as to evaluate the effect of hen age on the above parameters. Egg samples (n=108 were collected every two weeks from 21- to 55- week old hens during the 2015/2016 autumn/winter period. The results revealed significant differences in fatty acid composition dependent on hen age (p 0.05. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was statistically significantly higher in eggs laid by 55- week old hens as compared to those laid by 21- week old hens. The n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios were more favourable in the elder hens. In general, the results revealed hen ageing-based variations in fatty acid composition of their eggs, in particular in the representation of linoleic (LA, alpha-linolenic (ALA and arachidonic acid (AA, for which statistically significant hen age-based differences were found.

    5. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

      Science.gov (United States)

      Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

      2017-09-01

      To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

    6. Composition and textural properties of Mozzarella cheese naturally-enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Caroprese, Mariangela; Sevi, Agostino; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Tateo, Alessandra; Albenzio, Marzia

      2013-08-01

      The effects of adding flaxseed or fish oil to the diet of dairy cows on the chemical and physical profile of Mozzarella cheese production were studied. The experiment involved 24 Friesian cows, divided into 3 groups accordingly fat supplementation: basal diet (CT), diet supplemented with flaxseed (FS) or fish oil (FO). Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured from bulk milk of each group. Bulk milk was analysed for chemical composition and renneting parameters. Mozzarella cheeses were analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and textural properties. Results suggest that Mozzarella cheese from cows receiving flaxseed supplementation showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA), an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared with control Mozzarella cheese. The increased dietary intake of C18:3 in flaxseed supplemented cows resulted in increased levels of trans-11 C18:1, and of CLA cis-9 trans-11 C18:2, and in low Atherogenic and Trombogenic Indexes. FO Mozzarella cheese showed compositional and textural properties quite similar to CT Mozzarella cheese; however, increased levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in FO Mozzarella were found.

    7. Pseudo and true visible light photocatalytic activity of nanotube titanic acid/graphene composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: donguser@hotmail.com; Liu, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yu, Laigui; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhijun [Henan University, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials (China)

      2013-09-15

      Nanotube titanic acid/graphene (NTA/Gr) composites were prepared by an easy hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) and NTA in a mixed solvent of ethanol-water. As-prepared NTA/Gr composites and GO were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflection spectrometry, thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Besides, the photocatalytic activities of as-prepared NTA/Gr composites were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It has been found that extending hydrothermal reaction time (24 h instead of 3 h) leads to great changes in the morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared composites. Namely, the orthorhombic NTA (ca. 10 nm in diameter) in the composite transformed to anatase TiO{sub 2} particle (ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) while the Gr sheets (with micrometers-long wrinkles) in it transformed to a few Gr fragments (ca. 50 nm in diameter). Correspondingly, the NTA/Gr composite transformed to titanium dioxide/graphene (TiO{sub 2}/Gr) composite. In the meantime, pure GO only has adsorption effect but it has no photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Nevertheless, increasing Gr ratio results in enhanced visible light absorption capability and photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO{sub 2}/Gr composites. This demonstrates that the true visible light photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO{sub 2}/Gr composites for the degradation of MO is not as excellent as expected, and their high apparent activity is attributed to the strong adsorption of MO on the composites.

    8. Pseudo and true visible light photocatalytic activity of nanotube titanic acid/graphene composites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yu, Laigui; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhijun

      2013-09-01

      Nanotube titanic acid/graphene (NTA/Gr) composites were prepared by an easy hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) and NTA in a mixed solvent of ethanol-water. As-prepared NTA/Gr composites and GO were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflection spectrometry, thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Besides, the photocatalytic activities of as-prepared NTA/Gr composites were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It has been found that extending hydrothermal reaction time (24 h instead of 3 h) leads to great changes in the morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared composites. Namely, the orthorhombic NTA (ca. 10 nm in diameter) in the composite transformed to anatase TiO2 particle (ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) while the Gr sheets (with micrometers-long wrinkles) in it transformed to a few Gr fragments (ca. 50 nm in diameter). Correspondingly, the NTA/Gr composite transformed to titanium dioxide/graphene (TiO2/Gr) composite. In the meantime, pure GO only has adsorption effect but it has no photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Nevertheless, increasing Gr ratio results in enhanced visible light absorption capability and photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites. This demonstrates that the true visible light photocatalytic activity of NTA/Gr composites as well as the TiO2/Gr composites for the degradation of MO is not as excellent as expected, and their high apparent activity is attributed to the strong adsorption of MO on the composites.

    9. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vingering Nathalie

      2010-05-01

      Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

    10. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

      2016-09-01

      Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    11. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

      Science.gov (United States)

      Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

      2017-01-01

      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

    12. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eleonora Okuskhanova

      2017-06-01

      Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC, and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%. Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g, threonine (5.38 g/100 g, and valine (5.84 g/100 g predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g, methionine (3.29 g/100 g, and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

    13. Composite biodegradable biopolymer coatings of silk fibroin - Poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) for biomedical applications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miroiu, Floralice Marimona; Stefan, Nicolaie; Visan, Anita Ioana; Nita, Cristina; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Rasoga, Oana; Socol, Marcela; Zgura, Irina; Cristescu, Rodica; Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel

      2015-11-01

      Composite silk fibroin-poly(3-hydroxybutyric-acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric-acid) (SF-PHBV) biodegradable coatings were grown by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on titanium substrates. Their physico-chemical properties and particularly the degradation behavior in simulated body fluid at 37 °C were studied as first step of applicability in local controlled release for tissue regeneration applications. SF and PHBV, natural biopolymers with excellent biocompatibility, but different biodegradability and tensile strength properties, were combined in a composite to improve their properties as coatings for biomedical uses. FTIR analyses showed the stoichiometric transfer from targets to coatings by the presence in the spectra of the main absorption maxima characteristic of both polymers. XRD investigations confirmed the FTIR results showing differences in crystallization behavior with respect to the SF and PHBV content. Contact angle values obtained through wettability measurements indicated the MAPLE deposited coatings were highly hydrophilic; surfaces turning hydrophobic with the increase of the PHBV component. Degradation assays proved that higher PHBV contents resulted in enhanced resistance and a slower degradation rate of composite coatings in SBF. Distinct drug-release schemes could be obtained by adjusting the SF:PHBV ratio to controllably tuning the coatings degradation rate, from rapid-release formulas, where SF predominates, to prolonged sustained ones, for larger PHBV content.

    14. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

      2016-10-01

      Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    15. Factor VIIa response to a fat-rich meal does not depend on fatty acid composition: A randomized controlled trial

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Mennen, L.; Maat, M. de; Meijer, G.; Zock, P.; Grobbee, D.; Kok, F.; Kluft, C.; Schouten, E.

      1998-01-01

      A fat-rich meal increases activated factor VII (FVIIa), but it is not clear whether this increase depends on the fatty acid composition of the meal. Therefore, we studied the FVIIa response to fat-rich meals with different fatty acid composition in a randomized controlled crossover trial and

    16. Tuning the conformation of synthetic co-polypeptides of serine and glutamic acid through control over polymer composition

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Canning, A.; Pasquazi, A.; Fijten, M.; Rajput, S.; Buttery, L.; Aylott, J.W.; Zelzer, M.

      2016-01-01

      Ring opening polymerization (ROP) of N-carboxy anhydride (NCA) amino acids presents a rapid way to synthesize high molecular weight polypeptides with different amino acid compositions. The compositional and functional versatility of polypeptides make these materials an attractive choice for

    17. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid composites

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF reinforced poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS, tensile modulus (TM, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, and impact strength (IS of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.

    18. Physical properties of coir and pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid hybrid composites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Siakeng, R.; Jawaid, M.; Ariffin, H.; Sapuan, S. M.

      2018-01-01

      This study examined the physical behaviour of Coir fibres (CF)/Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF)/Poly lactic acid (PLA) composites. In this research, coir and PALF reinforced PLA hybrid composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process and hot press. The aim of this work is to do comparative study on density, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) of untreated CF/PALF reinforced PLA composites and hybrid composites. The effect of different fibre ratios in hybridization on density, WA and TS of CF/PALF hybrid composites were also analyzed and C7P3 showed highest density while P30 had lowest. The results indicated that the density varies on different fibre ratio. WA and TS of CF/PALF composites and hybrid composites vary with fibres ratio and soaking duration. WA and TS of untreated CF/PALF hybrid composites were increased by increasing coir fibre ratio so, C30 showed highest WA and TS whereas P30 and C1P1 showed least WA and TS respectively apart from neat PLA.

    19. Fatty acid composition of symbiotic zooxanthellae in relation to their hosts.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bishop, D G; Kenrick, J R

      1980-10-01

      Gymnodinoid dinoflagellate symbionts, commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, are widely distributed among marine invertebrates. It has been assumed that they represent only one species,Gymnodinium microadriaticum. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and galactolipids of zooxanthellae isolated from 8 species of corals, 3 species of clams and a foraminiferan have been analyzed and found to vary according to the host. For example, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in clam zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was less than 2%, whereas in the same lipid from coral zooxanthellae, the content ranged from 9 to 22%. Corresponding values for the acid in digalactosyl-diacylglycerol were 1-8% from clam zooxanthellae and 23-40% from coral zooxanthellae. Coral zooxanthellae monogalactosyldiacylglycerol contain higher levels of octadecatetraenoic acid than are found in digalactosyldiacylglycerol, whereas the reverse is true in clam zooxanthellae. The fatty acid composition of the lipids of an axenic culture of zooxanthellae isolated from the clamTridacna maxima are similar to those of cells freshly isolated from the host. The results suggest either that the host is capable of affecting the fatty acid metabolism of the symbiont or that different strains of zooxanthellae occur in corals and clams.

    20. Higher acclimation temperature modulates the composition of muscle fatty acid of Tor putitora juveniles

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.S. Akhtar

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available A 30-day acclimation trial was conducted using golden mahseer, Tor putitora juveniles to study its muscle fatty acid composition at five acclimation temperatures (AT. Ninety juveniles of T. putitora were distributed among five treatment groups (20, 23, 26, 29 and 32±0.5 °C. At the end of 30 days trial, highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was found at 20 °C and lowest at 26 °C. The highest percentage of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was found at 23 °C and a decreasing trend was observed with increase in AT. However, highest percentage of n-3 PUFA was found at 32 °C and lowest at 29 °C. The maximum n-6 to n-3 ratio was observed at 23 °C and ratio decreased to a minimum at 32 °C. The results revealed that T. putitora juveniles could adapt to higher acclimation temperatures by altering its muscle fatty acid composition mainly by increasing its total saturated fatty acids especially stearic acid.

    1. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

      2015-03-01

      In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

    2. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E. Leu

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm, yielding pH values (on the total scale from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1 prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2 first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3 second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs: 44–60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

    3. Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

      2013-02-01

      The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 μatm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic composition in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids.

    4. Phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition of ewe’s and goat’s milk

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zancada, L.

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The content, distribution of individual species, and the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL from ewe’s and goat’s milk were analyzed. The binding of enterotoxigenic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains to PL and the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were addressed using high performance thin-layer chromatography-overlay assays and microtiter plates, respectively. Ovine and caprine milk contained more PL than bovine milk but less than human milk. The profile of individual PL was similar, including sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol in both ovine and caprine milk. Regarding the fatty acid composition, a high content of long-chain fatty acids (more than C16 and unsaturated fatty acids, with C18:1 as the most abundant was found in ovine and caprine milk PL. Ovine milk has longer and less saturated fatty acids while caprine milk has shorter and more saturated ones. Neither the adhesion of any bacterial strains assayed to the individual PL from ovine or caprine milk nor the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were observed. These are important constituents of the milk fat globule membrane, but it seems that they do not play a role in the defence of new-borns against bacteria if the results obtained are taken into account.Se ha analizado el contenido, distribución de las especies individuales y la composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos (FL de la leche de oveja y de cabra. Se ha estudiado también la unión de cepas enterotoxigénicas y uropatogénicas de Escherichia coli a estos compuestos y el efecto de los FL sobre la hemaglutinación provocada por estas bacterias mediante inmunodetección en placa y ensayos en placas multipocillo, respectivamente. La leche de oveja y de cabra contiene más FL que la de vaca, pero menos que la leche humana. El perfil de FL individuales es similar en la leche de oveja y de cabra e incluye

    5. Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia

      2008-11-26

      A comparative study on the amino acid composition of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino acid. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino acid contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino acids and a great diversity of palatable sensations.

    6. Modification of essential fatty acid composition in broodstock of cultured European eel Anguilla anguilla L

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

      2013-01-01

      Farmed eels had lower levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (ARA) and higher ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (EPA):ARA compared to wild European eels collected from the Baltic Sea and southern Norwegian coast. Eels fed a formulated feed (JD) with a distribution of essential fatty acids...... and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) had accumulated in ovarian polar lipids......Farmed eels had lower levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (ARA) and higher ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (EPA):ARA compared to wild European eels collected from the Baltic Sea and southern Norwegian coast. Eels fed a formulated feed (JD) with a distribution of essential fatty acids...... (EFA) resembling wild European eel were sampled after 0, 5, 10, 14 and 44 weeks of feeding to examine changes in fatty acid composition (FAC) in ovaries, visceral fat and muscle. The results showed a slow but steady incorporation of EFA. Lipids are incorporated in the oocytes early in oogenesis...

    7. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

      2016-08-01

      Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

    8. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae from Turkey

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adnan Berber

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials. The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g. The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%. The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5. Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

    9. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic) Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Mohamad Haafiz, M.K.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Hussin, M. Hazwan; H.P.S., Abdul Khalil

      2016-01-01

      Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic) acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites. PMID:28773558

    10. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

      2017-07-04

      The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

    11. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

      2017-03-01

      Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

    12. Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun

      2015-01-01

      The cellulose sulfate (CS) is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA) content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w). The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w) CS, 0.3% (w/w) glycerol and 0.3% (w/w) OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity.

    13. Study on fatty acids composition of lipid class in fish oil, proximate analysis and calorie value of kijar in Iran

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ali Aberoumand

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available 14.00 This aim of this research was to determine fatty acids and raw proximate composition and calorie value of fish Kijar in Iran. The fatty acids and proximate composition Kijar was determined. The established AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemist, USA methods were followed for composition bio chemical of fish. Mean moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate contents and calorie value of raw fish were 70.81%, 5.88%, 17.80%, 3.41%, 2.1% and 132.52 kcal, respectively. Among fatty acids, palmitic acid was a major fatty acid while stearic acid was the other major constituent. Unsaturated monoenoic fatty acids (oleic and palmitoleic acids were major constituents. Important unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, were also identified. percentage composition of fatty acids in the lipid classes of oil of Saurida undosquamis which the saturated fatty acids ranges from 58% to 72.14%. Palmitic acid is predominant and its composition ranges 38.64% to 48.98% while stearic acid ranges from 11.35% to 19.50%. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monoenoic are the major fatty acids. Oleic acid ranges from 12.15% to 27.48%. It is concluded that fish kijar found as health seafood for Iranian southern peoples form point of view of nutritional values and valuable fatty acids. Therefore it is recommended people put this fish in diet basket and it consumed three times in the week. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

    14. Amino acids composition of mycelial protein of penicillium expansum grown in acid treated rice husk mineral medium

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Khan, M.Y.; Dahot, M.U.

      2012-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to analyze the amino acids composition of single cell protein of Penicillium expansum . Mycelial biomass was produced when fungus was grown in 0.6N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ pretreated rice husk mineral medium incorporated with 0.5% and 1% of nitrogen sources like potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, peptone, yeast extract, urea, corn steep liquor and ammonium sulphate. It was observed that the growth rate of Penicillium expansum increased with 0.5% sodium nitrate produces 1.390 +- 0.084g/l of mycelial biomass. In the subsequent experiment, fermentation medium was supplemented with 0.5% and 1.0% different sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, lactose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, starch, mannose, and molasses) at pH 6.0 for 240 hours at 35 +- 2 deg. C in a fermenter. The highest amount of mycelial biomass (5.107 +- 0.169g/l) was obtained with 1% sucrose and followed by 4.953 +- 0.17g/l, 4.808 +- 0.14g/l and 4.844 +- 0.10g/l mycelial biomass using glucose, maltose and galactose, respectively. The mycelial biomass of Penicillium expansum contains essential and non essential amino acids like phospho-serine, serine, valine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, alo-lysine, halo-lysine, lysine and arginine. The glutamic acid (3355.0 +- 19.798 mu mol/g mycelia) and proline (785.0 +- 9.899 mu mol/g mycelia) were found in higher concentration than other amino acids produced by Penicillium expansum grown on rice husk supplemented with lactose. (author)

    15. A novel biodegradable nicotinic acid/calcium phosphate composite coating on Mg-3Zn alloy

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Song, Yingwei, E-mail: ywsong@imr.ac.cn; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

      2013-01-01

      A novel biodegradable composite coating is prepared to reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn alloy. The Mg-3Zn substrate is first immersed into 0.02 mol L{sup -1} nicotinic acid (NA) solution, named as vitamin B{sub 3}, to obtain a pretreatment film, and then the electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coating with ultrasonic agitation is carried out on the NA pretreatment film to obtain a NA/calcium phosphate composite coating. Surface morphology is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDX. Protection property of the coatings is evaluated by electrochemical tests. The biodegradable behavior is investigated by immersion tests. The results indicate that a thin but compact bottom layer can be obtained by NA pretreatment. The electrodeposition calcium phosphate coating consists of many flake particles and ultrasonic agitation can greatly improve the compactness of the coating. The composite coating is biodegradable and can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys in stimulated body fluid (SBF) for twenty times. The biodegradation process of the composite coating can be attributed to the gradual dissolution of the flake particles into chippings. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NA/calcium phosphate composite coating is prepared to protect Mg-3Zn alloy implant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic acid (vitamin B{sub 3}) is available to obtain a protective bottom film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic agitation greatly improves the compactness of calcium phosphate coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite coating can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn twenty times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite coating is biodegraded by the dissolution of flakes into chippings.

    16. Fatty acid and sterol composition of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mustafa Kıralan

      2017-12-01

      Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acid and sterol composition of fenugreek seeds obtained from three different provinces were investigated. Oil was obtained from fenugreek seeds by solvent extraction and oil content was determined between 7.01-8.82%. Fenugreek seed oils were determined to be rich of unsaturated fatty acids according to gas chromatography results. Especially, linoleic acid was the most important of the fatty acids and varied between 45.10-46.19%. Total sterol content of oils varied from 8 681.54 to 9 591.70 ppm. The major sterol was β- sitosterol, and it was found to be between 59.94-68.24% of the total sterols.

    17. Seasonal and sexual variations of fatty acid composition in fillet of Capoeta erhani

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yılmaz Emre

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available The lowest lipid levels of Capoeta erhani observed in winter and vice versa in summer. The fatty acid composition of the fillets was significantly different among seasons (P0.05. The ratios of the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs were higher than half of the total fatty acids among all seasons. The level of PUFA was highest in autumn (25.91%, and lowest in summer (22.11%. Among seasons and sexes, the levels of total n3 PUFAs in total fatty acids changed from 15.43% to 21.89% and n6 PUFAs from 3.8% to 7.97%, respectively. The level of n3 PUFAs was present in excess that of the n6 PUFAs. The ratios of the n3 PUFAs to n6 PUFAs in the fillets of C. erhani were highest in autumn for both sexes and remarkably influenced by seasons.

    18. The amino acid composition of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs of Ukrainian flora

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      I. A. Lukina

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Amino acids belong to the primary synthesis substances that are found in above-ground and underground organs of almost all flowering plants, are synthesized from simple inorganic compounds and are involved in the synthesis of proteins, coenzymes, flavonoids, steroidal compounds, polyphenols, complex carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and pigments. They are present in plants in easily digestible complexes and biologically available concentrations for a human body, and therefore have higher physiological activity comparing with synthetic analogues. Plant amino acids play an important role in the functioning of various systems and organs of the human body and are characterized by distinct pharmacological properties, as well as contribute to more rapid absorption and potentiate the effect of other biologically active compounds present in plants. Thisdetermines the relevance of selecting most valuable species of plants that contain amino acids complex. The aim of research is to study the qualitative composition and quantitative content of free and bound amino acids in the protein in Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs of Ukrainian flora. Materials and methods. Polygonum hydropiper L. and Polygonum persicaria L. herbs were collected in the summer during the phase of mass flowering (July - August 2013,VolodymyrivkaVillage, Zaporozhye Region. To confirm the qualitative composition and to detect the quantitative content of free and bound amino an acid in protein a methodology proposed by Stein and Moore, has been used; a high-performance liquid chromatograph, Model AAA 881 (Czech Republic has been used. Results. In conducting the research the content of free and bound 15 amino acids, of which 9 are essentialhas been established. Qualitative composition of the substances in both studied species was fully identified. During the experiment the content of the total amount of free and bound amino acids was established. In Polygonum hydropiper

    19. Total fatty acid composition in the characterization and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marlon Corrêa Pereira

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the main mycorrhizal fungi in orchid roots. Morphological characterization and analysis of conserved sequences of genomic DNA are frequently employed in the identification and study of fungi diversity. However, phytopathogenic Rhizoctonia-like fungi have been reliably and accurately characterized and identified through the examination of the fatty acid composition. To evaluate the efficacy of fatty acid composition in characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi in orchids, three Epulorhiza spp. mycorrhizal fungi from Epidendrum secundum, two unidentified fungi isolated from Epidendrum denticulatum, and a phytopathogenic fungus, Ceratorhiza sp. AGC, were grouped based on the profile of their fatty acids, which was assessed by the Euclidian and Mahalanobis distances and the UPGMA method. Dendrograms distinguished the phytopathogenical isolate of Ceratorhiza sp. AGC from the mycorrhizal fungi studied. The symbionts of E. secundum were grouped into two clades, one containing Epulorhiza sp.1 isolates and the other the Epulorhiza sp.2 isolate. The similarity between the symbionts of E. denticulatum and Epulorhiza spp. fungi suggests that symbionts found in E. denticulatum may be identified as Epulorhiza. These results were corroborated by the analysis of the rDNA ITS region. The dendrogram constructed based on the Mahalanobis distance differentiated the clades most clearly. Fatty acid composition analysis proved to be a useful tool for characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi.

    20. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

      2016-04-01

      Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. © The Author 2016. Published by

    1. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

      2018-03-25

      Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

    2. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF SNAKEHEAD FISH (CHANNA STRIATUS OF VARIOUS SIZES OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF THE YEAR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      LAY-HARN GAM

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Snakehead fish (Channa striatus or Haruan is one of the favourite fresh water fish in the Asia-Pacific countries. The fish has been traditionally used to heal wounds. The amino acid composition of wild type Haruan was analyzed in this study. The most abundant amino acid in Haruan was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, leucine, alanine, valine, threonine and glycine, in a decreasing order. The Haruan caught during rainy season was found to contain higher amount of total amino acids. The essential amino acids made up 56% of its total amino acids content. Furthermore, each of the essential amino acids (except lysine was found in higher quantity compared to other types of fishes. Haruan was found significantly rich in arginine, an important constituent in the process of wound healing. The amino acid composition of Haruan indicates that the fish is an excellent source of dietary protein for human.

    3. Preparation, morphology and thermal properties of electrospun fatty acid eutectics/polyethylene terephthalate form-stable phase change ultrafine composite fibers for thermal energy storage

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Cai Yibing; Ke Huizhen; Lin Liang; Fei Xiuzhu; Wei Qufu; Song Lei; Hu Yuan; Fong Hao

      2012-01-01

      Highlights: ► Electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers were prepared. ► Fatty acid eutectics had appropriate phase transition temperature and heat enthalpy. ► Their morphological structures and thermal properties were different from each other. ► Composite fibers could be innovative form-stable PCMs for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: The ultrafine composite fibers based on the composites of binary fatty acid eutectics and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with varied fatty acid eutectics/PET mass ratios (50/100, 70/100, 100/100 and 120/100) were fabricated using the technique of electrospinning as form-stable phase change materials (PCMs). The five binary fatty acid eutectics including LA–MA, LA–PA, MA–PA, MA–SA and PA–SA were prepared according to Schrader equation, and then were selected as an innovative type of solid–liquid PCMs. The results characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the prepared binary fatty acid eutectics with low phase transition temperatures and high heat enthalpies for climatic requirements were more suitable for applications in building energy storage. The structural morphologies, thermal energy storage and thermal stability properties of the ultrafine composite fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. SEM images revealed that the electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers possessed the wrinkled surfaces morphologies compared with the neat PET fibers with cylindrical shape and smooth surfaces; the grooves or ridges on the corrugated surface of the ultrafine composite fibers became more and more prominent with increasing fatty acid eutectics amount in the composite fibers. The fibers with the low mass ratio maintained good structural morphologies while the quality became worse when the mass ratio is too high (more than 100/100). DSC measurements

    4. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dulf, Francisc V; Pamfil, Doru; Baciu, Adriana D; Pintea, Adela

      2013-01-17

      Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

    5. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. seed genotypes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dulf Francisc V

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%, of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9% and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2% fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%, while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids, making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

    6. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hetland Harald

      2007-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

    7. Use of microvascular flaps including free osteocutaneous flaps in reconstruction after composite resection for radiation-recurrent oral cancer

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rosen, I.B.; Bell, M.S.; Barron, P.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Manktelow, R.T.

      1979-01-01

      Fourteen patients underwent microsurgical free flap procedures for reconstruction after composite resection of radiation-recurrent oral cancer. The use of attached metatarsal bone in nine patients for mandibular reconstruction is in our view a significant advance in this field. Two failures occurred, one due to sepsis and one to delayed thrombosis. Our experience indicates that this procedure deserves a place in the surgical treatment of patients afflicted with oral malignancy

    8. Changes in phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition are associated with altered skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness in normal man.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Clore, J N; Harris, P A; Li, J; Azzam, A; Gill, R; Zuelzer, W; Rizzo, W B; Blackard, W G

      2000-02-01

      The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipids (PLs) is known to influence insulin responsiveness in man. We have recently shown that the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), and not phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), from skeletal muscle membranes is of particular importance in this relationship. Efforts to alter the PL fatty acid composition in animal models have demonstrated induction of insulin resistance. However, it has been more difficult to determine if changes in insulin sensitivity are associated with changes in the skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition of PL in man. Using nicotinic acid (NA), an agent known to induce insulin resistance in man, 9 normal subjects were studied before and after treatment for 1 month. Skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition of PC and PE from biopsies of vastus lateralis was correlated with insulin responsiveness using a 3-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Treatment with NA was associated with a 25% increase in the half-maximal insulin concentration ([ED50] 52.0 +/- 7.5 to 64.6 +/- 9.0 microU/mL, P insulin sensitivity. Significant changes in the fatty acid composition of PC, but not PE, were also observed after NA administration. An increase in the percentage of 16:0 (21% +/- 0.3% to 21.7% +/- 0.4%, P insulin resistance with NA is associated with changes in the fatty acid composition of PC in man.

    9. Biocatalyst including porous enzyme cluster composite immobilized by two-step crosslinking and its utilization as enzymatic biofuel cell

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chung, Yongjin; Christwardana, Marcelinus; Tannia, Daniel Chris; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

      2017-08-01

      An enzyme cluster composite (TPA/GOx) formed from glucose oxidase (GOx) and terephthalaldehyde (TPA) that is coated onto polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is suggested as a new catalyst ([(TPA/GOx)/PEI]/CNT). In this catalyst, TPA promotes inter-GOx links by crosslinking to form a large and porous structure, and the TPA/GOx composite is again crosslinked with PEI/CNT to increase the amount of immobilized GOx. Such a two-step crosslinking (i) increases electron transfer because of electron delocalization by π conjugation and (ii) reduces GOx denaturation because of the formation of strong chemical bonds while its porosity facilitates mass transfer. With these features, an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) employing the new catalyst is fabricated and induces an excellent maximum power density (1.62 ± 0.08 mW cm-2), while the catalytic activity of the [(TPA/GOx)/PEI]/CNT catalyst is outstanding. This is clear evidence that the two-step crosslinking and porous structure caused by adoption of the TPA/GOx composite affect the performance enhancement of EBC.

    10. Selective cesium and strontium removal for TRU-liquid waste including fission products and concentrated nitric acids

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mimori, T.; Miyajima, K.; Kozeki, M.; Kubota, T.; Tusa, E.; Keskinen, A.

      1996-01-01

      A nuclide removal system was designed for treatment of liquid radioactive waste at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Tokai site. Total system will include removal of plutonium, cesium and strontium. Removal of plutonium will be carried out by a method developed by JAERI. Removal of cesium and strontium will be carried out by the methods developed in Finland. The whole project will be implemented for JAERI in cooperation between Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding and IVO International. This project has been carried out under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. The liquid to be treated includes 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of cesium and 7.4x10 9 Bq/L of strontium. The amount of alpha nuclides is 3.7x10 6 Bq/L. Nitric acid concentration is 1.74 mol/L. The volume of 11,000 liters had to be treated in 200 batches of operation. Removal of cesium and strontium is based on the use of new ion exchange materials developed in Finland. These inorganic ion exchange materials have extremely good properties to separate cesium and strontium from even very difficult liquids. Ion exchange material will be used in columns, where there are materials both for cesium and strontium. According to column tests with simulated waste, one 2 liter column will effectively reach the required DF during 10 batches of operation. Purified liquid can be led to further liquid treatment at the site. After treatment of liquids, both used particle filters and used ion exchange columns will be drained and stored to wait for final treatment and disposal. The designed treatment system has a special beneficial feature as it does not produce secondary waste. Final waste is in the form of particle filters or ion exchange columns with material. Used ion exchange columns and filters will be replaced with new ones by means of remote handling. Construction of the treatment system will be scheduled to commence in FY1995 and assemblying at the site in FY1996. (J.P.N.)

    11. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      maryam allahdadi

      2017-05-01

      Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

    12. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lou, Tao, E-mail: taolou72@aliyun.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Xuejun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yan, Xu [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Miao, Yu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Long, Yun-Ze, E-mail: yunzelong@163.com [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yin, Hai-Lei [Department of Osteology, No. 401 Hospital of P. L. A., Qingdao 266071 (China); Sun, Bin [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Song, Guojun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

      2016-07-01

      The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50–500 nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20 μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (> 94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50 nm–10 μm) and macropores (50–300 μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques • Hierarchical microstructure both in fiber and pore sizes • The scaffold microenvironment facilitates the protein adsorption, cell proliferation and penetration.

    13. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

      2010-08-01

      A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

    14. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Chen Xi; Li Yan; Gu Ning

      2010-01-01

      A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

    15. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Toft, Egon; Aardestrup, Inge; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Schmidt, Erik B

      2011-01-01

      Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids. Forty-four HD patients were randomized to groups receiving either a single dose of a lipid emulsion containing 4.1 g of ω-3 PUFAs or placebo (saline) administered intravenously during HD. Blood was drawn immediately before (baseline) and after (4 hours) HD and before the next HD session (48 hours). Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. The increase in ω-3 FFAs was greater in the ω-3 PUFA group compared with the placebo group, whereas the increase in total FFAs was similar between the 2 groups. In the ω-3 PUFA group, ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids were higher after 48 hours than at baseline, and in platelet phospholipids, ω-3 PUFAs increased after 4 hours. In the placebo group, no changes were observed in ω-3 PUFAs in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Intravenous ω-3 PUFAs administered during HD caused a transient selective increase in ω-3 FFA concentration. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFAs were rapidly incorporated into platelets, and the content of ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids increased after 48 hours.

    16. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

      2012-08-01

      Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (Pmaking the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    17. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

      2016-10-12

      The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

    18. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

      2014-01-01

      The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

    19. Genomics of lactation: role of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in the fatty acid composition of human milk.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sosa-Castillo, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina

      2017-08-01

      Human milk covers the infant's nutrient requirements during the first 6 months of life. The composition of human milk progressively changes during lactation and it is influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Nowadays, it is well known that nutrients have the ability to interact with genes and modulate molecular mechanisms impacting physiological functions. This has led to a growing interest among researchers in exploring nutrition at a molecular level and to the development of two fields of study: nutrigenomics, which evaluates the influence of nutrients on gene expression, and nutrigenetics, which evaluates the heterogeneous individual response to nutrients due to genetic variation. Fatty acids are one of the nutrients most studied in relation to lactation given their biologically important roles during early postnatal life. Fatty acids modulate transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, which in turn causes a variation in the proportion of lipids in milk. This review focuses on understanding, on the one hand, the gene transcription mechanisms activated by maternal dietary fatty acids and, on the other hand, the interaction between dietary fatty acids and genetic variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Both of these mechanisms affect the fatty acid composition of human milk.

    20. Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Xu, Binghui; Zhang, Jintao; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi; Al Abdulla, Wael; Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Zhao, X.S.

      2016-01-01

      Graphene oxide (GO) was de-oxygenated using gallic acid under mild conditions to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The resultant RGO showed a lithium-ion storage capacity of 1280 mA h g −1 at a current density of 200 mA g −1 after 350 cycles when used as an anode for lithium ion batteries. The RGO was further used to stabilize silicon (Si) nanoparticles to prepare silicon-graphene composite electrode materials. Experimental results showed that a composite electrode prepared with a mass ratio of Si:GO = 1:2 exhibited the best lithium ion storage performance.

    1. New Poly(lactic acid) Active Packaging Composite Films Incorporated with Fungal Melanin

      OpenAIRE

      Łukasz Łopusiewicz; Filip Jędra; Małgorzata Mizielińska

      2018-01-01

      In this work, fungal melanin was used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid)-based composites. The films of various melanin concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/w) were prepared using an extrusion method. The mechanical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, water vapor and UV-Vis barrier properties, as well as available polyphenolics on the surface, were studied. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy studies were carried out to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting films. The hydrophob...

    2. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Katalin Halász

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid composites. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG400, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and degradation test.

    3. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

      2015-01-01

      6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant. (paper)

    4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Tetens, Inge

      This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

    5. Wavelet images and Chou's pseudo amino acid composition for protein classification.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl; Lumini, Alessandra

      2012-08-01

      The last decade has seen an explosion in the collection of protein data. To actualize the potential offered by this wealth of data, it is important to develop machine systems capable of classifying and extracting features from proteins. Reliable machine systems for protein classification offer many benefits, including the promise of finding novel drugs and vaccines. In developing our system, we analyze and compare several feature extraction methods used in protein classification that are based on the calculation of texture descriptors starting from a wavelet representation of the protein. We then feed these texture-based representations of the protein into an Adaboost ensemble of neural network or a support vector machine classifier. In addition, we perform experiments that combine our feature extraction methods with a standard method that is based on the Chou's pseudo amino acid composition. Using several datasets, we show that our best approach outperforms standard methods. The Matlab code of the proposed protein descriptors is available at http://bias.csr.unibo.it/nanni/wave.rar .

    6. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E. M. Knipping

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS. A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS.

    7. Desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent, 2

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Sakane, Kohji; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

      1984-01-01

      The desorption of uranium from the granular titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent (concentration of uranium: 25.5 mg/1-Ad), which adsorbed uranium from natural sea water, was examined by the column process with acidic eluent at room temperature. The column operation was able to be carried out without destruction of the granular adsorbent by the generation of the carbon dioxide, and free from disturbance of the eluent flow by precipitate of calcium sulfate dihydrate with sulfuric acid eluent. The amount of acid consumption by the adsorbent was 0.87 eq/1-Ad. The alkaline earth metals were eluted in the range of elution volume below 2 1/1-Ad, whereas uranium, iron, and titanium were eluted above 2 1/1-Ad. Therefore, uranium was separable from the alkaline earth metals which were adsorbed in the most quantity in the adsorbent. In the range of elution volume 2 to 12 1/1-Ad, the percentage of desorbed uranium and the concentration ratio of uranium were 80 %, 680 with 0.5 N sulfuric acid, and 59 %, 490 with 0.5 N hydrochloric acid, respectively. The percentage of dissolved titanium (DTI) was 0.3 % with 0.5 N sulfuric acid, 0.26 % with 0.5 N hydrochloric acid in the same range. (author)

    8. Alterations in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of Voandzeia subterranea seeds upon gamma irradiation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Andrianarison, R.H.; Rakotoarisoa, Z.; Tixier, M.; Beneytout, J.L.

      1992-01-01

      Exposure of V. subterranea seeds, a herbaceous plant from Madagascar belonging to the family of legumes, to gamma irradiation resulted in a polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease associated with the formation of UV-absorbing substances. The finding that products containing conjugated diene structure are formed during lipid extract irradiation indicates that hydroperoxy fatty acids may arise not only by enzymatic reactions but also by nonenzymatic oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids promoted by ionizing radiation. Dehulled green seeds, flour made from dehulled green seeds, and lipid extract were studied for irradiation dose dependent changes in fatty acids compositions and hydroperoxydiene synthesis. The irradiation dose is more efficient in lipid extract than in dehulled green seeds or in flour made from these seeds, suggesting that the formation of UV-absorbing products is not a reliable clue for enzyme activity owing to the absence of protein in lipid extract. A homolytic pathway for the biogenesis of hydroperoxy fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids is proposed. This involves an initiating radical which promotes a chain mechanism in which the O2 adsorbed is converted to hydroperoxide. Conclusively, preservation of fatty acid oxygenation should be a primary goal in the ionizing radiation processes of V. subterranea seeds and generally in the preservation of food of plant origin by ionizing radiation

    9. Fatty acid composition of leaves of forced chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sinkovič Lovro

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in leaves of nine chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus L.. The growing practice followed the traditional forcing method of developed roots in a peat to obtain new etiolated vegetative apical buds, known as chicons. The fatty acid content was determined by the extraction of fatty acid methyl esters and analysis by means of gas chromatography. The analysis revealed the following ratios of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 of individual fatty acids. The total fatty acid content in forced chicory leaves ranged from 104 to 644 mg/100 g fresh weight. The highest relative content (64% is presented by α-linolenic acid, followed by linoleic (44% and palmitic (21%. An n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio of studied forced chicory is below 1.4 and thus, in accordance with the recommended dietary ratio that is close to 1.

    10. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

      2015-06-01

      The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

    11. Controlled Pesticide Release from Porous Composite Hydrogels Based on Lignin and Polyacrylic Acid

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yajie Sun

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available For the controlled release of pesticides, a novel composite porous hydrogel (LBPAA was prepared based on lignin and polyacrylic acid for use as the support frame of a pore structure for water delivery. The LBPAA was analyzed to determine its water-swelling and slow release properties. The controlled release properties of LBPAA were evaluated through experiments in relation to the cumulative release of pesticides, with particular emphasis on environmental effects and release models. The porous LBPAA hydrogel showed improved properties compared to polyacrylic acid, and could therefore be considered an efficient material for application in controlled release systems in agriculture.

    12. Chemical and amino acid composition of cooked walnut (juglans regia) flour

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Niyi, H.; Ogungbenle, N.

      2009-01-01

      The proximate analysis of cooked walnut (Juglans regia) flour revealed the composition as protein (14.18%), moisture (11.01%), ash (3.14%), crude fibre (3.03%), crude fat (10.22%), carbohydrate (58.42%), phytate (20.18 mg/g), oxalate (1.13 mg/g) and tannin (2.33%). Glutamic and aspartic acids were the most predominant amino acids in the sample with values of 151.6 mg/g and 89.5 mg/g, respectively. (author)

    13. Remediation of acid mine drainage using magnesite and its bentonite clay composite

      CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

      Masindi, Vhahangwele

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available .............................. 46 Table 3.1: Synthetic acid mine drainage used in this study .................................................. 73 Table 3.2: Chemical compositions of acid mine drainage before and after contacting magnesite.... The reaction of AMD with magnesite at an optimum solid: liquid ratio of 1:100 and contact time of 60 min led to an increase in pH, reaching a maximum pH of 10, resulting in significant precipitation of most metal species. Increase of pH in solution...

    14. What makes lithium substituted polyacrylic acid a better binder than polyacrylic acid for silicon-graphite composite anodes?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hays, Kevin A.; Ruther, Rose E.; Kukay, Alexander J.; Cao, Pengfei; Saito, Tomonori; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin

      2018-04-01

      Lithium substituted polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) has previously been demonstrated as a superior binder over polyacrylic acid (PAA) for Si anodes, but from where does this enhanced performance arise? In this study, full cells are assembled with PAA and LiPAA based Si-graphite composite anodes that dried at temperatures from 100 °C to 200 °C. The performance of full cells containing PAA based Si-graphite anodes largely depend on the secondary drying temperature, as decomposition of the binder is correlated to increased electrode moisture and a rise in cell impedance. Full cells containing LiPAA based Si-graphite composite electrodes display better Coulombic efficiency than those with PAA, because of the electrochemical reduction of the PAA binder. This is identified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and observed gassing during the electrochemical reaction. Coulombic losses from the PAA and Si SEI, along with depletion of the Si capacity in the anode results in progressive underutilization of the cathode and full cell capacity loss.

    15. The complex reaction kinetics of neptunium including redox and extraction process in 30% TBP-nitric acid system

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hu Zhang; Zhan-yuan Liu; Xian-ming Zhou; Li Li

      2017-01-01

      In order to understand the complex and dynamic neptunium process chemistry in the TBP-HNO_3 system, the kinetics involved reversible redox reaction and extraction mass transfer was investigated. The results indicates that the mass transfer rate of Np(VI) is much faster than the redox reaction in aqueous solution. The concentrations of nitric acid and nitrous acid not only can change the Np(V) oxidation reaction and Np(VI) reduction reaction rate, but also can ultimately determine the distribution of neptunium extraction equilibrium. The variety of temperature can only influence the extraction equilibrium time, but cannot alter the equilibrium state of neptunium. (author)

    16. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana

      2016-01-01

      family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

    17. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar

      2011-01-01

      In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

    18. [Fatty acid composition of edible marine fish in Zhoushan, Zhejiang province].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gao, Yi-xiong; Yue, Bing; Yu, Xin-wei; He, Jia-lu; Shang, Xiao-hong; Li, Xiao-wei; Wu, Yong-ning

      2013-06-01

      To analyze the main fatty acids in edible marine fish from Zhoushan, Zhejiang province. From September to October 2011, a total of 186 edible marine fish (31 species,6 individual fishes/species) were collected in local markets. Total lipids of edible part were extracted by Folch's method and fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatographic after the homogenization of edible part. The differences of composition of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA),saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) among fishes were analyzed. Among the 31 fishes, total lipids were highest in Auxis thazard ((13.2 ± 1.2)g/100 g edible part) and lowest in Thamnaconus modestus ((0.6 ± 0.1)g/100 g edible part). Total n-6 PUFA were highest in Mugil cephalus ((875.7 ± 506.4)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Seriola quinqueradiata((2.1 ± 1.9)mg/100 g edible part). Total n-3 PUFA were highest in Auxis thazard ((2623.8 ± 426.1)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Scoliodon sorrakowah ((82.0 ± 13.9)mg/100 g edible part). SFA were highest in Trachinotus ovatus((3014.9 ± 379.0)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Seriola quinqueradiata ((89.7 ± 5.8)mg/100 g edible part). MUFA were highest in Coilia nasus ((3335.7 ± 383.5)mg/100 g edible part) and lowest in Thamnaconus modestus ((32.1 ± 16.9)mg/100 g edible part). There were significant differences of composition of total lipids and of fatty acids among 31 edible marine fish species from Zhoushan.

    19. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of ...

    20. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

      OpenAIRE

      Thanaa Shehab

      2016-01-01

      Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

    1. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kawabata Terue

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

    2. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yang; Tong, Li; Chu, Jiamian; Xiao, Kecen; Zhou, Zhiyu; Dong, Wenbo; Chu, Xingwu

      2017-04-11

      Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly( γ -glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca 2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

    3. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sudachkova N.E.

      2007-12-01

      Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

    4. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

      2014-02-01

      The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

    5. Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids

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      Mina Martini

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available Amiata donkeys are a native breed reared in central Italy. Safeguarding native donkey breeds represents an opportunity for the development of marginal areas, especially given that donkey milk is now appearing on the market due to its potential benefits for human health. To date, only a few studies have focused on the characteristics of the milk fat globules (MFGs in the donkey species. The aim of this study was to assess the morphometric characteristics of the fat globules, gross composition and fatty acid classes in milk from Amiata donkeys reared according to the typical farming and feeding systems of the area of origin. Individual milk samples, collected from 28 Amiata donkeys between 90 and 150 days of lactation, showed the following average composition (g/100 mL: 9.47 dry matter, 1.63 protein, 0.78 casein, 0.53 fat, 7.12 lactose, and 0.36 ash. The unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio in milk was close to 1. The percentage of short chains was 12.29, and the percentage of long chain fatty acids was 47.64. The donkey MFGs showed an average diameter of 1.92 μm, and a number of 2.18*109/mL. Regarding MFG distribution, 70% of the globules donkey of milk are smaller than 2 μm. In conclusion, the gross composition and fatty acids of Amiata donkey milk showed similarities with milk from other Italian donkey breeds, with the exception of the monounsaturated fatty acid values which were slightly higher. Donkey MFGs had a smaller diameter and were fewer than in the ruminant species.

    6. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

      2012-03-01

      Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    7. Fatty acid composition of heavy pig back fat in relationship to some animal factors

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      Mauro Vitale

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The influence of genetic type, lean meat percentage and sex on fatty acids (FA composition of back fat of heavy pigs, reared for the production of San Daniele dry cured ham, was studied. One-hundred pigs of four genetic types - Large White or Duroc x (Landrace x Large White, GOLAND and DANBRED - were considered. They were randomly chosen during the slaughtering of 21 lots of heavy animals, in groups of four to eight subjects, balanced by sex, female and castrated males, and carcass leanness, U and R classes following the European grading system. Principal components (PCs analysis showed that 94.3% of lot-diets’ FA variability was accounted for a five PCs model. The diet effect on the lard composition was weighted using the PCs scores as covariates in a tri-factorial (genotype, carcass leanness, sex covariance design. Diet had a great effect on lard composition, indeed every examined back fat FA co-varied with the extracted PCs. On the other hand, sex effect never reached a significance threshold, as well as the interactions between factors. Genetic type influenced stearic acid and MUFA content and n6-PUFA to n3-PUFA ratio of back fat while leanness mainly influenced PUFA, the fatter class showing a significantly lower content of linoleic acid (13.2 vs. 11.9% total lipids in U vs. R class respectively.

    8. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

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      David Castejón

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC. To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol.

    9. Physiochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile and tocopherol composition of the oil from Camellia oleifera Abel cultivated in Henan, China

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      J. B. Hu

      2018-06-01

      Full Text Available As a unique woody oil tree, Camellia oleifera Abel originates from southern China and is now being cultivated in central China, such as the southern Henan province. The aim of this work is to determine some physiochemical parameters, fatty acid profile and tocopherol composition of the Camellia oleifera seed oils harvested in southern Henan in the 2016 season. The lipid contents of the kernel are in the range of 28.39- 56.94% on dry matter. The acid value (AV, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV, and refractive index of the oils are in the ranges: 0.22-5.17 mg KOH/g, 178.90-196.91 mg KOH/g, 82.0-87.1 g I2/100g, and 1.4667-1.4720 (nD25 , respectively. The main fatty acids are: palmitic 7.07-9.52%, palmitoleic 0.09-0.22%, stearic 1.45-2.94%, oleic 77.02-84.33%, linoleic 5.19-11.23%, linolenic 0.53-0.70% and arachidic 0.22-0.70%. The sn-2 fatty acid composition is: 84.36-91.33% oleic, 7.14-14.22% linoleic, and 0.89-1.96% others. The tocopherol content is in the range of 39.55-75.94 mg/100g oil, including mainly α-tocopherol (33.98-67.82 mg/100g and γ-tocopherol (5.57- 8.27 mg/100g when the oils are extracted with hexane; and 14.91-44.36 mg/100g, including mainly α-tocopherol (9.42-37.08 mg/100g and γ-tocopherol (5.50-7.33 mg/100g when the oils are extracted by ethyl ether. The physiochemical properties C. oleifera seed oils from southern Henan are similar to those from other districts of China.

    10. Chemical characterization of composites developed from glycerol and dicarboxylic acids rein forced with piassava fiber

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Miranda, Cleidiene S.; Oliveira, Jamerson C.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Jose, Nadia M.; Carvalho, Ricardo F.

      2011-01-01

      In search of alternative technologies that enable the use of products with lower environmental impact, This study aims to develop a composite polymer-based piassava fiber. The sludge, waste and byproduct of commercial uses currently being used as reinforcement in polymer matrices, due to presence of lignocellulosic materials. The matrix polymer used was synthesized from glycerol with dicarboxylic acids, in order to open future perspectives on the use of glycerin generated from purified biodiesel production plastics. Composites with 2, 5, 10 wt% of piassava fiber cut into 5 mm raw and treated were obtained a mixture of solution. The materials were characterized by TGA, DSC, XRD and SEM. It was observed that the material under study is promising for the industrial market, because it has good compatibility with natural fibers allowing wider application of fiber natural and glycerol, producing semicrystalline composites and with good thermal properties. (author)

    11. Poly(lactic acid Composites Containing Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: A Review

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      Carolina Gonçalves

      2017-07-01

      Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA is a green alternative to petrochemical commodity plastics, used in packaging, agricultural products, disposable materials, textiles, and automotive composites. It is also approved by regulatory authorities for several biomedical applications. However, for some uses it is required that some of its properties be improved, namely in terms of thermo-mechanical and electrical performance. The incorporation of nanofillers is a common approach to attain this goal. The outstanding properties of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBN have caused a surge in research works dealing with PLA/CBN composites. The available information is compiled and reviewed, focusing on PLA/CNT (carbon nanotubes and PLA/GBM (graphene-based materials composites. The production methods, and the effects of CBN loading on PLA properties, namely mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological, are discussed.

    12. Fatty acid composition and natural antioxidant capacity of ten Serbian linseed cultivars

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      Čolović Dušica S.

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Literature data about nutritional characteristics of linseed cultivars from some specific geographical area or country is scarce. For that very reason, following paper is presenting fatty acid (FA compositions and antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble (ACL components of ten native linseed cultivars from Serbia. These characteristics can be interesting, especially due to the increasing trend of linseed usage in human diet. Presented results show that there were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences between linseed kernels in FA composition. Negative correlation was found between FA C18:0 and α-linolenic acid (ALA. The cultivar with the highest ACL value was No. 10 (342.66 μmol trolox/kg d.m., meaning that it had very strong protection against oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs. Nevertheless, correlation between ACL and polyunsaturated FA content in cultivars was not statistically significant (p=0.84. ACL of the samples did not depend on FA composition of linseed, but it might depend on characteristics of a specific cultivar. The aforementioned results show potential usage in storage of linseeds or its products, while FA composition of linseed kernels might be one of criteria for authentication of linseed origin, and can be of great help in future selection of the cultivars, depending on purpose of linseed production.

    13. Biodegradation of New Polymer Foundry Binders for the Example of the Composition Polyacrylic Acid/Starch

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      Beata Grabowska

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available The investigations on the biodegradation process pathway of the new polymer binders for the example of water soluble compositionpolyacrylic acid/starch are presented in the hereby paper. Degradation was carried out in water environment and in a soil. Thedetermination of the total oxidation biodegradation in water environment was performed under laboratory conditions in accordance with the static water test system (Zahn-Wellens method, in which the mixture undergoing biodecomposition contained inorganic nutrient,activated sludge and the polymer composition, as the only carbon and energy source. The biodecomposition progress of the polymercomposition sample in water environment was estimated on the basis of the chemical oxygen demand (COD measurements and thedetermination the biodegradation degree, Rt, during the test. These investigations indicated that the composition polyacrylic acid/starchconstitutes the fully biodegradable material in water environment. The biodegradation degree Rt determined in the last 29th day of the test duration achieved 65%, which means that the investigated polymer composition can be considered to be fully biodegradable.During the 6 months biodegradation process of the cross-linked sample of the polymer composition in a garden soil several analysis ofsurface and structural changes, resulting from the sample decomposition, were performed. Those were: thermal analyses (TG-DSC,structural analyses (Raman spectroscopy and microscopic analyses (optical microscopy, AFM.

    14. Molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes for recognition of curcumin

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Wang Ping; Hu Wenming; Su Weike

      2008-01-01

      In this study, molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes with different ratio of methacrylamide (MAM) versus methacrylic acid (MAA) were prepared via UV initiated photo-copolymerization on the commercial filter paper. Curcumin was chosen as the template molecule. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy was used to study the binding mechanism between the imprinted sites and the templates. The morphology of the resultant membranes was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static equilibrium binding and recognition properties of the imprinted composite membranes to curcumin (cur-I) and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (cur-II) or bisdemethoxycurcumin (cur-III) were tested. The results showed that curcumin-imprinted membranes had the best recognition ability to curcumin compared to its analogues. From the results, the biggest selectivity factor of α cur-I/cur-II and α cur-I/cur-III were 1.50 and 5.94, and they were obtained from the composite membranes in which MAM/MAA were 1:4 and 0:1, respectively. The results of this study implied that the molecularly imprinted composite membranes could be used as separation membranes for curcumin enrichment

    15. Amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables

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      Constanza Soledad Carrera

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a quantitative analysis of the amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables during seed filling. Amino acids were determined from seed samples taken at harvest in 31 multi-environment field trials carried out in Argentina. Total amino acids ranged from 31.69 to 49.14%, and total essential and nonessential amino acids varied from 12.83 to 19.02% and from 18.86 to 31.15%, respectively. Variance components expressed as the percentage of total variation showed that the environment was the most important source of variation for all traits, followed by the genotype x environment interaction. Significant explanatory linear regressions were detected for amino acid content regarding: average daily mean air temperature and cumulative solar radiation, during seed filling; precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, during the whole reproductive period; and the combinations of these climatic variables. Each amino acid behaves differently according to environmental conditions, indicating compensatory effects among them.

    16. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

      2016-03-16

      Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    17. Amino acid composition in endothermic vertebrates is biased in the same direction as in thermophilic prokaryotes

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      Wang Guang-Zhong

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Among bacteria and archaea, amino acid usage is correlated with habitat temperatures. In particular, protein surfaces in species thriving at higher temperatures appear to be enriched in amino acids that stabilize protein structure and depleted in amino acids that decrease thermostability. Does this observation reflect a causal relationship, or could the apparent trend be caused by phylogenetic relatedness among sampled organisms living at different temperatures? And do proteins from endothermic and exothermic vertebrates show similar differences? Results We find that the observed correlations between the frequencies of individual amino acids and prokaryotic habitat temperature are strongly influenced by evolutionary relatedness between the species analysed; however, a proteome-wide bias towards increased thermostability remains after controlling for phylogeny. Do eukaryotes show similar effects of thermal adaptation? A small shift of amino acid usage in the expected direction is observed in endothermic ('warm-blooded' mammals and chicken compared to ectothermic ('cold-blooded' vertebrates with lower body temperatures; this shift is not simply explained by nucleotide usage biases. Conclusion Protein homologs operating at different temperatures have different amino acid composition, both in prokaryotes and in vertebrates. Thus, during the transition from ectothermic to endothermic life styles, the ancestors of mammals and of birds may have experienced weak genome-wide positive selection to increase the thermostability of their proteins.

    18. Effect of γ-irradiation on bioactivity, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds of clary sage seed (Salvia sclarea L.).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yalcin, Hasan; Ozturk, Ismet; Tulukcu, Eray; Sagdic, Osman

      2011-09-01

      Clary sage seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) were obtained from plants cultivated, and 2.5, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0 kGy doses of γ-irradiation were applied to the clary sage seeds. They were then analyzed for their protein, ash, oil and dry matter contents, and fatty acid composition. Additionally, the total phenolic contents, antiradical, antioxidant activities, and volatile compounds of the clary sage seed extract were determined. There was no significant difference in protein content. However, the moisture, oil, and ash contents of the samples were affected by irradiation. While the 7 kGy dose had a positive effect on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the sage seed extract, all doses have negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the sage seed. The main fatty acid of the sage seed was remarkably found as α-linolenic acid. The four irradiation levels caused significant differences in fatty acid composition by affecting all fatty acids except palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosenoic acids. The dominant volatile compounds of control sage seed were found as β-pinene (18.81%) and limonene (15.60%). Higher doses of the irradiation decreased volatile components of sage seed. Clary sage seed including high omega-3 can be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. Clary sage is one of the most popular Salvia species in Turkey and many countries. Clary sage seed has approximately 29% oil content and this oil contains >50% of α-linolenic acid. γ-Irradiation is widely applied in the preservation of spice quality. The present study shows that the antioxidant activity of the clary sage seed is decreased by γ-irradiation. Additionally, higher doses of irradiation also decreased the volatile components of sage seed. Therefore, we suggest that clary sage seed which includes high levels of omega-3 should be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

    19. Results of breeding for modified C18-fatty acid composition in Linum

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Nickel, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Friedt, W.

      1990-01-01

      Full text: The oil of cultivated linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is characterised by a high level (55-65%) of linolenic acid (C18:3) with comparatively little genetic variability. However, among wild Linum species there are large differences in fatty acid composition. Therefore, interspecific hybridisation between cultivated linseed and wild species may provide material segregating for oil quality. Alternatively, induced mutagenesis may be used for broadening genetic variation. Seeds of 32 Linum species were obtained from botanical gardens and institutes. Plant habitus, flower colour, oil content, fatty acid pattern, 1000-seed weight and seed colour were determined. Crosses between Linum usitatissimum cultivars and wild species were attempted. Where capsule development was not obtained, pollen tube growth was studied by fluorescence microscopy. It was tried to circumvent incompatibility barriers by applying the embryo rescue technique. For that purpose, 'heart-shaped' immature embryos of Linum usitatissimum plants were cultured on MONNIER-medium. In a mutation breeding programme, M 5 lines with reduced C18:3-content (35-40%) derived from the cultivars 'Bionda' and 'Raulinus' by EMS-mutagenesis were intercrossed and the progeny analysed. Variation in fatty acid composition amongst wild species was 3.5-68.2% for linolenic and 9.2-83.4% for linoleic acid. Variation of oil content was 22.5-46.0% and of 1000-seed weight 0.1-4.4g. Interspecific crosses of cultivated linseed with wild species of low linolenic and high linoleic acid content (especially L. flavum, L. catharticum, and L. campanulatum), were not successful because of pre-fertilisation barriers. Crosses between M 5 -lines selected for reduced linolenic acid content (35-40%) were analysed for segregation in the F 2 . Here, new recombinant types with only 11-13% linolenic, but nearly 50% oleic and 25-30% linoleic acid content could be identified. Previously, GREEN selected a mutant with very low C18:3-content (2

    20. Determination of feedstuff amino acids composition by ion-exchange chromatography

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      A. A. Volnin

      2018-01-01

      Full Text Available Determination of animal feeds amino acids composition is the very important part of agricultural sciences and livestock management. This is necessary for normalization and balanced of farm animal’s diets parameters. Advances in husbandry techniques are making in response to the needs for rearing high genetic merit livestock. The nutrition of livestock has a critical role in these developments and is an element which needs to be continually updated as new scientific information becomes available. This article is devoted to the use of ion-exchange chromatography with post-colum derivatization by ninhydrin in the study of the amino acid composition and evaluation of the biological value of livestock feedstuff components. The amino acid composition (except tryptophan of the livestock feed-stuff component is presented for threonine – 3.26 g/100g of protein, leucine – 6.43, isoleucine – 3.24, valine – 4.77, methionine – 2.18, lysine – 2.90, phenylalanine – 3.16, histidine – 2.03, tyrosine – 2.33, sum of asparagine and aspartate – 6.76, serine – 3.97, sum of glutamine and glutamic acid – 12.04, glycine – 6.00, alanine – 6.71, arginine – 6.93, proline – 3.08, sum of cystine and cysteine – 1.38. Biological value of feedstuff component compared with the "ideal" protein (FAO WHO is estimated, limiting amino acids were found. The amino acid score was calculated: for threonine – 81.5%, leucine – 91.9%, isoleucine – 81%, valine – 95.4%, lysine – 52.7%, phenylalanine and tyrosine sum – 91.5%, methionine and cysteine sum – 101.7%. Feedstuff component had a low level of essential amino acids in compare with "ideal" protein (FAO WHO. Feedstuff component can be used for livestock nutrition as a component of essential amino-acid balanced diet.

    1. Simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients with fatty acid signature data

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

      2017-01-01

      Knowledge of animal diets provides essential insights into their life history and ecology, although diet estimation is challenging and remains an active area of research. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) has become a popular method of estimating diet composition, especially for marine species. A primary assumption of QFASA is that constants called calibration coefficients, which account for the differential metabolism of individual fatty acids, are known. In practice, however, calibration coefficients are not known, but rather have been estimated in feeding trials with captive animals of a limited number of model species. The impossibility of verifying the accuracy of feeding trial derived calibration coefficients to estimate the diets of wild animals is a foundational problem with QFASA that has generated considerable criticism. We present a new model that allows simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients based only on fatty acid signature samples from wild predators and potential prey. Our model performed almost flawlessly in four tests with constructed examples, estimating both diet proportions and calibration coefficients with essentially no error. We also applied the model to data from Chukchi Sea polar bears, obtaining diet estimates that were more diverse than estimates conditioned on feeding trial calibration coefficients. Our model avoids bias in diet estimates caused by conditioning on inaccurate calibration coefficients, invalidates the primary criticism of QFASA, eliminates the need to conduct feeding trials solely for diet estimation, and consequently expands the utility of fatty acid data to investigate aspects of ecology linked to animal diets.

    2. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

      2007-03-01

      The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

    3. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Serum Bile Acid Composition and Conjugation in a Diabetic Rat Model.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, Qunzheng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhong, Mingwei; Han, Haifeng; Liu, Shaozhuang; Liu, Teng; Wei, Meng; Guo, Wei; Xie, Haibin; Hu, Sanyuan; Zhang, Guangyong

      2016-10-01

      Serum bile acids (BAs) are elevated following bariatric surgery and have emerged as a potential glucose-lowering beneficial factor. The change of BA components and its underlying mechanisms may be of great significance during bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different bariatric procedures on serum BA composition and explore the potential mechanisms using a diabetic rat model. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and sham operation were performed in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). Body weight, food intake, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were measured at indicated time points. Serum BAs composition and the expression of cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1), bile acid: CoA synthase (BACS) and bile acid-CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) at both transcriptional and protein levels in the liver were evaluated at 12 weeks postoperatively. Compared with sham group, DJB and SG both achieved rapid and sustained improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. They also resulted in increased serum BAs, especially the taurine-conjugated BAs by elevated conjugation. No obvious difference was detected between DJB and SG except that SG achieved decreased weight gain and food intake. The preferentially elevated serum taurine-conjugated BAs were similar after different bariatric surgeries, and the enhanced conjugation of BAs in the liver might account for the changed serum BAs profiles.

    4. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sang Moo Lee

      2016-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Results No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05, whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3 showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P < 0.01, even though no significant difference was observed between the control and T1 group. The T3 group had higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids (0.33 vs. 0.28, P < 0.05 and lower total cholesterol concentration (94.4 vs. 99.1 mg/g, P < 0.05 compared to the control group. Persimmon peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Conclusions Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

    5. [Composition diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community Al2 used for alfalfa silage].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Xiao-Fen; Gao, Li-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Wei-Dong; Cui, Zong-Jun

      2006-10-01

      Alfalfa is the most important forage grass that is difficult to ensile for good quality. Using silage inoculants are the important way for preservation of alfalfa silage. Through continuous restricted subcultivation, a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community Al2 was selected from well-fermented alfalfa silage. Plate isolation and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), construction of 16S rDNA clone library were used to identify the composition diversity of Al2 community, with 7 strains detected, and they were all belonged to Lactobacillus. The composition ratios of the 7 strains were 55.21%, 19.79%, 14.58%, 3.13%, 3.13%, 3.13%, 1.03% according to 16S rDNA clone library. Al2-1i, Al2-2i, Al2-3i, corresponding to L. plantarum (99.9%), L. kimchii (99.4%), L. farciminis (100%) were detected by plate isolation. Among 3 isolates, Al2-1i had the highest ability of dropping pH and producing lactic acid, and the amount of lactic acid was reach to 18g/L at 24h cultivated in MRS media. The ability of dropping pH and producing lactic acid of Al2-3i was the lowest. From DGGE profiles, the dominant strains in Al2 community were L. plantarum and L. kimchii. L. plantarum was detected during the whole process, and L. kimchii was detected in the later phase.

    6. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Fatty Acid Composition in Theobroma grandiflorum Seeds

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Casandra Valentina Itriago

      2017-07-01

      Full Text Available Theobroma grandiflorum is an important fruit tree from Sterculiaceae family, native to the Brazilian Amazon, known in the region as cupuaçu. The seeds have a high fat content (24% with characteristics that resemble those of cocoa (Theobroma cacao butter with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The main objective of this work was to explore the seed fats from T. grandiflorum that were analyzed for fatty acid composition by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID and to analyze their activity for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Chromatographic analysis provided detection of nine fatty acids. The major fatty acids found in the species were oleic (40.0%, stearic (32.7%, arachidic (10.4% and palmitic (8.0%. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition by fats from seeds was over 40.48%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.894 

    7. The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes of lactating mothers and their infants

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jørgensen, M.H.; Nielsen, P.K.; Michaelsen, K.F.

      2006-01-01

      Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal...... and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first four months of lactation. We examined 17 mothers and their term infants at 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Milk samples and RBC from the mothers and infants were obtained and analysed for fatty acid composition. Comparative analysis of the results showed...... that the content of DHA in maternal RBC-phosphatidylcholine (PE) decreased over the four month period and this was not accompanied by a decrease in DHA in infant RBC-PE (P = 0.005). The ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA increased over time in maternal RBC-PE, but not in infant RBC-PE (P

    8. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

      2003-06-01

      Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

    9. Detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid composition of rumen content from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate supplemented with soybean oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alves, Susana P; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Bessa, Rui J B

      2013-01-01

      Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18:1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18:0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18:3n-3.

    10. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

      2008-11-03

      In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

    11. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

      2011-09-14

      Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

    12. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

      2010-01-01

      Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g -1 . The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm 2 s -1 (40 o C), and 14.6 h (110 o C). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 o C and -19 o C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition.

    13. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Katsumi, Naoya, E-mail: n-katsu@ishikawa-pu.ac.jp; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

      2016-01-15

      Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 12 h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300 °C), but increased with increasing heating time at ≤ 250 °C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. - Highlights: • Darkness of humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. • Aromatic carbon content increased during darkening. • Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope

    14. Effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on microbial decontamination and fatty acid compositions of aloe and pollen powders

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yook, H.S.; Chung, Y.J.; Kim, J.O.; Kwon, O.J.; Byun, M.W.

      1997-01-01

      The comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial inactivation and fatty acid composition were investigated for improving hygienic quality of aloe and pollen powders. Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy resulted in sterilizing total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of aloe and pollen powders. The compositions of fatty acid were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy. However, ozone treatment markedly decreased unsaturated fatty acids by approximately 20-80% in contents, whereas it significantly increased saturated fatty acids (p<0.05)

    15. Fatty acid composition and some physicochemical characteristics of Sterculia apetala seed oils

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Herrera-Meza, S.

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available In the tropical rain forests of southeastern Mexico, the use of Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia apetala seed oils for human and animal nutrition is common. However, the seeds contain cyclopropene fatty acids, whose consumption is related with beneficial as well as detrimental physiological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile and the physicochemical characteristics of S. apetala seed oil and to evaluate the effect of roasting on both aspects. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, sterculic acid and malvalic acid were identified in the natural and roasted seed oils. The major component in the seed oil was sterculic acid, as has been reported for Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia foetida. The roasting process modified some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, particularly by decreasing its content of sterculic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty acid composition of S. apetala seed oil.En zonas tropicales del sureste de México, el uso de semillas de Sterculia mexicana y Sterculia apetala es común para consumo humano y animal. Sin embargo, dichas semillas contienen ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos, los cuales se les ha relacionado tanto con efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos como adversos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y las características fisicoquímicas de la especie S. apetala, así como la evaluación del aceite sometido a un proceso de tostado. Se identificaron ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos como el ácido estercúlico y malválico, en el aceite natural y tostado. Para las especies S. mexicana y S. foetida, el componente mayoritario en las semillas fue el ácido estercúlico. El proceso de tostado modificó algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composción de los ácidos grasos, especificamente disminuyó el contenido de ácido estercúlico. Para nuestro conocimiento, este es la primera informaci

    16. Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty acid composition

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ramayo-Caldas Yuliaxis

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L and 270 (H lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96, as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72. A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used

    17. Influence of membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity on airborne survival of Escherichia coli.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ng, Tsz Wai; Chan, Wing Lam; Lai, Ka Man

      2018-04-01

      Finding ways to predict and control the survival of bacterial aerosols can contribute to the development of ways to alleviate a number of crucial microbiological problems. Significant damage in the membrane integrity of Escherichia coli during aerosolization and airborne suspension has been revealed which has prompted the question of how the membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity influence the survival of airborne bacteria. Two approaches of using isogenic mutants and different growth temperatures were selected to manipulate the membrane fatty acid composition of E. coli before challenging the bacteria with different relative humidity (RH) levels in an aerosol chamber. Among the mutants (fabR - , cfa. fadA - ), fabR - had the lowest membrane fluidity index (FI) and generally showed a higher survival than the parental strain. Surprisingly, its resistance to airborne stress was so strong that its viability was fully maintained even after airborne suspension at 40% RH, a harsh RH level to bacterial survival. Moreover, E. coli cultured at 20 °C with a higher FI than that at 30 and 37 °C generally had a lower survival after aerosolization and airborne suspension. Unlike FI, individual fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acid composition did not relate to the bacterial survival. Lipid peroxidation of the membrane was undetected in all the bacteria. Membrane fluidity plays a stronger role in determining the bacteria survival during airborne suspension than during aerosolization. Certain relationships between FI and bacteria survival were identified, which could help predict the transmission of bacteria under different conditions.

    18. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

      2012-01-01

      Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...

    19. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

      2016-01-01

      Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites-including enterolactone-compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA-in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids-in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (pconsumption results in major biological modifications-increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity-known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between whole rye (fiber and polyphenols) and gut microbiota and also the mechanisms of action responsible for stimulating n-3 fatty acid metabolism.

    20. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

      2012-06-01

      The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series.

    1. Effect of chromium on the fatty acid composition of two strains of Euglena gracilis

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Rocchetta, Iara [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: rocchetta@bg.fcen.uba.ar; Mazzuca, Marcia [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Patagonia, Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina); Conforti, Visitacion [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ruiz, Laura [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Balzaretti, Vilma [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Patagonia, Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina); Rios de Molina, Maria del Carmen [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

      2006-05-15

      The effect of hexavalent chromium on fatty acid composition was studied in two strains of Euglena gracilis; UTEX 753 (from the Culture Collection of Algae of Texas University, USA) and MAT (isolated from a highly polluted River). Both were grown in photoauxotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions and exposed to two metal concentrations, one below and one above IC{sub 5}. The high malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (3 to 7-fold) obtained with chromium concentration above IC{sub 5}, suggested the existence of metal-induced lipid peroxidation. Total lipid content increased only with concentration below IC{sub 5}, whereas it was inhibited by higher metal concentration. Photoheterotrophic control strains exhibited a significantly higher proportion of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated acids were most affected by chromium, especially those related to chloroplast structures. Ultra-structure studies showed clear thylakoid disorganization in all treated cells. The results indicate that hexavalent chromium affects levels of fatty acids, especially those related to photosynthetic activity. - Fatty acid evaluation in the presence of chromium in Euglena gracilis grown in different culture conditions.

    2. Effect of chromium on the fatty acid composition of two strains of Euglena gracilis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rocchetta, Iara; Mazzuca, Marcia; Conforti, Visitacion; Ruiz, Laura; Balzaretti, Vilma; Rios de Molina, Maria del Carmen

      2006-01-01

      The effect of hexavalent chromium on fatty acid composition was studied in two strains of Euglena gracilis; UTEX 753 (from the Culture Collection of Algae of Texas University, USA) and MAT (isolated from a highly polluted River). Both were grown in photoauxotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions and exposed to two metal concentrations, one below and one above IC 5 . The high malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (3 to 7-fold) obtained with chromium concentration above IC 5 , suggested the existence of metal-induced lipid peroxidation. Total lipid content increased only with concentration below IC 5 , whereas it was inhibited by higher metal concentration. Photoheterotrophic control strains exhibited a significantly higher proportion of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated acids were most affected by chromium, especially those related to chloroplast structures. Ultra-structure studies showed clear thylakoid disorganization in all treated cells. The results indicate that hexavalent chromium affects levels of fatty acids, especially those related to photosynthetic activity. - Fatty acid evaluation in the presence of chromium in Euglena gracilis grown in different culture conditions

    3. Proximate and fatty acid composition of cooked South African Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Suné S. Henning

      2017-05-01

      Full Text Available Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun is an important source of protein for people in South Africa; however, nutritional information thereof is limited. The proximate and fatty acid compositions of raw and cooked (80 °C snoek muscles were determined according to official AOAC methods. The mean moisture, ash, total lipids and protein for raw snoek were 72.8±1.86%, 1.3±0.09%, 4.0±1.16 and 21.5±1.35%, respectively. Cape snoek is very high in palmitic acid (24.65±1.43%, oleic acid (18.21±2.64%, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 9.11±2.06% and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 19.70±3.25%. With the exception of total lipids, cooking significantly reduced moisture (69.40±2.03% and ash (1.12±0.12%, and increased protein (24.47±1.39% content. It is concluded that Cape snoek is very high in protein and can be classified as a low-fat fish which is rich in EPA and DHA.

    4. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

    5. Effect of the Talc Filler on Structural, Water Vapor Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Composites.

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Buzarovska, A.; Bogoeva-Gaceva, G.; Fajgar, Radek

      2016-01-01

      Roč. 36, č. 2 (2016), s. 181-188 ISSN 0334-6447 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : composites * packaging * poly (lactic acid) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

    6. Constitution of novel polyamic acid/polypyrrole composite films by in-situ electropolymerization

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hess, Euodia H.; Waryo, Tesfaye; Sadik, Omowunmi A.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.; Baker, Priscilla G.L.

      2014-01-01

      The preparation and characterization of polyamic acid-polypyrrole (PAA/PPy) composite films are reported in this paper. The thin films were synthesized by electrochemical method from a solution containing controlled molar ratio of chemically synthesized polyamic acid (PAA) and pyrrole monomer. Homogenous films were obtained by incorporating PAA into electropolymerized polypyrrole (PPy) thin film. The concentration of PAA (1.37 × 10 −6 M) was kept fixed throughout the composite ratio analysis, whilst the concentration of PPy was varied from 1.90 × 10 −3 M to 9.90 × 10 −3 M. The PAA/PPy thin films were electrodeposited at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and voltammetry. The composition that best represented the homogenous incorporation of PAA into PPy matrix was observed at a PAA/PPy ratio of 1: 4.13 × 10 −3 . This composite was observed to have two sets of coupled peaks with formal potential 99 mV and 567 mV respectively. The D e determined from cyclic voltammetry using the anodic peak currents were found to be twice as high (5.82 × 10 −4 cm 2 /s) compared to the D e calculated using the cathodic peak currents (2.60 × 10 −4 cm 2 /s), indicating that the composite favours anodic electron mobility. Surface morphology and spectroscopy data support the formation of a homogenous polymer blend at the synthesis ratio of 1: 4.13 × 10 −3

    7. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Milton Massao Shimizu

      2000-01-01

      Full Text Available Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino acids, although serine and glutamine were also significant. Except for tyrosine, which increased with germination, all other amino acids were reduced. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the total soluble protein showed glutamic acid/glutamine and glycine as the main amino acids. However, other amino acids such as leucine, aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, lysine, serine were also found in reasonable amounts.Endosperma é o principal tecido de reserva em sementes de café. Sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. foram germinadas por seis semanas e as alterações qualitativas e quantitativas de aminoácidos e proteínas foram investigadas. O conteúdo total de aminoácidos livres reduziu durante a germinação, no entanto, o conteúdo de proteínas permaneceu constante. Perfis eletroforéticos de proteínas em SDS-PAGE mostraram que proteínas do tipo legumina foram menos coradas nas últimas semanas. Asparagina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, alanina e lisina foram os principais aminoácidos, apesar de que serina e glutamina também estavam presentes em quantidades significativas. Exceto tirosina, a qual aumentou durante a germinação, todos os outros aminoácidos tiveram redução em sua concentração. A análise aminoacídica da fração de proteína solúvel total mostrou que ácido glutâmico/glutamina e glicina eram os principais aminoácidos presentes. No entanto, outros aminoácidos, tais como leucina, ácido asp

    8. Changes in the free amino acid composition with maturity of the noble cultivar of Vitis rotundifolia Michx. grape.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lamikanra, O; Kassa, A K

      1999-12-01

      The changes in amino acid composition that occur with maturity of the Noble cultivar of the Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine) grape were determined by HPLC. Eighteen amino acids were identified. Histidine was the most prominent amino acid followed by alanine. The concentrations of most of the major amino acids (alanine, glycine, histidine, valine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, and serine) were highest at verasion. Glutamine and threonine contents dropped sharply after fruit set, while those of arginine and proline increased gradually with maturity and ripening. Tyrosine content increased gradually with maturity and ripening following a slight drop after fruit set. In ripe grapes, seeds contained most of the amino acids in mature grapes (50%) followed by the pulp (23%), the juice (15%), and the skin (11%). Alanine, histidine, and arginine were the principal amino acids identified in the juice. Alanine, histidine, arginine, valine, glutamine, aspartic acid, proline, serine, and threonine accounted for about 90% of the amino acids in the pulp. In seeds, alanine, proline, asparagine, and histidine accounted for over 55% of the amino acids, while alanine and histidine were found to be the predominant free amino acids in the skin. The profile indicates some differences in the changes in amino acid composition with berry maturity and relative amounts of amino acids present in muscadine compared to those in nonmuscadine grape species.

    9. [Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the surface morphology and bonding effectiveness of lithium disilicate glass ceramics to resin composites].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hailan, Qian; Lingyan, Ren; Rongrong, Nie; Xiangfeng, Meng

      2017-12-01

      This study aimed at determining the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in varied concentrations on the surface morphology of lithium disilicate glass ceramics and bond durability between resin composites and post-treated lithium disilicate glass ceramics. After being sintered, ground, and washed, 72 as-prepared specimens of lithium disilicate glass ceramics with dimensions of 11 mm×13 mm×2 mm were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was treated with acid solution [32% phosphoric acid (PA) or 4% or 9.5% HF] for 20 s. Then, four acidified specimens from each group were randomly selected. One of the specimens was used to observe the surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, and the others were used to observe the surface roughness using a surface roughness meter (including Ra, Rz, and Rmax). After treatment with different acid solutions in each group, 20 samples were further treated with silane coupling agent/resin adhesive/resin cement (Monobond S/Multilink Primer A&B/Multilink N), followed by bonding to a composite resin column (Filtek™ Z350) with a diameter of 3 mm. A total of 20 specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups, which were used for measuring the microshear bond strength, with one of them subjected to cool-thermal cycle for 20 000 times. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, and Rmax) of lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% or 9.5% HF was significantly higher than that of the ceramic treated with PA (Pglass ceramics treated with 9.5% HF also demonstrated better surface roughness (Rz and Rmax) than that of the ceramics treated with 4% HF. Cool-thermal cycle treatment reduced the bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramics in all groups (Pglass ceramics treated with HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with PA. The lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with 9.5% HF (Pglass ceramics treated with 4

    10. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Johnson, D. Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B.

      2005-01-01

      The compost bioreactor ('anaerobic cell') components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

    11. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

      2005-02-01

      The compost bioreactor ("anaerobic cell") components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

    12. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

      2017-09-01

      Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    13. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, or 2-monododecanoin on fatty acid composition in the portal vein, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation in rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      You, Yi-Qian Nancy; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R

      2008-01-01

      Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine.

    14. Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Long-Chain Triglycerides, or 2-Monododecanoin on Fatty Acid Composition in the Portal Vein, Intestinal Lymph, and Systemic Circulation in Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nancy You, Yi-Qian; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R.

      2011-01-01

      Background Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. Methods The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. Results MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. Conclusions The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine. PMID:18407910

    15. Whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes during early lactation: effect on the fatty acid composition of milk and cheese

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      P. Secchiari

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available In a long term supplementation trial (10 weeks, the effects of the inclusion of whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes on milk and cheese fatty acid composition were evaluated. Two groups of 24 Sarda ewes in early lactation were randomly assigned to control concentrate (800 g/d concentrate, C or whole extruded linseed concentrate (L, 700 g/d, with 30% of extruded linseed, Omega-Lin®. Results showed that, after 2 weeks on the L diet, the milk content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, including rumenic acid (RA, vaccenic acid (VA and alfa-linolenic acid (ALA increased sharply compared to C group, reaching the highest levels after 7-8 weeks (3.06, 7.31 and 2.31 g/100 g milk fat for RA, VA and ALA, respectively. During the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, when pasture was included in the diet of both groups, the content of the above fatty acids slightly decreased in milk from L group, whereas in milk from C group increased. Nevertheless, the average content of these fatty acids in milk from L group remained significantly higher than that of milk from C group. Compared with the control, the L diet resulted in a significant reduction (-17% in the concentration of saturated fatty acid in milk. The fatty acid content of the cheese obtained from milk of the two groups reflected the milk fatty acid composition. The inclusion of extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes improved the nutraceutical properties of milk and cheese, but further researches are needed in order to better understand the relationship between basal diet and lipid supplementation in dairy ewes.

    16. Carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.; Silter, J.A.

      1996-01-01

      A SIGNIFICANT parties of prebiotic organic matter on the early Earth may have been introduced by carbonaceous asteroids and comets. 1 The distribution and stable-isotope composition of individual organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites, which are thought to be derived from asteroidal parent bodies, may therefore provide important information concerning mechanistic pathways for prebiotic synthesis 2 and the composition of organic matter on Earth before living systems developed. 3 Previous studies 11,12 have shown that meteorite amino acids are enriched in 13 C relatives to their terrestrial counterparts, but individual species were not distinguished. Here we report the 13 C contents of individual amino acids in the Murchison meteorite. The amino acids are enriched in 13 C, indicating an extraterrestrial origin. Alanine is not racemic, and the 13 C enrichment of its D- and L-enantiomers implies that the excess of the L-enantiomer is indigenous rather than terrestrial contamination, suggesting that optically active materials were present in the early Solar System before life began. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

    17. Theoretical modeling of iodine value and saponification value of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid composition

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gopinath, A.; Puhan, Sukumar; Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

      2009-07-15

      Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The properties of biodiesel depend on the type of vegetable oil used for the transesterification process. The objective of the present work is to theoretically predict the iodine value and the saponification value of different biodiesels from their fatty acid methyl ester composition. The fatty acid ester compositions and the above values of different biodiesels were taken from the available published data. A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict the iodine value and saponification value of different biodiesels. The predicted results showed that the prediction errors were less than 3.4% compared to the available published data. The predicted values were also verified by substituting in the available published model which was developed to predict the higher heating values of biodiesel fuels from their iodine value and the saponification value. The resulting heating values of biodiesels were then compared with the published heating values and reported. (author)

    18. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

    19. Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the amino acid composition of normal human Ig(G)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Kaupert, N.L.; Mariano, E.E.

      1981-01-01

      In order to verify gamma radiation effect of 60 Co, samples of Normal human Ig(G) in a) pH 7 solutions with different concentrations, and b) in liophilized state, were irradiated. In both, the quali and quantitative amino acid compositions have been studied. No changes in amino acid composition were observed, for doses up to 10 Mrad delivered to the liophilized samples. Nevertheless, when 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml solutions of Ig(G) were irradiated with a 2 Mrad gamma dose, both were affected. The damage appeared in greater proportion in the samples with lower concentration. Cistine was the amino acid most damaged and the loss of methionine, proline histidine, arginine, tirosine and phenilalanine, decreased in this order. The analysis of the experimental data shows that liophilized human Ig(G) can be treated with doses higher than those required to achieve sterilization, without modifying its immunologic and primary proteic structure properties. Therefore, gamma sterilization feasibility has been proved for normal human Ig(G) only in the liophilized state. (author) [es

    20. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows on pasture subjected to licuri oil supplement

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luciano dos Santos Lima

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the best level of oil licuri concentrate on dairy cows. The best level was determined through an analysis of the milk's chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Sixteen lactating cows from the Holstein × Zebu cross breed kept on Tanzania grass pastures were divided into four 4 × 4 Latin squares, which were formed by four experimental periods of 21 days. The 21-day experimental periods were divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day, at the time of milking. Treatments consisted of four types of feed containing the following levels: 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% inclusion of dry matter (DM licuri oil concentrate. The licuri oil levels changed the fatty acids' profile with a linear increase in the short-chain fatty acid and medium and linearly reduced the concentration of LCFA. The highest level of licuri oil was 4.5% of DM concentrate, which changed the composition of milk through an increase in the percentage of fat and total solids. This result is of prominent notice to the dairy industry.

    1. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

      2017-08-05

      Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

    2. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michael I. McBurney

      2017-08-01

      Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

    3. Identification of Exonic Nucleotide Variants of the Gene Associated with Carcass Traits and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Cattle

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dong-yep Oh

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP gene is a functional gene that can be used to indicate the fatty acid compositions. This study investigates the relationships of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the THRSP gene and fatty acid composition of muscle fat and marbling score in the 612 Korean cattle. The relationships between fatty acid composition and eight SNPs in the THRSP gene (g.78 G>A, g.173 C>T, g.184 C>T, g.190 C>A, g.194 C>T, g.277 C>G, g.283 T>G and g.290 T>G were investigated, and according to the results, two SNPs (g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T in exon 1 were associated with fatty acid composition. The GG and CC genotypes of g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content (pA and g.184 C>T had significantly relationships with UFAs and MUFAs. Two SNPs in the THRSP gene affected fatty acid composition, suggesting that GG and CC genotypes and the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype can be markers to genetically improve the quality and flavor of beef.

    4. Thermal properties of extruded injection-molded poly (lactic acid) and milkweed composites: degradation kinetics and enthalpic relaxation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

    5. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

      2016-05-01

      We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    6. Fatty acid composition and antibacterial potential of Cassia tora (leaves and stem collected from different geographic areas of India

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shipra Shukla

      2018-01-01

      Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid composition of Cassia tora (leaves and stem was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven fatty acids were identified in C. tora (leaves and stem which was collected from three different geographical areas of India: Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, Nainital (Uttarakhand, and Bhavnagar (Gujarat, coded as CT-1, CT-2, and CT-3, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids found were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, margaric acid, melissic acid, and behenic acid. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in leaves of C. tora collected from Bhavnagar (Gujarat (60.7% ± 0.5%. Thus, the study reveals that C. tora has a major amount of nutritionally important fatty acids, along with significant antimicrobial potential. Fatty acids play a significant role in the development of fat products with enhanced nutritional value and clinical application. Remarkable differences were found in the present study between fatty acid profiles of C. tora collected from different locations in India. To the best of our knowledge there is no previously reported comparative study of the fatty acids of C. tora.

    7. Fatty acid composition indicates two types of metabolic syndrome independent of clinical and laboratory parameters.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Žák, A; Burda, M; Vecka, M; Zeman, M; Tvrzická, E; Staňková, B

      2014-01-01

      Dietary composition and metabolism of fatty acids (FA) influence insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia and other components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that patients with MS exhibit a heterogeneous phenotype; however, the relationships of individual FA to MS components have not yet been consistently studied. We examined the plasma phosphatidylcholine FA composition of 166 individuals (68F/98M) with MS and of 188 (87F/101M) controls. Cluster analysis of FA divided the groups into two clusters. In cluster 1, there were 65.7 % of MS patients and 37.8 % of controls, cluster 2 contained 34.3 % of patients and 62.2 % of controls (Pinsulin resistance).

    8. Application and appreciation of chemical sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) and its composites

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yang Jun; Cao Hui; Wang Fang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan Tianwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: twtan@mail.buct.edu.cn

      2007-12-15

      The sand fixing agent-poly (aspartic acid) (PASP) and its composites were applied in the field by two forms (spraying around by PASP solution and PASP powder directly). It was found that the sand fixing effect in powder form was not as good as in solution form, but it was more practical in dry region. It needed 9, 6 and 7 days for PASP, xanthan gum-PASP (X2) and ethyl cellulose-PASP (E3) to attain the maximal mechanical strength after they were applied, respectively. The sand fixing effect decreased when the material was subjected to repeated hydration-dehydration cycles and the material had no negative influence on plant growth. The PASP and its composites had water-retaining ability and could reduce the water evaporation. - The sand fixing agent was applied in powder form and it had no negative influence on plant growth.

    9. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

      Science.gov (United States)

      Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

      1994-01-01

      A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

    10. Analysis of the porcine APOA2 gene expression in liver, polymorphism identification and association with fatty acid composition traits

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Ballester, M.; Revilla, M.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Marchesi, J.A.; Castello, A.; Corominas, J.; Fernandez, A.I.; Folch, J.M.

      2016-01-01

      APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits

    11. The effect of ionizing radiation on the fatty acid composition of natural fats and on lipid peroxide formation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hammer, C.T.; Wills, E.D.

      1979-01-01

      The effects of irradiation doses of 200 to 1000 krad on the fatty acid composition of saturated and unsaturated natural food fats have been studied. Lard, coconut oil, corn oil, methyl linoleate and herring oil have been analysed before and after irradiation for lipid peroxide content and fatty acid composition. The effects of storage under varied conditions after irradiation have also been investigated. Irradiation doses of 200 to 1000 krad had little effect on the fatty acid compositions of saturated fats (lard and coconut oil) or of fats with a high antioxidant content (corn oil) but caused destruction of 98 per cent of the highly unsaturated acids (18:4, 20:5, 22:6) and 46 per cent of the diene acids (18:2) in herring oil. The destruction of the polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing storage temperature and storage time. The destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acids was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxide formation. It is considered that changes in fatty acid composition in natural foods after irradiation are important in consideration of the use of irradiation of food preservation. (author)

    12. The effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid composition on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Liu, Xiaoli; Aho, Johanna; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.

      2017-01-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer molecular structure on the electrospinnability and mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats (EFMs). Polymers with similar molecular weight but different composition ratios (lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA)) were dis...

    13. All Biomass and UV Protective Composite Composed of Compatibilized Lignin and Poly (Lactic-acid)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Youngjun; Suhr, Jonghwan; Seo, Hee-Won; Sun, Hanna; Kim, Sanghoon; Park, In-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Youngkwan; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Nam, Jae-Do

      2017-03-01

      Utilization of carbon-neutral biomass became increasingly important due to a desperate need for carbon reduction in the issue of global warming in light of replacing petroleum-based materials. We used lignin, which was an abundant, low cost, and non-food based biomass, for the development of all biomass-based films and composites through reactive compatibilization with poly (lactic-acid) (PLA). Using a facile and practical route, the hydrophilic hydroxyl groups of lignin were acetylated to impose the compatibility with PLA. The solubility parameter of the pristine lignin at 26.3 (J/cm3)0.5 was altered to 20.9 (J/cm3)0.5 by acetylation allowing the good compatibility with PLA at 20.2 (J/cm3)0.5. The improved compatibility of lignin and PLA provided substantially decreased lignin domain size in composites (12.7 μm), which subsequently gave transparent and UV-protection films (visual transmittance at 76% and UV protection factor over 40). The tensile strength and elongation of the developed composite films were increased by 22% and 76%, respectively, and the biobased carbon content was confirmed as 96 ± 3%. The developed PLA/lignin composites provided 100% all-biomass contents and balanced optical and mechanical properties that could broaden its eco-friendly applications in various industries.

    14. Preparation and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide nano composites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Eili Mahboobeh; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Zobir Hossein; Mansor Ahmad; Norazowa Ibrahim

      2009-01-01

      Full text: Poly (lactic acid)/ stearate - zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide/ (PLA/ SZnAl LDH) nano composites were prepared via solution intercalation process using a modified ZnAl LDH. The anionic clay Zn 3 Al-NO 3 -LDH was prepared by a co-precipitation method and then modified with stearate ions by ion exchange process. Stearate-ZnAl LDH particles were then homogeneously dispersed in PLA matrix by a solution casting method. The pristine and modified ZnAl LDH was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which suggested that the modification was successful. The XRD analysis showed that during modification of LDH, the basal spacing increased from 8.83 Angstrom to 40.1 Angstrom. The PLA/ ZnAl LDH nano composites were characterized by tensile testing and XRD. The obtained nano composites showed dramatic enhancements in elongation at break as compared to those of the pure PLA. XRD results indicated that the materials formed are nano composites. (author)

    15. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

    16. An investigation of the chemical composition and acid corrosion of pedra sabão (soapstone

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      ROBSON FERNANDES DE FARIAS

      2005-02-01

      Full Text Available In this paper the results of a basic study of the chemical composition and structure of soapstone are reported. An investigation of the effects of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions on the physical integrity of the stone was also performed. The studied soapstone samples had a lamellar nanostructure as verified by DRX data. Furthermore, they contained isolated silanol (Si–OH groups, as indicated by FTIR data, and the majority of the silicon atoms were bonded to OH groups, as shown by 29Si CPMAS NMR analysis. Is was also shown that a low resistance to acid attack is associated with a large amount of magnesium and/or iron in the stone.

    17. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

      KAUST Repository

      Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

      2014-01-01

      Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

    18. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Thanaa Shehab

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting

    19. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Anderson, D M; Howlett, J F; McNab, C G

      1985-01-01

      Six Iranian and seven Turkish samples of commercial gum tragacanth, and a sample of Turkish 'gum traganton', have been studied. Their nitrogen content varied from 0.17 to 0.58%. Their amino acid compositions are characterized by the presence of very large but variable proportions of hydroxyproline and substantial proportions of serine, proline and valine. The data presented may be useful for extending the current specifications for identity and purity, at present based solely on polysaccharide parameters, for gum tragacanth (E413).

    20. Development of a certified reference materials for composition of citric acid

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      D. H. Kulev

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of analyzing Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR TC 029/2012 "Safety Requirements for Food Additives, Flavorings and Technological Processing Aids". Information on certified reference materials (RMs for composition of citric acid is provided. Certified characteristics of the RM are, on the one hand, mass fraction of the base substance and, on the other hand, mass fraction of impurities - toxic elements (lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury. The first batches of the given RMs are produced, which are registered in the State Register of the approved types of certified reference materials GS010300-2013 and GS010143-2012.