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Sample records for acidothermus cellulolyticus 11b

  1. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  2. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Necsulea, Anamaria [UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [JGI; Pujic, Pierre [UNIV LYON; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Phillipe [UNIV LYON

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  3. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-10-22

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg(-1), respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL(-1) and 131.75 U·mg(-1), respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future.

  4. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future.

  5. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacome, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Philippe [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Necsula, Anamaria [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [CNRS/GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [DOE JOINT GENOME INST.; Pujic, Pierre [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Richardson, Paul [DOE JOINT GENOME INST; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  6. Cloning of cellulase genes from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastick, deceased, Stanley M.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1996-01-01

    A process is described for moving fragments that code for cellulase activity from the genome of A. cellulolyticus to several plasmid vectors and the subsequent expression of active cellulase acitivty in E. coli.

  7. Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-β-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

    Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-β glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.

  8. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  9. Bipartite and tripartite Cucumber mosaic virus-based vectors for producing the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1,4-β-glucanase and other proteins in non-transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using plant viruses to produce desirable proteins in plants allows for using non-transgenic plant hosts and if necessary, the ability to make rapid changes in the virus construct for increased or modified protein product yields. The objective of this work was the development of advanced CMV-based protein production systems to produce Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic plants. Results We used two new Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-based vector systems for producing the green fluorescent protein (GFP and more importantly, the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These are the inducible CMVin (CMV-based inducible and the autonomously replicating CMVar (CMV-based advanced replicating systems. We modified a binary plasmid containing the complete CMV RNA 3 cDNA to facilitate insertion of desired sequences, and to give modifications of the subgenomic mRNA 4 leader sequence yielding several variants. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed good levels of CMV RNA and coat protein accumulation for some variants of both CMVin and CMVar. When genes for E1 or GFP were inserted in place of the CMV coat protein, both were produced in plants as shown by fluorescence (GFP and immunoblot analysis. Enzymatic activity assays showed that active E1 was produced in plants with yields up to ~ 11 μg/g fresh weight (FW for specific variant constructs. We also compared in vitro CMV genomic RNA reassortants, and CMV RNA 3 mutants which lacked the C’ terminal 33 amino acids of the 3A movement protein in attempts to further increase E1 yield. Taken together specific variant constructs yielded up to ~21 μg/g FW of E1 in non-transgenic plants. Conclusions Intact, active E1 was rapidly produced in non-transgenic plants by using agroinfiltration with the CMV-based systems. This reduces the time and cost compared to that required to

  10. Optimization of Acidothermus Celluloyticus Endoglucanase (E1) Production in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Transcriptional, Post-transcription and Post-Translational Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Thomas, S. R.

    2005-10-01

    Biochemical characteristics of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) and its physiological effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has been studied previously. In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5’ untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. The expression of E1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants was determined via E1 activity, protein immunobloting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of different transit peptides on E1 protein production and its stability were examined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors with the same (Mac) promoter and transcription terminator (Tmas). Transgenic tobacco plants with apoplast transit peptide (Mm-apo) had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation , while E1 protein was more stable in transgenic plants with no transit peptide (Mm) than others. The E1 expression under tomato RbcS-3C promoter was higher than that under Mac promoter based on the average E1 activity, E1 protein accumulation, and RNA gel-blotting. The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5’-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. The optimal combination of promoter, 5’-UTL, and subcellular compartmentation (transit peptide) for E1 protein production in transgenic tobacco plants are discussed.

  11. Elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 14}C + {sup 11}B versus {sup 12,13}C + {sup 11}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhevych, S.Yu.; Rudchik, A.T.; Rudchik, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rusek, K. [National Institute for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kemper, K.W. [Florida State University, Physics Department, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kliczewski, S.; Czech, B.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Koshchy, E.I. [Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Sakuta, S.B. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    Complete angular distributions of the {sup 14}C + {sup 11}B elastic and inelastic scattering at the energy E{sub lab}({sup 11}B) = 45 MeV were measured for the ground and excited states of {sup 11}B. The data were analyzed within the optical model and the coupled-reaction-channels method. The parameters of the {sup 14}C + {sup 11}B optical potential and {sup 11}B deformation were deduced. The contributions of one- and two-step transfers of nucleons and clusters into the {sup 14}C + {sup 11}B elastic and inelastic scattering were calculated. The isotopic differences between the {sup 14}C + {sup 11}B and {sup 12,13}C + {sup 11}B scatterings are presented and clearly show the importance of the large angle scattering data for understanding the interaction between light heavy ions. (orig.)

  12. Study of the 11 B(p,p‧ γ) 11 B reaction for PIGE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Paneta, V.; Provatas, G.

    2016-02-01

    The differential cross sections of the 2125 keV γ -ray, emitted by the 11 B(p,p‧ γ) 11 B reaction were measured at six (6) angles and at proton energies from 2.5 to 5.0 MeV. The experimental setup consisted of three (3) 100% relative efficiency HPGe detectors placed on a motorized turntable. The comparison between the present measurements, which have an overall uncertainty of ∼ 8%, and previous ones from literature gives contradictory results. While there are large differences with previous differential cross-section measurements from literature, there is good agreement with previous thick-target yield ones. Additional thick-target measurements were performed in an effort to explain the observed discrepancies.

  13. ATP11B Mediates Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    cisplatin from Golgi to plasma membrane. In conclusion, inhibition of ATP11B expression could serve as a therapeutic strategy to overcome cisplatin...mostly detected in the trans- Golgi network (TGN) (Figure 5A), colocaliz- ing with syntaxin-6 (STX6, a TGN marker). ATP11B strongly colo- calized with...STX6 and also with ATP11B at all exposure times in both cell lines. This suggests that FDDP is first sequestered into the Golgi and eventu- ally

  14. Heavy ion collision dynamics of 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BirBikram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM of Gupta and collaborators has been applied successfully to the decay of very-light (A ∼ 30, light (A ∼ 40−80, medium, heavy and super-heavy mass compound nuclei for their decay to light particles (evaporation residues, ER, fusion-fission (ff, and quasi-fission (qf depending on the reaction conditions. We intend to extend here the application of DCM to study the extreme case of decay of very-light nuclear systems 20,21,22Ne∗ formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions, for which experimental data is available for their binary symmetric decay (BSD cross sections, i.e., σBSD. For the systems under study, the calculations are presented for the σBSD in terms of their preformation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. Interesting results are that in the decay of such lighter systems there is a competing reaction mechanism (specifically, the deep inelastic orbiting of non-compound nucleus (nCN origin together with ff. We have emipirically estimated the contribution of σnCN. Moreover, the important role of nuclear structure characteristics via P0 as well as angular momentum ℓ in the reaction dynamics are explored in the study.

  15. 11B nuclear magnetic resonance in boron-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Murakami, Tadashi Shimizu, Masataka Tansho and Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent results obtained by 11B solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR on boron-doped diamond, grown by the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Simple single-pulse experiments as well as advanced two-dimensional NMR experiments were applied to the boron sites in diamond. It is shown that magic-angle spinning at magnetic fields above 10 T is suitable for observation of high-resolution 11B spectra of boron-doped diamond. For boron-doped HPHT diamonds, the existence of the excess boron that does not contribute to electrical conductivity was confirmed and its 11B NMR signal was characterized. The point-defect structures (B+H complexes and -B-B-/-B-C-B- clusters, postulated previously for the excess boron, were discarded and graphite-like structures were assigned instead.

  16. Rotational bands in 11B and identification of diluted states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanova, A. S.; Danilov, A. N.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Goncharov, S. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Trzaska, W.

    2016-06-01

    Differential cross-sections of the 11B + α inelastic scattering at E(α) = 65 leading to the most of the known 11B states at the excitation energies up to 14 MeV were measured. The data analysis was done by DWBA and in some cases by the modified diffraction model allowing determining the radii of the excited states. The radii of the states with excitation energies less than ∼ 7 MeV with the accuracy not less than 0.1-0.15 fm coincide with the radius of the ground state. This result is consistent with the traditional view of the shell structure of the low-lying states in 11B. Most of the observed high-energy excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of band states are close to the moment of inertia of the Hoyle state of 12C. The calculated radii, related to these bands, are 0.7 - 1.0 fm larger than the radius of the ground state, and are close to the radius of the Hoyle state. These results are in agreement with existing predictions about various cluster structure of 11B at high excitation energies. The state with the excitation energy 12.56 MeV, I π = 1/2+, T = 1/2 and the root mean square radius R ∼ 6 fm predicted in the frame of the alpha condensate hypothesis was not found.

  17. Ignition condition for p-{sup 11}B reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tsuguhiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Matsumoto, Yutaka; Nagaura, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Oikawa, Shun-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hojo, Hitoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    Particle orbits under ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency) heating in LHD (Large Helical Device) is solved numerically. Runaway ion heating process is analyzed by Langevin equation. It is shown that the steady state proton distribution function becomes a quasilinear plateau distribution function (QPDF) in high beta LHD. In addition, it is confirmed theoretically and numerically that a complete {beta} = 1 equilibrium is established by the surface magnetic field produced by the boot-strap current. The nuclear fusion reaction rate is derived assuming a QPDF for protons. The ignition conditions of p-{sup 11}B reactors are analyzed and are shown to be possible to be satisfied. On the other hand, the ignition condition of the p-{sup 11}B reactor cannot be satisfied when protons are in Maxwellian distribution functions. The LHD magnetic field can confine high-energy ions in the almost entire magnetic surface region. This nature should be sure to contribute to the economy of the fusion reactor, because whole plasma column become possible to burn. One of the most important research item of the p-{sup 11}B reactor is dynamics of the fusion produced {alpha} particles. Possible methods of improving the power balance relation of the p-{sup 11}B reactor are discussed on the first wall coating and boron dust fueling. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. Gene targeting by RNAi-mediated knockdown of potent DNA ligase IV homologue in the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Koutarou; Asada, Seiya; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    The genome of the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) was screened for a potent DNA ligase IV gene (ligD homologue). Homologous recombination efficiency in T. cellulolyticus is very low. Therefore, suppression of a non-homologous end-joining system was attempted to enable specific gene knockouts for molecular breeding. The transcript levels of ligD homologue were 0.037 of those of the parental YP-4 strain in the Li20 transformant carrying the RNAi construct targeting the ligD homologue. Transformation of the hairpin-type RNAi vector into T. cellulolyticus could be useful in fungal gene knockdown experiments. Cellulase production and protein secretion were similar in the parental YP-4 strain and the Li20 transformant. Knockout transformation of ligD homologue using the Li20 transformant led to 23.1 % double crossover gene targeting. Our results suggest that the potent DNA ligase IV gene of T. cellulolyticus is related to non-homologous end joining and that the knockdown of the ligD homologue is useful in gene targeting.

  19. Investigation of 11B+197Au Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Karapetyan, G S; Balabekyan, A R

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of nuclear reactions on 197Au induced by 11B ions at energies above Coulomb barrier was studied by induced-activity method and gamma-spectroscopy. The cross sections of the reaction fragments from 197Au induced by 11B ions were measured at bombarding energies 137.5 and 255.5 MeV. The fission process was investigated by using multimodal fission approach at the energy 137.5 MeV, and pure symmetric distribution at 255.5 MeV. It was observed that the transferred linear momentum provides the information on the initial projectile-target information. The fissility for both fission reactions under study was deduced from measured fission cross section using the total inelastic cross section. Comparison with proton-induced fission shown, that the linear momentum transferred to the fissile system depends on the probe.

  20. Exoplanet HAT-P-11b Secondary Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Richard K., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT--11b, recently discovered by proposal G. Bakos and his colleagues. HAT-P-11b is the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We have observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Once the secondary eclipse is located through analysis of the data, we will make a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-1lb has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Strain Rt8.B8, Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Strain Wai35.B1, and "Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura L; Izquierdo, Javier A; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Conway, Jonathan M; Cottingham, Robert W; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, I-Min A; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Shapiro, Nicole; Nordberg, Henrik P; Cantor, Michael N; Hua, Susan X; Woyke, Tanja; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-05-14

    The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria capable of lignocellulose deconstruction. Currently, complete genome sequences for eleven Caldicellulosiruptor species are available. Here, we report genome sequences for three additional Caldicellulosiruptor species: Rt8.B8 DSM 8990 (New Zealand), Wai35.B1 DSM 8977 (New Zealand), and "Thermoanaerobacter cellulolyticus" strain NA10 DSM 8991 (Japan).

  2. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  3. Association of BAP31 with CD11b/CD18. Potential role in intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Ke; Utech, Markus; Liu, Yuan; Soto, Illena; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2004-10-22

    The beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 is an integral membrane protein that is present in the plasma membrane and secondary granules of neutrophils and functions as a major adhesion molecule. Upon cellular activation, there is translocation of intracellular pools of CD11b/CD18 to the plasma membrane in concert with enhanced cellular adhesion. Although much is known about the function of CD11b/CD18, how this protein is transported within the cell is less well defined. Here we report that CD11b/CD18 specifically binds to BAP31, a member of a novel class of sorting proteins regulating cellular anterograde transport. Through experiments aimed at identifying CD11b/CD18-binding proteins, we produced a monoclonal antibody termed E1B2 that recognizes a 28-kDa membrane protein that co-precipitates with CD11b/CD18. Microsequence analysis of the E1B2 antigen revealed that it is BAP31. Co-association of CD11b/CD18 and BAP31 was confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation and protein binding assays. Additional experiments revealed that the binding of BAP31 to CD11b/CD18 was not dependent on divalent cations nor mediated by the I-domain of CD11b. Using glutathione S-transferase fusion chimeras, we determined that binding of CD11b/CD18 to BAP31 is mediated through interactions with the cytoplasmic tail of BAP31. Immunolocalization studies revealed colocalization of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 within neutrophil secondary granules. Subcellular fractionation studies in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) revealed similar patterns of redistribution of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 from fractions enriched in secondary granules to the plasma membrane following stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP). Given the known sorting properties of BAP31, these findings suggest that BAP31 may play a role in regulating intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

  4. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  5. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

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    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  6. Loss of CD11b exacerbates murine complement-mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis.

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    Lee Daniel Chaves

    Full Text Available Acute complement activation occurs in the tubulointerstitium (TI of kidneys transplanted from Crry(-/-C3(-/- mice into complement-sufficient wildtype mice, followed by marked inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular damage and interstitial fibrosis. We postulated iC3b-CD11b interactions were critical in this TI nephritis model. We transplanted Crry(-/-C3(-/- mouse kidneys into CD11b(-/- and wildtype C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, there was greater inflammation in Crry(-/-C3(-/- kidneys in CD11b(-/- recipients compared to those in wildtype hosts. Kidneys in CD11b(-/- recipients had large numbers of CD11b-Ly6ChiCCR2hiF4/80+ cells consistent with inflammatory (M1 macrophages recruited from circulating monocytes of the host CD11b(-/- animal. There was also an expanded population of CD11b(+CD11c(+Ly6C(-F4/80(hi cells. Since these cells were CD11b(+, they must have originated from the transplanted kidney; their surface protein expression and appearance within the kidney were consistent with the intrinsic renal mononuclear cellular population. These cells were markedly expanded relative to all relevant controls, including the contralateral donor kidney and Crry(-/-C3(-/- mouse kidneys in CD11b(+/+ wildtype recipients. Direct evidence for their in situ proliferation was the presence of nuclear Ki67 and PCNA in CD11b(+F4/80(+ cells. Thus, in this experimental model in which there is unrestricted C3 activation, CD11b(+ monocytes limit their own infiltration into the kidney and prevent proliferation of endogenous mononuclear cells. This suggests a role for outside-in iC3b-CD11b signals in limiting intrinsic organ inflammation.

  7. BCL11B regulates epithelial proliferation and asymmetric development of the mouse mandibular incisor.

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    Kateryna Kyrylkova

    Full Text Available Mouse incisors grow continuously throughout life with enamel deposition uniquely on the outer, or labial, side of the tooth. Asymmetric enamel deposition is due to the presence of enamel-secreting ameloblasts exclusively within the labial epithelium of the incisor. We have previously shown that mice lacking the transcription factor BCL11B/CTIP2 (BCL11B hereafter exhibit severely disrupted ameloblast formation in the developing incisor. We now report that BCL11B is a key factor controlling epithelial proliferation and overall developmental asymmetry of the mouse incisor: BCL11B is necessary for proliferation of the labial epithelium and development of the epithelial stem cell niche, which gives rise to ameloblasts; conversely, BCL11B suppresses epithelial proliferation, and development of stem cells and ameloblasts on the inner, or lingual, side of the incisor. This bidirectional action of BCL11B in the incisor epithelia appears responsible for the asymmetry of ameloblast localization in developing incisor. Underlying these spatio-specific functions of BCL11B in incisor development is the regulation of a large gene network comprised of genes encoding several members of the FGF and TGFβ superfamilies, Sprouty proteins, and Sonic hedgehog. Our data integrate BCL11B into these pathways during incisor development and reveal the molecular mechanisms that underlie phenotypes of both Bcl11b(-/- and Sprouty mutant mice.

  8. Study of rlastic and inelastic {sup 11}B +α scattering and search for cluster states of enlarged radius in {sup 11}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, A. N., E-mail: danilov1987@mail.ru; Demyanova, A. S.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Belyaeva, T. L. [UniversidadAutonoma del Estado de Mexico, Codigo Postal (Mexico); Goncharov, S. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Gurov, Yu. B. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W. [Jyväskylän yliopisto (Finland); Khlebnikov, S. V. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Tyurin, G. P. [Jyväskylän yliopisto (Finland); Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)

    2015-09-15

    The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic {sup 11}B + α scattering were measured at the alpha-particle energy of 65 MeV, the inelastic-scattering processes leading to the excitation of known states of {sup 11}B up to excitation energies of about 14 MeV. Data on elastic scattering were analyzed together with those that were published earlier for lower energies. The cross sections for inelastic scattering were analyzed on the basis of the distorted-wave method. A modified diffractionmodel was used to determine the root-mean-square radii of excited states. The radii of states whose excitation energies were below about 7MeV were found to agree with radius of the ground state to within 0.1 to 0.15 fm. This result complieswith the traditional idea that the low-lying states of {sup 11}B have a shell structure. The possibility that these states belong to the predicted rotational bands, which, if any, are truncated to three states, cannot be ruled out either. The majority of the observed highly excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of these bands are close; for the band based on the 3/2{sup −} state at E* = 8.56 MeV, they are even higher than those of the Hoyle state in the {sup 12}C nucleus. The measured radii of states associated with these bands of {sup 11}B are larger than the ground-state radius by 0.7 to 1.0 fm and are also close to the radius of the Hoyle state. The results of the present study agree with the existing predictions that the cluster structure of the {sup 11}B nucleus is diverse at high excitation energies. The hypothesis that the {sup 11}B nucleus features a “giant” state of size commensurate with those in heavy nuclei was not confirmed.

  9. Expression of CD11b as an adhesion molecule on neutrophils in children with Kawasaki disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Kawasaki disease. Neutrophils play a key role in the inflammatory responses where movement of neutrophils toward the site of inflammation depends on CD11b/CD18 expression as adhesion molecules on these cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate CD11b/CD18 expression in patients with Kawasaki disease upon diagnosis and after treatment.The study included 20 children with Kawasaki disease aged from 3 months to 8 years. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b levels on diagnosis and at 1-2 and 6 weeks after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy was measured in these patients. Level of CD11b was measured in age-matched healthy children and febrile children (each 21 as negative and positive controls, respectively.Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b in Kawasaki patients was lower than that of the control groups before and after 1-2 weeks of IVIG therapy. There were no significant differences in CD11b in Kawasaki patients either with aneurysm or without aneurysm. The CD11b levels at the diagnosis time and after treatment with IVIG in our patients with Kawasaki were lower than the control groups.

  10. Extracellular Release of CD11b by TLR9 Stimulation in Macrophages.

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    Dongbum Kim

    Full Text Available CpG-DNA upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell surface markers. Investigators have shown that CD11b (integrin αM regulates TLR-triggered inflammatory responses in the macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify the effects of CpG-DNA on the expression of CD11b in macrophages. There was no significant change in surface expression of CD11b after CpG-DNA stimulation. However, CD11b was released into culture supernatants after stimulation with phosphorothioate-backbone modified CpG-DNA such as PS-ODN CpG-DNA 1826(S. In contrast, MB-ODN 4531 and non-CpG-DNA control (regardless of backbone type and liposome-encapsulation failed to induce release of CD11b. Therefore, the context of the CpG-DNA sequence and phosphorothioate backbone modification may regulate the effects of CpG-DNA on CD11b release. Based on inhibitor studies, CD11b release is mediated by p38 MAP kinase activation, but not by the PI3K and NF-κB activation. CD11b release is mediated by lysosomal degradation and by vacuolar acidification in response to CpG-DNA stimulation. The amount of CD11b in the exosome precipitant was significantly increased by CpG-DNA stimulation in vivo and in vitro depending on TLR9. Our observations perhaps give more insight into understanding of the mechanisms involved in CpG-DNA-induced immunomodulation in the innate immunity.

  11. Bcl11b/Ctip2 is required for development of lingual papillae in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Makoto; Koki, Jun; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kominami, Ryo; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hirota, Junji

    2016-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development and morphogenesis of oral epithelia, comprising the gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, remain unclear. Here, we show that Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, plays an important role in the development of lingual papillae, especially filiform papillae. In both gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, Bcl11b was expressed in keratin 14-positive epithelial basal cells, which differentiate into keratinocytes and/or taste cells. Loss of Bcl11b function resulted in abnormal morphology of the gustatory papillae: flattened fungiform papillae, shorter trench wall in the foliate and circumvallate papillae, and ectopic invagination in more than half of circumvallate papillae. However, Bcl11b loss caused no effect on differentiation of taste receptor cells. In nongustatory epithelium, the impact of Bcl11b deficiency was much more striking, resulting in a smooth surface on the tongue tip and hypoplastic filiform papillae in the dorsal lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that a keratinocyte differentiation marker, Tchh expression was severely decreased in the Bcl11b(-/-) filiform papillae. In addition, expression of Pax9, required for morphogenesis of filiform papillae and its downstream target genes, hard keratins, almost disappeared in the tongue tip and was decreased in the dorsal tongue of Bcl11b(-/-) mice. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a delayed onset of expression of epithelial differentiation complex genes, which disturbed barrier formation in the mutant tongue. These results indicate that Bcl11b regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes in the tongue and identify Bcl11b as an essential factor for the lingual papilla morphogenesis.

  12. Bcl11b mutations identified in murine lymphomas increase the proliferation rate of hematopoietic progenitor cells

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    Söderkvist Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The telomeric region of mouse chromosome 12 has previously shown frequent allelic loss in murine lymphoma. The Bcl11b gene has been identified and suggested as a candidate tumor suppressor gene within this region. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether Bcl11b is mutated in lymphomas with allelic loss, and whether the mutations we detected conferred any effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods Mouse lymphomas induced by 1,3-butadiene or 2',3'-dideoxycytidine were analysed for mutations in the Bcl11b gene using single strand conformation analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Effects on cell proliferation by the detected mutations were studied by expressing wild-type and mutant Bcl11b in the cytokine-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line FDC-P1, lacking endogenous Bcl11b expression. Results Missense and frameshift (FS mutations were identified in 7 of 47 tumors (15%. Interestingly, all mutations were found between amino acids 778–844 which encode the three C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers. In FDC-P1 cells, wild-type Bcl11b suppressed cell proliferation, whereas the mutated versions (S778N, K828T, Y844C and FS823 enhanced proliferation several-fold. Conclusion The genetic alterations detected in this study suggest that the three C-terminal zinc fingers of Bcl11b are important for the DNA-binding. Cell proliferation was suppressed by overexpression of wild-type Bcl11b but enhanced by mutant Bcl11b, indicating that these mutations may be an important contributing factor to lymphomagenesis in a subset of tumors.

  13. Doping-Induced Isotopic Mg11B2 Bulk Superconductor for Fusion Application

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    Qi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting wires are widely used for fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. Superconducting magnet system represents a key determinant of the thermal efficiency and the construction/operating costs of such a reactor. In consideration of the stability of 11B against fast neutron irradiation and its lower induced radioactivation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as the boron source is an alternative candidate for use in fusion reactors with a severe high neutron flux environment. In the present work, the glycine-doped Mg11B2 bulk superconductor was synthesized from isotopic 11B powder to enhance the high field properties. The critical current density was enhanced (103 A·cm−2 at 20 K and 5 T over the entire field in contrast with the sample prepared from natural boron.

  14. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  15. Induction of atrial fibrillation by neutrophils critically depends on CD11b/CD18 integrins.

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    Kai Friedrichs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent observational clinical and ex-vivo studies suggest that inflammation and in particular leukocyte activation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF. However, whether local binding and extravasation of leukocytes into atrial myocardium is an essential prerequisite for the initiation and propagation of AF remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of atrial CD11b/CD18 mediated infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN for the susceptibility to AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57bl/6J wildtype (WT and CD11b/CD18 knock-out (CD11b(-/- mice were treated for 14 days with subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, a known stimulus for PMN activation. Atria of Ang II-treated WT mice were characterized by increased PMN infiltration assessed in immunohistochemically stained sections. In contrast, atrial sections of CD11b(-/- mice lacked a significant increase in PMN infiltration upon Ang II infusion. PMN infiltration was accompanied by profoundly enhanced atrial fibrosis in Ang II treated WT as compared to CD11b(-/- mice. Upon in-vivo electrophysiological investigation, Ang II treatment significantly elevated the susceptibility for AF in WT mice if compared to vehicle treated animals given an increased number and increased duration of AF episodes. In contrast, animals deficient of CD11b/CD18 were entirely protected from AF induction. Likewise, epicardial activation mapping revealed decreased electrical conduction velocity in atria of Ang II treated WT mice, which was preserved in CD11b(-/- mice. In addition, atrial PMN infiltration was enhanced in atrial appendage sections of patients with persistent AF as compared to patients without AF. CONCLUSIONS: The current data critically link CD11b-integrin mediated atrial PMN infiltration to the formation of fibrosis, which promotes the initiation and propagation of AF. These findings not only reveal a mechanistic role of leukocytes in AF but also point towards a potential novel

  16. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone.

  17. Congenital hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism unlinked to the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes-Wandover, K M; Tannin, G M; Shulman, D; Peled, D; Jones, K L; Karaviti, L; White, P C

    2001-11-01

    Isolated hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism presenting in infancy is usually caused by mutations in the CYP11B2 gene encoding aldosterone synthase. We studied five patients in four unrelated kindreds with hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism, in whom we were unable to find such mutations. All presented in infancy with failure to thrive, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, markedly elevated plasma renin activity, and low or inappropriately normal aldosterone levels. All had normal cortisol levels and no signs or symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. All responded to fludrocortisone treatment. There were no mutations detected in exons or splice junctions of CYP11B2. Linkage of the disorder to CYP11B2 was studied in two unrelated consanguineous patients and in an affected sib pair. The consanguineous patients were each heterozygous for at least one of three polymorphic microsatellite markers near CYP11B2, excluding linkage to CYP11B2. However, linkage of the disease to CYP11B2 could not be excluded in the affected sib pair. Genes involved in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis, including those encoding angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and the AT1 angiotensin II receptor were similarly excluded from linkage. These results demonstrate the existence of an inherited form of hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism distinct from aldosterone synthase deficiency. The affected gene(s) remain to be determined.

  18. Dexamethasone reduces cell surface levels of CD11b on human eosinophils

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    A. M. Das

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Overnight incubation of human eosinophils (Eøs with the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone (DEX; 0.1 μM resulted in lower expression of the CD11b, but not CD49d, antigen on their plasma membrane, as assessed by flow cytometry. DEX produced a consistent inhibitory effect (ranging from 16% to 20% when tested at a concentration of 0.1 μM. Eø stimulation with 100 ng/ml eotaxin produced an increase in CD11b (+26%, but not CD11c, levels and concomitantly a reduction (–25% on CD62L expression. The inhibition exerted by DEX upon CD11b levels was also evident following eotaxin upregulation, with a degree of inhibition similar to that seen on basal levels. These data highlight a novel mechanism of action by which glucocorticoid hormones may be effective in reducing Eø accumulation during allergic inflammation in man.

  19. 11B and constraints on neutrino oscillations and spectra from neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sam M; Heger, Alexander; Tur, Clarisse

    2011-04-15

    We study the sensitivity to variations in the triple-alpha and 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rates, of the yield of the neutrino-process isotopes 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La, and 180Ta in core-collapse supernovae. Compared to solar abundances, less than 15% of 7Li, about 25%-80% of 19F, and about half of 138La is produced in these stars. Over a range of ±2σ for each helium-burning rate, 11B is overproduced and the yield varies by an amount larger than the variation caused by the effects of neutrino oscillations. The total 11B yield, however, may eventually provide constraints on supernova neutrino spectra.

  20. {sup 11}B-NMR spectroscopic study on the interaction of epinephrine and p-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, K.; Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Department of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    It is studied that p-BPA (p-bronophenylalanine) which formed complex with catechol functional group has interaction with epinephrine by {sup 11}B-NMR. Two {sup 11}B-NMR resonance signals were observed at pH 7.0. The signal at 29.6 ppm is assigned to p-BPA and at 10.8 ppm is assigned to that of complex. We can determine complex formation constants (logK') in various pH. (author)

  1. Analysis Of Impact Of Various Parameters On BER Performance For IEEE 802.11b

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    Nilesh B. Kalani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

  2. Multisystem Anomalies in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Mutant BCL11B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, Divya; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Jason; Cowan, Morton J; Rana, Sadhna; Kwan, Antonia; Adhikari, Aashish N; Lizama, Carlos O; Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Fahl, Shawn P; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Brenner, Steven E; Wiest, David L; Puck, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by arrested T-lymphocyte production and by B-lymphocyte dysfunction, which result in life-threatening infections. Early diagnosis of SCID through population-based screening of newborns can aid clinical management and help improve outcomes; it also permits the identification of previously unknown factors that are essential for lymphocyte development in humans. Methods SCID was detected in a newborn before the onset of infections by means of screening of T-cell-receptor excision circles, a biomarker for thymic output. On confirmation of the condition, the affected infant was treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Exome sequencing in the patient and parents was followed by functional analysis of a prioritized candidate gene with the use of human hematopoietic stem cells and zebrafish embryos. Results The infant had "leaky" SCID (i.e., a form of SCID in which a minimal degree of immune function is preserved), as well as craniofacial and dermal abnormalities and the absence of a corpus callosum; his immune deficit was fully corrected by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous de novo missense mutation, p.N441K, in BCL11B. The resulting BCL11B protein had dominant negative activity, which abrogated the ability of wild-type BCL11B to bind DNA, thereby arresting development of the T-cell lineage and disrupting hematopoietic stem-cell migration; this revealed a previously unknown function of BCL11B. The patient's abnormalities, when recapitulated in bcl11ba-deficient zebrafish, were reversed by ectopic expression of functionally intact human BCL11B but not mutant human BCL11B. Conclusions Newborn screening facilitated the identification and treatment of a previously unknown cause of human SCID. Coupling exome sequencing with an evaluation of candidate genes in human hematopoietic stem cells and in zebrafish revealed that a constitutional

  3. Military Wireless LAN Based on IEEE 802.11b Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    802.11b Standard RTO-MP-IST-054 P2 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED 3.0 POSSIBLE ADAPTATION APROACHES Adaptation of WLAN can...of their flexibility and wide range of possible adaptations. According to their frequency ranges, spreading methods and communication architecture

  4. Radiative n11b capture accounting 21 and 430 kev resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovichenko, S B

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the modified potential cluster model the possibility of describing the available experimental data for the total cross sections for n11B radiative capture at thermal and astrophysical energies were considered with taking into account the 21 and 430 keV resonances.

  5. Bcl11b: A New Piece to the Complex Puzzle of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neuropathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Matthew J; Jones, Simon P; Lovelace, Michael D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. The pathogenesis of ALS is a topic of fascinating speculation and experimentation, with theories revolving around intracellular protein inclusions, mitochondrial structural issues, glutamate excitotoxicity and free radical formation. This review explores the rationale for the involvement of a novel protein, B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11b (Bcl11b) in ALS. Bcl11b is a multifunctional zinc finger protein transcription factor. It functions as both a transactivator and genetic suppressor, acting both directly, binding to promoter regions, and indirectly, binding to promoter-bound transcription factors. It has essential roles in the differentiation and growth of various cells in the central nervous system, immune system, integumentary system and cardiovascular system, to the extent that Bcl11b knockout mice are incompatible with extra-uterine life. It also has various roles in pathology including the suppression of latent retroviruses, thymic tumourigenesis and neurodegeneration. In particular its functions in neurodevelopment, viral latency and T-cell development suggest potential roles in ALS pathology.

  6. Genome-wide identification of Bcl11b gene targets reveals role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    Full Text Available B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b is a transcription factor showing predominant expression in the striatum. To date, there are no known gene targets of Bcl11b in the nervous system. Here, we define targets for Bcl11b in striatal cells by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq in combination with genome-wide expression profiling. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that 694 genes were significantly altered in striatal cells over-expressing Bcl11b, including genes showing striatal-enriched expression similar to Bcl11b. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that Bcl11b bound a mixture of coding and non-coding sequences that were within 10 kb of the transcription start site of an annotated gene. Integrating all ChIP-seq hits with the microarray expression data, 248 direct targets of Bcl11b were identified. Functional analysis on the integrated gene target list identified several zinc-finger encoding genes as Bcl11b targets, and further revealed a significant association of Bcl11b to brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin signaling. Analysis of ChIP-seq binding regions revealed significant consensus DNA binding motifs for Bcl11b. These data implicate Bcl11b as a novel regulator of the BDNF signaling pathway, which is disrupted in many neurological disorders. Specific targeting of the Bcl11b-DNA interaction could represent a novel therapeutic approach to lowering BDNF signaling specifically in striatal cells.

  7. [Isolation and functional analysis of GsTIFY11b relevant to salt and alkaline stress from Glycine soja].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Chen, Chao; An, Lin; Zhu, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Using homologous cloning and RT-PCR technology, we isolated a novel TIFY family gene, GsTIFY11b, from Glycine soja L. G07256, a species that is tolerant to saline and alkaline environments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GsTIFY11b was closely related to AtTIFY11a with 56% similarity in amino acid identity. Protein sequence analysis showed that GsTIFY11b protein also had conserved TIFY domain, N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal Jas motif. Quantitative realtime PCR analysis indicated that the expression of GsTIFY11b was induced by both saline and alkaline stresses. Two homozygous GsTIFY11b over-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis indicated that over-expressing GsTIFY11b in Arabidopsis did not enhance plant tolerance to saline and alkaline stresses, whereas it showed an increased sensitivity to saline stress during seed germination and seedling development. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in transgenic and wild-type plants under stress condition indicated that GsTIFY11b regulated the expression of RD29B, KIN1, and DREB. The transient expression of a GsTIFY11b-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that GsTIFY11b was localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator in the saline stress response pathway.

  8. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-05-05

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  9. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  10. Possibility of spontaneous vortex phase in ErNi_2^11B_2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Furukawa, Hazuki; Habuta, Emi; Nagata, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, a possible coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity was proposed in ErNi_2^11B_2C [P. C. Canfield et. al., Physica C 262, 249 (1996)]. Following this finding, we have performed unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction experiments on a ^11B substituted large single crystal, and confirmed microscopically that such an exotic phase is realized below T_WFM=2.75K [H. Kawano et al., The Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 60 (1999) 1053]. In the present study, we aim to search a possibility of the spontaneous vortex phase in this material by means of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. After the zero field cooled procedure the magnetization curve shows diamagnetic behavior even below T_WFM, indicating that there is no spontaneous vortex phase in this condition. The data in the field cooled condition, on the other hand, indicates H_c1 becomes zero below T_WFM.

  11. Performance Improvement of DCF Supporting Multi-Rate in IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new channel access algorithm based on channel occupancy time (COT) fairness to guarantee fairness and improve the aggregate throughput of 802.11b multi-rate WLANs. In the algorithm, the COT is used as fairness index to analyze the fairness of WLANs instead of the channel access probability (CAP) used in the distributed coordination function (DCF).The standard COT is given by access point (AP) and broadcasted to all wireless stations. The AP and wireless stations in the WLAN can achieve COT-based fairness by adjusting their packet length,sending the multiple back-to-back packets at one time, or giving up an opportunity to access the channel. Analysis and simulations show that our algorithm can provide COT-fairness. Compared with the CAP-based algorithm, the proposed algorithm leads to improvements in aggregate throughput of IEEE 802.11b multi-rate WLANs.

  12. Does John 17:11b, 21−23 refer to church unity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Malan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In ecumenical circles, John 17:11b, 21–23 has been understood as Jesus’ prayer for church unity, be it confessional or structural. This article questioned such readings and conclusions from historical, literary and sosio-cultural viewpoints. The Fourth Gospel’s language is identified as ’antilanguage’ typical of an ’antisociety’, like that of the Hermetic, Mandean and Qumran sects. Such a society is a separate entity within society at large, but opposes it. Read as a text of an antisociety, John 17:11b, 21–23 legitimises the unity of the separatist Johannine community, which could have comprised several such communities. This community opposed the Judean religion, Gnosticism, the followers of John the Baptist and three major groups in early Christianity. As text from the canon, this Johannine text legitimates tolerance of diversity rather than the confessional or structural unity of the church.

  13. Channel Sounding for the Masses: Low Complexity GNU 802.11b Channel Impulse Response Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Firooz, Mohammad H; Zhang, Junxing; Patwari, Neal; Kasera, Sneha K

    2010-01-01

    New techniques in cross-layer wireless networks are building demand for ubiquitous channel sounding, that is, the capability to measure channel impulse response (CIR) with any standard wireless network and node. Towards that goal, we present a software-defined IEEE 802.11b receiver and CIR estimation system with little additional computational complexity compared to 802.11b reception alone. The system implementation, using the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio, is described and compared to previous work. By overcoming computational limitations and performing direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS-SS) matched filtering on the USRP, we enable high-quality yet inexpensive CIR estimation. We validate the channel sounder and present a drive test campaign which measures hundreds of channels between WiFi access points and an in-vehicle receiver in urban and suburban areas.

  14. Polymorphism of CYP11B2 determines salt sensitivity in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Naoharu; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Takashima, Naoyuki

    2007-04-01

    Aldosterone plays essential roles in body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. However, the association between polymorphisms in the CYP11B2 gene and hypertension is controversial. We resequenced CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and identified 35 polymorphisms in this region. We performed association studies between the plasma aldosterone concentration and 13 polymorphisms in this region in 1443 subjects. The subjects were all obtained from the Suita Cohort Study. Multiple regression analysis indicated that aldosterone levels were determined by renin activity, age, total cholesterol, and hematocrit. Residuals of the aldosterone levels after adjusting for these confounding factors were nominally associated with the T(-344)C (P=0.0026), C(595)T (P=0.0180), -(4837)C (P=0.0310), and G(4936)A (P=0.0498) polymorphisms. Only the T(-344)C polymorphism was significantly associated with the aldosterone level after a correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni). A significant interaction was observed between the T(-344)C polymorphism and renin activity in determining aldosterone levels. Moreover, a significant interaction was observed in 2063 subjects between urinary sodium excretion, which reflects sodium intake, and the T(-344)C polymorphism in determining systolic blood pressure. Only subjects with the TT genotype showed a positive correlation between urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure. In vitro experiments confirmed the functional significance of this T(-344)C polymorphism in terms of angiotensin II reactivity. Thus, the T(-344)C polymorphism in CYP11B2 appears to affect salt sensitivity in Japanese and to have clinical significance.

  15. Boron and diagenesis: Questioning the fidelity of Snowball δ11B excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. L.; Stewart, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Pearce, F.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large negative carbon (δ13C) and boron (δ11B) isotope excursions (both >6‰) within the widely distributed Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" cap carbonates are interpreted as evidence for considerable perturbation of the carbon cycle and the associated reduction, then recovery of global ocean pH. Yet, before conclusive interpretations may be drawn, isotopic data must first be shown to be primary in origin and non-diagenetic. Recent studies of Quaternary carbonate platform sediments from a number of locations worldwide reveal δ13C excursions of similar magnitude and distribution to the "Snowball Earth" excursions. However, these recent analogues were formed following eustatic sea level fall and exposure of recent carbonates to meteoric diagenesis (Swart and Kennedy, 2012). Here we present δ11B and B/Ca data from Pleistocene-aged carbonate platform sediments recovered by the Clino Core from the Bahamas to examine the effects of diagenesis on the boron system. We find that within the interval of meteoric diagenesis the δ11B of bulk carbonate is substantially reduced by approximately 6‰ in conjunction with a drop in B/Ca of 90%. These isotopic and elemental down-core patterns are strikingly similar to those reported for δ11B and B/Ca in the cap carbonates of the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth events (Kasemann et al., 2005; Kasemann et al., 2010). Our results may therefore question the primary nature of "Snowball Earth" isotope excursions. We recommend more rigorous assessment of the diagenetic history of these ancient carbonates to ensure palaeoclimatological interpretations are robust.

  16. Complete kinematics study of the 11B+p→3α reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Laursen, K.L.; Riisager, K.

    2012-01-01

    The 11B(p,3α) reaction measured in complete kinematics is used to search for broad resonances in 12C. Evidence for natural parity states around 10 MeV and 12 MeV is presented. The most likely assignment is 2+. Measurements of Dalitz distributions from the 2+ and 2- states at 16.11 MeV and 16.57 Me...

  17. Theoretical study for ICRF sustained LHD type p-{sup 11}B reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tsuguhiro (ed.)

    2003-04-01

    This is a summary of the workshop on 'Theoretical Study for ICRF Sustained LHD Type p-{sup 11}B Reactor' held in National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) on July 25, 2002. In the workshop, study of LHD type D-{sup 3}He reactor is also reported. A review concerning the advanced nuclear fusion fuels is also attached. This review was reported at the workshop of last year. The development of the p-{sup 11}B reactor research which uses the LHD magnetic field configuration has been briefly summarized in section 1. In section 2, an integrated report on advanced nuclear fusion fuels is given. Ignition conditions in a D-{sup 3}He helical reactor are summarized in section 3. 0-dimensional particle and power balance equations are solved numerically assuming the ISS95 confinement law including a confinement factor ({gamma}{sub HH}). It is shown that high average beta plasma confinement, a large confinement factor ({gamma}{sub HH} > 3) and the hot ion mode (T{sub i}/T{sub e} > 1.4) are necessary to achieve the ignition of the D-{sup 3}He helical reactor. Characteristics of ICRF sustained p-{sup 11}B reactor are analyzed in section 4. The nuclear fusion reaction rate < {sigma}{upsilon} > is derived assuming a quasilinear plateau distribution function (QPDF) for protons, and an ignition condition of p-{sup 11}B reactor is shown to be possible. The 3 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT-P-11b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. HAT-P-11b was, until very recently, the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  19. Follow-up Observations of the Neptune Mass Transiting Extrasolar Planet Hat-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Dittman, Jason A; Green, Elizabeth M; Scuderi, Louis J; Males, Jared R

    2009-01-01

    We have confirmed the existence of the transiting super Neptune extrasolar planet HAT-P-11b. On May 1, 2009 UT the transit of Hat-P-11b was detected at the University of Arizona's 1.55m Kuiper Telescope with 1.7 millimag rms accuracy. We find a central transit time of Tc = 2454952.92534+/-0.00060 BJD; this transit occurred 80+/-73 seconds sooner than previous measurements (71 orbits in the past) would have predicted. Hence, our transit timing rules out large deviations from the ephemeris of Bakos et al. (2009). We measure a slightly larger planetary radius of Rp=0.452+/-0.020 R_Jup (5.07+/-0.22 R_earth) compared to Bakos and co-workers' value of 0.422+/-0.014 R_Jup (4.73+/-0.16 R_earth). Our values confirm that Hat-P-11b is very similar to GJ 436b (the only other known transiting super Neptune) in radius and other bulk properties.

  20. A Possible Tilted Orbit of the Super-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Shporer, Avi; Sato, Bun'ei; Aoki, Wako; Tamura, Motohide

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for the eccentric, super-Neptune exoplanet HAT-P-11b, based on radial velocity measurements taken with HDS mounted on the Subaru 8.2m telescope, and simultaneous photometry with the FTN 2.0m telescope, both located in Hawai'i. The observed radial velocities during a planetary transit of HAT-P-11b show a persistent blue-shift, suggesting a spin-orbit misalignment in the system. The best-fit value for the projected spin-orbit misalignment angle is $\\lambda= 103_{-19}^{+23}$ deg. Our result supports the notion that eccentric exoplanetary systems are likely to have significant spin-orbit misalignment (e.g., HD 80606, WASP-8, WASP-14, WASP-17, and XO-3). This fact suggests that not only hot-Jupiters but also super-Neptunes like HAT-P-11b had once experienced dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering or the Kozai migration.

  1. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices.

  2. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 274.11b Section 274.11b... accounts organized as management investment companies. Form N-3 shall be used as the registration statement... offer variable annuity contracts to register as management investment companies. This form shall also...

  3. BCL11B/CTIP2 is highly expressed in GABAergic interneurons of the mouse somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikouei, Kasra; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana B; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In the nervous system, BCL11B is crucial for the development of deep layer corticospinal projection neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons and is often used as a marker for the aforementioned cell types. However, the expression of BCL11B in subtypes of non-excitatory neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has not been reported in the mouse. In this study we show that BCL11B is extensively expressed in S1 GABAergic interneurons, throughout the three main subgroups (somatostatin-, parvalbumin- and 5HT3a-expresssing). Almost all BCL11B positive cells in the upper S1 layers were GABAergic interneurons and surprisingly, almost 40% of the BCL11B positive neurons in layer V were GABAergic interneurons. Single cell mRNA sequencing data revealed higher Bcl11b expression in S1 interneurons compared to deep layer pyramidal neurons. The highest levels of Bcl11b expression were found within the 5HT3a population, specifically in putative neurogliaform interneuron subclasses (5HT3a-positive but not expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide). In the light of our findings we suggest caution using BCL11B as a single marker to identify neurons.

  4. Blood levels of CD11b+ memory T lymphocytes are selectively upregulated in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Petersen, A A; Skjødt, H;

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion molecules CD11b (a beta2-integrin component) and CD54 (ICAM-1) on blood leukocytes were studied by flow cytometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The fractions of CD4+ cells co-expressing CD11b were elevated in 16 patients with active RA compared with those in 16 RA...

  5. CYP11B2 gene polymorphism among coronary heart disease patients and blood donors in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normaznah, Y; Azizah, M R; Kuak, S H; Rosli, M A

    2015-04-01

    Various previous studies have reported the implication of CYP11B2 gene polymorphism in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the -344T/C polymorphism, which is located at a putative binding site for the steroidogenic transcription factor (SF-1) has been associated with essential hypertension, left ventricular dilation and coronary heart disease. In the present study, we aim to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of the CYP11B2 gene in patients with clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease and confirmed by angiography and blood donors and to calculate the association of the gene polymorphism with CHD. A total of 79 DNA from patients with coronary heart disease admitted to the National Heart Institute and 84 healthy blood donors have been genotyped using polymerase chain reaction technique followed by restriction enzyme digestion (RFLP). Results of the study demonstrated that out of 79 for the patients, 40 were homozygous T, 10 were homozygous C and 29 were heterozygous TC. The frequencies of genotype TT, CC and TC for patients were 0.5, 0.13 and 0.36 respectively. The frequencies of allele T and C in patients were 0.68 and 0.31 respectively. While for the blood donors, 40 subjects were of homozygous T, 7 were homozygous C and 37 were heterozygous TC. The genotype frequencies for the TT, CC and TC were 0.47, 0.08 and 0.44 respectively. The frequency of the allele T was 0.69 and allele C was 0.3. Chi-Square analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the genotype and C allele frequencies between the CHD patients and the blood donors. Our study suggests that there is lack of association between -344T/C polymorphism of CYP11B2 gene and coronary heart disease.

  6. The Model of Communication Channel in the 802.11b Standard Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Nemec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with software modelling of a communication channel in the 802.11b standard wireless network physical layer. A computer model of signal processing was created to verify possibility of the proposal of localisation system. Functionality of the signal generation and processing model was verified by the Spectrum Analyzer. Simulations run inSimulink/Matlab SW. The Simulink is used for the signal processor model and a pure Matlab software is used for mathematical evaluations of data processor model and for determination of initial conditions.

  7. Angular Distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Er-Tao; LI Zhi-Hong; LI Yun-Ju; YAN Sheng-Quan; BAI Xi-Xiang; GUO Bing; SU Jun; WANG You-Bao; WANG Bao-Xiang; LIAN Gang; ZENG Sheng; FANG Xiao; ZHAO Wei-Juan; LIU Wei-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Angular distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B transfer reaction is measured with a secondary 6He beam of 36.4 Me V for the first time. The experimental angular distribution is well reproduced by the distorted-wave Born approxima-tion (DWBA) calculation. The success of the present experiment shows that it is feasible to measure one-nucleon transfer reaction on a light nucleus target with the secondary beam facility of the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beifing.

  8. Discovery of the secondary eclipse of HAT-P-11 b

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, K F; Schmitt, J H M M

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of the secondary eclipse of HAT-P-11 b, a Neptune-sized planet orbiting an active K4 dwarf. Using all available short-cadence data of the Kepler mission, we derive refined planetary ephemeris increasing their precision by more than an order of magnitude. Our simultaneous primary and secondary transit modeling results in improved transit and orbital parameters. In particular, the precise timing of the secondary eclipse allows to pin down the orbital eccentricity to $0.26459_{-0.00048}^{+0.00069}$. The secondary eclipse depth of $6.09_{-1.11}^{+1.12}$ ppm corresponds to a $5.5\\sigma$ detection and results in a geometric albedo of $0.39\\pm0.07$ for HAT-P-11 b, close to Neptune's value, which may indicate further resemblances between these two bodies. Due to the substantial orbital eccentricity, the planetary equilibrium temperature is expected to change significantly with orbital position and ought to vary between $630^\\circ$ K and $950^\\circ$ K, depending on the details of heat redistrib...

  9. Implications of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT-P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Richard K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We observed exoplanet HAT-P-11b and have successfully detected its secondary eclipse. We conducted observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope in the post-cryo mission at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b is one of only two known exo-Neptunes and has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. We discuss implications of these observations.

  10. Lightning as a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar System planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2013, A&A, 552, A65) carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. In the current letter, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning in the atmosphere of the planet. We find that a lightning storm with 530 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical counterpart would nevertheless be undetectable with current technology. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry of such thunderstorms is observable 2-3 years after the storm, which produces signatures in the L ($3.0 \\mu{\\rm m}-4.0 \\mu$m) and N ($7.5 \\mu{...

  11. The large conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-09-21

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma.

  12. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b{sup +} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ning [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Kunugita, Naoki [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6, Minami, Wako 351-0197 (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Song, Yuan [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yokoyama, Mitsuru [Bio-information Research Center, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi [School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. {yields} Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. {yields} CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-{alpha}. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-{kappa}B and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  13. Rhinovirus infection induces interleukin-13 production from CD11b-positive, M2-polarized exudative macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yutein; Hong, Jun Young; Lei, Jing; Chen, Qiang; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2015-02-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) causes asthma exacerbations. Previously, we showed that adherent bronchoalveolar cells from allergen-treated mice produce IL-13 when stimulated with RV ex vivo, implicating cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in viral-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that RV infection of allergen-treated mice results in IL-13 production by CD11b+ exudative macrophages in vivo. We sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA), after which mice were inoculated with RV or sham HeLa cell lysate. After 1 day, lungs were harvested, and cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. We repeated this process in IL-13 reporter mice, CD11b-DTR mice in which diphtheria toxin selectively depletes CD11b+ cells, and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) null mice. We found that lungs of mice infected with RV alone showed increases in CD45+, CD68+, F4/80+, Ly6C+, and CD11b(high) cells, indicating an influx of inflammatory monocytes and exudative macrophages. The combination of OVA and RV had synergistic effects on the exudative macrophage number. However, CD11b+ cells from OVA-treated, RV-infected mice showed M2 polarization, including expression of CD206 and CD301 and production of IL-13. Similar results were obtained in IL-13 reporter mice. Diphtheria toxin depleted CD11b+, IL-13-producing cells in OVA-treated, RV-infected, CD11b-DTR mice, decreasing airway inflammation and responsiveness. CD11b+, Ly6C+ cells were reduced in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that, in contrast to naive mice, RV infection of mice with allergic airways disease induces an influx of IL-13-producing CD11b+ exudative macrophages bearing M2 macrophage markers. This finding further implicates alternatively activated macrophages in RV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  14. Gr1(intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Obregón-Henao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the world's leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung in an attempt to wall off bacilli by forming a granuloma. Gr1(intCD11b(+ cells are called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC and play a major role in regulation of inflammation in many pathological conditions. Although MDSC have been described primarily in cancer their function in tuberculosis remains unknown. During M. tuberculosis infection it is crucial to understand the function of cells involved in the regulation of inflammation during granuloma formation. Understanding their relative impact on the bacilli and other cellular phenotypes is necessary for future vaccine and drug design. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the bacterial burden, lung pathology and Gr1(intCD11b(+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell immune responses in M. tuberculosis infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1(+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1(+CD11b(+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1(hi and Gr1(int populations from M. tuberculosis infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1(int populations at different ratios with naïve or M. tuberculosis infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1(hi and Gr1(int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio of CD4(+ T to Gr1(+ cells increased. Our results

  15. Gr1intCD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the world’s leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung in an attempt to wall off bacilli by forming a granuloma. Gr1intCD11b+ cells are called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and play a major role in regulation of inflammation in many pathological conditions. Although MDSC have been described primarily in cancer their function in tuberculosis remains unknown. During M. tuberculosis infection it is crucial to understand the function of cells involved in the regulation of inflammation during granuloma formation. Understanding their relative impact on the bacilli and other cellular phenotypes is necessary for future vaccine and drug design. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the bacterial burden, lung pathology and Gr1intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell immune responses in M. tuberculosis infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1+CD11b+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1hi and Gr1int populations from M. tuberculosis infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1int populations at different ratios with naïve or M. tuberculosis infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1hi and Gr1int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio of CD4+ T to Gr1+ cells increased. Our results illustrate a yet unrecognized interplay

  16. 11B-NMR study in boron-doped diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mukuda, T. Tsuchida, A. Harada, Y. Kitaoka, T. Takenouchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, I. Sakaguchi and H. Kawarada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated an origin of the superconductivity discovered in boron (B-doped diamonds by means of 11B-NMR on heteroepitaxially grown (1 1 1 and (1 0 0 films and polycrystalline film. The characteristic difference of B-NMR spectral shape for the (1 1 1 and (1 0 0 thin films is demonstrated as arising from the difference in the concentration (nB(1 of boron substituted for carbon. It is revealed from a scaling between a superconducting transition temperature Tc and nB(1 that the holes doped into diamond via the substitution of boron for carbon are responsible for the onset of superconductivity. The result suggests that the superconductivity in boron-doped diamond is mediated by the electron–phonon interaction brought about a high Debye temperature ~1860 K characteristic for the diamond structure.

  17. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Veenstra

    Full Text Available Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1, a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF, a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2 by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  18. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  19. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Pang, Yanli; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Achyut, B R; Heger, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul K; Lonning, Scott; Yang, Li

    2012-12-01

    One great challenge in our understanding of TGF-β cancer biology and the successful application of TGF-β-targeted therapy is that TGF-β works as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The underlying mechanisms for its functional change remain to be elucidated. Using 4T1 mammary tumor model that shares many characteristics with human breast cancer, particularly its ability to spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells are important mediators in TGF-β regulation of mammary tumor progression. Depletion of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells diminished the antitumor effect of TGF-β neutralization. Two mechanisms were involved: first, treatment with TGF-β neutralization antibody (1D11) significantly decreased the number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in tumor tissues and premetastatic lung. This is mediated through increased Gr-1+CD11b+ cell apoptosis. In addition, 1D11 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines and Arginase 1. Interestingly, the number and property of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in peripheral blood/draining lymph nodes correlated with tumor size and metastases in response to 1D11 treatment. Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β-targeted therapy.

  20. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode ν6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u) absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode ν10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  1. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE RongXing; ZHU ChaoYuan; CHIN Chih-Hao; LIN Sheng-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode v6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u)absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode v10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  2. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  3. α1B-Adrenergic receptor signaling controls circadian expression of Tnfrsf11b by regulating clock genes in osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hirai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are endogenous and biological oscillations that occur with a period of <24 h. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker is localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and is linked to peripheral tissues through neural and hormonal signals. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of the molecular clock on bone remodeling. The results of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments both indicated that the rhythmic expression of Tnfrsf11b, which encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG, was regulated by Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also showed that REV-ERBα negatively regulated Tnfrsf11b as well as Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We systematically investigated the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and the circadian clock in osteoblasts. The administration of phenylephrine, a nonspecific α1-adrenergic receptor (AR agonist, stimulated the expression of Tnfrsf11b, whereas the genetic ablation of α1B-AR signaling led to the alteration of Tnfrsf11b expression concomitant with Bmal1 and Per2 in bone. Thus, this study demonstrated that the circadian regulation of Tnfrsf11b was regulated by the clock genes encoding REV-ERBα (Nr1d1 and Bmal1 (Bmal1, also known as Arntl, which are components of the core loop of the circadian clock in osteoblasts.

  4. Kepler and Ground-based Transits of the Exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A; Jennings, Donald E; Haase, Flynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B-band) and near-IR (J-band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp=4.31 +/-0.06 Earth-radii, and Rs = 0.683 +/-0.009 solar radii, both about 3-sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler tr...

  5. The transiting exoplanet CoRoT-11b and its peculiar tidal evolution

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    Damiani C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT-11b is a fairly massive hot-Jupiter (Mp = 2.33 ± 0.34 MJup in a 3 days orbit around a F6 V star with an age of 2 ± 1 Gyr. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (v sin i⋆ = 40 ± 5 km/s places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet hosting stars discovered so far. Assuming that the star is seen equator-on, the v sin i⋆ and the star radius (R∗ = 1.37±0.03 R⊙ translate into a stellar rotation period of 1.73±0.26 days. This peculiar planet/star configuration offers an unique opportunity to study the tidal evolution of the system. Owing to the strong tidal interaction, the planet would have moved outwards, from a starting semi-major axis corresponding to an orbital period almost synchronized with the stellar rotation. We found that the present value of the tidal quality factor Q′s could be measured by a timing of the mid-epoch of the transits to be observed with an accuracy of about 0.5 − 1 seconds over a time baseline of about 25 years.

  6. Increase of circulating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and recruitment into the synovium in osteoarthritic mice with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kentaro; Naruse, Kouji; Satoh, Masashi; Onuma, Kenji; Ueno, Masaki; Takano, Shotaro; Urabe, Ken; Takaso, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Although recent studies suggest that hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the link between OA and hyperlipidemia is not fully understood. As the number of activated, circulating myeloid cells is increased during hyperlipidemia, we speculate that myeloid cells contribute to the pathology of OA. Here, we characterized myeloid cells in STR/Ort mice, a murine osteoarthritis model, under hyperlipidemic conditions. Ratios of myeloid cells in bone marrow, the spleen, and peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. To examine the influence of the hematopoietic environment, including abnormal stem cells, on the hematopoietic profile of STR/Ort mice, bone marrow transplantations were performed. The relationship between hyperlipidemia and abnormal hematopoiesis was examined by evaluating biochemical parameters and spleen weight of F2 animals (STR/Ort x C57BL/6J). In STR/Ort mice, the ratio of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in spleens and peripheral blood was increased, and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were also present in synovial tissue. Splenomegaly was observed and correlated with the ratio of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. When bone marrow from GFP-expressing mice was transplanted into STR/Ort mice, no difference in the percentage of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells was observed between transplanted and age-matched STR/Ort mice. Analysis of biochemical parameters in F2 mice showed that spleen weight correlated with serum total cholesterol. These results suggest that the increase in circulating and splenic CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in STR/Ort mice originates from hypercholesterolemia. Further investigation of the function of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in synovial tissue may reveal the pathology of OA in STR/Ort mice.

  7. Growth Hormone With Aromatase Inhibitor May Improve Height in CYP11B1 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Walton-Betancourth, Sandra; Rumsby, Gill; Raine, Joseph; Dattani, Mehul

    2017-02-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 1 in 100 000 births, 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and is caused by mutations in CYP11B1 Clinical features include virilization, early gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hypertension, and reduced stature. The current mainstay of management is with glucocorticoids to replace deficient steroids and to minimize adrenal sex hormone overproduction, thus preventing virilization and optimizing growth. We report a patient with CAH who had been suboptimally treated and presented to us at 6 years of age with precocious puberty, hypertension, tall stature, advanced bone age, and a predicted final height of 150 cm. Hormonal profiles and genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. In addition to glucocorticoid replacement, the patient was commenced on growth hormone and a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, in an attempt to optimize his growth. After the initiation of this treatment, the patient's growth rate improved significantly and bone age advancement slowed. The patient reached a final height of 177.5 cm (0.81 SD score), 11.5 cm above his mid-parental height. This patient is only the second reported case of the use of an aromatase inhibitor in combination with growth hormone to optimize height in 11β-hydroxylase-deficient CAH. This novel treatment proved to be highly efficacious, with no adverse effects. It may therefore provide a promising option to promote growth in exceptional circumstances in individuals with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency presenting late with advanced skeletal maturation and consequent short stature.

  8. Study of the neutron and proton capture reactions 10,11b(n, g), 11b(p, g), 14c(p, g), and 15n(p, g) at thermal and astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovichenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the neutron-capture reactions 10,11B(n, g) and the role of the 11B(n, g) reaction in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis. The possibility of the description of the available experimental data for cross sections of the neutron capture reaction on 10B at thermal and astrophysical energies, taking into account the resonance at 475 keV, was considered within the framework of the modified potential cluster model (MPCM) with forbidden states and accounting for the resonance behavior of the scattering phase shifts. In the framework of the same model the possibility of describing the available experimental data for the total cross sections of the neutron radiative capture on 11B at thermal and astrophysical energies were considered with taking into account the 21 and 430 keV resonances. Description of the available experimental data on the total cross sections and astrophysical S-factor of the radiative proton capture on 11B to the ground state of 12C was treated at astrophysical energies. The possibili...

  9. A 3-D Markov Chain Model of IEEE 802.11b DCF in Non-saturated Conditions%IEEE 802.11b DCF三维Markov非饱和链路模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁博; 赵成林

    2015-01-01

    为了准确评估实际网络中IEEE 802.11b 分布式协调功能( Distributed Coordination Function, DCF)的系统性能,提出了一种三维Markov链路模型,该模型综合考虑了DCF协议退避计数器冻结状态和有限重传次数,并结合M/M/1/K排队模型给出了在负载有限的情况下DCF系统性能的理论模型。仿真结果表明,该模型能准确地预测IEEE 802.11b DCF协议的系统性能。%A new 3⁃D Markov chain model is proposed for accurately assessing the actual network performance of IEEE 802.11b DCF.The model takes into account DCF protocol backoff counter frozen and limited number of retransmissions.Combined with M/M/1/K queue model,a theoretical model of DCF system performance with finite load is derived.The simulation results show that the model can accurately predict system performance of IEEE 802.11b DCF protocol.

  10. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NCBackgrou...

  11. Gender-dependent association of HSD11B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with glucose and HDL-C levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Viater Turek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the influence of two SNPs (rs846910 and rs12086634 of the HSD11B1 gene that encodes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1(11β-HSD1, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, on variables associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in 215 individuals of both sexes from southern Brazil. The HSD11B1 gene variants were genotyped using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured by standard automated methods. Significant results were found in women, with carriers of the G allele of SNP rs12086634 having higher glucose levels than non-carriers. Carriers of the A allele of SNP rs846910 had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. The involvement of both polymorphisms as independent factors in determining the levels of glucose and HDL-cholesterol was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.19 ± 0.09, p = 0.03 and β = 0.22 ± 0.10, p = 0.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that the HSD11B1SNPs studied may indirectly influence glucose and HDL-cholesterol metabolism in women, possibly through down-regulation of the HSD11B1 gene by estrogen.

  12. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Md; Somer, M.

    2016-08-01

    As the "low activation" superconductor, Mg11B2 has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the Jc and Hirr values of Mg11B2 bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better Jc performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher Jc at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest Jc value (2.20 ×105 A cm-2 at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg11B2 sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  13. A reduced population of CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells has a limited impact on oral Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Persson, Emma; Yrlid, Ulf; Agace, William; Wick, Mary Jo

    2016-08-01

    CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DC) are the major migratory DC subset in the small intestine lamina propria (siLP) and their survival is dependent on the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Mice with a DC-specific deletion of irf4 (CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice) have reduced mucosal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC and altered T cell differentiation to protein antigen. The influence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC on oral infection with the gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella, however, is poorly understood and is investigated here. We show that, despite being infected with Salmonella, CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice (called Cre(+) mice) conserve the reduction in CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC observed in naive Cre(+) mice, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) but also in the siLP at day 3 post infection. Moreover, Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice have a similar bacterial burden in intestinal tissues (siLP, MLN and Peyer's patches) as well as the spleen compared to infected Cre(-) controls. The T cell compartment, including the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-17-producing T cells, is not altered in intestinal tissues of Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice relative to infected Cre(-) controls. In addition, no difference between infected Cre(+) and Cre(-) mice was observed in either the concentration of IL-6 or IL-17 in whole tissue lysates of siLP, MLN or Peyer's patches or in the serum concentration of Salmonella-specific IgG and IgM. Overall the data suggest that the reduction of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC in Cre(+) mice has little if any impact on Salmonella burden in infected tissues or eliciting effector functions important in host survival at later stages of the infection.

  14. Toll-Like Receptor induced CD11b and L-selectin response in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen H A M Elsenberg

    Full Text Available Toll-Like Receptor (TLR -2 and -4 expression and TLR-induced cytokine response of inflammatory cells are related to atherogenesis and atherosclerotic plaque progression. We examined whether immediate TLR induced changes in CD11b and L-selectin (CD62L expression are able to discriminate the presence and severity of atherosclerotic disease by exploring single dose whole blood TLR stimulation and detailed dose-response curves. Blood samples were obtained from 125 coronary artery disease (CAD patients and 28 controls. CD11b and L-selectin expression on CD14+ monocytes was measured after whole blood stimulation with multiple concentrations of the TLR4 ligand LPS (0.01-10 ng/ml and the TLR2 ligand P3C (0.5-500 ng/ml. Subsequently, dose-response curves were created and the following parameters were calculated: hillslope, EC50, area under the curve (AUC and delta. These parameters provide information about the maximum response following activation, as well as the minimum trigger required to induce activation and the intensity of the response. CAD patients showed a significantly higher L-selectin, but not CD11b response to TLR ligation than controls after single dose stimulations as well as significant differences in the hillslope and EC50 of the dose-response curves. Within the CAD patient group, dose-response curves of L-selectin showed significant differences in the presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary occlusion and degree of stenosis, whereas CD11b expression had the strongest discriminating power after single dose stimulation. In conclusion, single dose stimulations and dose-response curves of CD11b and L-selectin expression after TLR stimulation provide diverse but limited information about atherosclerotic disease severity in stable angina patients. However, both single dose stimulation and dose-response curves of LPS-induced L-selectin expression can discriminate between controls and CAD patients.

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency: functional consequences of four CYP11B1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menabò, Soara; Polat, Seher; Baldazzi, Lilia; Kulle, Alexandra E; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Fanelli, Flaminia; Balsamo, Antonio; Riepe, Felix G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited endocrine disease. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common form of CAH. The aim of the study was to study the functional consequences of three novel and one previously described CYP11B1 gene mutations (p.(Arg143Trp), p.(Ala306Val), p.(Glu310Lys) and p.(Arg332Gln)) detected in patients suffering from classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. Functional analyses were performed by using a HEK293 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild type (WT) with mutant 11β-hydroxylase activity. Mutant proteins were examined in silico to study their effect on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Two mutations (p.(Ala306Val) and p.(Glu310Lys)) detected in patients with classical 11β-OHD showed a nearly complete loss of 11β-hydroxylase activity. The mutations p.(Arg143Trp) and p.(Arg332Gln) detected in patients with non-classical 11β-OHD showed a partial functional impairment with approximately 8% and 6% of WT activity, respectively. Functional mutation analysis allows the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causes of classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. The detection of patients with non-classical phenotypes underscores the importance to screen patients with a phenotype comparable to non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency for mutations in the CYP11B1 gene in case of a negative analysis of the CYP21A2 gene. As CYP11B1 mutations are most often individual for a family, the in vitro analysis of novel mutations is essential for clinical and genetic counselling. PMID:24022297

  16. Natural killer cells require monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells to eradicate orthotopically engrafted glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gregory J; Chockley, Peter; Zamler, Daniel; Castro, Maria G; Lowenstein, Pedro R

    2016-06-01

    Malignant gliomas are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell immune surveillance. However, the mechanisms used by these cancers to suppress antitumor NK cell activity remain poorly understood. We have recently reported on a novel mechanism of innate immune evasion characterized by the overexpression of the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-1 by both mouse and rat malignant glioma. Here, we investigate the cytokine profile of galectin-1-deficient GL26 cells and describe the process by which these tumors are targeted by the early innate immune system in RAG1(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice. Our data reveal that galectin-1 knockdown in GL26 cells heightens their inflammatory status leading to the rapid recruitment of Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells and NK1.1(+) NK cells into the brain tumor microenvironment, culminating in tumor clearance. We show that immunodepletion of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells in RAG1(-/-) mice permits the growth of galectin-1-deficient glioma despite the presence of NK cells, thus demonstrating an essential role for myeloid cells in the clearance of galectin-1-deficient glioma. Further characterization of tumor-infiltrating Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) cells reveals that these cells also express CCR2 and Ly-6C, markers consistent with inflammatory monocytes. Our results demonstrate that Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells, often referred to as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are required for antitumor NK cell activity against galectin-1-deficient GL26 glioma. We conclude that glioma-derived galectin-1 represents an important factor in dictating the phenotypic behavior of monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells. Galectin-1 suppression may be a valuable treatment approach for clinical glioma by promoting their innate immune-mediated recognition and clearance through the concerted effort of innate myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages.

  17. Coexpression of redox partners increases the hydrocortisone (cortisol) production efficiency in CYP11B1 expressing fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Tarek; Zearo, Silvia; Drăgan, Călin-Aurel; Bureik, Matthias; Bernhardt, Rita

    2008-02-01

    Cytochromes P450 play a vital role in the steroid biosynthesis pathway of the adrenal gland. An example of an essential P450 cytochrome is the steroid 11beta-hydroxylase CYP11B1, which catalyses the conversion of 11-deoxycorticol to hydrocortisone. However, despite its high biotechnological potential, this enzyme has so far been unsuccessfully employed in present-day biotechnology due to a poor expression yield and inherent protein instability. In this study, CYP11B1 was biotransformed into various strains of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, all of which also expressed the electron transfer proteins adrenodoxin and/or adrenodoxin reductase - central components of the mitochondrial P450 system - in order to maximise hydrocortisone production efficiency in our proposed model system. Site-directed mutagenesis of CYP11B1 at positions 52 and 78 was performed in order to evaluate the impact of altering the amino acids at these sites. It was found that the presence of an isoleucine at position 78 conferred the highest 11beta-hydroxylation activity of CYP11B1. Coexpression of adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase appeared to further increase the 11beta-hydroxylase activity of the enzyme (3.4 fold). Adrenodoxin mutants which were found to significantly enhance enzyme efficiency in other cytochromes in previous studies were also tested in our system. It was found that, in this case, the wild type adrenodoxin was more efficient. The new fission yeast strain TH75 coexpressing the wild type Adx and AdR displays high hydrocortisone production efficiency at an average of 1mM hydrocortisone over a period of 72h, the highest value published to date for this biotransformation. Finally, our research shows that pTH2 is an ideal plasmid for the coexpression of the mitochondrial electron transfer counterparts, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and so could serve as a convenient tool for future biotechnological applications.

  18. IFN-γ differentially regulates subsets of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yimin; Hu, Shengfeng; Wu, Yongjian; Yang, Kun; Liao, Chunxin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Huang, Xi; Wu, Minhao

    2015-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of IFN-γ on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell differentiation and function, using a heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced chronic inflammation model. After challenge with heat-killed BCG, two subpopulations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells were generated in the mouse spleen. Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell activation, while the other subset was CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) Ly6G(neg) Ly6C(high) monocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) that displayed extensive suppressor function. IFN-γ treatment dampened N-MDICs-mediated T cell activation through up-regulating T cell suppressive mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I. While for M-MDSCs, IFN-γ reduced their suppressing activity by decreasing the arginase activity. Our study provides evidence that IFN-γ balances the over-reactive vs compromised immune response through different regulation of distinct myeloid subsets, and therefore displays significant therapeutic potential for effective immuno-therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Use of 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B to Identify Slag-Affected Sediment in Southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Randall; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Slag is a ubiquitous byproduct of the iron-smelting industry and influences geochemistry and water quality in adjacent geologic units, ground and surface water. Despite extensive slag deposition along the Indiana shoreline of Lake Michigan, definitive evidence that slag has affected lakebed sediments has not been established. Concerns for the protection of water and ecosystem resources in the Great Lakes motivated this study to determine if strontium and boron isotopes could be used to identify and delineate slag-affected bed sediment in Lake Michigan. Sixty-five samples of bed sediment were acquired from the southern lobe of Lake Michigan and analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr and ??11B. Samples immediately offshore from Indiana steel mills and slag-disposal sites contained higher median 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70881) than shoreline sediments collected elsewhere in the basin (0.70847) and uniquely decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. The highest ??11B values occurred in sediments from the Indiana shoreline (+12.9 to 16.4???) but were also elevated in sediments collected offshore from three Lake Michigan cities (+11.7 to 12.7???). Contoured isotope data indicated that 82-154 km2 of bed sediment along the Indiana shoreline had elevated 87Sr/86Sr and ??11B values relative to shoreline sediments elsewhere in southern Lake Michigan.

  20. HAT-P-11b: A Super-Neptune Planet Transiting a Bright K Star in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bakos, G Á; Pál, A; Hartman, J; Kovács, Géza; Noyes, R W; Latham, D W; Sasselov, D D; Sipőcz, B; Esquerdo, G A; Fischer, D A; Johnson, J A; Marcy, G W; Butler, R P; Isaacson, H; Howard, A; Vogt, S; Kovács, Gábor; Fernández, J; Moór, A; Stefanik, R P; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-11b, the smallest radius transiting extrasolar planet (TEP), and the first hot Neptune discovered to date by transit searches. HAT-P-11b orbits the bright (V=9.59) and metal rich ([Fe=H] = +0.31 +/- 0.05) K4 dwarf star GSC 03561-02092 with P = 4.8878162 +/- 0.0000071 days and produces a transit signal with depth of 4.2 mmag; the shallowest found by transit searches that is due to a confirmed planet. We present a global analysis of the available photometric and radial-velocity data that result in stellar and planetary parameters, with simultaneous treatment of systematic variations. The planet, like its near-twin GJ 436b, is somewhat larger than Neptune (17 Mearth, 3.8 Rearth) both in mass Mp = 0.081 +/- 0.009 MJup (25.8 +/- 2.9 Mearth) and radius Rp = 0.422 +/- 0.014 RJup (4.73 +/- 0.16 Rearth). HAT-P-11b orbits in an eccentric orbit with e = 0.198 +/- 0.046 and omega = 355.2 +/- 17.3 deg, causing a reflex motion of its parent star with amplitude 11.6 +/- 1.2 m/s, a challen...

  1. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated.

  2. Wnt11b is involved in cilia-mediated symmetry breakage during Xenopus left-right development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    Full Text Available Breakage of bilateral symmetry in amphibian embryos depends on the development of a ciliated epithelium at the gastrocoel roof during early neurulation. Motile cilia at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP give rise to leftward flow of extracellular fluids. Flow is required for asymmetric gene expression and organ morphogenesis. Wnt signaling has previously been involved in two steps, Wnt/ß-catenin mediated induction of Foxj1, a regulator of motile cilia, and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP dependent cilia polarization to the posterior pole of cells. We have studied Wnt11b in the context of laterality determination, as this ligand was reported to activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt11b was found to be expressed in the so-called superficial mesoderm (SM, from which the GRP derives. Surprisingly, Foxj1 was only marginally affected in loss-of-function experiments, indicating that another ligand acts in this early step of laterality specification. Wnt11b was required, however, for polarization of GRP cilia and GRP morphogenesis, in line with the known function of Wnt/PCP in cilia-driven leftward flow. In addition Xnr1 and Coco expression in the lateral-most GRP cells, which sense flow and generate the first asymmetric signal, was attenuated in morphants, involving Wnt signaling in yet another process related to symmetry breakage in Xenopus.

  3. Two novel mutations of the CYP11B2 gene in a Japanese patient with aldosterone deficiency type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eisuke; Nakamura, Akie; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Narugami, Masahiko; Hattori, Tetsuo; Aoyagi, Hayato; Ishizu, Katsura; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hypoaldosteronism is a rare and occasionally life-threatening cause of salt wasting in infancy. A 2-month-old Japanese boy of unrelated parents was examined for failure to thrive and poor weight gain. Laboratory findings were hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, high plasma renin and low aldosterone levels. Spot urine analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that urinary excretion of corticosterone metabolites was elevated. Whereas excretion of 18-hydroxycortricosterone metabolites was within the normal range, excretion of aldosterone metabolites was undetectable. The patient was therefore suspected to have aldosterone synthase deficiency type 1. Sequence analysis of CYP11B2, the gene encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for c.168G>A, p.W56X in exon 1 and c.1149C>T, p.R384X in exon 7. p.W56X was inherited from his mother and p.R384X was from his father. Since both alleles contain nonsense mutations, a lack of CYP11B2 activity was speculated to cause his condition. To our knowledge, this is the first Japanese patient in which the molecular basis of aldosterone synthase deficiency type 1 has been clarified. This case also indicates that spot urinary steroid analysis is useful for diagnosis.

  4. Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D-QSAR, Homology Modeling and Docking Studies on CYP11B1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes inhibitor steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 can decrease the production of cortisol. Therefore, these inhibitors have an effect in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome. A pharmacophore model generated by Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment for Hypermolecular Alignment of Datasets (GALAHAD was used to align the compounds and perform comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.658, R2 = 0.959. The pharmacophore model contained six hydrophobic regions and one acceptor atom, and electropositive and bulky substituents would be tolerated at the A and B sites, respectively. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR study based on the alignment with the atom root mean square (RMS was applied using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.666, R2 = 0.978, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA with Q2 = 0.721, R2 = 0.972. These results proved that all the models have good predictability of the bioactivities of inhibitors. Furthermore, the QSAR models indicated that a hydrogen bond acceptor substituent would be disfavored at the A and B groups, while hydrophobic groups would be favored at the B site. The three-dimensional (3D model of the CYP11B1 was generated based on the crystal structure of the CYP11B2 (PDB code 4DVQ. In order to probe the ligand-binding modes, Surflex-dock was employed to dock CYP11B1 inhibitory compounds into the active site of the receptor. The docking result showed that the imidazolidine ring of CYP11B1 inhibitors form H bonds with the amino group of residue Arg155 and Arg519, which suggested that an electronegative substituent at these positions could enhance the activities of compounds. All the models generated by GALAHAD QSAR and Docking methods provide guidance about how to design novel and potential drugs for Cushing’s syndrome treatment.

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled anti-CD11b Antibody Targeting Inflammatory Microenvironment for Colon Cancer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Zou, Weihong; Li, Xiao; Xiu, Yan; Tan, Hui; Shi, Hongcheng; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    CD11b, an active constituent of innate immune response highly expressed in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), can be used as a marker of inflammatory microenvironment, particularly in tumor tissues. In this research, we aimed to fabricate a (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b antibody as a probe for CD11b(+) myeloid cells in colon cancer imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In situ murine colon tumor model was established in histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc(-/-)) mice by chemicals induction. (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b was obtained with labeling yields of over 30% and radiochemical purity of over 95%. Micro-SPECT/CT scans were performed at 6 h post injection to investigate biodistributions and targeting of the probe. In situ colonic neoplasma as small as 3 mm diameters was clearly identified by imaging; after dissection of the animal, anti-CD11b immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify infiltration of CD11b+ MDSCs in microenvironment of colonic neoplasms. In addition, the images displayed intense signal from bone marrow and spleen, which indicated the origin and migration of CD11b(+) MDSCs in vivo, and these results were further proved by flow cytometry analysis. Therefore, (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b SPECT displayed the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of colon tumor in very early stage via detection of inflammatory microenvironment.

  6. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing.

  7. Gr-1intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells accumulate in corneal allograft and improve corneal allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wungrak; Ji, Yong Woo; Ham, Hwa-Yong; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Jin, Su-Eon; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Eung Kwon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-12-01

    We identified the characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and investigated their mechanism of induction and their functional role in allograft rejection using a murine corneal allograft model. In mice, MDSCs coexpress CD11b and myeloid differentiation antigen Gr-1. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells infiltrated allografted corneas between 4 d and 4 wk after surgery; however, the frequencies of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not different between accepted and rejected allografts or in peripheral blood or BM. Of interest, Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells, but not Gr-1(hi)CD11b(+) cells, infiltrated the accepted graft early after surgery and expressed high levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. This population remained until 4 wk after surgery. In vitro, only high dose (>100 ng/ml) of IFN-γ plus GM-CSF could induce immunosuppressive cytokine expression in Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells reduced T cell infiltration, which improved graft survival. In conclusion, high-dose IFN-γ in allograft areas is essential for development of Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) MDSCs in corneal allografts, and subtle environmental changes in the early period of the allograft can result in a large difference in graft survival.

  8. DMPD: CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8485905 CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleliga...) (.html) (.csml) Show CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand spec...d NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. Authors Ross GD, Vetvicka V. Pu

  9. BCL11B is a general transcriptional repressor of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in T lymphocytes through recruitment of the NuRD complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismasiu, Valeriu B; Paskaleva, Elena; Suman Daya, Sneha; Canki, Mario; Duus, Karen; Avram, Dorina

    2008-10-25

    In this study we provide evidence that the transcription factor BCL11B represses expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in T lymphocytes through direct association with the HIV-1 LTR. We also demonstrate that the NuRD corepressor complex mediates BCL11B transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 LTR. In addition, BCL11B and the NuRD complex repressed TAT-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in T lymphocytes, pointing to a potential role in initiation of silencing. In support of all the above results, we demonstrate that BCL11B affects HIV-1 replication and virus production, most likely by blocking LTR transcriptional activity. BCL11B showed specific repression for the HIV-1 LTR sequences isolated from seven different HIV-1 subtypes, demonstrating that it is a general transcriptional repressor for all LTRs.

  10. Performance Comparison of IEEE 802.11e EDCA and 802.11b DCF Under Non-Saturation Condition using Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prakash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, throughput and delay performance of IEEE 802.11b and 802.11e is presented under non-saturation conditions. In order to improve the performance of IEEE 802.11b, the IEEE 802.11e has been proposed to improve the Quality of Services (QoS for multimedia application. The standard 802.11b CSMA/CA contention mechanism does not support QoS but the standard 802.11e provides QoS by adjustment of MAC parameters. The comparison of 802.11b DCF and 802.11e EDCA mechanism by using Network Simulator (NS-2 with different parameters such as throughput, delay, CWmin and AIFS differentiation are simulated. The EDCA stations have more competitive advantages than 802.11b under all the above parameters. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the EDCA stations.

  11. Cross-talk between cAMP and MAPK pathways in HSD11B2 induction by hCG in placental trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shu

    Full Text Available Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2 in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression.

  12. Tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells induce angiogenesis through the synergistic action of CCL2 and CXCL16 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungwhoi; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-01-24

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells can suppress innate and adaptive immunity, and the functional immunosuppressive characteristics of these cells can be modulated by the tumor microenvironment. Since Gr-1(+)CD11(+) cells are also involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the angiogenic nature of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells could be regulated by the tumor milieu. To address this hypothesis, we imitated a tumor microenvironment by exposing Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells isolated from spleen of 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing mice to tumor-conditioned medium. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly induced capillary-like tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to naive Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Incubation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells with tumor-conditioned medium induced production of pro-angiogenic chemokines CCL2 and CXCL16. Pretreatment with an anti-CCL2 antibody, but not an anti-CXCL16 antibody, suppressed the angiogenic effects of tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells on HUVECs. Simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16 significantly inhibited tube formation and migration of HUVECs compared to the sole neutralization against CCL2. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs, and inhibition of the ERK pathway blocked angiogenic effects. ERK pathway activity was partially abrogated by neutralization of CCL2 and more suppressed by simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16. These results collectively indicate that CCL2 and CXCL16 chemokines produced by tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells synergistically induce angiogenesis in vitro by stimulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, regulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to angiogenesis through the secretion of pro-angiogenic chemokines.

  13. Integrated genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling reveals BCL11B as a putative oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia with 14q32 aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Saman; Sanders, Mathijs A; Zeilemaker, Annelieke; Geertsma-Kleinekoort, Wendy M C; Koenders, Jasper E; Kavelaars, Francois G; Abbas, Zabiollah G; Mahamoud, Souad; Chu, Isabel W T; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Peeters, Justine K; van Drunen, Ellen; van Galen, Janneke; Beverloo, H Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J M

    2014-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by recurrent molecular aberrations traditionally demonstrated by cytogenetic analyses. We used high density genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling to reveal acquired cryptic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. By genome-wide genotyping of 137 cases of primary acute myeloid leukemia, we disclosed a recurrent focal amplification on chromosome 14q32, which included the genes BCL11B, CCNK, C14orf177 and SETD3, in two cases. In the affected cases, the BCL11B gene showed consistently high mRNA expression, whereas the expression of the other genes was unperturbed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia with high BCL11B mRNA expression [2.5-fold above median; 40 out of 530 cases (7.5%)] revealed 14q32 abnormalities in two additional cases. In the four BCL11B-rearranged cases the 14q32 locus was fused to different partner chromosomes. In fact, in two cases, we demonstrated that the focal 14q32 amplifications were integrated into transcriptionally active loci. The translocations involving BCL11B result in increased expression of full-length BCL11B protein. The BCL11B-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias expressed both myeloid and T-cell markers. These biphenotypic acute leukemias all carried FLT3 internal tandem duplications, a characteristic marker of acute myeloid leukemia. BCL11B mRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia appeared to be strongly associated with expression of other T-cell-specific genes. Myeloid 32D(GCSF-R) cells ectopically expressing Bcl11b showed decreased proliferation rate and less maturation. In conclusion, by an integrated approach involving high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling we identified BCL11B as a candidate oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia.

  14. The clinical significance of aldosterone synthase deficiency: report of a novel mutation in the CYP11B2 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, usually presenting with severe salt-wasting in infancy or stress-induced hyperkalaemia and postural hypotension in adulthood. Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, another cause of salt wasting, using 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement would fail to detect aldosterone synthase deficiency, a diagnosis which may be missed until the patient presents with salt-wasting crisis. Due to this potential life-threatening risk, comprehensive hormonal investigation followed by genetic confirmation for suspected patients would facilitate clinical management of the patient and assessment of the genetic implication in their offspring. Case presentation We describe a 33-year old Chinese man who presented in infancy with life-threatening hyponatraemia and failure to thrive, but remained asymptomatic on fludrocortisone since. Chromosomal analysis confirmed a normal male karyotype of 46, XY. Plasma steroid profile showed high plasma renin activity, low aldosterone level, and elevated 18-hydroxycorticosterone, compatible with type 2 aldosterone synthase deficiency. The patient was heterozygous for a novel CYP11B2 mutation: c.977C > A (p.Thr326Lys) in exon 3. He also carried a heterozygous mutation c.523_525delAAG (p.Lys175del) in exon 6, a known pathogenic mutation causing aldosterone synthase deficiency. Sequencing of CYP11B2 in his parents demonstrated that the mother was heterozygous for c.977C > A, and the father was heterozygous for c.523_525delAAG. Conclusion Although a rare cause of hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism, aldosterone synthase deficiency should be suspected and the diagnosis sought in patients who present with life-threatening salt-wasting in infancy, as it has a good long-term prognosis when adequate fludrocortisone replacement is instituted. To our knowledge, this is the first Chinese patient in which the molecular basis of aldosterone synthase

  15. Evidence for strong-coupling s-wave superconductivity in MgB2: (11)B NMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, H; Ishida, K; Kitaoka, Y; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J

    2001-09-17

    We have investigated a gap structure in a newly discovered superconductor, MgB2, through measurement of the (11)B nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, (11)(1/T(1)). (11)(1/T(1)) is proportional to the temperature (T) in the normal state, and decreases exponentially in the superconducting (SC) state, revealing a tiny coherence peak just below T(c). The T dependence of 1/T(1) in the SC state can be accounted for by an s-wave SC model with a large gap size of 2Delta/k(B)T(c) approximately 5 which suggests it is in a strong-coupling regime.

  16. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Neutron Double-Differential Cross Section of n+11B at 14.2 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2003-01-01

    A new reaction model for light nuclei is proposed to analyze the measured data, especially for the doubledifferential cross sections. In this paper the calculation with this model is employed to analyze measurements of the total outgoing neutron double-differential cross sections for n+11B reactions at En = 14.2 MeV. The representation of the double-differential cross sections of the second emitted particles is given in detail. The calculation results indicate that the recoil effect in light nuclear reaction is essentially important. The reaction channels are discussed in detail.

  18. Rab11b mediates melanin transfer between donor melanocytes and acceptor keratinocytes via coupled exo/endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Abul K; Bolasco, Giulia; Correia, Maria S; Pereira, Francisco J C; Iannone, Lucio; Hume, Alistair N; Kirkpatrick, Niall; Picardo, Mauro; Torrisi, Maria R; Rodrigues, Inês P; Ramalho, José S; Futter, Clare E; Barral, Duarte C; Seabra, Miguel C

    2014-04-01

    The transfer of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes is a crucial process underlying maintenance of skin pigmentation and photoprotection against UV damage. Here, we present evidence supporting coupled exocytosis of the melanin core, or melanocore, by melanocytes and subsequent endocytosis by keratinocytes as a predominant mechanism of melanin transfer. Electron microscopy analysis of human skin samples revealed three lines of evidence supporting this: (1) the presence of melanocores in the extracellular space; (2) within keratinocytes, melanin was surrounded by a single membrane; and (3) this membrane lacked the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1). Moreover, co-culture of melanocytes and keratinocytes suggests that melanin exocytosis is specifically induced by keratinocytes. Furthermore, depletion of Rab11b, but not Rab27a, caused a marked decrease in both keratinocyte-stimulated melanin exocytosis and transfer to keratinocytes. Thus, we propose that the predominant mechanism of melanin transfer is keratinocyte-induced exocytosis, mediated by Rab11b through remodeling of the melanosome membrane, followed by subsequent endocytosis by keratinocytes.

  19. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein represses the expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor in T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takachi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takahashi-Yoshita, Manami; Higuchi, Masaya; Obata, Miki; Mishima, Yukio; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Matsuoka, Masao; Saitoh, Akihiko; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), which is an aggressive form of T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 oncoproteins, Tax and HBZ, play crucial roles in the immortalization of T-cells and/or leukemogenesis by dysregulating the cellular functions in the host. Recent studies show that HTLV-1-infected T-cells have reduced expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we explored whether Tax and/or HBZ play a role in downregulating BCL11B in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Lentiviral transduction of Tax in a human T-cell line repressed the expression of BCL11B at both the protein and mRNA levels, whereas the transduction of HBZ had little effect on the expression. Tax mutants with a decreased activity for the NF-κB, CREB or PDZ protein pathways still showed a reduced expression of the BCL11B protein, thereby implicating a different function of Tax in BCL11B downregulation. In addition, the HTLV-2 Tax2 protein reduced the BCL11B protein expression in T-cells. Seven HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, including three ATL-derived cell lines, showed reduced BCL11B mRNA and protein expression relative to an uninfected T-cell line, and the greatest reductions were in the cells expressing Tax. Collectively, these results indicate that Tax is responsible for suppressing BCL11B protein expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells; Tax-mediated repression of BCL11B is another mechanism that Tax uses to promote oncogenesis of HTLV-1-infected T-cells. PMID:25613934

  20. Labelling of leucocytes with technetium-99m exametazime causes in vitro upregulation of granulocyte CD11b without correlation to tissue uptake in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almer, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)]|[Medical Unit, Dept. of Medico-Surgical Gastroenterology, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Ljunghusen, O. [Dept. of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundahl, J. [Dept. of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether labelling with technetium-99m exametazime alters the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b on granulocytes and monocytes, and to study whether the expression of CD11b on unlabelled or labelled cells correlates with uptake of the labelled cells in the inflamed bowel, in the lungs or in the reticuloendothelial system. Leucocytes were obtained from 25 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who underwent leucocyte scan. The cellular expression of CD11b was analysed using flow cytometry. Labelling with {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime induced an increased surface expression of CD11b on granulocytes (P<0.01), but not on monocytes. The increase in CD11b expression on granulocytes was lower than the spontaneous mobilization that occurred at 37 C and correlated neither with this, nor with N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine induced expression of the same receptor. Basal expression of CD11b on unlabelled granulocytes, but not on monocytes, correlated with bowel and lung uptake 45 min after reinjection of labelled cells, but not with uptake on later images. No correlation was found between the CD11b expression on labelled granulocytes or monocytes and scintigraphic uptake. Our findings show that labelling with {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime increases the expression of adhesion protein CD11b on granulocytes. The increase in surface expression of CD11b does not correlate with the scintigraphic uptake of labelled cells in the bowel, in the lungs or in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  1. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein represses the expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takachi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takahashi-Yoshita, Manami; Higuchi, Masaya; Obata, Miki; Mishima, Yukio; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Matsuoka, Masao; Saitoh, Akihiko; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), which is an aggressive form of T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 oncoproteins, Tax and HBZ, play crucial roles in the immortalization of T-cells and/or leukemogenesis by dysregulating the cellular functions in the host. Recent studies show that HTLV-1-infected T-cells have reduced expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we explored whether Tax and/or HBZ play a role in downregulating BCL11B in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Lentiviral transduction of Tax in a human T-cell line repressed the expression of BCL11B at both the protein and mRNA levels, whereas the transduction of HBZ had little effect on the expression. Tax mutants with a decreased activity for the NF-κB, CREB or PDZ protein pathways still showed a reduced expression of the BCL11B protein, thereby implicating a different function of Tax in BCL11B downregulation. In addition, the HTLV-2 Tax2 protein reduced the BCL11B protein expression in T-cells. Seven HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, including three ATL-derived cell lines, showed reduced BCL11B mRNA and protein expression relative to an uninfected T-cell line, and the greatest reductions were in the cells expressing Tax. Collectively, these results indicate that Tax is responsible for suppressing BCL11B protein expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells; Tax-mediated repression of BCL11B is another mechanism that Tax uses to promote oncogenesis of HTLV-1-infected T-cells.

  2. Simultaneous mobilization of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, V; Gabig, T; McCarthy, L; Strour, E F; Leemhuis, T; English, D

    1992-08-01

    Mobilization of a distinct subset of specific granules provides a physiologically important mechanism to recruit Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) from an intracellular pool to the external surface of the neutrophil plasma membrane, where the functionally active heterodimer mediates several adherence-dependent processes that are crucial for adequate host defense and cellular inflammatory responses. We observed similar characteristics for translocation of Mac-1 and neutrophil formyl peptide receptors (FPR) and hypothesize that the readily accessible pools of both Mac-1 and FPR are colocalized within this specific granule subset. Plasma membrane levels of both FPR (assessed with 3H-FMLP) and Mac-1 (assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-Mo-1-labeled cells) were markedly downregulated in cells prepared at low temperature from blood cooled to 4 degrees C immediately after removal from the circulation. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 remained low on cells held at 4 degrees C. Upon warming, spontaneous upregulation of Mac-1 and FPR occurred with similar kinetics and temperature dependency. Translocation of both Mac-1 and FPR was markedly potentiated by exposure of cells to either fluoride ion (which has been shown by others to specifically elicit exocytosis of gelatinase-rich and vitamin B-12 binding protein-poor granules) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that markedly potentiates the neutrophils' host defense capabilities. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 on F-- or GM-CSF-treated neutrophils exceeded those present on cells incubated at 37 degrees C for extended time intervals, indicating that stimulated translocation may involve mobilization of an additional granule subset. Scatchard analysis showed that only low-affinity FPR were translocated during spontaneous and stimulus-dependent upregulation. To directly compare FPR levels on the surface of cells displaying varying levels of Mac-1 within a

  3. 11B NMR Study of Magnetism in RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Yu; Ohno, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    In order to study the magnetism in RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), 11B NMR has been measured systematically. LaRh3B2 was shown to be simply paramagnetic in the normal state, and GdRh3B2 and NdRh3B2 ferromagnetic with the well localized moments. In CeRh3B2, the K-χ plot and 1/T1 can be interpreted in a localized moment model with a large reduction in the effective moment, and a small magnetic moment is considered to be localized at the Ce site below Tc. For SmRh3B2, 1/T1 cannot be explained by the localized moment model, and it was found that the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation exists in the paramagnetic state. The temperature dependence of 1/T1T indicates that EuRh3B2 is a weak antiferromagnet.

  4. Anti-CD11b monoclonal antibody reduces ischemic cell damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Chopp, M; Zhang, R L; Bodzin, G; Chen, Q; Rusche, J R; Todd, R F

    1994-04-01

    We investigated the effect of an anti-CD11b monoclonal antibody (1B6c) on ischemic cell damage after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We divided animals into three groups: MAb 1 group (n = 5)--rats were subjected to 2 hours of transient occlusion and 1B6c (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 0 and 22 hours of reperfusion; MAb 2 group (n = 5)--same experimental protocol as MAb 1 group, except that the initial dose of 1B6c was increased to 2 mg/kg; and control group (n = 5)--same experimental protocol as MAb 2 group, except that an isotype-matched control antibody was administered. Animals were weighed and tested for neurological function before and after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Forty-six hours after reperfusion, brain sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histology evaluation. We observed a significant reduction of weight loss and improvement in neurological function after ischemia in the MAb 2 animals compared to MAb 1 and vehicle-treated animals (p < 0.05). The lesion volume was significantly smaller in the MAb 2 group (19.5 +/- 1.9%) compared to MAb 1 (29.9 +/- 2.6%) and vehicle-treated (34.2 +/- 5.4%) groups (p < 0.01). Tissue polymorphonuclear cell numbers were reduced in both 1B6c-administered groups. Our data demonstrate that administration of anti-CD11b antibody results in a dose-dependent, significant functional improvement and reduction of ischemic cell damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.

  5. Improvement in the transport critical current density and microstructure of isotopic Mg11B2 monofilament wires by optimizing the sintering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Patel, Dipak; Lu, Yao; Luzin, Vladimir; Devred, Arnaud; Somer, Mehmet; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Kim, Jung Ho; Ma, Zongqing; Dou, Shi Xue; Hossain, Md. Shahriar Al

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting wires are widely used in fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. In consideration of the stability of 11B against neutron irradiation and lower induced radio-activation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as boron source is an alternative candidate to be used in fusion reactor with severe irradiation environment. In present work, a batch of monofilament isotopic Mg11B2 wires with amorphous 11B powder as precursor were fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process at different sintering temperature, and the evolution of their microstructure and corresponding superconducting properties was systemically investigated. Accordingly, the best transport critical current density (Jc) = 2 × 104 A/cm2 was obtained at 4.2 K and 5 T, which is even comparable to multi-filament Mg11B2 isotope wires reported in other work. Surprisingly, transport Jc vanished in our wire which was heat-treated at excessively high temperature (800 °C). Combined with microstructure observation, it was found that lots of big interconnected microcracks and voids that can isolate the MgB2 grains formed in this whole sample, resulting in significant deterioration in inter-grain connectivity. The results can be a constructive guide in fabricating Mg11B2 wires to be used as magnet coils in fusion reactor systems such as ITER-type tokamak magnet.

  6. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  7. Serum IL8 and mRNA level of CD11b in circulating neutrophils are increased in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with active interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Qingran; Guo, Qiang; Bao, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess serum IL8 and the potential activity of circulating neutrophils on relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and their relationship with disease activity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We studied 18 CADM patients and compared them with 18 classic dermatomyositis (DM) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum IL8 level and mRNA expressions of neutrophils (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1), cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), interleukin-18 (IL18)) were detected. The overproduction of serum IL8 level was most significant in the CADM group with active period. The mRNA expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were greatly increased in the neutrophils in patients with CADM compared with DM or healthy controls. Up-expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were detected in the neutrophils in CADM patients of active period compared with remission period. A positive correlation was found between CD11b mRNA level and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, in CADM associated with ILD. Serum IL8 level and mRNA levels of CD11b, MCL1, and IL18 in circulating neutrophils are related with the disease activity of CADM-ILD. The mRNA level of CD11b is positively correlated with HRCT score in CADM-ILD.

  8. Study of the effect of atorvastatin on the interaction between ICAM-1 and CD11b by live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the cell adhesion molecule CD11b and its ligand ICAM-1 plays an important role in inflammatory responses in the disease of atherosclerosis. Atorvastatin is a commonly prescribed statin drug which has been considered as one of the most potent therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis due to its lipid-lowering effect. Recently, there is a growing body of evidence that atorvastatin has anti-inflammatory effect. We have applied the advanced method of live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on adhesion force between ICAM-1 and CD11b. Our result showed that single-molecule binding force of ICAM-1 and CD11b detected by AFM in the living cells was about 40 pN, and atorvastatin did not affect this force by blocking ICAM-1 or CD11b. This was different from the ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody, which could directly reduce the binding force of ICAM-1 and CD11b. Flow cytometry results revealed that atorvastatin pretreatment decreased the ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α activated HUVECs, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effect. The study provides a new approach to study anti-inflammatory mechanism for clinic drugs.

  9. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  10. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  11. A Bayesian Atmospheric Retrieval Performed on HAT-P-16b and WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Kathleen J.; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan C.; Hardin, Matthew Ryan; Bowman, Oliver Oliver; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lenius, Maria; Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gaspar; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Ariston Hardy, Ryan; Cameron, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    HAT-P-16b is a hot (equilibrium temperature 1626 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and efficient energy redistribution), 4.19 ± 0.09 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting an F8 star every 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days (Buchhave et al 2010). WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b is a cooler (1020 ± 17 K), 0.487 ± 0.018 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting a K3 star every 3.7224747 ± 0.0000065 days (Bakos et al. 2009, co-discovered by West et al. 2008). We observed secondary eclipses of both planets using the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels of the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (program ID 60003). We applied our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code to constrain the temperature-pressure profiles and atmospheric molecular abundances of the two planets. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  12. A programmable baseband chain for a WCDMA/WLAN (802.11b) multi-standard zero-IF receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez de Llera Gonzalez, Delia; Ismail, Mohammed

    2005-06-01

    As we move towards convergent 4G Wireless encompassing both 3G cellular (WCDMA) for wide area networks and Wireless LAN for "hot-spots", the development of low power, low cost multi-band multi-standard wireless chipset solutions is a must. To this end this paper presents a programmable architecture for an analog baseband chain intended for use in a zero-IF multi-standard WCDMA/WLAN(802.11b) radio receiver. It also addresses the DC offset cancellation in the baseband chain. This is one of the major impairments in zero-IF receivers whose simplicity makes them suitable for single-chip multi-standard designs but where DC offset can reduce the receiver performance if a proper DC offset cancellation scheme is not devised. System level design of the baseband chain is given leading to design specifications of the different blocks in the chain. Extensive simulations carried out in MATLAB/SimuLink at the system level and in Cadence design tools at the circuit level show the performance of the system. The circuits will be fabricated in a 0.18μm CMOS process for a 1.8 V power supply.

  13. KELT-11b: A Highly Inflated Sub-Saturn Exoplanet Transiting the V=8 Subgiant HD 93396

    CERN Document Server

    Pepper, Joshua; Collins, Karen A; Johnson, John Asher; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howard, Andrew W; Beatty, Thomas; Stassun, Keivan G; Isaacson, Howard; Colón, Knicole d; Lund, Michael B; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Siverd, Robert J; Gaudi, B Scott; Tan, T G; Curtis, Ivan; Stockdale, Christopher; Mawet, Dimitri; Bottom, Michael; James, David; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Cargile, Phillip; Bieryla, Allyson; Penev, Kaloyan; Latham, David W; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Kielkopf, John; Eastman, Jason D; Oberst, Thomas E; Jensen, Eric L N; Nelson, Peter; Sliski, David H; Wittenmyer, Robert A; McCrady, Nate; Wright, Jason T; Relles, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting exoplanet, KELT-11b, orbiting the bright ($V=8.0$) subgiant HD 93396. A global analysis of the system shows that the host star is an evolved subgiant star with $T_{\\rm eff} = 5370\\pm51$ K, $M_{*} = 1.438_{-0.052}^{+0.061} M_{\\odot}$, $R_{*} = 2.72_{-0.17}^{+0.21} R_{\\odot}$, log $g_*= 3.727_{-0.046}^{+0.040}$, and [Fe/H]$ = 0.180\\pm0.075$. The planet is a low-mass gas giant in a $P = 4.736529\\pm0.00006$ day orbit, with $M_{P} = 0.195\\pm0.018 M_J$, $R_{P}= 1.37_{-0.12}^{+0.15} R_J$, $\\rho_{P} = 0.093_{-0.024}^{+0.028}$ g cm$^{-3}$, surface gravity log ${g_{P}} = 2.407_{-0.086}^{+0.080}$, and equilibrium temperature $T_{eq} = 1712_{-46}^{+51}$ K. KELT-11 is the brightest known transiting exoplanet host in the southern hemisphere by more than a magnitude, and is the 6th brightest transit host to date. The planet is one of the most inflated planets known, with an exceptionally large atmospheric scale height (2763 km), and an associated size of the expected atmospheric trans...

  14. A case of primary selective hypoaldosteronism carrying three mutations in the aldosterone synthase (Cyp11b2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Anna; Bizzarri, Carla; Masotti, Andrea; Sciré, Giuseppe; Pampanini, Valentina; Cappa, Marco

    2012-05-25

    An infant with a clinical phenotype of early onset hypoaldosteronism has been screened for mutation analysis of the Cyp11b2 gene encoding aldosterone synthase enzyme. We have described a novel nonsense mutation in exon 3 (c.508C>T) that gave rise to a shorter protein (Q170X) and two known concurrent missense mutations (c.594A>C in exon 3 and c.1157T>C in exon 7) that led to substitution of glutamic acid for aspartic acid at amino acid position 198 (E198D) and of valine for alanine at amino acid position 386 (V386A). The father, who carried E198D plus V386A mutations, showed a fractional sodium excretion of 1.25% that was unmodified by dietary salt restriction, suggesting a mild haploinsufficiency. We examined by in silico analysis the effect of the mutations on the secondary and tertiary structures of aldosterone synthase to explain the inefficient enzymatic activity. The Q170X mutation produced a truncated protein, which was consequently associated with a loss of catalytic activity. As predicted by JPred web system and Dock 6.3 software, the concurrent expression of E198D and V386A mutations induced a significant secondary structure rearrangement and a shift of the heme group and the 18-hydroxycorticosterone substrate from their optimal placement.

  15. Enhanced expression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells and its contribution to immunosuppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Hiroki; Tomihara, Kei; Heshiki, Wataru; Yamazaki, Manabu; Akyu-Takei, Rie; Tachinami, Hidetake; Furukawa, Ken-Ichiro; Sakurai, Kotaro; Rouwan, Moniruzzaman; Noguchi, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is often associated with dysregulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response, which in some instances is believed to result from changes in immune cell populations. For example, immunosuppressive CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been shown to proliferate in the tumor microenvironment and surrounding tissues, highlighting the relationship between tumor growth and impairment of the immune response. However, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer progression has not been fully characterized because these cells are heterogeneous with properties influenced by the type and location of the tumor. Here, we show that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are elevated in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor of mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The phenotype and function of these cells varied depending on the tissue of origin. In particular, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in tumors expressed PD-L1 more abundantly than those in other tissues. Accordingly, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from tumors, but not from the spleen, suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. The results suggest that tumor-derived or immune factors result in the accumulation of phenotypically and functionally diverse populations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data also indicate that PD-L1 expression in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells contributes to immune suppression, implying that targeting both myeloid-derived suppressor cells and PD-L1 would be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against oral cancer.

  16. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang [State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, Zongqing, E-mail: mzq0320@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM, University of Wollongong, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Shahriar Al Hossain, Md [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM, University of Wollongong, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Somer, M. [Chemistry Department, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, TR-34450 Sariyer-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Both H{sub irr} and J{sub c} of our low activation Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} bulks are better than previous studies. • Low-temperature sintering leads to better J{sub c} at high field, worse J{sub c} at low field. • The highest J{sub c} value (2.2 ×10{sup 5} A cm{sup −2}) was achieved in low activation Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} bulks. - Abstract: As the “low activation” superconductor, Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the J{sub c} and H{sub irr} values of Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better J{sub c} performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher J{sub c} at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest J{sub c} value (2.20 ×10{sup 5} A cm{sup −2} at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg{sup 11}B{sub 2} sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  17. Involvement of CD11b integrin in the alteration of metabolic factors after phorbol ester stimulation of human myeloid leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandel Katharina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous work has demonstrated that phorbol ester (TPA-induced adherence of human U937 myeloid leukemia cells can be blocked upon down-modulation of the β2-integrin CD11b after stable transfection of U937 cells with a pMTH1 vector-containing the CD11b gene in antisense orientation (asCD11b-U937 [Otte et al., (2011]. In the present study, alterations in metabolism-associated factors, particularly intra- and extracellular proteases were investigated. A measurement of telomerase activity in the leukemic cells revealed continuously decreasing telomere adducts within 72 h of TPA treatment in pMTH1-U937 cells. In contrast, telomerase activity sustained in asCD11b-U937 upon TPA-induced differentiation. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed unchanged CD11b levels in TPA-induced asCD11b-U937 in contrast to elevated levels in pMTH1-U937 whereby the expression of other β2-integrins including CD11a, CD11c and CD18 was increased in both populations after TPA treatment. Moreover, adherent pMTH1-U937 demonstrated the expression of monocytic differentiation markers including F4-80 and CD14 and an increased MIP-1α production which remained at low or undetectable in TPA-induced asCD11b-U937. These effects indicated an altered response of the different cell populations to the TPA-induced differentiation process. Indeed, Western blot analysis revealed differences in the expression levels of intracellular metabolic factors including MnSOD and p97/VCP and after measurement of 20 S proteasomal proteolytic activity. In addition, increased levels of extracellular metabolic factors including the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-9 were observed in pMTH1-U937 cells in contrast to unaltered levels in asCD11b-U937 cells.

  18. Involvement of the TNF and FasL produced by CD11b Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sato

    Full Text Available We previously reported that F4/80(+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68(+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b(+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80(+ or CD68(+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b(+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b(+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b(+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL. Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b(+ Kupffer cells, anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b(+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68(+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b(+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b(+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.

  19. [Implementation of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act on the basis of the so-called "Quality Breeding" Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J

    2004-03-01

    Enforcement of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act is a responsibility of breeders and their organisations as well as executive local authorities. The Report on Defective Breeds of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture describes numerous breeding traits which are in conflict with animal welfare and gives valuable information for fancy or pet breeding. Yet a selection has to be made for taking legal actions, following specific criteria. With four examples different cases are presented, each requiring a different approach by the veterinarian authorities. Court decisions in Hessen concerning bans on breeding white cats and crested ducks show that the paragraph 11b is executable.

  20. [Primary hypoaldosteronism and moderate bilateral deafness in a child with a homozygous missense mutation (Thr318Met) in the CYP11B2 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Cabezas, O; Regueras, L; Muñoz-Calvo, M T; Bartolomé, M; Pozo, J; Argente, J

    2010-07-01

    Isolated congenital hypoaldosteronism is a rare disorder that presents as chronic salt-wasting syndrome during infancy. Aldosterone synthase deficiency due to mutations in CYP11B2 is the underlying cause in most cases. Apart from the classical electrolyte disturbances (hyponatremia and hyperkalemia), no other extra-adrenal features have been described to date. We report a male child with congenital hypoaldosteronism due to a homozygous missense mutation (Thr318Met) in CYP11B2 who also presented with unexplained sensorineural hearing loss.

  1. New insights on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride from 11B NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, G; Zanchetta, C; Patton, B; Miotello, A

    2006-08-31

    To gain insight on the mechanistic aspects of the palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH(4) in alkaline media, the kinetics of the reaction has been investigated by (11)B NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurements taken at different times during the reaction course. Working with BH(4)(-) concentration in the range 0.05-0.1 M and with a [substrate]/[catalyst] molar ratio of 0.03-0.11, hydrolysis has been found to follow a first-order kinetic dependence from concentration of both the substrate and the catalyst (Pd/C 10 wt %). We followed the reaction of NaBH(4) and its perdeuterated analogue NaBD(4) in H(2)O, in D(2)O and H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures. When the process was carried out in D(2)O, deuterium incorporation in BH(4)(-) afforded BH(4)(-)(n)D(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) species, and a competition between hydrolysis and hydrogen/deuterium exchange processes was observed. By fitting the kinetics NMR data by nonlinear least-squares regression techniques, the rate constants of the elementary steps involved in the palladium-catalyzed borohydride hydrolysis have been evaluated. Such a regression analysis was performed on a reaction scheme wherein the starting reactant BH(4)(-) is allowed both to reversibly exchange hydrogen with deuterium atoms of D(2)O and to irreversibly hydrolyze into borohydroxy species B(OD)(4)(-). In contrast to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, our results indicate that in the palladium-catalyzed process the rate constants of the exchange processes are higher than those of the corresponding hydrolysis reactions.

  2. CD45/CD11b Positive Subsets of Adult Lung Anchorage-Independent Cells Harness Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Yakov; Sen, Namita; Levantini, Elena; Keller, Steven; Ingenito, Edward P; Ciner, Aaron; Sackstein, Robert; Shapiro, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory growth is mediated by multiple cell types that interact during organ repair. To elucidate the relationship between the stem/progenitor cells that proliferate or differentiate and the somatic cells of lung, we utilized a novel ex vivo pneumoexplant system. Applying this technique, we identified a sustained culture of repopulating adult progenitors in the form of free floating anchorage-independent cells (AICs). AICs did not express integrin proteins α5, β3, and β7, and constituted 37% of the total culture at day 14, yielding a mixed yet conserved population that recapitulated RNA expression patterns of the healthy lung. AICs exhibited rapid proliferation manifested by a marked 60-fold increase in cell numbers by day 21. Over 50% of the AIC population was cKit+ or double-positive for CD45+ and CD11b+ antigenic determinants, consistent with cells of hematopoietic origin. The latter subset was found to be enriched with prosurfactant protein-C and SCGB1A1 expressing putative stem cells and with aquaporin-5 producing cells, characteristic of terminally differentiated alveolar epithelial type-1 pneumocytes. AICs undergo remodeling to form a cellular lining at the air/gel interface, and TGFβ1 treatment modifies protein expression, implying direct-differentiation of this population. These data confirm the active participation of clonogenic hematopietic stem cells in a mammalian model of lung repair and validate mixed stem/somatic cell cultures, which embrace sustained cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, for use in studies of compensatory pulmonary growth. PMID:22585451

  3. Prophylactic orthosteric inhibition of leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 prevents long-term fibrotic kidney failure in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnadi, Abbas; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Neal Smith, Rex; Li, Xiangen; Alonso, José L.; Means, Terry K.; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI. Moreover, prophylactic inactivation of CD11b/CD18, using the orthosteric CD11b/CD18 inhibitor mAb107, improves microvascular perfusion and histopathology, reduces intrarenal pro-inflammatory mediators and salvages kidney function long term. These studies reveal an important early role of CD11b+ leukocytes in post-ischaemic kidney fibrosis and failure, and suggest a potential early therapeutic intervention to mitigate progression of ischaemic AKI to CKD in humans. PMID:28071653

  4. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner.

  5. Probing the structures of neutral boron clusters using infrared/vacuum ultraviolet two color ionization: B[sub 11], B[sub 16], and B[sub 17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanescu, C.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Wang, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The structures of neutral boron clusters, B11, B16, and B17, have been investigated using vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Infrared absorption spectra in the wavelength range of 650 to 1550 cm−1 are obtained for the three neutral boron clusters from the enhancement of their near-

  6. Garenoxacin-induced increase of CD11b expression on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils does not affect phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüger, Thomas; Reiners, Ana-Lena; Schnitzler, Norbert; Brandenburg, Kerstin; Zündorf, Josef

    2011-04-01

    Garenoxacin is considered to be the most active quinolone against Staphylococcus aureus. Quinolones are believed to alter the function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and garenoxacin is known to be the only quinolone which alters the expression of the beta-chain (CD11b) of the complement receptor 3 (CR3) which is known to be important in the phagocytosis of S. aureus by PMN. Therefore, the effect of this altered CD11b expression on phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and killing of S. aureus was addressed and compared with that of standard quinolones. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst were determined by flow cytometry, and killing was measured by a colony-count method. Garenoxacin at therapeutic concentrations affected neither phagocytosis nor killing of Staphylococcus aureus NMS54. At supratherapeutic concentrations (1,500 mg/l) garenoxacin reduced and delayed phagocytosis like all other quinolones tested except norfloxacin. This decrease seems to be a result of inhibition of the oxidative burst of PMN and reduced CD11b expression at this supratherapeutic concentration. In conclusion, the alteration of CD11b expression of PMN caused by garenoxacin at 0.5, 5.0, and 100.0 mg/l is not considered to hamper the function of these first-line-defense phagocytes.

  7. Eotaxin increases the expression of CD11b/CD18 and adhesion properties in IL5, but not fMLP-prestimulated human peripheral blood eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, J; Moshfegh, A; Grönneberg, R; Halldén, G

    1998-04-01

    A selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation is claimed to be controlled by regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In animal models, eotaxin has been suggested to be a potent chemokine since it in cooperation with interleukin-5 induce selective chemotaxis and infiltration of eosinophils to lung tissue after an allergen provocation. We have investigated the in vitro effect of eotaxin on human peripheral blood eosinophils with respect to CD11b/CD18 expression and adhesion properties to the matrix protein fibronectin. We did not find any effect of eotaxin per se on CD11b/CD18 expression, neither on eosinophils from healthy subjects nor from patients with asymptomatic pollen related asthma. However, eotaxin significantly upregulated the quantitative level of CD11b/CD18 and increased the adhesion to fibronectin in eosinophils from healthy subjects preincubated in vitro with interleukin-5, but not in eosinophils preincubated with fMLP. Moreover, eosinophils harvested 24 hours after an in vivo allergen inhalation provocation in asthmatics, upregulated CD11b/CD18 after in vitro incubation with eotaxin alone.

  8. Field Calibration of the δ11B-pH Proxy in Corals and Calcified Algae at a Shallow Hydrothermal Vent and Adjacent Coral Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. D.; Christopher, S. J.; Young, C.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Stewart, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of biogenic carbonates as a proxy for seawater pH to better understand recent ocean acidification. The utility of this proxy hinges on the production of robust species-specific δ11B-pH calibrations; yet, challenges remain in the interpretation of boron isotope data due to biases introduced by physiological, environmental, and analytical factors. The shallow hydrothermal vents in the Maug Islands caldera (Marianas Islands) and the adjacent coral reefs exhibit a localized gradient > 1 pH unit. This gradient was used as a natural laboratory to assess the efficacy of using skeletal δ11B in a variety of corals (Porites spp., Pocillipora spp., Acropora spp.) and calcified algae (Halimeda spp. and Corallinales) as biosensors of seawater pH. Three sites were selected representing oceanic background, intermediate, and low pH zones, and direct seawater pH measurements were recorded for 3 months using SeaFETs. Corals and algae growing naturally in situ were collected from these 3 sites. In addition, corals and algae collected from a background location were stained and transplanted to these sites and allowed to grow for 3 months. Measurements of δ11B in skeletal material made by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry are compared to direct seawater pH measurements to assess the sensitivity and robustness of the δ11B proxy in these candidate biosensors in predicting ambient pH in the field. These data will inform ongoing efforts by the Archive of Coral Ecosystem Specimens (ACES) to collect marine carbonates for analysis and archival in the Marine Environmental Specimen Bank for broad-scale, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification and the associated impacts to coral reefs. Concurrent analyses of other trace elements, heavy metals, and isotopes in these samples will also be performed to assess their utility as biosensors for additional water chemistry parameters on coral reefs.

  9. Intra-shell boron isotope ratios in the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera: Implications for δ 11B vital effects and paleo-pH reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.

    2010-03-01

    The boron isotope composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a seawater pH proxy. Nevertheless, the use of δ 11B has some limitations such as the knowledge of the fractionation factor ( α4-3) between boric acid and the borate ion and the amplitude of "vital effects" on this proxy that are not well constrained. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we have examined the internal variability of the boron isotope ratio in the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera. Specimens were cultured at constant temperature (24 ± 0.1 °C) in seawater with pH ranging between 7.90 and 8.45. Intra-shell boron isotopes showed large variability with an upper limit value of ≈30‰. Our results suggest that the fractionation factor α4-3 of 0.97352 ( Klochko et al., 2006) is in better agreement with our experiments and with direct pH measurements in seawater vacuoles associated with the biomineralization process in these foraminifera. Despite the large variability of the skeletal pH values in each cultured specimen, it is possible to link the lowest calculated pH values to the experimental culture pH values while the upper pH limit is slightly below 9. This variability can be interpreted as follows: foraminifera variably increase the pH at the biomineralization site to about 9. This increase above ambient seawater pH leads to a range in δ 11B11B) for each seawater pH. This Δ 11B is linearly correlated with the culture seawater pH with a slope of -13.1 per pH unit, and is independent of the fractionation factor α4-3, or the δ 11B sw through time. It may also be independent of the p KB (the dissociation constant of boric acid) value. Therefore, Δ 11B in foraminifera can potentially reconstruct paleo-pH of seawater.

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce nitric oxide synthase-dependent differentiation of CD11b+ cells that expedite hematopoietic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, Cristina; Marigo, Ilaria; Pievani, Alice; Galleu, Antonio; Dolcetti, Luigi; Wang, Chun-Yin; Serafini, Marta; Bronte, Vincenzo; Dazzi, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    Bone marrow microenvironment is fundamental for hematopoietic homeostasis. Numerous efforts have been made to reproduce or manipulate its activity to facilitate engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but clinical results remain unconvincing. This probably reflects the complexity of the hematopoietic niche. Recent data have demonstrated the fundamental role of stromal and myeloid cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and mobilization in the bone marrow. In this study we unveil a novel interaction by which bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce the rapid differentiation of CD11b+ myeloid cells from bone marrow progenitors. Such an activity requires the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2. Importantly, the administration of these mesenchymal stromal cells-educated CD11b+ cells accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution in bone marrow transplant recipients. We conclude that the liaison between mesenchymal stromal cells and myeloid cells is fundamental in hematopoietic homeostasis and suggests that it can be harnessed in clinical transplantation.

  11. Arsenic-boron derivatives. Part 5. A /sup 1/H and /sup 11/B nuclear magnetic resonance study of the methylated arsine adducts of boron trihalides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehayber, J.M.; Drake, J.E.

    1986-02-17

    The /sup 1/H NMR chemical shifts for the adduct series (CH/sub 3/)/sub n/AsH/sub 3-n/BX/sub 3/ and the /sup 11/B NMR chemical shifts for the adduct series (CH/sub 3/)/sub n/AsH/sub 3-n/BX/sub 3/, (CH/sub 3/)/sub n/AsH/sub 3-n/BX/sub 2/Y and (CH/sub 3/)/sub n/AsH/sub 3-n/BXYZ (where n=1, 2, 3; Xnot =Ynot =Z=Cl, Br or I) have been reported. The values of the chemical shifts are examined in view of their use as indicators of acid-base strength. The /sup 11/B chemical shifts were found to fit Malinowsky's criteria of pairwise additivity.

  12. Probing the structures of neutral boron clusters using infrared/vacuum ultraviolet two color ionization: B11, B16, and B17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanescu, Constantin; Harding, Dan J.; Fielicke, André; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-07-01

    The structures of neutral boron clusters, B11, B16, and B17, have been investigated using vibrational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Infrared absorption spectra in the wavelength range of 650 to 1550 cm-1 are obtained for the three neutral boron clusters from the enhancement of their near-threshold ionization efficiency at a fixed UV wavelength of 157 nm (7.87 eV) after resonant absorption of the tunable infrared photons. All three clusters, B11, B16, and B17, are found to possess planar or quasi-planar structures, similar to their corresponding anionic counterparts (Bn-), whose global minima were found previously to be planar, using photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Only minor structural changes are observed between the neutral and the anionic species for these three boron clusters.

  13. Water content, δD and δ11B tracking in the Vanuatu arc magmas (Aoba Island): Insights from olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métrich, Nicole; Deloule, Etienne

    2014-10-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of H and B isotopic ratios and H2O, B and trace element contents are reported here for a series of melt inclusions typical of alkaline basalts of Aoba Island in the central part of Vanuatu arc (Southwestern Pacific). The melt inclusions, hosted in olivine Fo86-90, display large ranges in trace element concentrations and hydrogen (δD from - 48.2 to + 61.7‰) and boron (δ11B from - 11.9 to + 6.4‰) isotopic compositions. The high deuterium enrichment (δD ≥ 0‰) observed in a small subset of melt inclusions requires a proton diffusion loss through the olivine network, in addition to late-stage magma interactions with aqueous saline fluids. These melt inclusions are therefore not considered as representative of the magma from which the olivine grew. In most melt inclusions, positive correlations between H2O, K2O, Ba and Sr lead us to determine the K2O/H2O (1.5 ± 0.2), H2O/Ba (46 ± 3 × 10- 4) and H2O/Sr (29 ± 2 × 10- 4) ratios of Aoba basalts. Overall correlations between δ11B, B/Nb, and B/Nd testify to the mixing between slab-derived fluids, preferentially enriched in δ11B and fluid mobile elements and a relatively depleted MORB-type mantle wedge beneath Aoba Island. Heavy δ11B (on average 5.4 ± 0.7‰) indicate slab-derived fluids, possibly involving serpentine, which would have a mean δD value of - 28.4 ± 7‰. The chemical and isotopic variability recorded by Aoba magmas (melt inclusions) is consistent with the geodynamic context of ridge-arc collision in the central segment of Vanuatu arc.

  14. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260∗, resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260∗ was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database. In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxin kills human neutrophils by targeting the CD11b subunit of the integrin Mac-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMont, Ashley L; Yoong, Pauline; Day, Christopher J; Alonzo, Francis; McDonald, W Hayes; Jennings, Michael P; Torres, Victor J

    2013-06-25

    Staphylococcus aureus causes diseases ranging from superficial wound infections to more invasive manifestations like osteomyelitis and endocarditis. The evasion of host phagocytes recruited to the site of infection is essential to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen. A single S. aureus strain can produce up to five different bicomponent pore-forming leukotoxins that lyse immune cells by forming pores in the cellular plasma membrane. Although these leukotoxins have been considered redundant due to their cytotoxic activity toward human neutrophils, each toxin displays varied species and cell-type specificities. This suggests that cellular factors may influence which cells each toxin targets. Here we describe the identification of CD11b, the α subunit of the αM/β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen, or complement receptor 3, as a cellular receptor for leukocidin A/B (LukAB), an important toxin that contributes to S. aureus killing of human neutrophils. We demonstrate that CD11b renders human neutrophils susceptible to LukAB-mediated killing by purified LukAB as well as during S. aureus infection ex vivo. LukAB directly interacts with human CD11b by binding to the I domain, a property that determines the species specificity exhibited by this toxin. Identification of a LukAB cellular target has broad implications for the use of animal models to study the role of LukAB in S. aureus pathogenesis, explains the toxin's tropism toward human neutrophils and other phagocytes, and provides a cellular therapeutic target to block the effect of LukAB toward human neutrophils.

  16. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  17. Optical Potential Parameters for Halo Nucleus System 6He+12C from Transfer Reaction11B (7Li, 6He) 12C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhen-Dong; XU Xin-Xing; BAI Chun-Lin; YU Ning; JIA Fei; LIN Cheng-Jian; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; LIU Zu-Hua; YANG Feng; AN Guang-Peng; ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Gao-Long; JIA Hui-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The optical potential parameters for the halo nucleus system 6He+12 C are extracted from fits to the measured angular distributions of 11B(7 Li, 6He)12C reaction at energies of 18.3 and 28.3 MeV with distorted-wave Born approximation analysis. The characters of the obtained optical potential parameters are basically consistent with the results extracted from the fits to the elastic-scattering angular distributions in the literature.

  18. High-Resolution Spectra of the 10B18O and 11B18O: Rotational Analysis of the B-X Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Bojovic; A.Anti6-Jovanovi(c); M.Kuzmanovi(c)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Emission spectra of 10B18O and 11 B18O isotopomers in the 230-330 nm region have been investigated by means of conventional high-resolution spectroscopy.The molecules were produced in a low-pressure arc by discharging 8 Torr of mixture containing argon and oxygen 18 in the ratio of 4:1 and the spectra have been recorded using Ebert-type spectrograph.The boron needed to produce BO has been present in the system as amorphous powder with natural abundance of 10B and 11 B.Rotational analysis of the 0, 0 and 0, 1 bands has been performed and spectroscopic constants have been extracted.The results have allowed first determination of the equilibrium rotational constants Be and De for both isotope species 10B18O and 11B18O in their lower electronic state.Assuming a linear dependence of Be on (v + 1/2), the value of equilibrium distance re in the lower state has been derived.

  19. Activation and increase of radio-sensitive CD11b+ recruited Kupffer cells/macrophages in diet-induced steatohepatitis in FGF5 deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Manabu; Ikarashi, Masami; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Hanaka, Hiromi; Imaki, Junko; Seki, Shuhji

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that Kupffer cells consist of two subsets, radio-resistant resident CD68+ Kupffer cells and radio-sensitive recruited CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages (Mφs). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized not only by hepatic steatosis but also chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the immunological mechanism of diet-induced steatohepatitis in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) deficient mice. After consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, FGF5 null mice developed severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis resembling human NASH. F4/80+ Mφs which were both CD11b and CD68 positive accumulated in the liver. The production of TNF and FasL indicated that they are the pivotal effectors in this hepatitis. The weak phagocytic activity and lack of CRIg mRNA suggested that they were recruited Mφs. Intermittent exposure to 1 Gy irradiation markedly decreased these Mφs and dramatically inhibited liver inflammation without attenuating steatosis. However, depletion of the resident subset by clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment increased the Mφs and tended to exacerbate disease progression. Recruited CD11b+ CD68+ Kupffer cells/Mφs may play an essential role in steatohepatitis and fibrosis in FGF5 null mice fed with a HFD. Recruitment and activation of bone marrow derived Mφs is the key factor to develop steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. PMID:27708340

  20. Conservation of XYN11A and XYN11B xylanase genes in Bipolaris sorghicola, Cochliobolus sativus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, and Cochliobolus spicifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan

    2002-10-01

    Two types of xylanase gene, XYN11A ( XYL1) and XYN11B ( XYL2), were amplified by PCR and partially sequenced in four phytopathogenic species of the ascomycete fungal genus Cochliobolus (anamorph genus Bipolaris). Three of the species, C. heterostrophus ( B. maydis), C. sativus ( B. sorokiniana), and Bipolaris sorghicola (no teleomorph known), are interrelated; the fourth, C. spicifer ( B. spicifera), was found, through analysis of the 5.8S RNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of its ribosomal DNA, to be more distantly related to the other three. Isolates from all four species contain orthologous XYN11A and XYN11B genes, but a set of laboratory strains of C. heterostrophus gave no product corresponding to the XYN11B gene. The patterns of evolution of the two xylanase genes and ribosomal DNA sequences are mutually consistent; the results indicate that the two genes were present in the common ancestor of all Cochliobolus species and are evolving independently of each other.

  1. Gr-1dimCD11b+ immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not neutrophils are markers of lethal tuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiganov, Evgeny N; Verbina, Elena M; Radaeva, Tatiana V; Sosunov, Vasily V; Kosmiadi, George A; Nikitina, Irina Yu; Lyadova, Irina V

    2014-05-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. In this study, we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G but do not belong to conventional neutrophils. The cells exhibit unsegmented nuclei, have Gr-1(dim)Ly-6G(dim)CD11b(+) phenotype, and express F4/80, CD49d, Ly-6C, CD117, and CD135 markers characteristic not of neutrophils but of immature myeloid cells. The cells accumulate in the lungs, bone marrow, spleen, and blood at the advanced (prelethal) stage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells at different stages of their differentiation. The accumulation of Gr-1(dim)CD11b(+) cells is accompanied by the disappearance of conventional neutrophils (Gr-1(hi)Ly-6G(hi)-expressing cells). The Gr-1(dim)CD11b(+) cells suppress T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in vitro via NO-dependent mechanisms, that is, they exhibit characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These results document the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells during TB, suggesting their role in TB pathogenesis, and arguing that neutrophils do not contribute to TB pathology at the advanced disease stage.

  2. Changes of pulmonary intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and CD11b/CD18 in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils and their significance at the early stage of burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金榕兵; 朱佩芳; 王正国; 刘大维; 周继红

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the accumulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the lungs at the early stage of burns. Methods: Myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. ICAM-1 and its mRNA expression in lung tissues were determined by immunohistochemical method and in situ hybridization. CD11b/CD18 expression on the peripheral PMNs was measured by flowcytometry. Results: The levels of myeloperoxidase in lung tissues and BALF after burn injury were markedly higher than those of control. Expression of ICAM-1 and its mRNA in the lung tissues and CD11b/CD18 on peripheral PMNs surface was significantly increased at 2, 6, 12, 24 h after burns. Conclusions: PMNs accumulation in the lungs is related to increased ICAM-1 expression on pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and CD11b/CD18 expression on PMN at the early stage of burn injury.

  3. CXCL17 expression by tumor cells recruits CD11b+Gr1 high F4/80- cells and promotes tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Matsui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemokines are involved in multiple aspects of pathogenesis and cellular trafficking in tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the latest member of the C-X-C-type chemokines, CXCL17 (DMC/VCC-1, recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and enhances early tumor progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CXCL17 was preferentially expressed in some aggressive types of gastrointestinal, breast, and lung cancer cells. CXCL17 expression did not impart NIH3T3 cells with oncogenic potential in vitro, but CXCL17-expressing NIH3T3 cells could form vasculature-rich tumors in immunodeficient mice. Our data showed that CXCL17-expressing tumor cells increased immature CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid-derived cells at tumor sites in mice and promoted CD31(+ tumor angiogenesis. Extensive chemotactic assays proved that CXCL17-responding cells were CD11b(+Gr1(highF4/80(- cells (≈ 90% with a neutrophil-like morphology in vitro. Although CXCL17 expression could not increase the number of CD11b(+Gr1(+ cells in tumor-burdened SCID mice or promote metastases of low metastatic colon cancer cells, the existence of CXCL17-responding myeloid-derived cells caused a striking enhancement of xenograft tumor formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that aberrant expression of CXCL17 in tumor cells recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and promotes tumor progression through angiogenesis.

  4. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V target for transmission spectroscopy. KELT-11b is a highly inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  5. Two populations of ovine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can be generated with recombinant GM-CSF and separated on CD11b expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, Eliane; Foucras, Gilles

    2008-11-30

    Whereas studies on dendritic cells in rodents rely largely on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), no data are available about BM-DCs in sheep, a species that is largely used for immunology and transplantation studies. We have developed a culture protocol to produce ovine BM-DCs, using 6x(His)-tagged recombinant GM-CSF which was purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells. When ovine bone marrow progenitors were cultured in the presence of recombinant GM-CSF, large numbers of CD11c-positive cells were generated after 6-7 days. The phenotypic appearance of BM-DCs was assessed by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Two DC subsets were identified that expressed different levels of MHC class II molecules, differed in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and could be separated on CD11b expression. When separated cells were incubated with microbial products, they react differently to those that are considered the TLR2 and TLR4 agonists in other species. Indeed, although CD11b(int/hi) cells were partially resistant to maturation induced by lipoteichoic acid or lipopolysaccharide, MHC class II upregulation was observed on CD11b(dull) cells. Moreover, these cells had strong stimulatory capacity for CD4 T cells when assayed in allogeneic reactions. This protocol will help analyzing ovine DC interactions with pathogens, and enables future studies on the development of vaccines.

  6. Potential differentiation of tumor bearing mouse CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells into both suppressor macrophages and immunostimulatory dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yoshinori; Wakita, Daiko; Ohkur, Takayuki; Chamoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Evaluation of immunosuppressive tumor-escape mechanisms in tumor-bearing hosts is of great importance for the development of an efficient tumor immunotherapy. We document here the functional characteristics of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (ImC), which increase abnormally in tumor-bearing mice. Although it has been reported that ImC exhibit a strong immunosuppressive activity against T cell responses, we demonstrate that ImC derived from tumor-bearing mouse spleens (TB-SPL) did not exhibit a strong inhibitory activity against CTL generation in MLR. However, ImC isolated from TB-SPL and induced to differentiate into CD11b(+)Gr-1(+)F4/80(+) suppressor macrophages (MPhi) under the influence of tumor-derived factors were immunosuppressive. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that ImC isolated from TB-SPL had a capability of differentiating into immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC1) supportive of the generation of IFN-gamma producing CTL if the ImC were cultured with Th1 cytokines plus GM-CSF and IL-3. Thus, our findings indicate that tumor bearing mouse-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) ImC are not committed to development into immunosuppressor cells but have dual differentiation ability into both immunosuppressive myeloid cells and immunostimulatory DC1.

  7. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  8. Assessing the impact of diagenesis on δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca values in fossil planktic foraminiferal calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Kirsty M.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Pearson, Paul N.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2015-10-01

    The geochemical composition of foraminiferal tests is a valuable archive for the reconstruction of paleo-climatic, -oceanographic and -ecological changes. However, dissolution of biogenic calcite and precipitation of inorganic calcite (overgrowth and recrystallization) at the seafloor and in the sediment column can potentially alter the original geochemical composition of the foraminiferal test, biasing any resulting paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The δ11B of planktic foraminiferal calcite is a promising ocean pH-proxy but the effect of diagenesis is still poorly known. Here we present new δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca data from multiple species of planktic foraminifera from time-equivalent samples for two low latitude sites: clay-rich Tanzanian Drilling Project (TDP) Site 18 from the Indian Ocean containing well-preserved ('glassy') foraminifera and carbonate-rich Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 from the central Pacific Ocean hosting recrystallized ('frosty') foraminifera. Our approach makes the assumption that environmental conditions were initially similar at both sites so most chemical differences are attributable to diagenesis. Planktic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records show offsets in both relative and absolute values between the two sites consistent with earlier findings that these isotopic ratios are strongly influenced by diagenetic alteration. Sr/Ca and B/Ca ratios in planktic foraminiferal calcite are also offset between the two sites but there is little change in the relative difference between surface and deep dwelling taxa. In contrast, δ11B values indicate no large differences between well-preserved and recrystallized foraminifera suggesting that despite extensive diagenetic alteration the δ11B of biogenic calcite appears robust, potentially indicative of a lack of free exchange of boron between pore fluids and the recrystallizing CaCO3. Our finding may remove one potential source of uncertainty in δ11B based p

  9. Lack of an association between CYP11B2 C-344T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of 7,710 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Pi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 C-344T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke remains controversial and ambiguous. To better explain the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Based on comprehensive searches of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases, we identified and abstracted outcome data from all articles to evaluate the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic stroke. The pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were performed in all genetic models. Fixed or random effects model was separately used depending on the heterogeneity between studies. Publication bias was tested by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies including 3,620 ischemic stroke cases and 4,090 controls were identified. There was no statistical evidence of association between CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism and ischemic stroke in all genetic models (allelic model: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.95-1.49; additive model: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.91-2.27; dominant model: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.89-1.89; and recessive model: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.96-1.60. On subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similarly results were found in both Asians and non-Asians. For Asians, the combined ORs and 95% CIs were (allelic model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.87-1.32; additive model: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.77-1.71; dominant model: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.92-1.38; and recessive model: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.84-1.40. For none-Asians, the combined ORs and 95% CIs were (allelic model: OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 0.90-2.76; additive model: OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.79-7.05; dominant model: OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.77-4.19; and recessive model: OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.96-3.36. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggested that CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism was unlikely

  10. Light and temperature effects on δ11B and B / Ca ratios of the zooxanthellate coral Acropora sp.: results from culturing experiments

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    P. Louvat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The boron isotopic composition (δ11B of marine carbonates (e.g. corals is increasingly utilised as a proxy for paleo-pH, with the strong correlation between δ11B of marine calcifiers and seawater pH now well documented. However, the potential roles of other environmental parameters that may also influence both the boron isotopic composition and boron concentration into coral aragonite are poorly known. To overcome this, the tropical scleractinian coral Acropora sp. was cultured under 3 different temperatures (22, 25 and 28 °C and two light conditions (200 and 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1. The δ11B indicates an increase in internal pH that is dependent on the light conditions. Changes in light intensities from 200 to 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1 seem to indicate an apparent decrease in pH at the site of calcification, contrary to what is expected in most models of light-enhanced calcification. Thus, variations in light conditions chosen to mimic average annual variations of the natural environments where Acropora sp. colonies can be found could bias pH reconstructions by about 0.05 units. For both light conditions, a significant impact of temperature on δ11B can be observed between 22 and 25 °C, corresponding to an increase of about 0.02 pH-units, while no further δ11B increase can be observed from 25 to 28 °C. This non-linear temperature effect complicates the determination of a correction factor. B / Ca ratios decrease with increasing light, consistent with the decrease in pH at the site of calcification under enhanced light intensities. When all the other parameters are constant, boron concentrations in Acropora sp. increase with increasing temperatures and increasing carbonate ion concentrations. These observations contradict previous studies where B / Ca in corals was found to vary inversely with temperature, suggesting that the controlling factors driving boron concentrations have not yet been adequately identified and might be

  11. Regulation of CD11b transcription by decreasing PRC2 and increased acH4 level during ATRA-induced HL-60 differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huarong Tang; Fangping Chen; Qian Tan; Sanqin Tan; Linxin Liu; Fan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2),which mediates trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (K27me3),plays an important role in many types of stem cell differentiation.Here,we try to reveal how PRC2,PRC2-mediated repressive histone marker H3K27me3,and active histone marker histone H4 acetylation (acH4) regulate the CD11b transcription during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation.By using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis,we found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of two members of PRC2 were decreased during ATRA-induced HL-60 differentiation,respectively.When treated with ATRA for 72 h,the EZH2 and SUZ12 mRNA levels were decreased to 35% and 38% of the control group,respectively.At the same time,the granulocytic mature surface marker CD11b expression was increased significantly at mRNA level detected by qPCR and protein level detected by flow cytometry.By using chromatin immunoprecipita-tion assay,we compared the local changes in SUZ12 binding and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 at the promo-ter of CD11b during ATRA-induced HL-60 differ-entiation.Both the levels of SUZ12 binding and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 at the promoter of CD11b were decreased for 4.1 and 3.8 folds,respectively.And we also found the increase in the acH4 level up to 4 folds after 72 h of ATRA treatment.These results suggested that the histone modification including PRC2-mediated repressive histone marker H3K27me3 and active histone marker acH4 may involve in CD11b transcription during HL-60 leukemia cells reprogram-ming to terminal differentiation.

  12. CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) is a novel surface receptor for extracellular double-stranded RNA to mediate cellular inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Liao, Jieying; Aloor, Jim; Nie, Hui; Wilson, Belinda C; Fessler, Michael B; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    During viral infection, extracellular dsRNA is a potent signaling molecule that activates many innate immune cells, including macrophages. TLR3 is a well-known receptor for extracellular dsRNA, and internalization of extracellular dsRNA is required for endosomal TLR3 activation. Preserved inflammatory responses of TLR3-deficient macrophages to extracellular dsRNA strongly support a TLR3-independent mechanism in dsRNA-mediated immune responses. The present study demonstrated that CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1 [macrophage-1 Ag]), a surface integrin receptor, recognized extracellular dsRNA and induced macrophage immune responses. CD11b deficiency reduced inflammatory cytokine induction elicited by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; a synthetic dsRNA) in mouse sera and livers, as well as in cultured peritoneal macrophages. dsRNA-binding assay and confocal immunofluorescence showed that Mac-1, especially the CD11b subunit, interacted and colocalized with poly I:C on the surface of macrophages. Further mechanistic studies revealed two distinct signaling events following dsRNA recognition by Mac-1. First, Mac-1 facilitated poly I:C internalization through the activation of PI3K signaling and enhanced TLR3-dependent activation of IRF3 in macrophages. Second, poly I:C induced activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase in a TLR3-independent, but Mac-1-dependent, manner. Subsequently, phagocyte NADPH oxidase-derived intracellular reactive oxygen species activated MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Our results indicate that extracellular dsRNA activates Mac-1 to enhance TLR3-dependent signaling and to trigger TLR3-independent, but Mac-1-dependent, inflammatory oxidative signaling, identifying a novel mechanistic basis for macrophages to recognize extracellular dsRNA to regulate innate immune responses. This study identifies Mac-1 as a novel surface receptor for extracellular dsRNA and implicates it as a potential therapeutic target for virus-related inflammatory diseases.

  13. Coexistence of IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs: Modeling and Protocol Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, W.

    2011-01-01

    As an emerging short-range wireless technology, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in the fields of home control, industrial control, consumer electronics, energy management, building automation, telecom services, personal healthcare, etc. IEEE 802.15.4/Zig-Bee WSNs share the same 2.4 GHz license-free Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band with many other wireless systems such as IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs, Bluetooth, cordless phones, etc. Due to the ...

  14. Range distributions of /sup 11/B/sup +/ in Co, CoSi/sub 2/, Ti, and TiSi/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, M.; Morgan, A.E.; Maillot, P.; Broadbent, E.K.

    1988-07-15

    The range distributions of 10--120 keV /sup 11/B/sup +/ in polycrystalline Co, Ti, CoSi/sub 2/, and TiSi/sub 2/ targets have been measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The obtained projected ranges R/sub p/ and projected range stragglings ..delta..R/sub p/ are within 25% and 10%, respectively, of those predicted using the Monte Carlo computer program t-smcapsr-smcapsIm-smcaps. By comparison the one-dimensional Boltzmann transport calculation in Su-smcapsp-smcapsr-smcapsEm-smcaps-3 tends to overestimate R/sub p/ by as much as 300% at the highest ion energies.

  15. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  16. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F. [Institute of Research Tecnology, Cidade Universitaria, SP, 05508-091 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  17. The Analysis of System Capacity of VoIP System Supporting CBR and VBR Traffic in IEEE 802.11b WLAN Under DCF Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xi-ping; LIU Yuan-an

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the capability of IEEE 802.11b Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mode supporting of Constant Bit Rate (CBR) and Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic is investigated. Then, the capacity of 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) system carrying voice calls in a wide range of scenarios, including varying delay and packet loss rate constraints is analyzed and evaluated. Both G.711 and G.729 voice encoding schemes and a range of voice inter-arrival time are considered. The analyses and simulation results show that capacity is highly sensitive to the delay budget allocated to the sum of packetization and wireless network delays. For a given packet loss rate constrained, G.729 is shown to have a capacity greater than that when G.711 is used. The simulation results show that by supporting VBR under DCF mode the network has the approximately twice much capacity as supporting CBR has, regardless of the encoding schemes and the inter-arrival time.

  18. Doppler tomography of transiting exoplanets: A prograde, low-inclined orbit for the hot Jupiter CoRoT-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Davide; Endl, Michael; Lanza, Antonino F; Damiani, Cilia; Alonso, Roi; Cochran, William D; Deleuil, Magali; Fridlund, Malcolm; Hatzes, Artie P; Guenther, Eike W

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of the Doppler shadow of the transiting hot Jupiter CoRoT-11b. Our analysis is based on line-profile tomography of time-series, Keck/HIRES high-resolution spectra acquired during the transit of the planet. We measured a sky-projected, spin-orbit angle of 0.1 +/- 2.6 degrees, which is consistent with a very low-inclined orbit with respect to the stellar rotation axis. We refined the physical parameters of the system using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simultaneous fitting of the available photometric and spectroscopic data. An analysis of the tidal evolution of the system shows how the currently measured obliquity and its uncertainty translate into an initial absolute value of less than about 10 degrees on the zero-age main sequence, for an expected average modified tidal quality factor of the star Q'* > 4 x 10^6. This is indicative of an inward migration scenario that would not have perturbed the primordial low obliquity of CoRoT-11b. Taking into account the effective temperature and mass...

  19. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  20. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  1. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, P; Shneor, R; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi degli-Atti, C; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2014-08-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  2. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    CERN Document Server

    Monaghan, P; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Atti, C Ciofi degli; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2013-01-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  3. 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift of Mg1-xAlxB2: Evidence for an anisotropic Fermi surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-10-01

    We report a detailed study of the 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the 27Al Knight shift (K) in Mg1-xAlxB2, 0<=x<=1. The evolution of (1/T1T) and K with x is in excellent agreement with the prediction of ab initio calculations of a highly anisotropic Fermi surface, consisting mainly of hole-type two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical sheets from bonding 2px,y boron orbitals. The density of states at the Fermi level also decreases sharply on Al doping and the 2D sheets collapse at x~0.55, where the superconducting phase disappears.

  4. Tourmaline geochemistry and δ11B variations as a guide to fluid-rock interaction in the Habachtal emerald deposit, Tauern Window, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Robert B.; Krienitz, Marc-Sebastian; Grundmann, Günter; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Tourmalines from the Habachtal emerald deposit in the Eastern Alps formed together with emerald in a ductile shear zone during blackwall metasomatism between pelitic country rocks and a serpentinite body. Electron microprobe and secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses provide a record of chemical and B-isotope variations in tourmalines which represent an idealized profile from metapelites into the blackwall sequence of biotite and chlorite schists. Tourmaline is intermediate schorl-dravite in the country rock and become increasingly dravitic in the blackwall zones, while F and Cr contents increase and Al drops. Metasomatic tourmaline from blackwall zones is typically zoned optically and chemically, with rim compositions rich in Mg, Ti, Ca and F compared with the cores. The total range in δ11B values is -13.8 to -5.1‰ and the within-sample variations are typically 3-5‰. Both of these ranges are beyond the reach of closed-system fractionation at the estimated 500-550°C conditions of formation, and at least two boron components with contrasting isotopic composition are indicated. A key observation from tourmaline core analyses is a systematic shift in δ11B from the country rock (-14 to -10‰) to the inner blackwall zones (-9 to -5‰). We suggest that two separate fluids were channeled and partially mixed in the Habachtal shear zone during blackwall alteration and tourmaline-emerald mineralization. A regional metamorphic fluid carried isotopically light boron as observed in the metapelite country rocks. The other fluid is derived from the serpentinite association and has isotopically heavier boron typical for MORB or altered oceanic crust.

  5. Dynamical decay process of {sup 219,} {sup 220}Ra{sup *} formed in {sup 10,} {sup 11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, G.; Sharma, M.K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Punjab (India)

    2012-05-15

    The excitation functions for both the evaporation residue and fission have been calculated for {sup 10}B +{sup 209}Bi and {sup 11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions forming compound systems {sup 219,220}Ra{sup *}, using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with effects of deformations and orientations of the nuclei included in it. In addition to this, the excitation functions for complete fusion (CF) are obtained by summing the fission cross-sections, neutron evaporation and charged particle evaporation residue cross-sections produced through the {alpha}xn and pxn (x = 2, 3, 4) emission channels for the {sup 219}Ra system at various incident centre-of-mass energies. Experimentally the CF cross-sections are suppressed and the observed suppression is attributed to the low binding energy of {sup 10,11}B which breaks up into charged fragments. The reported complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) excitation functions for the {sup 219}Ra system are found to be nicely fitted by the calculations performed in the framework of DCM, without invoking a significant contribution from quasi-fission. Although DCM has been applied for a number of compound nucleus decay studies in the recent past, the same is being used here in reference to ICF and subsequent decay processes along with the CF process. Interestingly the main contribution to complete fusion cross-section comes from the fission cross-section at higher incident energies, which in DCM is found to consist of an asymmetric fission window, shown to arise due to the deformation and orientation effects of formation and decay fragments. (orig.)

  6. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC.

  7. Relationship between Polymorphism of HSD11B1 and MyoG Gene and Gestation Length in Pigs%猪HSD11B1和MyoG基因多态性与妊娠期长短的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志刚; 李家连; 郭万虎; 潘晚平; 王家圣; 韩安勤; 丁山河; 蒋思文

    2008-01-01

    选择HSD11B1和MyoG 2个基因作为影响妊娠期长短的候选基因.在7个中外猪群体中采用PCR-RFLP技术研究了HSD11B1和MyoG 2个基因多态性与妊娠期长短的关系.HSD11B1基因的PCR-Bsh1236 Ⅰ-RFLP分析结果表明:清平猪、新清平猪母系、大白猪、长白猪、杜洛克猪、中国瘦肉猪新品系DIV1和DIV2系猪群中A等位基因的频率分别为0.538、0.752、0.522、0.941、1.000、0.889和0.594;除DIV2外,HSD11B1不同基因型与妊娠期长短无显著关系(P>0.05).MyoG基因的PCR-Msp Ⅰ-RFLP分析结果表明:清平猪、新清平猪母系、大白猪、长白猪、杜洛克猪、中国瘦肉猪新品系DIV1和DIV2系猪群中M等位基因的频率分别为1.000、0.534、0.370、0.115、0.094、0.382和0.243;清平猪中只存在MM基因型,其他群体中3种基因型皆有分布;新清平猪母系MM比NN基因型母猪妊娠期要短,且在经产长白猪中差异极显著(P<0.01).

  8. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has actions potentially of benefit during ischaemia-reperfusion. Neutrophils and endothelial cells have an important role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Isolated human neutrophil CD11b and CD18, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) ICAM-1 expression and supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation were studied in the presence or absence of different concentrations of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by flow cytometry and IL- 1beta concentrations by ELISA. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls as appropriate. Data are presented as mean+\\/-SD. RESULTS: Exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation increased neutrophil CD11b (94.33+\\/-40.65 vs. 34.32+\\/-6.83 mean channel fluorescence (MCF), P = 0.02), CD18 (109.84+\\/-35.44 vs. 59.05+\\/-6.71 MCF, P = 0.03) and endothelial ICAM-1 (146.62+\\/-16.78 vs. 47.29+\\/-9.85 MCF, P < 0.001) expression compared to normoxia. Neutrophil CD18 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (71.07+\\/-10.14 vs. 109.84+\\/-35.44 MCF, P = 0.03). Endothelial ICAM-1 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (133.25+\\/-16.05 vs. 146.62+\\/-16.78 MCF, P = 0.03). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased HUVEC supernatant IL-1beta concentrations compared to normoxia (3.41+\\/-0.36 vs. 2.65+\\/-0.21 pg mL(-1), P = 0.02). Endothelial supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in lidocaine-treated HUVECs were similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine at clinically relevant concentrations decreased neutrophil CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression but not endothelial IL-1beta concentrations.

  9. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  10. The cationic peptide LL-37 binds Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) with a low dissociation rate and promotes phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianwei; Bajic, Goran; Andersen, Gregers R; Christiansen, Stig Hill; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    As a broad-spectrum anti-microbial peptide, LL-37 plays an important role in the innate immune system. A series of previous reports implicates LL-37 as an activator of various cell surface receptor-mediated functions, including chemotaxis in integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-expressing cells. However, evidence is scarce concerning the direct binding of LL-37 to these receptors and investigations on the associated binding kinetics is lacking. Mac-1, a member of the β2 integrin family, is mainly expressed in myeloid leukocytes. Its critical functions include phagocytosis of complement-opsonized pathogens. Here, we report on interactions of LL-37 and its fragment FK-13 with the ligand-binding domain of Mac-1, the α-chain I domain. LL-37 bound the I-domain with an affinity comparable to the complement fragment C3d, one of the strongest known ligands for Mac-1. In cell adhesion assays both LL-37 and FK-13 supported binding by Mac-1 expressing cells, however, with LL-37-coupled surfaces supporting stronger cell adhesion than FK-13. Likewise, in phagocytosis assays with primary human monocytes both LL-37 and FK-13 enhanced uptake of particles coupled with these ligands but with a tendency towards a stronger uptake by LL-37.

  11. Linking Users' Subjective QoE Evaluation to Signal Strength in an IEEE 802.11b/g Wireless LAN Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven De Marez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature on Quality of Experience (QoE has boomed over the last few years, only a limited number of studies have focused on the relation between objective technical parameters and subjective user-centric indicators of QoE. Building on an overview of the related literature, this paper introduces the use of a software monitoring tool as part of an interdisciplinary approach to QoE measurement. In the presented study, a panel of test users evaluated a mobile web-browsing application (i.e., Wapedia on a PDA in an IEEE 802.11b/g Wireless LAN environment by rating a number of key QoE dimensions on the device immediately after usage. This subjective evaluation was linked to the signal strength, monitored during PDA usage at four different locations in the test environment. The aim of this study is to assess and model the relation between the subjective evaluation of QoE and the (objective signal strength in order to achieve future QoE optimization.

  12. Activation-Induced TIM-4 Expression Identifies Differential Responsiveness of Intestinal CD103+ CD11b+ Dendritic Cells to a Mucosal Adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Hilligan

    Full Text Available Macrophage and dendritic cell (DC populations residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP are highly heterogeneous and have disparate yet collaborative roles in the promotion of adaptive immune responses towards intestinal antigen. Under steady-state conditions, macrophages are efficient at acquiring antigen but are non-migratory. In comparison, intestinal DC are inefficient at antigen uptake but migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN where they present antigen to T cells. Whether such distinction in the roles of DC and macrophages in the uptake and transport of antigen is maintained under immunostimulatory conditions is less clear. Here we show that the scavenger and phosphatidylserine receptor T cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin (TIM-4 is expressed by the majority of LP macrophages at steady-state, whereas DC are TIM-4 negative. Oral treatment with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT induces expression of TIM-4 on a proportion of CD103+ CD11b+ DC in the LP. TIM-4+ DC selectively express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules after CT treatment and are detected in the mLN a short time after appearing in the LP. Importantly, intestinal macrophages and DC expressing TIM-4 are more efficient than their TIM-4 negative counterparts at taking up apoptotic cells and soluble antigen ex vivo. Taken together, our results show that CT induces phenotypic changes to migratory intestinal DC that may impact their ability to take up local antigens and in turn promote the priming of mucosal immunity.

  13. Safrole-modulated immune response is mediated through enhancing the CD11b surface marker and stimulating the phagocytosis by macrophages in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M-J; Lin, S-Y; Yu, C-C; Tang, N-Y; Ho, H-C; Chung, H-K; Yang, J-S; Huang, Y-P; Ip, S-W; Chung, J-G

    2012-09-01

    Safrole, a component of piper betle inflorescence, is a documented rodent hepatocarcinogen and inhibits bactericidal activity and the release of superoxide anion (O(2-)) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In the present study, we investigated the effects of safrole on immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity and population distribution of leukocytes from normal BALB/c mice. The cells population (cell surface markers) and phagocytosis by macrophages and monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined, and NK cell cytotoxicity from splenocytes of mice after oral treatment with safrole was performed using flow cytometric assay. Results indicated that safrole did not affect the weights of body, spleen and liver when compared with the normal mice group. Safrole also promoted the levels of CD11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) that might be the reason for promoting the activity of phagocytosis. However, safrole reduced the cell population such as CD3 (T cells) and CD19 (B cells) of safrole-treated normal mice by oral administration. Furthermore, safrole elevated the uptake of Escherichia coli-labelled fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by macrophages from blood and significantly stimulated the NK cell cytotoxicity in normal mice in vivo. In conclusions, alterations of the cell population (the increase in monocytes and macrophages, respectively) in safrole-treated normal BALB/c mice might indirectly influence the immune responses in vivo.

  14. Illegitimate V(D)J recombination-mediated deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b are not sufficient for extensive clonal expansion and show minimal age or sex bias in frequency or junctional processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, Devin P., E-mail: devin.champagne@uvm.edu; Shockett, Penny E., E-mail: pshockett@selu.edu

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Examines illegitimate V(D)J deletion junctions in Notch1 and Bcl11b. • Suggests little influence of deletions alone on clonal outgrowth in wild-type mice. • No age or sex biases in frequency, clonality, or junctional processing observed. • Contrasts with previous results at TCRβ and HPRT1 loci. • Deletions in Bcl11b may be tolerated more easily than those in Notch1. - Abstract: Illegitimate V(D)J recombination at oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is implicated in formation of several T cell malignancies. Notch1 and Bcl11b, genes involved in developing T cell specification, selection, proliferation, and survival, were previously shown to contain hotspots for deletional illegitimate V(D)J recombination associated with radiation-induced thymic lymphoma. Interestingly, these deletions were also observed in wild-type animals. In this study, we conducted frequency, clonality, and junctional processing analyses of Notch1 and Bcl11b deletions during mouse development and compared results to published analyses of authentic V(D)J rearrangements at the T cell receptor beta (TCRβ) locus and illegitimate V(D)J deletions observed at the human, nonimmune HPRT1 locus not involved in T cell malignancies. We detect deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b in thymic and splenic T cell populations, consistent with cells bearing deletions in the circulating lymphocyte pool. Deletions in thymus can occur in utero, increase in frequency between fetal and postnatal stages, are detected at all ages examined between fetal and 7 months, exhibit only limited clonality (contrasting with previous results in radiation-sensitive mouse strains), and consistent with previous reports are more frequent in Bcl11b, partially explained by relatively high Recombination Signal Information Content (RIC) scores. Deletion junctions in Bcl11b exhibit greater germline nucleotide loss, while in Notch1 palindromic (P) nucleotides are more abundant, although average P nucleotide length is

  15. Early ovariectomy results in reduced numbers of CD11c+/CD11b+ spleen cells and impacts disease expression in murine lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Anne Cunningham

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ninety percent of those diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are female, with peak incidence between the ages of 15 and 45, when women are most hormonally active. Despite significant research effort, the mechanisms underlying this sex bias remain unclear. We previously showed that a functional knockout of estrogen receptor alpha (ERαKO resulted in significantly reduced renal disease and increased survival in murine lupus. Dendritic cell (DC development, which requires both estrogen and ERα is impacted, as is activation status and cytokine production. Since both estrogen and testosterone levels have immunomodulating effects, we presently studied the phenotype of NZM2410 lupus-prone mice following post-pubertal and pre-pubertal ovariectomy (OVX +/- estradiol (E2 replacement to determine the impact of hormonal status on disease expression and DC development in these mice. We observed a trend towards survival benefit in addition to decreased proteinuria and improved renal histology in the early OVX but not late OVX or E2-repleted WT mice. Interestingly, there was a also significant difference in splenic DC subsets by flow cytometry. Spleens from NZM mice OVX’d early had a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+ DCs (vs. unmanipulated WTs, late OVX and E2-repleted mice. These early OVX’d animals also had a significant increase in tolerogenic CD11c+CD8a+ DCs vs. WT. These data join a growing body of evidence that supports a role for hormone modulation of DCs that likely impacts the penetrance and severity of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment Process on Magnetocaloric Effect in LaFe_(11.2)Co_(0.7)Si_(1.1)B_(0.2) Alloy%热处理对LaFe_(11.2)Co_(0.7)Si_(1.1)B_(0.2)合金磁热效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金培育; 黄焦宏; 刘翠兰; 闫宏伟; 邓沅; 程娟

    2010-01-01

    在高温(1170℃)下对LaFe_(11.2)Co_(0.7)Si_(1.1)B_(0.2)合金进行0h,1h,3h,6h,24h和72h热处理,测量了其磁热效应,并利用XRD和SEM进行结构和相组织分析.结果表明合金铸态以α-Fe相为主,随着热处理时间增加,α-Fe相逐渐减少,而NaZn_(13)相(1:13相)增加,时间太长(72h)α-Fe相组织变大;磁热效应T-ΔTad曲线峰值也随着时间增加,在6h时达到最大值,之后下降,而居里点有所升高.

  17. 云南汉族痤疮与CYP11B1基因多态性的相关性研究%Association of CYP11B1 gene polymorphisms with acne vulgaris in Han populations in Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷; 何黎; 李玉明; 吴文娟; 涂颖; 杨智; 杨小燕; 起珏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨CYP11B1基因多态性与痤疮发病风险之间的相关性.方法 SNaPshot法对云南汉族403例痤疮患者(包括轻型痤疮166例、重型痤疮237例)和207例健康对照CYP11B1基因2个单核苷酸多态性位点:rs4736312和rs4534位点进行分型,ABI 3730XL扫描分型结果.结果 rs4736312位点:男性轻型痤疮组AA、AC和CC基因型频率分别为0、20.6%、79.4%,重型痤疮组为1.8%、26.8%、71.4%,男性健康对照组为7.6%、34.8%、57.6%.A等位基因的频率分布在男性痤疮组与健康对照组间、男性轻型痤疮与健康对照组间以及男性重型痤疮与健康对照组间,差异均具有统计学意义(分别为P< 0.01、<0.05、<0.05),而女性痤疮组、女性轻型痤疮组、女性重型痤疮组A、G等位基因频率分布与健康对照组相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).rs4534位点:男性、女性两组别的痤疮组、轻型痤疮组及重型痤疮组的AA、AG、GG基因型频率分布和A、G等位基因频率分布与各自健康对照组间,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CYP11B1基因中rs4736312位点与云南汉族男性痤疮发病相关,而rs4534位点与云南汉族痤疮的发病无相关.%Objective To analyze the association of CYP11B 1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of acne vulgaris in Han populations in Yunnan province.Methods Totally,403 patients with acne (including 166 cases of mild acne and 237 cases of severe acne) and 207 healthy controls of Han nationality in Yunnan province were recruited to this study.Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples of these subjects.A SNaPshot assay was performed to determine the genotypes of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP11B1 gene,including rs4736312 and rs4534.The extension products were analyzed by eleetrophoresis in an ABI Prism 3730xl DNA analyzer.Results The frequency of AA,AC and CC genotype of the SNP rs4736312 was 7.6%,34.8% and 57.6

  18. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally...

  19. Immature myeloid Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells from lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppressed mice acquire inhibitory activity in the bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes to exert their suppressive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Veronica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Chiarella, Paula; Schierloh, Pablo; Isturiz, Martin A; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2016-02-01

    Secondary infections due to post-sepsis immunosuppression are a major cause of death in patients with sepsis. Repetitive inoculation of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice mimics the immunosuppression associated with sepsis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr-1(+) CD11b(+)) are considered a major component of the immunosuppressive network, interfering with T-cell responses in many pathological conditions. We used LPS-immunosuppressed (IS) mice to address whether MDSCs acquired their suppressive ability in the bone marrow (BM) and whether they could migrate to lymph nodes (LNs) to exert their suppressive function. Our results showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells of IS mice already had the potential to inhibit T-cell proliferation in the BM. Moreover, soluble factors present in the BM from IS mice were responsible for inducing this inhibitory ability in control BM cells. In addition, migration of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) to LNs in vivo was maximal when cells obtained from the BM of IS mice were inoculated into an IS context. In this regard, we found chemoattractant activity in cell-free LN extracts (LNEs) from IS mice and an increased expression of the LN-homing chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in IS BM Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. These results indicate that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells found in BM from IS mice acquire their suppressive activity in the same niche where they are generated, and migrate to LNs to exert their inhibitory role. A better understanding of MDSC generation and/or regulation of factors able to induce their inhibitory function may provide new and more effective tools for the treatment of sepsis-associated immunosuppression.

  20. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness.

  1. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  2. A metastable hard magnetic phase in the crystallization process of the Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 11}B{sub 10}Nb{sub 3}Sn{sub 1} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremaschi, V.; Arcondo, B. [Universidad de Buenos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Laboratorio Salvador Velayos (Spain); Sirkin, H. [Universidad de Buenos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina)

    1999-11-15

    A very interesting characteristic of FeSiB based amorphous alloys is its soft magnetic behavior. Most of these alloys remains soft along the crystallization process up to the nucleation of the iron borides. Examples of this are the widely studied Finemet and the FeSiBSn. In this work the crystallization of Fe{sub 76}Si{sub 11}B{sub 10}Nb{sub 3} and Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 11}B{sub 10}Nb{sub 3}Sn{sub 1} is studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and coercive magnetic field measurements after one hour isothermal annealing at different temperatures. In the crystallization process of the latter alloy a hard magnetic phase appeared when the samples were annealed above 773 K. The soft magnetic behavior was recovered after annealing at 873 K. The hyperfine parameters as well as the X-ray diffraction patterns are reported.

  3. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally...... event, which we suggest impacts the subsequent development of the T cell population in the murine spleen....

  4. Gene conversion in the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS is associated with, but does not cause, the syndrome of corticosterone methyloxidase II deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardella, C.E.; Hum, D.W.; Rodriguez, H. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c11AS (aldosterone synthase) has 11{beta}hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, and 18-oxidase activities and is expressed solely in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. Corticosterone methyloxidase II (CMOII) deficiency denotes a rare disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis in which only the 18-oxidase activity of P450c11AS is disrupted, while the 11{beta}-hydroxylase and 18-hydroxylase activities persist. Such patients have elevated serum concentrations of corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone and very low or unmeasurable concentrations of aldosterone, often resulting in a clinical salt-losing crisis in infancy. We have sought mutations causing CMOII deficiency in outbred populations. In three of four unrelated P450c11AS alleles from two unrelated patients with CMOII deficiency, we found a gene conversion event in which exons 3 and 4 of the CYP11B2 gene encoding P450c11AS were changed to the sequence of the nearby CYP11B1 gene, which encodes the related enzyme P450c11{beta}. This conversion resulted in a mutant P450c11AS protein carrying three changes. We built seven vectors expressing P450c11AS carrying each mutation singly, each of the three possible pairs of mutations, and the triple mutation as found in the proband. The activities in steroidogenic MA-10 and JEG-3 cells were 10- to 20-fold higher. In these systems all of the mutants retained normal 18-oxidase activity, indicating that the detected gene conversion event is associated with but does not cause CMOII deficiency. None of the four CPY11B2 alleles in these two patients bore other identifiable mutations. These patients might have mutations in the promoters or other noncoding regions, or mutations in genes other than CYP11B2 may cause the syndrome of CMOII deficiency. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Triple Cluster Platinaborane: [(P(2)Ph3)Pt(1) (μ2-B(11)-(B(9)-OC(CH3)3-B10H10)) Pt(7) (P(1) Ph3)]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Chun-Hua(胡春华); YONG,Wei(雍伟); DOU,Jian-Min(窦建民); SUN,Jie(孙杰); HU,Ke-Ji(胡克季); JIN,Ruo-Shui(金若水); ZHENG,Pei-Ju(郑培菊)

    2002-01-01

    The title platinaborane, [ (P(2) Ph3) Pt(1) (μ2-B(11)-(B(9)-OC-(CH3)3-B10H10))Pt(7)(P(1)Ph3)]2, a triple cluster, which is a binuclear Pt complex dimmer, was prepared. Single crystal Xray diffraction analysis showsthat a Pt(7) atom served as a common vertex between cluster {PtB10} and {Pt4}. The {Pt4} cluster is parallelogram.

  6. Aberrant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and its regulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hattangady, Namita G; Ye, Ping; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Ito-Saito, Takako; Sugawara, Akira; Ohba, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Rainey, William E; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-03-25

    Aberrant expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been reported in human adrenal tissues including aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the details of its expression and functional role in adrenals are still not clear. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the mean level of GnRHR mRNA was significantly higher in APAs than in human normal adrenal (NA) (P=0.004). GnRHR protein expression was detected in human NA and neoplastic adrenal tissues. In H295R cells transfected with GnRHR, treatment with GnRH resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP11B2 reporter activity. Chronic activation of GnRHR with GnRH (100nM), in a cell line with doxycycline-inducible GnRHR (H295R-TR/GnRHR), increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. These agonistic effects were inhibited by blockers for the calcium signaling pathway, KN93 and calmidazolium. These results suggest GnRH, through heterotopic expression of its receptor, may be a potential regulator of CYP11B2 expression levels in some cases of APA.

  7. A novel missense mutation, GGC(Arg454)→TGC(Cys), of CYP11B1 gene identified in a Chinese family with steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zheng-qin; ZHANG Man-na; ZHANG Hui-jie; JIANG Jing-jing; LI Xiao-ying; ZHANG Ke-qin

    2010-01-01

    Background Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD), an autosomal recessive inherited disease, accounts for 5%-8% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.It was scarcely reported in China.This article reports two Chinese girls with 11β-OHD.Methods The two patients were sisters and presented with hypertrichosis, skin pigmentation, laryngeal prominence and virilization of external genitalia.The patients were followed up for their clinical symptoms and signs, hormone profile,and adrenal image.The genomic deoxyribonucleic acids of the patients and their parents were isolated.11β-hydroxylase gene (CYP11B1) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced.Results Hormone tests showed that serum cortisol was in the low limit of normal range, whereas the concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, testosterone and progesterone were much higher than those of normal adult females.There were obvious adrenal hyperplasia and advance of bone age.After 11 months of treatment with dexamethasone,the skin pigment became regressed; the breast, uterus and ovary gradually developed and normal menstrual cycle started while the manifestations of virilization did not change.A single point mutation of CYP11B1 (R454C, GGC → TGC)in all the members of this family was detected.The sisters were homozygous and their parents were heterozygous.Conclusions The clinical manifestation of 11β-OHD is complicated.The manifestation of virilization could not regress after treatment with dexamethasone.The novel missense mutation of CYP11B1 (R454C, GGC → TGC) is the pathogenesis of 11β-OHD at least in some Chinese patients.

  8. 粉末冶金法制备La(Fe11.05Co0.85Si1.1)B0.25化合物的磁热效应%Magnetocaloric Effect of La (Fe11.05Co0.85Si1.1)B,0.25 Compounds Prepared by Powder Metallurgy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武清; 黄焦宏; 刘翠兰; 闫宏伟; 邓沅; 程娟

    2011-01-01

    La( Fe11.05 Co0.85Si1.1 ) B0.25 as-cast was prepared by arc melting fumace in argon atmosphere.The aLloy powder was prepared from the as-cast using mechanical method in argon atmosphere.The alloy bulk prepared from the alloy powder using spark plasma sintering method was heat-treated at 1343 K for 20 h and was cooled in air.The samples of the three different types ( the as-cast alloy,the alloy prepared using SPS and SPS alloy after heat treatment) were investigated by means of XRD and SEM analysis apparatus.And the magnetocaloric effect ( MCE) of the different samples were measured with the MCE direct measurement device and VSM equipment.The results showed that : The grain size of as-cast sample was symmetrical and the erystal boundsry was obvious, the isothermal entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change of as-cast sample under a magnetic field change from 0 to 1.5 T was -5.22J·( kg·K) -1 and 2.3 K respectively. But the crystal boundary of SPS sample was not obvious and lots of impuritiea were found in its microstructure, the adiabatic temperature change and the isothermal entropy change of SPS sample under a magnetic field change from 0 to 1.5 T was -3.90 J·( kg·K) -1 and 1.9 K respectively.The grain size of SPS sample after heat treatment was asymmetrical and few crystal boundary was obvious, the adiabatic temperature change and the isothermal entropy change of SPS sample after heat treatment under a magnetic field change from 0 to 1.5 T was - 3.72 J·( kg· K) -1 and 1.5 K respectively ; Compared to as-cast sample , the adiabatic temperature change and the isothermal entropy change the samples prepared by SPS technology( whatever heat treatment was canied out) was decreased and ita Curie temperature Te and its value of peak breadth is increased.The results indicated that the La ( Fe11.05 Co0.85 Si1.1 ) B0.25 MCE material prepared by SPS technology could be applied under a wide temperature ranSe , but its MCE relatively decreased.%用非自耗电弧炉熔炼制备了La(FeCoSi)B铸锭,并将该铸锭在氩气保护中球磨制粉,采用SPS(放电等离子烧结技术SparkPlasma Sintering)将该粉制成La(FeCoSi)B合金,在高温(1070℃)下对其进行20 h热处理;空冷之后用XRD及SEM检测了铸锭热处理样品、SPS烧结样品及SPS热处理后样品的相及组织结构,利用VSM和磁热效应直接测量仪测量了这3种状态下合金的等温磁熵变和绝热温变.结果表明,铸锭合金的基相组织结构中晶粒大小规则较均匀,晶界清晰明显,在0~1.5 T的变化磁场下测得其等温磁熵变达到-5.22 J·(kg·K)-,绝热温变也达到2.3 K,而采用SPS技术制得的样品的基相组织结构中没有明显晶界且夹杂较多,其等温磁熵变为-3.90 J·(kg·K),绝热温变为1.9 K(0~1.5 T);经过热处理的SPS样品基相组织结构中,有少量晶界形成,但晶粒大小不规则,测得其等温磁熵变为-3.72 J·(kg·K),绝热温变为1.5 K(0~1.5 T);与铸锭相比较,SPS技术制得的合金样品和经过高温热处理之后的SPS样品的绝热温变值和等温熵磁变值均降低,同比之下这两种样品较铸锭样品的居里点和半峰宽却发生了改变,均显著提高;可以看出采用SPS技术制备的室温磁制冷材料La(FeCoSi)B能够在较宽的温度范围内制冷,但其磁热效应却相对降低.

  9. Abundance of DLK1, differential expression of CYP11B1, CYP21A2 and MC2R, and lack of INSL3 distinguish testicular adrenal rest tumours from Leydig cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Grete; Nielsen, John Erik; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik;

    2015-01-01

    in the differential diagnosis of TARTs and malignant LC tumours (LCTs). METHODS: We investigated mRNA and protein expression of testicular steroidogenic enzymes; CYP11A1 and HSD3B1/2, markers of adrenal steroidogenesis; CYP11B1, CYP21A2 and ACTH receptor/melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and markers of LC maturation...... profiles in TART and fetal adrenals as well as the presence of classical markers of adrenal steroidogenesis lend support to the hypothesis that TART develops from a displaced adrenal cell type. Malignant LCTs seem to have lost DLK1 expression and do not resemble immature LCs. The different expression...

  10. Comparison of protein patterns between Plasmodium falciparum mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine and the original parent clone T9/94

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanchana Rungsihirunrat; Wanna Chaijaroenkul; Napaporn Siripoon; Aree Seugorn; Sodsri Thaithong; Kesara Na-Bangchang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the protein patterns from the extracts of the mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine, and the original parent clone T9/94 following separation of parasite extracts by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Methods: Proteins were solubilized and separated according to their charges and sizes. The separated protein spots were then detected by silver staining and analyzed for protein density by the powerful image analysis software. Results:Differentially expressed protein patterns (up- or down-regulation) were separated from the extracts from the two clones. A total of 223 and 134 protein spots were detected from the extracts of T9/94 and T9/94-M1-1(b3) clones, respectively. Marked reduction in density of protein expression was observed with the extract from the mutant (resistant) clone compared with the parent (sensitive) clone. A total of 25 protein spots showed at least two-fold difference in density, some of which exhibited as high as ten-fold difference. Conclusions: These proteins may be the molecular targets of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to pyrimethamine. Further study to identify the chemical structures of these proteins by mass spectrometry is required.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene polymorphism and expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein on CD11b+ and IgM+ cells in cows naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Kaczmarczyk, E; Stachura, A; Kubińska, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether SNP at position -824 (promoter region) of the TNFα gene significantly differentiates the size of IgM+, CD5+ and CD11b+ cell subpopulations and affects the expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein (mTNFα) on these cells and their susceptibility to BLV infections. In this study, significant differences were determined for the first time between TNFα genotypes and the percentage of cells with the CD11b+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype. Furthermore, greater expansion of lymphocytes with the IgM+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype was reported in cows with the G/G genotype than in A/A homozygotes. Cells with the above immunophenotype were more frequently observed in cows with persistent leukocytosis than in aleukemic cattle. Our results suggest that polymorphism of the TNFα-824 A>G gene and mTNFα protein expression play an important role in the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukosis.

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XIV. CoRoT-11b: a transiting massive "hot-Jupiter" in a prograde orbit around a rapidly rotating F-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, D; Alonso, R; Deleuil, M; Guenther, E W; Fridlund, M; Endl, M; Eigmüller, P; Csizmadia, Sz; Havel, M; Aigrain, S; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Carone, L; Cochran, W D; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Eislöffel, J; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gazzano, J -C; Gibson, N P; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hartmann, M; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; MacQueen, P J; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Stecklum, B; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015132

    2010-01-01

    The CoRoT exoplanet science team announces the discovery of CoRoT-11b, a fairly massive hot-Jupiter transiting a V=12.9 mag F6 dwarf star (M*=1.27 +/- 0.05 Msun, R*=1.37 +/- 0.03 Rsun, Teff=6440 +/- 120 K), with an orbital period of P=2.994329 +/- 0.000011 days and semi-major axis a=0.0436 +/- 0.005 AU. The detection of part of the radial velocity anomaly caused by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect shows that the transit-like events detected by CoRoT are caused by a planet-sized transiting object in a prograde orbit. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (vsini=40+/-5 km/s) places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet host stars discovered so far. With a planetary mass of mp=2.33+/-0.34 Mjup and radius rp=1.43+/-0.03 Rjup, the resulting mean density of CoRoT-11b (rho=0.99+/-0.15 g/cm^3) can be explained with a model for an inflated hydrogen-planet with a solar composition and a high level of energy dissipation in its interior.

  13. Cross-linking of GPI-80, a possible regulatory molecule of cell adhesion, induces up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 expression on neutrophil surfaces and shedding of L-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yuji; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro

    2002-02-01

    Previously, we described a novel glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein (designated GPI-80) on human neutrophils and monocytes that may regulate beta(2) integrin-dependent neutrophil adherence and migration. However, the mechanism regulating beta(2) integrin remains to be clarified. To study this, we examined changes in beta(2) integrin expression and function caused by cross-linking GPI-80. GPI-80 cross-linking induced up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) expression on neutrophil surfaces and shedding of L-selectin, which depends on tyrosine phosphorylation and cytoskeleton remodeling. Furthermore, the cross-linking enhanced fMLP-induced human neutrophil adherence. These results suggest that GPI-80 may be a regulator of beta(2) integrin in neutrophils.

  14. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3- enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  15. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  16. Legacy of contaminant N sources to the NO3‑ signature in rivers: a combined isotopic (δ15N-NO3‑, δ18O-NO3‑, δ11B) and microbiological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Cyrielle; Sebilo, Mathieu; Louvat, Pascale; Chesnot, Thierry; Vaury, Véronique; Schneider, Maude; Plagnes, Valérie

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate content of surface waters results from complex mixing of multiple sources, whose signatures can be modified through N reactions occurring within the different compartments of the whole catchment. Despite this complexity, the determination of nitrate origin is the first and crucial step for water resource preservation. Here, for the first time, we combined at the catchment scale stable isotopic tracers (δ15N and δ18O of nitrate and δ11B) and fecal indicators to trace nitrate sources and pathways to the stream. We tested this approach on two rivers in an agricultural region of SW France. Boron isotopic ratios evidenced inflow from anthropogenic waters, microbiological markers revealed organic contaminations from both human and animal wastes. Nitrate δ15N and δ18O traced inputs from the surface leaching during high flow events and from the subsurface drainage in base flow regime. They also showed that denitrification occurred within the soils before reaching the rivers. Furthermore, this study highlighted the determinant role of the soil compartment in nitrate formation and recycling with important spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability.

  17. Uniparental disomy of chromosome 8 leading to homozygosity of a CYP11B1 mutation in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: implication for a rare etiology of an autosomal recessive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Keiko; Kataoka, Naoki; Ogita, Satoko; Sano, Shinichiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that usually results from paternally and maternally transmitted mutations in genes for steroidogenic enzymes. Recent studies on steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the most common form of CAH, have revealed that a small percentage of patients have a non-carrier parent; uniparental disomy (UPD) and de novo mutations were reported as disease-causing mechanisms in these patients. However, it remains unknown whether UPD and de novo mutations underlie other forms of CAH. Here, we report a male patient with steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11OHD) born to a non-carrier mother. The patient was identified by an elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone level at a neonatal mass-screening test. His clinical features were comparable to those of previously reported patients with 11OHD. Direct sequencing of CYP11B1 identified a homozygous IVS7+1G>A mutation in the patient, which was not shared by his mother. Comparative genomic hybridization of the patient detected UPD of chromosome 8 [UPD(8)]. Microsatellite analysis indicated non-maternal origin of the UPD(8) and confirmed parentage of other chromosomes. This study shows for the first time that 11OHD can be caused by UPD in the presence of a non-carrier parent. Awareness of such rare cases should improve the accuracy of genetic counseling for families with CAH. Our data support the importance of UPD as an underlying mechanism of autosomal recessive disorders.

  18. 中性粒细胞CD64 CD11b在儿童化脓性脑膜炎早期诊断中的价值%Values of neutrophil CD64, CD11b in early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洪彬; 明怀志; 鲜安福

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨中性粒细胞CD64、CD11b在儿童化脓性脑膜炎早期诊断中的价值.方法 选取35例化脓性脑膜炎患儿作为观察组,儿童保健门诊行健康体检的30例儿童作为对照组,比较两组患者治疗前后中性粒细胞CD64、CD11b表达情况,绘制CD64、CD11b诊断儿童化脓性脑膜炎的ROC曲线,确定最佳阀值后计算两者诊断化脓性脑膜炎的敏感度和特异度.结果 观察组患者治疗后CD64与CD11b表达水平显著低于治疗前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患者治疗前及治疗后CD64与CD11b表达水平均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CD64 与CD11b ROC曲线下面积均>0.5,且因CD64 ROC曲线下面积>CD11b ROC曲线下面积,CD64诊断效能>CD11b;CD64诊断化脓性脑膜炎敏感度和特异度均优于CD11b,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 中性粒细胞CD64、CD11b表达情况可作为早期诊断儿童化脓性脑膜炎的参考指标,其中CD64诊断效能、敏感度和特异度更高.%Objective To explore the values of neutrophil CD64, CD11b in the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in children. Methods Thirty-five cases of children with bacterial meningitis were researched as the observation group, and 30 cases who underwent phys-ical examination as the control group. The expression of CD64, CD11b was compared, the ROC curves of CD64, CD11b for the patients with bacterial meningitis were drawn, and after the best threshold calculation both the sensitivity of the diagnosis of suppurative meningitis and spe-cific degrees were researched. Results The levels of CD64, CD11b posttreatment in the observation group were lower than those prior to treatment(P<0. 05); the levels of CD64, CD11b posttreatment in the observation group were lower than those in the control group(P<0. 05);the area under ROC curve for CD64, CD11b was higher than 0. 5;the sensitivity and specificity for CD64 were better than those for CD11b(P<0

  19. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  20. Identification of a new epitope in uPAR as a target for the cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody ATN-658, a structural homolog of the uPAR binding integrin CD11b (αM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.

  1. The Role of Integrins αMβ2 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) and αDβ2 (CD11d/CD18) in Macrophage Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolnikova, Nataly P; Kushchayeva, Yevgeniya S; Wu, YiFei; Faust, James; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2016-08-01

    The subfamily of β2 integrins is implicated in macrophage fusion, a hallmark of chronic inflammation. Among β2 family members, integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) is abundantly expressed on monocyte/macrophages and mediates critical adhesive reactions of these cells. However, the role of Mac-1 in macrophage fusion leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells remains unclear. Moreover, the role of integrin αDβ2 (CD11d/CD18), a receptor with recognition specificity overlapping that of Mac-1, is unknown. We found that multinucleated giant cells are formed in the inflamed mouse peritoneum during the resolution phase of inflammation, and their numbers were approximately twofold higher in wild-type mice than in Mac-1(-/-) mice. Analyses of isolated inflammatory peritoneal macrophages showed that IL-4-induced fusion of Mac-1-deficient cells was strongly reduced compared with wild-type counterparts. The examination of adhesive reactions known to be required for fusion showed that spreading, but not adhesion and migration, was reduced in Mac-1-deficient macrophages. Fusion of αDβ2-deficient macrophages was also significantly decreased, albeit to a smaller degree. Deficiency of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, a counter-receptor for Mac-1 and αDβ2, did not alter the fusion rate. The results indicate that both Mac-1 and αDβ2 support macrophage fusion with Mac-1 playing a dominant role and suggest that Mac-1 may mediate cell-cell interactions with a previously unrecognized counter-receptor(s).

  2. Secreted aspartic protease 2 of Candida albicans inactivates factor H and the macrophage factor H-receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eliška; Schneider, Andrea E; Sándor, Noémi; Lermann, Ulrich; Staib, Peter; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Barz, Dagmar; Erdei, Anna; Józsi, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    The opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans employs several mechanisms to interfere with the human complement system. This includes the acquisition of host complement regulators, the release of molecules that scavenge complement proteins or block cellular receptors, and the secretion of proteases that inactivate complement components. Secreted aspartic protease 2 (Sap2) was previously shown to cleave C3b, C4b and C5. C. albicans also recruits the complement inhibitor factor H (FH), but yeast-bound FH can enhance the antifungal activity of human neutrophils via binding to complement receptor type 3 (CR3). In this study, we characterized FH binding to human monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition studies with antibodies and siRNA targeting CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18), as well as analysis of colocalization of FH with these integrins indicated that both function as FH receptors on macrophages. Preincubation of C. albicans yeast cells with FH induced increased production of IL-1β and IL-6 in macrophages. Furthermore, FH enhanced zymosan-induced production of these cytokines. C. albicans Sap2 cleaved FH, diminishing its complement regulatory activity, and Sap2-treatment resulted in less detectable CR3 and CR4 on macrophages. These data show that FH enhances the activation of human macrophages when bound on C. albicans. However, the fungus can inactivate both FH and its receptors on macrophages by secreting Sap2, which may represent an additional means for C. albicans to evade the host innate immune system.

  3. CCL2, but not its receptor, is essential to restrict immune privileged central nervous system-invasion of Japanese encephalitis virus via regulating accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a re-emerging zoonotic flavivirus that poses an increasing threat to global health and welfare due to rapid changes in climate and demography. Although the CCR2-CCL2 axis plays an important role in trafficking CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes to regulate immunopathological diseases, little is known about their role in monocyte trafficking during viral encephalitis caused by JEV infection. Here, we explored the role of CCR2 and its ligand CCL2 in JE caused by JEV infection using CCR2- and CCL2-ablated murine models. Somewhat surprisingly, the ablation of CCR2 and CCL2 resulted in starkly contrasting susceptibility to JE. CCR2 ablation induced enhanced resistance to JE, whereas CCL2 ablation highly increased susceptibility to JE. This contrasting regulation of JE progression by CCR2 and CCL2 was coupled to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and Ly-6G(hi) granulocytes. There was also enhanced expression of CC and CXC chemokines in the CNS of CCL2-ablated mice, which appeared to induce CNS infiltration of these cell populations. However, our data revealed that contrasting regulation of JE in CCR2- and CCL2-ablated mice was unlikely to be mediated by innate natural killer and adaptive T-cell responses. Furthermore, CCL2 produced by haematopoietic stem cell-derived leucocytes played a dominant role in CNS accumulation of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in infected bone marrow chimeric models, thereby exacerbating JE progression. Collectively, our data indicate that CCL2 plays an essential role in conferring protection against JE caused by JEV infection. In addition, blockage of CCR2, but not CCL2, will aid in the development of strategies for prophylactics and therapeutics of JE.

  4. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, February 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in January and February 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM7 (Z7) and BIPM9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 31 of January 2016. UNML - UBIPM = + 0.22 μV uc = 1.35 μV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, January to February 2013 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Chayramy, R.; Solve, S.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from January to February 2013. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_8 (Z8) and BIPM_9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 5 February 2013. UNML - UBIPM = -0.63 µV uc = 1.31 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according

  6. Bilateral Comparison of 10 V Standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2015 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Power, O.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2015. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final resultof the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V,at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 24 February 2015. UNML - UBIPM = - 0.82 mV; uc = 1.35 mV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_4 (Z4) and BIPM_5 (Z5), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 10 March 2014. UNML - UBIPM = -0.64 µV uc = 1.35 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to

  8. Indirect study of 11B(p,α)8Be and 10B(p,α)7Be reactions at astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method: recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Spitaleri, C.; Romano, S.; Del Santo, M. Gimenez; Carlin, N.; Munhoz, M. Gameiro; Cherubini, S.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, V.; Kubono, S.; La Cognata, M.; Li, Cheng-Bo; Pizzone, R. G.; Wen, Qun-Gang; Sergi, M. L.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zhou, Shu-Hua

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear (p,α) reactions destroying the so-called “light-elements” lithium, beryllium and boron have been largely studied in the past mainly because their role in understanding some astrophysical phenomena, i.e. mixing-phenomena occurring in young F-G stars [A.M. Boesgaard et al., Astr. Phys. J, 991, 2005, 621]. Such mechanisms transport the surface material down to the region close to the nuclear destruction zone, where typical temperatures of the order of ˜106 K are reached. The corresponding Gamow energy E=1.22(Z keV [C. Rolfs and W. Rodney, “Cauldrons in the Cosmos”, The Univ. of Chicago press, 1988] is about ˜10 keV if one considers the “boron-case” and replaces in the previous formula Z=1, Z=5 and T=5. Direct measurements of the two 11B(p,α)8Be and 10B(p,α)7Be reactions in correspondence of this energy region are difficult to perform mainly because the combined effects of Coulomb barrier penetrability and electron screening [H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys., 327, 1987, 461]. The indirect method of the Trojan Horse (THM) [G. Baur et al., Phys. Lett. B, 178, 1986, 135; G. Calvi et al., Nucl. Phys. A, 621, 1997, 139; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 493, 1999, 206] allows one to extract the two-body reaction cross section of interest for astrophysics without the extrapolation-procedures. Due to the THM formalism, the extracted indirect data have to be normalized to the available direct ones at higher energies thus implying that the method is a complementary tool in solving some still open questions for both nuclear and astrophysical issues [S. Cherubini et al., Astr. Phys. J, 457, 1996, 855; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 63, 2001, 005801; C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C, 63, 2004, 055806; A. Tumino et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 2007, 252502; M. La Cognata et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 2007, 152501; M.L. Sergi et al., AIPC, 1016, 2008, 433; H.W. Becker, Z. Phys. A, 327, 1987, 341; T. Rauscher and G. Raimann, Phys. Rev

  9. Effects genetic polymorphisms of CYP11B2 and enviromental factors on development of essential hypertension%醛固酮合成酶基因及环境因素对高血压交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向泽林; 赵景波; 何奔; 曹家穗; 沈国初; 杜哲群; 朱红良

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨汉族人群醛固酮合成酶基因(CYP11B2)启动子区-344C/T和第三外显因子K173R多态性位点与原发性高血压(EHT)关系.方法 按病例对照研究方法选择来自黑龙江省哈尔滨市的2组人群(210例EHT患者和391名对照及补充的182例EHT患者和189名对照),利用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性及直接测序技术分别对其进行-344C/T与K173R基因型检测,问卷调查和实验室检查获取传统危险因素.结果 总人群和男性中,-344C/T基因型分布在高血压组和对照组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),而K173R基因型分布仅在女性高血压组和对照组间差异有统计学意义(x2=11.16,P=0.003 8);总人群中,-344C/T CC+ TC、K173R KK分布与体质指数、腰围、血脂异常、高血糖对EHT均存在正交互作用,饮酒、吸烟与-344C/T CC+ TC分布同时出现对EHT发生有促进作用;按性别分组的亚群中,除男、女血脂异常、女性血糖升高与-344C/T CC+ TC分布同时存在对EHT存在负交互作用外,其余均为正交互作用.结论 -344C/T、K173R基因多态性分布在汉族EHT与正常人群中存在差异;-344 C/T CC +TC、K173R KK与传统危险因素联合作用可促进EHT发生.%Objective To explore the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of -344C/T in the promoter region,K173R in the exon-3 of aldosterone synthase gene( CYP11B2) and essential hypertension(EHT) ,and to identify whether classical risk factors interact with genetic polymorphisms in the development of the disease. Methods We used a nested case-control design to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of -344C/T,K173R and the risk of EHT. The genetic polymorphisms were detected with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RELP) in 210 EHT patients and 391 normal controls(182 complemental cases and 189 matched controls) from Harbin city. Information on several classical risk factors were

  10. Biomass in Multifunction Crop Plants: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, S. R.

    2011-10-01

    An array of cellulase, hemicellulase, and accessory enzymes were tested for their ability to increase the conversion levels and rates of biomass to sugar after being subjected to thermochemical pretreatment. The genes were cloned by Oklahoma State University and expressed, purified, and tested at NREL. Several enzymes were noted to be effective in increasing conversion levels, however expression levels were typically very low. The overall plan was to express these enzymes in corn as a possible mechanism towards decreased recalcitrance. One enzyme, cel5A endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was transformed into both tobacco and corn. The transgenic corn stover and tobacco were examined for their susceptibility to thermochemical pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion.

  11. A multi-isotope ({delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, and {delta}{sup 11}B) approach for identifying saltwater intrusion and resolving groundwater evolution along the Western Caprock Escarpment of the Southern High Plains, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, Jeff B., E-mail: jblangman@miners.utep.edu [University of Texas at El Paso, Geological Sciences, El Paso, TX 79968-0555 (United States); Ellis, Andre S. [University of Texas at El Paso, Geological Sciences, El Paso, TX 79968-0555 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Declining water levels in arid and semi-arid regions increase an aquifer's vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic influences. A multi-isotope ({delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, and {delta}{sup 11}B) approach was used to resolve the geochemical evolution of groundwater in a declining aquifer in a semi-arid region of the southwestern USA as groundwater composition reacts to source-water mixing, cross-formational flow including saltwater intrusion, water-rock interaction, and likely agricultural recharge. Sub-aquifers or local flow systems are present in the Southern High Plains aquifer along the Western Caprock Escarpment in New Mexico, and the study site's local flow system contains a Na-Cl, high dissolved-solids groundwater that flows from the escarpment until it mixes with a high quality regional aquifer or regional flow system. The local flow system contains water that is similar in composition to the underlying, upper Dockum Group aquifer. Saltwater found in the upper Dockum Group aquifer likely originates in the adjacent Pecos River Basin and crosses beneath or possibly through the hydrologic divide of the Western Caprock Escarpment. Strontium concentrations of 0.9-31 mg/L and a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr range of 0.70845-0.70906 were sufficient to estimate source-water fractions, mixing patterns, and contributions from chemical weathering through mass balance inverse calculations. Boron concentrations (59-1740 mg/L) and {delta}{sup 11}B values (+6.0-+46.0 per mille) were used to confirm source-water mixing, further evaluate water-rock interaction, and examine the influence of possible agricultural recharge. Alteration of B concentrations and {delta}{sup 11}B values in an area of likely agricultural recharge indicated the loss of B and decrease in {delta}{sup 11}B values likely from plant uptake, adsorption, and weathering contributions in the soil/vadose zone prior to recharge. The effectiveness of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and {delta

  12. Determination of the {sup 9}Be({sup 3}He,p{sub i}){sup 11}B (i = 0,1,2,3) cross section at 135° in the energy range 1–2.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, N.P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Catarino, N.; Mateus, R. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Magalhães, S. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Siketić, Z.; Radović, I. Bogdanović [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-03-01

    The {sup 9}Be({sup 3}He,p{sub i}){sup 11}B cross sections for i = 0,1,2,3 at an angle of 135° in the energy range 1–2.5 MeV have been measured using two thin films with different Be thickness at selected energies. The new data extend previous results, that only existed at 90°, 120° and 150° angles, and down to 1.8 MeV, which prevented use of this reaction for samples containing Be at larger depths.

  13. Kinetics of Asymmetric Reduction of Phenylglyoxylic Acid to R-(-)-Mandelic Acid by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae FD11b%酵母细胞FD11b生物不对称公式(R)-(-)-扁桃酸的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖美添; 黄雅燕; 孟春; 郭养浩

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of asymmetric production of R-(-)-mandelic acid (R-MA) from phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA)catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae sp. strain FD11b was studied by fed-batch cultures. The concentrations of glucose and PGA were controlled respectively with a dual feeding system. When the electron donor glucose was supplied at the rate of 0.0833mmol·gdw-1·h-1, the specific production rate (qp) and the enantiomeric excess of R-MAreached the maximum 0.353mmol·gdw-1·h-1 and 97.1%, respectively. The apparent reduction activity of yeast FD11b was obviously affected by both substrate PGA and product MA. The qp value reached the maximum 0.36-0.38mmol·gdw-1·h-1 when the PGA concentration was controlled between 25 and 35mmol·L-1. The obvious substrate inhibition of bioconversion was observed at the PGA concentrations higher than 40mmol· L-1. The accumulation of product MA also caused a severe feed-back inhibition for its production when the product concentration was above 60mmol· L-1. The kinetic model with the inhibition effect of both substrate and product was simulated by a computer-based least-square arithmatic. The established kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. 感染性休克急性肺损伤CD11b表达与纤维蛋白原相关性研究%The study on expression ot neutropiails CD11b and fibrinogen in pediatric acute lung injury of septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭景涛; 本贵勇; 黄义双; 黄卫东; 刘纯义; 陆必森; 夏汉兵

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨感染性休克急性肺损伤(ALI)患儿粒细胞表面CD11b表达与纤维蛋白原(FIB)水平的变化及意义.方法 用流式细胞术检测感染性休克ALI(观察组)患儿25例中性粒细胞CD11b与纤维蛋白原,并与对照组18例和正常组20例比较.结果在急性期、恢复期,观察组中性粒细胞CD11b,与对照组和正常组比较,P<0.05.ALI患者外周血纤维蛋白原(Fib)水平,其均值(5.15±1.02)q/L,明显高于正常参考值(3.50 q/L),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);恢复期与正常组无显著差异.结论 CD11b与纤维蛋白原参与感染性休克ALI病理发展过程,表达水平与预后密切相关.可作为预测肺损伤发展的重要指标.提示给予纤溶治疗可作为一种提高疗效的尝试.%Objectivee To explore significance of expression of neutrophils CD11b and fibrinogen in pediatrie acute lung injury of septic shock.Methods Expression of neutrophils CD11b were measured with flow cytometry and fibrinogen in 25 cases with pediatric acute lung injury.compared with 18 cases of controlling group and 20 caes of normal group.Results In acute and recovery phase.expression of neutrophils CD11b in acute lung injury group were,it is higher than that of controlling group and normal group,P<0.05,respectively.The mean value of plasma fibrinogen((x)±s,5.68±1.25 g/1)of the acute lung injury cases was higher than the normal value(P<0.01).Compared with recovery group and normal group,There was no significant difference (P>0.05).Conclusion Expression of neutrophils CD11b and fibrinogen takes a centain effect during the prognosis of pediatric acute lung injury.It can be look upon as judgement of acute lung injury,predicting the devdopment of disease.

  15. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the proliferation of spleen T lymphocytes%脂多糖诱导的CD11b+Gr-1+髓源抑制性细胞对小鼠脾脏T细胞增殖的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕妮; 于化鹏; 陈新; 邓火金; 樊慧珍; 龚雨新; 刘俊芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) on the proliferation of spleen T lymphocytes.Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups:LPS group and normal control group.They were injected intraperitoneally with LPS and normal saline solution respectively.MDSCs were separated with CD11b immunomagnetic beads from the spleen extract of mice. The morphological characteristics of MDCSs were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining and the characteristic molecules on cell surface identified by flow cytometry.And the effects of MDSCs on the in vitro proliferation of T cells were determined by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT).Results The proportion of MDSCs in the spleen of the LPS group was much more than that of the normal control group ( 27.4% ± 6.6% vs 5.1% ± 3.8% ; t =5.06,P =0.007 ).CD11b + Gr-1 +MDSCs could be separated by CD11b immunomagnetic beads from the spleen of mice injected with LPS at a high purity of 84.0% +4.2%.MTT method showed that the proliferation of T cells decreased significantly after a co-cultivation with CD11 b+ M DSCs versus the control group.And it was positively correlated with the number of M DSCs ( F =46.26,P =0.000 ).Conclusions A high purity of LPS-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells may be separated with CD11 h immunomagnetic beads.And it has dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the spleen T lymphocytes.%目的 观察脂多糖诱导的CD11b+Gr-1+髓源抑制性细胞(MDSCs)对小鼠脾脏T细胞增殖的影响,探讨其在免疫调控可能发挥的作用.方法 10只6~8周龄BALB/c小鼠随机数字表法随机分为脂多糖组和对照组各5只,分别予脂多糖或生理盐水腹腔注射;采用CD11b磁珠从脾脏组织中分选MDSCs,通过瑞氏-姬姆萨染色观察细胞形态,并用流式细胞术检测细胞表面特征分子表达情况;四唑盐(MTT)比色法测定与MDSCs在体外共培养

  16. The detection and significance of human papilloma virus 11b virus like particles and its serum antibody in juvenile larynx papilloma%喉乳头状瘤患儿血清人乳头状瘤病毒11b病毒样颗粒抗体检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波蓓; 赵孔南; 刘晓松; 许燕; 陈小芳; 王秀娣

    2003-01-01

    目的制备人乳头状瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)11b型病毒样颗粒(virus like particles,VLP)检测儿童喉乳头状瘤(juvenile larynx papilloma,JLP)患者血清抗HPV11bVLP抗体,探讨与疾病发生、发展的关系. 方法采用重组杆状病毒昆虫细胞系统制备HPV11bVLP.通过酶联免疫吸附试验(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)方法检测46份复发性儿童喉乳头状瘤患儿不同发病时期的血清和20份健康对照组的血清抗体.将标本分5组:A组:健康对照(20份);B组:发病1年(15份);C组:发病2年(15份);D组:未复发1年(8份);E组:未复发2年(8份).结果A、B、C、D、E各组血清抗体吸光度(A)值平均(±s)分别为0.073±0.035;0.120±0.049;0.137±0.057;0.518±0.122;0.557±0.144,B、C、D、E各组与A组比较差异均有显著性意义(P<0.05).未复发组(D+F组)和复发组(B+C组)间A均值比较差异有高度显著性意义(t=14.90,P<0.000 1).两组年龄比较差异有显著性意义(6.250±1.693和3.227±1.453;t=6.767,P<0.000 1).结论 HPV感染的JLP患者血清能产生抗HPV抗体,疾病发展和预后与血清抗病毒中和抗体水平密切相关.HPV11bVLP及血清抗体检测可用作HPV感染的相关免疫学研究.

  17. (6aS,11aR,11cS-8-Sulfanylidene-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracen-3a-ium chloride hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H23N2S+·Cl−·0.5H2O, was prepared from (6aS,11aR,11cS-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracene-8-one (sophocarpine and Lawesson's reagent. The thione-substituted ring is in an envelope conformation and the three other six-membered rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by N—H...Cl and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. One 0.5-occupancy solvent water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and another 0.25-occupancy solvent water molecule is in a general position. The H atoms of these water molecules were not located or included in the refinement.

  18. Measurements of SIP Signaling over 802.11b Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Cristian; Eertink, Henk; Widya, Ing; Huizer, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a popular application-level signaling protocol that is used for a wide variety of applications such as session control and mobility handling. In some of these applications, the exchange of SIP messages is time-critical, for instance when SIP is used to handle

  19. 3-(2-Oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1), a novel potent Nrf2/ARE inducer, protects against DSS-induced colitis via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Hong; Qian, Chen; Tang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiuting; You, Qidong; Hu, Rong

    2016-02-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is a key component of the inflammatory process and its dysregulation contributes to IBD for its ability to induce IL-1β release. Previously, we reported that a novel small molecular activator of Nrf2, 3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethylidene)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazino-[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4(11bH)-one (compound 1) can prevent the development of colorectal adenomas in AOM-DSS models. Here we further investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of compound 1 in DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice, and revealed the possible modulation by compound 1 of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β release from macrophages. In C57BL/6 mice, oral administration of compound 1 significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic pathological damage, remarkably inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and IL-1β secretion in colons. In contrast, mice deficient for NLRP3 were less sensitive to DSS-induced acute colitis, and compound 1 treatment exerted no protective effect on DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in NLRP3(-/-) mice. The protective effect of compound 1 may be attributed to its inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nrf2 activation in colons. Furthermore, compound 1, as a small molecular activator of Nrf2, significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both THP-1 derived macrophages and bone-marrow derived macrophages, as indicated by reduced expression of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1, and lowered IL-1β secretion. Finally, compound 1-induced NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition is through blocking NLRP3 priming step and dependent on Nrf2 activation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that compound 1 might be a potential agent for the treatment of IBD by targeting Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome.

  20. A Low Noise, High Linearity CMOS Receiver for 802. 11b WLAN Applications%应用于802.11b无线局域网的低噪声高线性度的CMOS射频接收机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄煜梅; 王静光; 王金菊; 洪志良

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4GHz monolithic CMOS receiver with direct-conversion architecture is presented. This quadrature receiver is designed for 802. 11b wireless LAN applications at the maximum data rate of 11Mbps as a low-cost solution. Five key blocks, i, e., a low noise amplifier (LNA), a down-conversion mixer, a variable gain amplifier, a low pass filter, and a DC-offset cancellation circuit, are designed based on system design and low noise high linearity considerations. The necessary auxiliary circuits are also included. Fabricated in SMIC 0.18μm lp6m RF CMOS process, the receiver's performance is measured as:4,1dB noise figure, - 7.5dBm input third order intercept point (IIP3) for LNA& mixer at high gain setting, -14dBm IIP3 for the whole receiver,53dBc @30MHz offset of adjacent channel power rejection, and less than 5mV output DC-offset. The receiver consumes 44mA under a 1.8V power supply with I,Q two paths.%实现了一个单片集成、直接转换结构的2.4GHz CMOS接收机.这个正交接收机作为低成本方案应用于802.11b无线局域网系统,所处理的数据传输率为该系统的最大速率--11Mbps.基于系统设计以及低噪声高线性度考虑,设计了低噪声放大器、直接转换混频器、增益可变放大器、低通滤波器、直流失调抵消电路及其他辅助电路.该芯片采用中芯国际0.18μm 1p6m RF CMOS工艺流片.所测的接收机性能如下:噪声系数为4.1dB,高增益设置下低噪声放大器与混频器的输入三阶交调点为-7.5dBm,整个接收机的输入三阶交调点为-14dBm,相邻信道干扰抑制能力在距中心频率30MHz处达到53dBc,输出直流失调电压小于5mV.该接收机采用1.8V电源电压,I,Q两路消耗的总电流为44mA.

  1. Purification and characterization of a GH43 β-xylosidase from Enterobacter sp. identified and cloned from forest soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Eleonora; Negro Alvarez, María José; Sabarís di Lorenzo, Gonzalo; Gonzalez, Sergio; Rorig, Marcela; Talia, Paola; Grasso, Daniel H; Sáez, Felicia; Manzanares Secades, Paloma; Ballesteros Perdices, Mercedes; Cataldi, Angel A

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass for second generation biofuels requires optimization of enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from a native and two cultivated forest soil samples. Amplification of glycosyl hydrolases was attempted by using a low stringency-degenerate primer PCR strategy, using total soil DNA and bulk DNA pooled from positive colonies as template. A set of primers was designed based on Acidothermus cellulolyticus genome, by search of conserved domains of glycosyl hydrolases (GH) families of interest. Using this approach, a fragment containing an open reading frame (ORF) with 98% identity to a putative GH43 beta-xylosidase coding gene from Enterobacter cloacae was amplified and cloned. The full protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal or C-terminal His-tagged fusions and purified under native conditions. Only N-terminal fusion protein, His-Xyl43, presented beta-xylosidase activity. On pNPX, optimal activity was achieved at pH 6 and 40 °C and Km and Kcat values were 2.92 mM and 1.32 seg(-1), respectively. Activity was also demonstrated on xylobiose (X2), with Km 17.8 mM and Kcat 380 s(-1). These results demonstrated that Xyl43 is a functional beta-xylosidase and it is the first evidence of this activity for Enterobacter sp.

  2. Transgenic Plants Lower the Costs of Cellulosic Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    A new transgenic maize was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass, as manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion. Expression of a single gene derived from bacteria in plants has resulted in transgenic plants that are easier and cheaper to convert into biofuels. Part of the high production cost of cellulosic biofuels is the relatively poor accessibility of substrates to enzymes due to the strong associations between plant cell wall components. This biomass recalcitrance makes costly thermochemical pretreatment necessary. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have created transgenic maize expressing an active glycosyl hydrolase enzyme, E1 endoglucanase, originally isolated from a thermophilic bacterium, Acidothermus cellulolyticus. This engineered feedstock was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass when subjected to reduced severity pretreatments and post-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis. This reduction in recalcitrance was manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion of wild-type biomass. The improvements observed are significant enough to positively affect the economics of the conversion process through decreased capital construction costs and decreased degradation products and inhibitor formation.

  3. Identification of a hemerythrin-like domain in a P1B-type transport ATPase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Matthew E.; Subramanian, Poorna; Davydov, Roman; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The P1B-type ATPases couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to metal ion translocation across cell membranes. Important for prokaryotic metal resistance and essential metal distribution in eukaryotes, P1B-ATPases are divided into subclasses on the basis of their metal substrate specificities. Sequence analysis of putative P1B-5-ATPases, for which the substrate has not been identified, led to the discovery of a C-terminal soluble domain homologous to hemerythrin (Hr) proteins and domains. The Hr domain from the Acidothermus cellulolyticus P1B-5-ATPase was cloned, expressed, and purified (P1B-5-Hr). P1B-5-Hr binds two iron ions per monomer and adopts a predominantly helical fold. Optical absorption features of the iron-loaded and azide-treated protein are consistent with features observed for other Hr proteins. Autooxidation to the met form is very rapid, as reported for other prokaryotic Hr domains. The presence of a diiron center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data. The occurrence of a Hr-like domain in a P-type ATPase is unprecedented and suggests new regulatory mechanisms as well as an expanded function for Hr proteins in biology. PMID:20672819

  4. Study of CT and etiology In 11B cases of eoute headache without hemlplegla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daoming Tong

    2000-01-01

    objectal To study the relation between CT and etiology of acute headache without hemiplegia. Methods 118 cases of acute headache without hemiplegia were studied with CT scan. The patients with normal CT were diagnosed with lumbar punc -tura or diagnostic standard for establishing disease. Results The first three etiologies were cerebrovescular disease (65 cases, 55%), migraine (25 cases, 21%), meningitis and encephalitis (19 cases, 155. 9%). 53% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) was diagnosed in CT unnormal group, and 12.4% of patients with Sall was showed by lumbar puncture in CT normal group(P<0. 001). CT was normal in 18% of patients with a definite SAH(7/39). The positive rates of intracranial infection in CT normal group(by lumbar puncture) was reearkably higher than in CT unnormal group (18/58 versus 2/60, p<0.005), Conolusion CT is more sensitive to intracranial hemorrhage, tumor and infarction. SAH of a negative Ctscan is not rare. CT is far inferior to lumbar puncture in meningitis or encephalitis.

  5. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    network computing. Abuse of unique digital identifiers, such as MAC addresses, 15 introduces enticing conditions that lead to cybercrime . The resulting...anonymity of masquerading legitimate devices lends itself to the assumption of avoiding legal repercussions. Cybercrime costs businesses millions in

  6. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, M.; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G.

    2015-02-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirty percent of boron was present as boric acid. We suggest that prior to reconstructing pH using coralline algae 1) species-specific boron compositions and 2) within-skeleton special distributions of boron are determined for multiple species. This will enable site selective boron analyses to be conducted validating coralline algae as palaeo-pH proxies based on boron isotopic compositions.

  7. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cusack; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirt...

  8. Training Requirements and Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 11B, Infantryman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    remember string multiply method measure remainder use number doesn’t multiple takes result check maximum remember plus put let are AI1B-" .. 7 07 1-32.9...holy •ls Js heavy IDI$MSsufficient AI1B-56’ cut convers your buddy * . ..,’ i’ t -,.’ . " C’",. r , ;., :cI Ir< hJ:, objec"L 0-e " cordi tions par

  9. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hooker, Brian S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Daniel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomas, Steven R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  10. Screening currency notes for microbial pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes using a shotgun metagenomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakshi Jalali

    Full Text Available Fomites are a well-known source of microbial infections and previous studies have provided insights into the sojourning microbiome of fomites from various sources. Paper currency notes are one of the most commonly exchanged objects and its potential to transmit pathogenic organisms has been well recognized. Approaches to identify the microbiome associated with paper currency notes have been largely limited to culture dependent approaches. Subsequent studies portrayed the use of 16S ribosomal RNA based approaches which provided insights into the taxonomical distribution of the microbiome. However, recent techniques including shotgun sequencing provides resolution at gene level and enable estimation of their copy numbers in the metagenome. We investigated the microbiome of Indian paper currency notes using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Metagenomic DNA isolated from samples of frequently circulated denominations of Indian currency notes were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencer. Analysis of the data revealed presence of species belonging to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genera. The taxonomic distribution at kingdom level revealed contigs mapping to eukaryota (70%, bacteria (9%, viruses and archae (~1%. We identified 78 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and 75 cellulose degrading organisms including Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Cellulomonas flavigena and Ruminococcus albus. Additionally, 78 antibiotic resistance genes were identified and 18 of these were found in all the samples. Furthermore, six out of 78 pathogens harbored at least one of the 18 common antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of shotgun metagenome sequence dataset of paper currency notes, which can be useful for future applications including as bio-surveillance of exchangeable fomites for infectious agents.

  11. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Annual report, March 11, 1997--March 14, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu) is to be determined. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulose expression in plants, enzymes with high temperature optima were chosen; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source. During the past year (year 2 of the grant), efforts have been focused on testing expression of endoglucanase E{sub 1}, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, in the apoplast of both tobacco suspension cells and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using the plasmids constructed during the first year, transgenic cells and plants that contain the gene for the E{sub 1} catalytic domain fused to a signal peptide sequence were obtained. This gene was constructed so that the fusion protein will be secreted into the apoplast. The enzyme is made in large quantities and is secreted into the apoplast. More importantly, it is enzymatically active when placed under optimal reaction conditions (high temperature). Moreover, the plant cells and intact plants exhibit no obvious problems with growth and development under laboratory conditions. Work has also continued to improve binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to determine activity of E{sub 1} at various temperatures, and to investigate the activity of the 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in E. coli. 9 figs.

  12. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Kluwer Health, 2013. 8. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press, 1988. 9. Deakin JM, Pelot R, Smith JT...Performance Division U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick, MA December 2015 U.S. Army Research Institute of...197 N. Additional Statistical Tables from Study 3 .................................................. 199 v FOREWORD This

  13. Epigenetic regulation of the placental HSD11B2 barrier and its role as a critical regulator of fetal development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    “Fetal programming” is a term used to describe how early-life experience influences fetal development and later disease risk. In humans, prenatal stress-induced fetal programming is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and a heightened risk of metabolic and neurological diseases later in life. A critical determinant of this is the regulation of fetal exposure to glucocorticoids by the placenta. Glucocorticoids are the mediators through which maternal stress influences fetal develo...

  14. Increased Expression of CD200 on Circulating CD11b+ Monocytes in Patients with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads K; Hviid, Thomas V F

    2013-01-01

    was found to be increased in patients with neovascular AMD compared with controls with healthy eyes. This novel finding supports the notion that altered regulation of the inflammatory response plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of AMD. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary...... or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article....

  15. Geological-morphological description of the Sedna and Guinevre planitiae on Venus (photomap sheets B-11, B-20, B-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, A. A.; Burba, G. A.; Bobina, N. N.; Tyuflin, Y. S.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Kadnichanskiy, S. A.; Ostrovskiy, M. V.; Kotelnikov, V. A.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Petrov, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are descriptions and maps of the region of Sedna and Guinevra Planitiae--representatives of the largest geological providense on Venus comprised of volcanic rock. Units of different age are isolated and their relations are given, as well as interpretations of proposed mechanisms of formation.

  16. CD45/CD11b Positive Subsets of Adult Lung Anchorage-Independent Cells Harness Epithelial Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Compensatory growth is mediated by multiple cell types that interact during organ repair. To elucidate the relationship between the stem/progenitor cells that proliferate or differentiate and the somatic cells of lung, we utilized a novel ex vivo pneumoexplant system. Applying this technique, we identified a sustained culture of repopulating adult progenitors in the form of free floating anchorage-independent cells (AICs). AICs did not express integrin proteins α5, β3, and β7, and constituted...

  17. An Analysis of IEEE 802.11B and 802.16 Technologies as Part of the Tactical Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    of hot and cold climates . The rate of technological advances dictates that the capabilities of these computing devices will continuously improve thus...tower in downtown Lop Buri. Due to a treeline that was adjacent to the tower, COASTS personnel had to climb to a height of approximately 50 meters to

  18. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman-Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    From - To) December 20 I 5 Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for...deal of muscular strength, muscular endurance, and cardiovascular fitness. While recruits in the U.S. Army are required to complete a mental aptitude...criterion tasks for these MOSs. Sit-up testing primarily assesses muscular endurance of the abdominals and hip flexors. While muscular endurance

  19. Construction of a cellulase hyper-expression system in Trichoderma reesei by promoter and enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Gen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is the preferred organism for producing industrial cellulases. However, a more efficient heterologous expression system for enzymes from different organism is needed to further improve its cellulase mixture. The strong cbh1 promoter of T. reesei is frequently used in heterologous expression, however, the carbon catabolite repressor CREI may reduce its strength by binding to the cbh1 promoter at several binding sites. Another crucial point to enhance the production of heterologous enzymes is the stability of recombinant mRNA and the prevention of protein degradation within the endoplasmic reticulum, especially for the bacteria originated enzymes. In this study, the CREI binding sites within the cbh1 promoter were replaced with the binding sites of transcription activator ACEII and the HAP2/3/5 complex to improve the promoter efficiency. To further improve heterologous expression efficiency of bacterial genes within T. reesei, a flexible polyglycine linker and a rigid α-helix linker were tested in the construction of fusion genes between cbh1 from T. reesei and e1, encoding an endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Results The modified promoter resulted in an increased expression level of the green fluorescent protein reporter by 5.5-fold in inducing culture medium and 7.4-fold in repressing culture medium. The fusion genes of cbh1 and e1 were successfully expressed in T. reesei under the control of promoter pcbh1m2. The higher enzyme activities and thermostability of the fusion protein with rigid linker indicated that the rigid linker might be more suitable for the heterologous expression system in T. reesei. Compared to the parent strain RC30-8, the FPase and CMCase activities of the secreted enzyme mixture from the corresponding transformant R1 with the rigid linker increased by 39% and 30% at 60°C, respectively, and the reduced sugar concentration in the hydrolysate of pretreated corn stover

  20. Coexistence of IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs: Modeling and Protocol Enhancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, W.

    2011-01-01

    As an emerging short-range wireless technology, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in the fields of home control, industrial control, consumer electronics, energy management, building automation, telecom services, personal healthcare, etc. IEEE 802.15.4/Zig-Be

  1. MODIS/Aqua MYD11B1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  2. MODIS/TERRA MYD11B3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  3. MODIS/TERRA MYD11B2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  4. Diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility and preliminary tests on laser interaction with light-atom clusters and p+{sup 11}B targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.consoli@enea.it [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Cristofari, Giuseppe; Di Giorgio, Giorgio [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bonasera, Aldo [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Barbui, Marina [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Mazzocco, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Barbarino, Matteo [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Kimura, Sachie [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    The diagnostics of particle flows in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments is a delicate issue, due to the fast timescales and to the strong radiative electromagnetic contributions. This makes the discrimination of the different particles produced by the laser–plasma interaction not trivial, and requires the use of several diagnostic techniques. We describe here the diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility. They will provide more detailed analysis of microwave fields and particles originating from the interaction of laser with targets foreseen for future experiments.

  5. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  6. HATS-11b AND HATS-12b: Two Transiting Hot Jupiters Orbiting Subsolar Metallicity Stars Selected for the K2 Campaign 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, M.; Jordán, A.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Espinoza, N.; Brahm, R.; Penev, K.; Ciceri, S.; Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Mancini, L.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Csbury, Z.; Sato, B.; Tan, T.-G.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Bento, J.; Suc, V.; Noyes, R.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets from the HATSouth survey. HATS-11, a V = 14.1 G0-star shows a periodic 12.9 mmag dip in its light curve every 3.6192 days and a radial velocity variation consistent with a Keplerian orbit. HATS-11 has a mass of 1.000+/- 0.060 {M}⊙ , a radius of 1.444+/- 0.057 {R}⊙ and an effective temperature of 6060+/- 150 K, while its companion is a 0.85+/- 0.12 {M}{{J}}, 1.510+/- 0.078 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. HATS-12 shows a periodic 5.1 mmag flux decrease every 3.1428 days and Keplerian RV variations around a V = 12.8 F-star. HATS-12 has a mass of 1.489+/- 0.071 {M}⊙ , a radius of 2.21+/- 0.21 {R}⊙ , and an effective temperature of 6408+/- 75 K. For HATS-12b, our measurements indicate that this is a 2.38+/- 0.11 {M}{{J}}, 1.35+/- 0.17 {R}{{J}} planet in a circular orbit. Both host stars show subsolar metallicities of -0.390+/- 0.060 dex and -0.100+/- 0.040 dex, respectively, and are (slightly) evolved stars. In fact, HATS-11 is among the most metal-poor and, HATS-12, with a {log}{g}\\star of 3.923+/- 0.065, is among the most evolved stars hosting a hot-Jupiter planet. Importantly, HATS-11 and HATS-12 have been observed in long cadence by Kepler as part of K2 campaign 7 (EPIC216414930 and EPIC218131080 respectively). The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based in part on observations made with the MPG 2.2 m Telescope at the ESO Observatory in La Silla.

  7. HATS-11b and HATS-12b: Two transiting Hot Jupiters orbiting sub-solar metallicity stars selected for the K2 Campaign 7

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, M; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G Á; Espinoza, N; Brahm, R; Penev, K; Ciceri, S; Zhou, G; Bayliss, D; Mancini, L; Bhatti, W; de Val-Borro, M; Csbury, Z; Sato, B; Tan, T -G; Henning, T; Schmidt, B; Bento, J; Suc, V; Noyes, R; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets from the HATSouth survey. HATS-11, a V=14.1 G0-star shows a periodic 12.9 mmag dip in its light curve every 3.6192 days and a radial velocity variation consistent with a Keplerian orbit. HATS-11 has a mass of 1.000 $\\pm$ 0.060 M$_{\\odot}$, a radius of 1.444 $\\pm$ 0.057 M$_{\\odot}$ and an effective temperature of 6060 $\\pm$ 150 K, while its companion is a 0.85 $\\pm$ 0.12 M$_J$, 1.510 $\\pm$ 0.078 R$_J$ planet in a circular orbit. HATS-12 shows a periodic 5.1 mmag flux decrease every 3.1428 days and Keplerian RV variations around a V=12.8 F-star. HATS-12 has a mass of 1.489 $\\pm$ 0.071 M$_{\\odot}$, a radius of 2.21 $\\pm$ 0.21 R$_{\\odot}$, and an effective temperature of 6408 $\\pm$ 75 K. For HATS-12, our measurements indicate that this is a 2.38 $\\pm$ 0.11 M$_J$, 1.35 $\\pm$ 0.17 R$_J$ planet in a circular orbit. Both host stars show sub-solar metallicity of -0.390 $\\pm$ 0.060 dex and -0.100 $\\pm$ 0.040 dex, respectively and are (slightly) evolved stars....

  8. Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 contributes to MMTV-Wnt1 tumor growth involving Gr1+CD11b+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Y Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological examinations of MMTV-Wnt1 tumors reveal drastic differences in the tumor vasculature when compared to MMTV-Her2 tumors. However, these differences have not been formally described, nor have any angiogenic factors been implicated to be involved in the Wnt1 tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that MMTV-Wnt1 tumors were more vascularized than MMTV-Her2 tumors, and this correlated with significantly higher expression of a CXC chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1/CXCL12 but not with VEGFA. Isolation of various cell types from Wnt1 tumors revealed that SDF1 was produced by both tumor myoepithelial cells and stromal cells, whereas Her2 tumors lacked myoepithelial cells and contained significantly less stroma. The growth of Wnt1 tumors, but not Her2 tumors, was inhibited by a neutralizing antibody to SDF1, but not by neutralization of VEGFA. Anti-SDF1 treatment decreased the proportion of infiltrating Gr1(+ myeloid cells in the Wnt1 tumors, which correlated with a decrease in the percentage of endothelial cells. The involvement of Gr1(+ cells was evident from the retardation of Wnt1 tumor growth following in vivo depletion of these cells with an anti-Gr1-specific antibody. This degree of inhibition on Wnt1 tumor growth was comparable, but not additive, to the effect observed with anti-SDF1, indicative of overlapping mechanisms of inhibition. In contrast, Her2 tumors were not affected by the depletion of Gr1(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that SDF1 is important for Wnt1, but not for HER2, in inducing murine mammary tumor and the role of SDF1 in tumorigenesis involves Gr1(+ myeloid cells to facilitate growth and/or angiogenesis.

  9. ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis-free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer.

  10. Implementation of Wi-Ap; An IEEE 802.11b/g Based Electrical Switch Module With Web Enabled Interface for Electrical Appliances Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adetiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study is to design and implement a Wi-Fi-based control panel for remote control of lights and electrical appliances with a web functionality that allows for wide area control via the intranet or Internet. This eliminates the inconvenience of moving from one switch to another for analog operation of light fixtures and appliance in home, office and campus environment. The wireless technology we adopted is IEEE 802.11 (2008 b/g, also called Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity which operates in free band and is easily accessible. Wi-Ap (Wi-Fi Automated Appliance control system contains a web portal which allows for management and control purposes via the intranet or Internet. We built a standalone Wi-Ap console that allows the wireless switching on and off of any appliance(s that is(are plugged into it. The prototype we built was tested within the Electrical and Information Engineering department, Covenant University, Nigeria intranet and the test achieved our aim of remote appliances control from a web portal vial the intranet.

  11. 2-Ethyl-6-(2-pyridyl-5,6,6a,11b-tetrahydro-7H-indeno[2,1-c]quinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Briceño

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H22N2, was obtained using the three-component imino Diels–Alder reaction via a one-pot condensation between anilines, α-pyridinecarboxyaldehyde and indene using BF3·OEt2 as the catalyst. The molecular structure reveals the cis-form as the unique diastereoisomer. The crystal structure comprises one-dimensional zigzag ribbons connected via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. C—H...π interactions also occur.

  12. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B3 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  13. MODIS/TERRA MOD11B2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  14. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of the Raven RQ-11B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    2010]. [28] U. Malm,” Modelling and degradation characteristics of thin-film CIGS solar cells,” Ph.D. dissertation, Upp - sala Universitet, Uppsala...Switzerland demonstrated the possibility of launching a solar-powered plane after they successfully launched their Solar Impulse with a pilot on- board...source selection process, AeroVironment Inc. in Simi Valley, California, was chosen by the U.S. Army for their upgraded Raven, the B model . A

  15. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-decahydro-3,11b-epoxyazepino[2,1-a]isoindole-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien A. A. Toze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The molecule comprises a fused tetracyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetrahydrofuran and dihydrofuran and one seven-membered ring (azepane. The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methylene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxylate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5° with respect to the base plane of the tetrahydrofuran ring. In the crystal, the molecules are bound by weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into puckered layers parallel to (001.

  16. [In vivo cytogenetic studies of 10-chloro-11b-(2-fluorophenyl)-7-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2, 3, 5, 11b-tetrahydrooxazolo-(3, 2-d) (1, 4) benzodiazepine-6(7H)-one (MS-4101) on rat bone marrow cells (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neda, K; Yamamoto, K; Sato, H; Sawai, M; Ishimura, K

    1977-09-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by MS-4101, diazepam, and nitrazepam were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Female rats were administered orally via stomach tube daily doses of 200, 500 and 2000 mg/kg of MS-4101, 200 and 500mg/kg of diazepam, 40 and 200mg/kg of nitrazepam and 20 and 50 mg/kg of cylcophosphamide as the positive control for one, 5 and 10 days. In this study, we used bone marrow cells derived from rat femur at 6 or 24 hours after the last drug administration. No significant chromosome aberrations were seen in the treated groups with MS-4101, diazepam, and nitrazepam when compared with the nontreated control. The increase of structural aberration on gap and break was observed in the group of cyclophosphamide as the positive control. These findings indicate that MS-4101, and diazepam and nitrazepam as similar comparative drugs, do not have the potential of induction of chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells.

  17. 一种克服蓝牙和802.11b相互干扰的共存机制%One co-existence mechanism that overcome the mutual interference between BT and 802.11b

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁; 朱刚

    2004-01-01

    由于使用相同频段,使得蓝牙技术和IEEE802.11b无线局域网之间存在干扰,严重影响系统的正常工作.本文首先介绍了传统解决办法,分析了其优缺点,在此基础上,详细介绍了一种新机制--OLA机制.

  18. 用于802.11 b发射通道的重构滤波器%A Reconstruction Opamp-RC Filter Used in Transmitter of WLAN 802.11 b

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小平; 何济柔; 黄煜梅; 洪志良

    2007-01-01

    提出了一种满足IEEE 802.11 b标准发射机的低功耗高线性度ChebyshevI型低通滤波器的设计并已实现.该滤波器建立在高增益带宽积运放的基础上,采用Leapfrog结构,最大程度地减小元件值、温漂和工艺容差对滤波器性能的影响,同时采用Opamp-RC技术提高了电路的动态范围和线性度.该滤波器用0.18μm CMOS实现,所占芯片面积为0.58 mm×0.5 mm,通过测试基本上达到系统提出的指标.该电路在1.8 V的工作电压下,共消耗4.4 mA电流.

  19. Analysis of Video Transmission Characteristics of Wirelss Local Area Network over IEEE802.11b%IEEE802.11b无线局域网视频传输特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰博; 崔慧娟

    2004-01-01

    论述了目前成熟的无线局域网(WLAN)技术的特点,在此基础上对IEEE802.11b进行IP组播的传输特性进行研究与分析,为在无线局域网上进行视频实时传输提供信道的应用特性.

  20. Detection and significance of IL-8, CD11b in renal tissues of proliferative glomerulo-nephritis%增殖性肾小球肾炎肾组织IL-8、CD11b检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超; 朱妙珍

    2001-01-01

    @@白细胞介素-8(Interleukin-8,IL-8)在炎症癖动和维持中具重要意义[1]。本研究采用免疫组化方法检测了增殖性肾小球肾炎(Proliferative glomerulonephritis,PGN)肾组织中IL-8及中性粒细胞相关抗原(CD11b),以无增殖性发变的正常人及膜性肾病(Membraneous nephropathy,MN)患者肾组织的检测作对照,探讨IL-8及其介导的炎症症状在PGN肾组织的表现及意义。 1 材料和方法 病变肾组织来自重庆大坪医院肾内科1997-07-1998-03住院治疗并行肾穿刺活检的17例PGN患者,其中男性8例,女性9例,年龄11~69岁。包括非IgA系膜增殖性肾炎11例。8例男性肾移植供肾作正常对照组。7例MN作第二对照组,其中男性3例,女性4例,年龄16~60岁。 免疫组织化学:采用小鼠抗人IL-8单抗(第四军医大学免疫教研室)、小鼠抗人CD11b单抗(北京邦定公司);二抗、三抗采用S-P试剂盒(北京邦定公司);DAB显色。

  1. Low Noise Amplifier for 2.45 GHz Frequency Band at 0.18 μm CMOS Technology for IEEE Standard 802.11 b/g WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viranjay M. Srivastava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of low noise amplifier (LNA at 2.45 GHz and integrated at 0.18 µm RF CMOS process technology. This type of LNA at 2.45 GHz is use in the Bluetooth receiver. The proposed method is useful to optimize noise performance and power gain while maintaining good input and output matching. The amplifier is designed to be used as first stage of a receiver for wireless communication. The main aim of designer is to achieve low noise figure with improved gain with the help of CMOS technology by using single stage n-MOS amplifier. The simulation results show a forward gain of 14.0 dB, a noise-figure of 0.5 dB and stability factor is approximate unity, in which the circuit operates at 14.2 mA drain current with supply voltage of 3.5 V and biasing voltage of 1.5 V.

  2. Understanding CMOS RFIC switches%面向802.11b/g应用的RF功放性能优化新一代RF功放积极应对WiFi的性能挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CATHERINE AUSTIN; RICK PUENTE; SANJIV SHAH

    2004-01-01

    @@ 随着商业和家庭应用市场范围的不断扩大,802.11无线局域网(W LAN)的市场(业界称之为WiFi)出现了快速增长的局面.根据Strategy Analytics公布的数据,WLAN芯片的市场有望在2004年达到7.57亿美元,器件出货量年度增长32%.

  3. 醛固酮合成酶基因-344T/C多态性与山东省汉族人原发性高血压相关性%Associations between CYP11B2 gene -344T/C polymorphism and essential hypertension in the Han nationality in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓健; 侯晓菲; 刘少荣; 刘文波; 陶志刚; 李建远

    2004-01-01

    目的研究醛固酮合成酶基因-344T/C多态性是否与山东省汉族人原发性高血压相关.方法放免法检测山东省147例原发性高血压患者血浆肾素活性(plasma renin activity, PRA)和醛固酮浓度(plasma aldosterone concentration, PAC),以PAC/PRA比值将高血压患者分为低肾素、正常肾素或高肾素组;聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性技术检测高血压(147例)和对照组(110名)醛固酮合成酶基因-344T/C多态性,χ2检验比较各组基因型和等位基因频率.结果对照组与原发性高血压组之间基因型和等位基因频率差异无显著性;对照组与正常或高肾素组之间基因型和等位基因频率差异亦无显著性.低肾素组C等位基因频率显著高于对照组和正常或高肾素组(P<0.05).结论醛固酮合成酶基因-344T/C多态性与山东省汉族人低肾素型原发性高血压存在相关性.

  4. CD11b Determination in Patients with Urticarial Vasculitis During Active and Resolved Phage by Flow Cytometry%流式细胞仪检测CD11b在荨麻疹性血管炎活动期和缓解期中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶小华; 关杨; 洪福昌; 莫衍石; 陈美才

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨不同期荨麻疹性血管炎(UV)细胞表面粘附分子CD11b的表达变化及意义.方法:采用流式细胞术检测12例UV患者活动期与缓解期外周血中性粒细胞表面粘附分子CD11b表达的变化,并与12例健康人进行比较.结果:UV活动期外周血中性粒细胞CD11b的表达水平明显高于UV缓解期和健康人对照组(P0.05).结论:CD11b作为白细胞激活的表面标记物,与UV发生密切相关,其表达水平可反映UV患者病情的发展趋势.

  5. The sup 1 sup 0 sup , sup 1 sup 1 B(n, p) sup 1 sup 0 sup , sup 1 sup 1 Be reactions at E sub n =96 MeV 24.50.+g; 25.40.-h; 25.40.Kv; 27.20.+n; Nuclear reaction: 10B(n,p), 11B(n,p), E=96 MeV; Measured sigma(Ep,theta); DWBA calculations; Deduced Gamow-Teller strength; Dipole excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Ringbom, A; Conde, H; Elmgren, K; Olsson, N; Rahm, J; Rönnqvist, T; Jonsson, O; Nilsson, L; Renberg, P U; Tibell, G; Bargholtz, C; Fransson, K; Lindh, K; Tegnér, P E; Thörngren-Engblom, P; Van der Werf, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections of the sup 1 sup 0 sup , sup 1 sup 1 B(n, p) sup 1 sup 0 sup , sup 1 sup 1 Be reactions have been measured at 96 MeV in the angular range 0 deg. -30 deg. for excitation energies up to 35 MeV. The spectra have been decomposed into different multipolarities using sample angular distributions calculated within the distorted-wave Born approximation. From the identified Gamow-Teller strength, S subbeta sub sup + values were obtained for sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 1 sup 1 B. At higher excitation energies, the spectra are dominated by L=1 strength in broad distributions with maxima around 22 and 12 MeV in sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 1 sup 1 B, respectively.

  6. AcEST: BP920269 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available finition tr|Q11B82|Q11B82_MESSB Polar amino acid ABC transporter, inner membrane .................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q11B82|Q11B82_MESSB P...a pseud... 33 5.7 tr|B4H4I0|B4H4I0_DROPE GL18228 OS=Drosophila persimilis GN=GL182... 33 5.7 >tr|Q11B82|Q11B82_MESSB

  7. WLAN CSMA/CA Performance in a Bluetooth Interference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    and Nevo [LSN01] configure a laptop with IEEE 802.11b and BT. The laptop interacts simultaneously with an 802.11b access point (AP) and another BT...International Symposium, 3:376-379, 2001. 77 [LSN01] Lansford, Jim., Adrian Stephens, and Ron Nevo . “Wi-Fi (802.11b) and Bluetooth: Enabling

  8. Boron isotope variations in geothermal systems on Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Budi Joko; Pichler, Thomas; You, Chen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents δ11B data for hot springs, hot acid crater lakes, geothermal brines and a steam vent from Java, Indonesia. The processes that produce a large range of the δ11B values were investigated, including the possible input of seawater as well as the contrast δ11B compositions of acid sulfate and acid chloride crater lakes. The δ11B values of hot springs ranged from - 2.4 to + 28.7‰ and acid crater lakes ranged from + 0.6 to + 34.9‰. The δ11B and Cl/B values in waters from the Parangtritis and Krakal geothermal systems confirmed seawater input. The δ11B values of acid sulfate crater lakes ranged from + 5.5 to + 34.9‰ and were higher than the δ11B of + 0.6‰ of the acid chloride crater lake. The heavier δ11B in the acid sulfate crater lakes was caused by a combination of vapor phase addition and further enrichment due to evaporation and B adsorption onto clay minerals. In contrast, the light δ11B of the acid chloride crater lake was a result of acid water-rocks interaction. The correlations of δ11B composition with δ18O and δ2H indicated that the B isotope corresponded to their groundwater mixing sources, but not for J21 (Segaran) and J48 (Cikundul) that underwent 11B isotope enrichment by B adsorption into minerals.

  9. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  10. MEMBRANE-TRANSPORT OF METHOTREXATE IN A SQUAMOUS CARCINOMA CELL-LINE ADAPTED TO LOW FOLATE CONCENTRATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Jansen, G; VANGESTEL, JA; SCHORNAGEL, JH; HORDIJK, GJ

    1991-01-01

    Membrane transport characteristics of the folate analogue methotrexate (MTX) were studied in a human squamous carcinoma cell line of the head and neck (HNSCC) adapted to grow in tissue culture media with nanomolar reduced folate concentrations (SCC-11B-LF), as compared to SCC-11B cells grown in stan

  11. Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of Aldosterone Synthase from Chinese Herbs Using Pharmacophore Modeling, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Qiao, Liansheng; Chen, Xi; Li, Gongyu

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which plays a significant role for the regulation of blood pressure. Excess aldosterone can cause the dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and lead to hypertension. Therefore, research and development of CYP11B2 inhibitor are regarded as a novel approach for the treatment of hypertension. In this study, the pharmacophore models of CYP11B2 inhibitors were generated and the optimal model was used to identify potential CYP11B2 inhibitors from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD, Version 2009). The hits were further refined by molecular docking and the interactions between compounds and CYP11B2 were analyzed. Compounds with high Fitvalue, high docking score, and expected interactions with key residues were selected as potential CYP11B2 inhibitors. Two most promising compounds, ethyl caffeate and labiatenic acid, with high Fitvalue and docking score were reserved for molecular dynamics (MD) study. All of them have stability of ligand binding which suggested that they might perform the inhibitory effect on CYP11B2. This study provided candidates for novel drug-like CYP11B2 inhibitors by molecular simulation methods for the hypertension treatment. PMID:27781210

  12. Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of Aldosterone Synthase from Chinese Herbs Using Pharmacophore Modeling, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which plays a significant role for the regulation of blood pressure. Excess aldosterone can cause the dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS and lead to hypertension. Therefore, research and development of CYP11B2 inhibitor are regarded as a novel approach for the treatment of hypertension. In this study, the pharmacophore models of CYP11B2 inhibitors were generated and the optimal model was used to identify potential CYP11B2 inhibitors from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD, Version 2009. The hits were further refined by molecular docking and the interactions between compounds and CYP11B2 were analyzed. Compounds with high Fitvalue, high docking score, and expected interactions with key residues were selected as potential CYP11B2 inhibitors. Two most promising compounds, ethyl caffeate and labiatenic acid, with high Fitvalue and docking score were reserved for molecular dynamics (MD study. All of them have stability of ligand binding which suggested that they might perform the inhibitory effect on CYP11B2. This study provided candidates for novel drug-like CYP11B2 inhibitors by molecular simulation methods for the hypertension treatment.

  13. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  14. 76 FR 3193 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... (e.g., enhancements for violence in Sec. 2D1.1(b)(2), for bribery in Sec. 2D1.1(b)(11), for... certain goods or services of Iranian origin, or export to Iran certain goods, services, or technology, and... in domestic violence, or (9) person convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. See 18...

  15. Pravastatin ameliorates placental vascular defects, fetal growth, and cardiac function in a model of glucocorticoid excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Noble, June; Thomson, Adrian; Tesic, Dijana; Miller, Mark R; Rog-Zielinska, Eva A; Moran, Carmel M; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E; Holmes, Megan C

    2016-05-31

    Fetoplacental glucocorticoid overexposure is a significant mechanism underlying fetal growth restriction and the programming of adverse health outcomes in the adult. Placental glucocorticoid inactivation by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) plays a key role. We previously discovered that Hsd11b2(-/-) mice, lacking 11β-HSD2, show marked underdevelopment of the placental vasculature. We now explore the consequences for fetal cardiovascular development and whether this is reversible. We studied Hsd11b2(+/+), Hsd11b2(+/-), and Hsd11b2(-/-) littermates from heterozygous (Hsd11b(+/-)) matings at embryonic day (E)14.5 and E17.5, where all three genotypes were present to control for maternal effects. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we found that umbilical vein blood velocity in Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses did not undergo the normal gestational increase seen in Hsd11b2(+/+) littermates. Similarly, the resistance index in the umbilical artery did not show the normal gestational decline. Surprisingly, given that 11β-HSD2 absence is predicted to initiate early maturation, the E/A wave ratio was reduced at E17.5 in Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses, suggesting impaired cardiac function. Pravastatin administration from E6.5, which increases placental vascular endothelial growth factor A and, thus, vascularization, increased placental fetal capillary volume, ameliorated the aberrant umbilical cord velocity, normalized fetal weight, and improved the cardiac function of Hsd11b2(-/-) fetuses. This improved cardiac function occurred despite persisting indications of increased glucocorticoid exposure in the Hsd11b2(-/-) fetal heart. Thus, the pravastatin-induced enhancement of fetal capillaries within the placenta and the resultant hemodynamic changes correspond with restored fetal cardiac function. Statins may represent a useful therapeutic approach to intrauterine growth retardation due to placental vascular hypofunction.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of New Diketone Analogues of Podophyllotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Hemakumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new compounds 6,6a-dihydro-2,3-dimethoxy-9-nitro–11bH benzo [C]-fluoren 5,7-dione, 6,6a-dihydro-2,3-dimethoxy-9-chloro–11bH benzo[C]-fluoren-5,7-dione and 6,6a-dihydro-2,3-dimethoxy-9-fluoro–11bH benzo[C]-fluoren-5,7- dione were synthesized in high yields. They are analogues of naturally occurring lignan podophyllotoxin which exhibits anticancer activity. They are very essential to study anticancer activity.

  17. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  18. Disease: H00259 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mal enzyme complex responsible for the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. Endocrine disease; Metab...olic disease hsa00140(3291) Steroid hormone biosynthesis HSD11B2 [HSA:3291] [KO:K00

  19. 78 FR 64937 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...., Suite A, Davis, CA 95616 on behalf of IAB, S.L. (Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Biotechnologicas S.L... IAB, S.L. (Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Biotechnologicas S.L.), Avda, Paret del Patriarca 11-B,...

  20. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter

    2011-04-10

    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  1. Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Collegedictaat f11a and f11b. Lecture notes, short waves, waves near shoreline, coastal formation, sediment transport by waves, coastal protection, delta coasts, muddy coasts, tidal rivers, density currents, breakwater design.

  2. Gene : CBRC-TNIG-11-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein product [Tetraodon nigroviridis] 1e-154 89% MAANTEDDTEVVGMGLRVSVSPVQTASYIFLVLLGILGNTTVVGVIGKSILMDRGG...CBRC-TNIG-11-0011 Novel 11 B UNKNOWN NPY6R_RABIT 4e-09 22% emb|CAG06844.1| unnamed

  3. Reconstructing Ocean pH with Boron Isotopes in Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L.; Rae, James W. B.

    2016-06-01

    In order to better understand the effect of CO2 on the Earth system in the future, geologists may look to CO2-induced environmental change in Earth's past. Here we describe how CO2 can be reconstructed using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine calcium carbonate. We review the chemical principles that underlie the proxy, summarize the available calibration data, and detail how boron isotopes can be used to estimate ocean pH and ultimately atmospheric CO2 in the past. δ11B in a variety of marine carbonates shows a coherent relationship with seawater pH, in broad agreement with simple models for this proxy. Offsets between measured and predicted δ11B may in part be explained by physiological influences, though the exact mechanisms of boron incorporation into carbonate remain unknown. Despite these uncertainties, we demonstrate that δ11B may provide crucial constraints on past ocean acidification and atmospheric CO2.

  4. Hypoxia-induced lysyl oxidase is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell recruitment to form the premetastatic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Janine T; Bennewith, Kevin L; Cox, Thomas R; Lang, Georgina; Bird, Demelza; Koong, Albert; Le, Quynh-Thu; Giaccia, Amato J

    2009-01-06

    Tumor cell metastasis is facilitated by "premetastatic niches" formed in destination organs by invading bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for premetastatic niche formation. LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells accumulates at premetastatic sites, crosslinks collagen IV in the basement membrane, and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid cell recruitment. CD11b+ cells adhere to crosslinked collagen IV and produce matrix metalloproteinase-2, which cleaves collagen, enhancing the invasion and recruitment of BMDCs and metastasizing tumor cells. LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. CD11b+ cells and LOX also colocalize in biopsies of human metastases. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for LOX in premetastatic niche formation and support targeting LOX for the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease.

  5. Hypoxia-induced lysyl oxidase is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell recruitment to form the pre-metastatic niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Janine T.; Bennewith, Kevin L.; Cox, Thomas R.; Lang, Georgina; Bird, Demelza; Koong, Albert; Le, Quynh-Thu; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Tumor cell metastasis is facilitated by “pre-metastatic niches” formed in destination organs by invading bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is critical for pre-metastatic niche formation. LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells accumulates at pre-metastatic sites, cross-links collagen-IV in the basement membrane, and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid cell recruitment. CD11b+ cells adhere to cross-linked collagen-IV and produce matrix metalloproteinase-2 which cleaves collagen, enhancing the invasion and recruitment of BMDCs and metastasizing tumor cells. LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. CD11b+ cells and LOX also co-localize in biopsies of human metastases. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for LOX in pre-metastatic niche formation and support targeting LOX for the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease. PMID:19111879

  6. Microquasar Jet Irradiation of the Proto-Solar Nebula?

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y; Butt, Yousaf; Prantzos, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    We explore the possibility that a now-extinct microquasar may have irradiated the proto-solar neighborhood, causing the 'anomalously' high local 11B/10B isotopic ratio, and comment on some observational tests of the scenario.

  7. Boron and strontium isotope compositions of groundwater from the La Paz arid coastal aquifer, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Rosner, Martin; Meixner, Anette

    2016-04-01

    In groundwater studies boron and strontium isotopic compositions can be used to identify natural and anthropogenic sources as well as processes related to groundwater recharge, flow and mixing. The La Paz arid costal aquifer in Baja California Sur, Mexico, is the most important source of drinking and irrigation water for La Paz area and suffers from anthropogenic contamination and intensive exploitation of the aquifer causing seawater intrusion and general groundwater abatement. The relatively un-radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the La Paz groundwater range in a narrow field between 0.7054 and 0.7062. In contrast to strontium the boron isotope composition displays a large variability between +27 and +55 permil d11B. The relatively low 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the La Paz groundwater highlight a significant contribution of strontium derived from local terrestrial sediments and igneous rocks with known 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.705 and 0.7035. The large variability of d11B values indicate that multiple sources and processes determine the boron isotope composition of La Paz groundwater. Rainwater (high d11B), seawater (~+40 permil) due to seawater intrusions, wastewater (low to medium d11B) and boron derived from the local geology (low to medium d11B) explain most of the observed groundwater d11B variability. However, d11B values higher than modern seawater point to significant boron isotope fractionation by preferential absorption of 10B onto clay minerals during the evolution of some groundwater samples. Due to low boron concentrations in rainwater a significant contribution of 11B-rich rainwater (>+40 permil) on the La Paz groundwater is unlikely.

  8. Refrigeration effect of La(FeCoSi)13B0.25 compounds and gadolinium metal in reciprocating magnetic refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟; 刘国栋; 黄焦宏; 刘翠兰; 金培育; 闫宏伟

    2013-01-01

    The LaFe11.9-xCoxSi1.1B0.25 with x=0.9 and x=0.82 compounds were synthesized from commercial purity raw materials. The magnetic property of LaFe11.9-xCoxSi1.1B0.25 and Gd particles were tested on the reciprocating refrigerator at the same condition in or-der to compare the cooling capacity of the two materials. The results showed that the cooling velocity of Gd was obviously higher than that of LaFe11.9-xCoxSi1.1B0.25. The maximum temperature span was 12.7 ºC for LaFe11.0Co0.9Si1.1B0.25, 14.9 ºC for Gd metal whose mass is the same as that of LaFe11.0Co0.9Si1.1B0.25, 8.1 ºC for Gd metal whose volume is the same as that of LaFe11.0Co0.9Si1.1B0.25. Se-ries connection of LaFe11.0Co0.9Si1.1B0.25 and LaFe11.08Co0.82Si1.1B0.25 had the maximum cooling temperature span of 15.3 ºC.

  9. Two New Diterpenoids from Isodon rubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two new diterpenoids taibairubescensin A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from Isodon rubescens.The structures of compound 1 and 2 were elucidated as 2b ,3b -diacetoxy-11b ,13a -dihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (1) and 3b ,11b -diacetoxy-2b ,6a -dihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Power Power Index Time (months) Mean Difference 80% 85% 90% 95% 80% 85% 90% 95% Bodily pain 0–3 7 504 576 673 831 397 454 531 656...symptoms? (check all that apply) 1 Pain 2 Urinary problems 3 Sexual functioning problems 4 Other, please specify ________________________ 5 Don’t Know...producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process

  11. Maternal Prenatal Mental Health and Placental 11β-HSD2 Gene Expression: Initial Findings from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina Seth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High intrauterine cortisol exposure can inhibit fetal growth and have programming effects for the child’s subsequent stress reactivity. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2 limits the amount of maternal cortisol transferred to the fetus. However, the relationship between maternal psychopathology and 11β-HSD2 remains poorly defined. This study examined the effect of maternal depressive disorder, antidepressant use and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy on placental 11β-HSD2 gene (HSD11B2 expression. Drawing on data from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study, placental HSD11B2 expression was compared among 33 pregnant women, who were selected based on membership of three groups; depressed (untreated, taking antidepressants and controls. Furthermore, associations between placental HSD11B2 and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS during 12–18 and 28–34 weeks gestation were examined. Findings revealed negative correlations between HSD11B2 and both the EPDS and STAI (r = −0.11 to −0.28, with associations being particularly prominent during late gestation. Depressed and antidepressant exposed groups also displayed markedly lower placental HSD11B2 expression levels than controls. These findings suggest that maternal depression and anxiety may impact on fetal programming by down-regulating HSD11B2, and antidepressant treatment alone is unlikely to protect against this effect.

  12. αB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b⁺Gr-1⁺ immature myeloid cells during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Schiller, Petter; Huang, Hua; Wawrousek, Eric F; Loskog, Angelica; Wanders, Alkwin; Moons, Lieve; Dimberg, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. αB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether αB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in αB-crystallin-deficient mice. Notably, αB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low αB-crystallin expression. αB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in chronically inflamed livers in αB-crystallin-deficient mice. The effect of αB-crystallin on IMC accumulation is limited to pathological conditions, as CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs are not elevated in naive mice. Through ex vivo differentiation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells, we provide evidence that αB-crystallin regulates systemic expansion of IMCs through a cell-intrinsic mechanism. Our study suggests a key role of αB-crystallin in limiting expansion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in diverse pathological conditions.

  13. Evidence for a role of sterol 27-hydroxylase in glucocorticoid metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Isabelle; Jung, Hans H; Dick, Bernhard; Erickson, Sandra K; Escher, Robert; Funder, John W; Frey, Felix J; Escher, Geneviève

    2013-11-01

    The intracellular availability of glucocorticoids is regulated by the enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2). The activity of HSD11B1 is measured in the urine based on the (tetrahydrocortisol+5α-tetrahydrocortisol)/tetrahydrocortisone ((THF+5α-THF)/THE) ratio in humans and the (tetrahydrocorticosterone+5α-tetrahydrocorticosterone)/tetrahydrodehydrocorticosterone ((THB+5α-THB)/THA) ratio in mice. The cortisol/cortisone (F/E) ratio in humans and the corticosterone/11-dehydrocorticosterone (B/A) ratio in mice are markers of the activity of HSD11B2. In vitro agonist treatment of liver X receptor (LXR) down-regulates the activity of HSD11B1. Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) catalyses the first step in the alternative pathway of bile acid synthesis by hydroxylating cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC). Since 27-OHC is a natural ligand for LXR, we hypothesised that CYP27A1 deficiency may up-regulate the activity of HSD11B1. In a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis carrying a loss-of-function mutation in CYP27A1, the plasma concentrations of 27-OHC were dramatically reduced (3.8 vs 90-140 ng/ml in healthy controls) and the urinary ratios of (THF+5α-THF)/THE and F/E were increased, demonstrating enhanced HSD11B1 and diminished HSD11B2 activities. Similarly, in Cyp27a1 knockout (KO) mice, the plasma concentrations of 27-OHC were undetectable (<1 vs 25-120 ng/ml in Cyp27a1 WT mice). The urinary ratio of (THB+5α-THB)/THA was fourfold and that of B/A was twofold higher in KO mice than in their WT littermates. The (THB+5α-THB)/THA ratio was also significantly increased in the plasma, liver and kidney of KO mice. In the liver of these mice, the increase in the concentrations of active glucocorticoids was due to increased liver weight as a consequence of Cyp27a1 deficiency. In vitro, 27-OHC acts as an inhibitor of the activity of HSD11B1. Our studies suggest that the expression of CYP27A1

  14. Modelling active sites for the Beckmann rearrangement reaction in boron-containing zeolites and their interaction with probe molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano-González, Inés; Vidal-Moya, Alejandro; Boronat, Mercedes; Blasco, Teresa; Corma, Avelino

    2010-06-28

    Theoretical calculations and in situ solid state NMR spectroscopy have been combined to get insight on the nature of the active sites for the Beckmann rearrangement reaction in borosilicate zeolites. The interaction of a B site in zeolite Beta with a series of probe molecules (ammonia, pyridine, acetone and water) has been modelled and the (15)N and (11)B NMR isotropic chemical shift of the resulting complexes calculated and compared with experimental in situ NMR results. This approach has allowed validation of the methodology to model the adsorption on a zeolite boron site of molecules of varying basicity which are either protonated or non-protonated. The limitation is that theoretical calculations overestimate the effect of molecular adsorption through hydrogen bonds on the calculated isotropic (11)B NMR chemical shift.Theoretical and experimental results on the adsorption of acetophenone and cyclohexanone oximes on zeolite B-Beta indicate that Brønsted acid sites protonate the oximes, changing the boron coordination from trigonal to tetrahedral. Comparison of theoretical and experimental (15)N NMR chemical shifts of the adsorbed amides (acetanilide and epsilon-caprolactam) indicates that they are non-protonated, and the (11)B NMR spectra show that, as expected, boron remains in trigonal coordination with an isotropic delta(11)B(exp) which differs from the calculated value delta(11)B(calc).

  15. IL-23-mediated mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk protects mice from Citrobacter rodentium-induced colon immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aychek, Tegest; Mildner, Alexander; Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Lampl, Nardy; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Boon, Louis; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Cua, Daniel J; Jung, Steffen

    2015-03-12

    Gut homeostasis and mucosal immune defense rely on the differential contributions of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Here we show that colonic CX3CR1(+) mononuclear phagocytes are critical inducers of the innate response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. Specifically, the absence of IL-23 expression in macrophages or CD11b(+) DC results in the impairment of IL-22 production and in acute lethality. Highlighting immunopathology as a death cause, infected animals are rescued by the neutralization of IL-12 or IFNγ. Moreover, mice are also protected when the CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC compartment is rendered deficient for IL-12 production. We show that IL-12 production by colonic CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC is repressed by IL-23. Collectively, in addition to its role in inducing IL-22 production, macrophage-derived or CD103(-) CD11b(+) DC-derived IL-23 is required to negatively control the otherwise deleterious production of IL-12 by CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC. Impairment of this critical mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk results in the generation of IFNγ-producing former TH17 cells and fatal immunopathology.

  16. EXPRESSION OF ADHESION MOLECULES ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTES DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mikhaylova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes play a key role in regulation of immune response during pregnancy. Intensive adhesion of monocytes to endothelium proves that monocytes are activated during pregnancy. To determine a potential role of adhesion molecules for ability of monocytes to adhere, we studied expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD49d, CD29 markers of monocytes from non-pregnant and pregnant women. Expression of adhesion molecules on monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The amounts of CD11b-expressing monocytes increased during pregnancy, as compared with non-pregnant women. Intensity of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29 expression on the monocytes did also increase at normal pregnancy. These results suggest that intense adhesion of monocytes to endothelium during uncomplicated pregnancy may be determined by increased expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29, and higher amounts of CD11b+ monocytes.

  17. Breakup studies with {sup 23}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, N.S.; Watson, D.L.; Gyapong, G.J.; Jones, C.D. [University of York, York YO1 5DD (United Kingdom); Bennett, S.J.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B.R.; Karban, O.; Murgatroyd, J.T.; Tungate, G. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rae, W.D.M.; Smith, A.E. [University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RA (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    The breakup of {sup 23}Na nuclei into {sup 11}B+{sup 12}C and of {sup 24}Mg nuclei into {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C has been studied using the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 11}B{sup 12}C){sup 12}C and {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 12}C{sup 12}C){sup 11}B. Clear evidence was found for the breakup of the {sup 23}Na and {sup 24}Mg nuclei into the ground states of both fragments. The yieldrotect from the {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 11}B{sub g.s.}{sup 12}C{sub g.s.}){sup 12}C{sub g.s.} reaction was concentrated in the region of excitationrotect energy in {sup 23}Na between 24 and 28 MeV and fragmented among a number of states. Therotect {sup 12}C({sup 23}Na,{sup 12}C{sub g.s.} {sup 12}C{sub g.s.)}{sup 11}B{sub g.s.} reaction was found to proceed chiefly via broad states at 22.1 and 23.9 MeV in {sup 24}Mg.

  18. Protective effect of albumin on lung injury in traumatic/hemorrhagic shock in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Chen-yan; CHEN Zuo-bing; ZHENG Shu-sen; GAO Yuan; ZHANG Yun; ZHAO Xue-hong; NI Ling-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of albumin administration on lung injury in traumatic/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) in rats. Methods: Forty-eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=16 in each group): Group A, Group B, Group C. In Group A, rats underwent laparotomy without shock. In Group B, rats undergoing T/HS were resuscitated with their blood plus lactated Ringer's (twice the volume of shed blood). In Group C, rats undergoing T/HS were resuscitated with their shed blood plus additional 3 ml of 5% human albumin. The expression of polymorphonuclear neutrophils CD18/CD11b in jugular vein blood was evaluated. The main lung injury indexes (the activity of myeloperoxidase and lung injury score) were measured. Results: Significant differences of the expression of CD18/11b and the severity degree of lung injury were found between the three groups.(P<0.05). The expression of CD18/CD11b and the main lung injury indexes in Group B and Goup C incresed significantly compared with those in Group A(P<0.05).At the same time, the expression of CD18/CD11b and the main lung injury indexes in Group C decreased dramatically, compared with those in Group B (P<0.05). Conclusions: The infusion of albumin during resuscitation period can protect lungs from injury and decrease the expression of CD18/CD11b in T/HS rats.

  19. Bit error rate analysis of Wi-Fi and bluetooth under the interference of 2.45 GHz RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    IEEE 802.11b WLAN (Wi-Fi) and IEEE 802.15.1 WPAN (bluetooth) are prevalent nowadays, and radio frequency identification (RFID) is an emerging technology which has wider applications. 802.11b occupies unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band (2.4-2.483 5 GHz) and uses direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) to alleviate the narrow band interference and fading. Bluetooth is also one user of ISM band and adopts frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) to avoid the mutual interference. RFID can operate on multiple frequency bands, such as 135 KHz, 13.56 MHz and 2.45 GHz. When 2.45 GHz RFID device, which uses FHSS, collocates with 802.11b or bluetooth, the mutual interference is inevitable. Although DSSS and FHSS are applied to mitigate the interference, their performance degradation may be very significant. Therefore, in this article, the impact of 2.45 GHz RFID on 802.11b and bluetooth is investigated. Bit error rate (BER) of 802.11b and bluetooth are analyzed by establishing a mathematical model, and the simula-tion results are compared with the theoretical analysis to justify this mathematical model.

  20. 丹参酮ⅡA抑制醛固酮生物合成的作用%Effects of Tanshinone ⅡA on inhibition of biological synthesis of aldosterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳; 占成业; 韩少杰; 郑智

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aldosterone is an important pathogenic factor of left ventricular hypertrophy. There has been evidence that the extract of red sage root (a Chinese herb) can intervene the synthesis of aldosterone.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of tanshinone Ⅱ A on expression of genes related to aldosterone synthesis in myocardium. DESIGN:A randomized and controlled trial. SETTING :Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. MATERIALS:The experiment was performed at the laboratory of Emergency Department, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology from November 2002 to March 2004. Totally 20 male 12-week-old rats with spontaneous hypertension were randomly divided as hypertension group and tanshinone Ⅱ A group. METHODS:Rats in each group were injected tanshinone Ⅱ A or distilled water in the same volume respectively through caudal vein. After 12-week administration,the rats were put to death by decapitation, and the samples of myocardium were prepared. The expressions of CYP11B1mRNA and CYP11B2 mRNA, or myocardial genes related to aldosterone synthesis were examined with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and referring to the amplification primers of glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The levels of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA related to aldosterone synthesis in myocardium.RESULTS :Totally 20 rats were involved in the trial and all entered in the final result analysis without any loss of value. ① Quantitative analysis of expression of myocardial CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes in rats of two groups: Taking 100bp Plus Ladder as Marker,clear amplified strands could be seen at 440bp,461bp and 336bp sites,DNA sequencing proved they were the encoding gene segments of CYP11B1,YP11B2 and GAPDH. ②Qualitative analysis of expression of myocardial CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes in rats of two groups: The

  1. Supernova Neutrino Nucleosynthesis of Light Elements with Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, T; Yokomakura, H; Kimura, K; Takamura, A; Hartmann, D H

    2006-01-01

    Light element synthesis in supernovae through neutrino-nucleus interactions, i.e., the nu-process, is affected by neutrino oscillations in the supernova environment. There is a resonance of 13-mixing in the O/C layer, which increases the rates of charged-current nu-process reactions in the outer He-rich layer. The yields of 7Li and 11B increase by about a factor of 1.9 and 1.3, respectively, for a normal mass hierarchy and an adiabatic 13-mixing resonance, compared to those without neutrino oscillations. In the case of an inverted mass hierarchy and a non-adiabatic 13-mixing resonance, the increase in the 7Li and 11B yields is much smaller. Observations of the 7Li/11B ratio in stars showing signs of supernova enrichment could thus provide a unique test of neutrino oscillations and constrain their parameters and the mass hierarchy.

  2. Mechanism of Solid-State Thermolysis of Ammonia Boraine: 15N NMR Study Using Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-28

    The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.

  3. The isotopic analysis of boron by charged particle irradiation; Analise isotopica de boro utilizando feixes de particulas carregadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre Junior, Ubirajara M.; Costa, Vilmar L. da; Suita, Julio C.; Teixeira, Danilo L.; Bernedo, Alfredo V.B.; Cabral, Tania S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    An analytical isotopic method for boron analysis is discribed, based in the spectrometry of protons at 130{sup 0} C from scattering and/or reactions like {sup 10} B(p,p){sup 10} B and {sup 11} B(p,p){sup 11} B which were simultaneously measured. The basic parameters involved in such measurements, are discussed including cinematic, angular distribution, preparation of targets and its substracs. Particle spectra of targets with natural isotopic concentration and enriched in {sup 10} B are presented. The ratio [{sup 11} B(p{sub o})/{sup 10} B(p{sub o})] at 130{sup 0} C for targets of {sup nat} B in respect of the incident proton beam energy between 14 and 24 MeV are shown. The results of our enriched {sup 10} B are compared with results obtained in mass spectrometry. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Systematic study of anomalous fragment anisotropies in subbarrier complete fusion—fission reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHuan-Qiao; LiuZu-Hua; 等

    1997-01-01

    The complete fusion-fission is separated from the transter-induced-fission with the fragment folding angle technique.The cross sections and fragment angular distributions for the complete fusion-fission reactions of 11B+ 238U(237Np),237NP,16O+232Th(238U) and 19F+232Th at near-and sub-barrier energies have been measured.The present fusion and fission standard models can reproduces both the excitation functions and the fragment anisotropies for the systems of 11B+238U(237Np)and 12C+237Np;but fail to explain both the experimental data for the other 3 systems simultaneously,The evidence of the entrance-channel dependence of fission-fragment anisotropies is revealsed by comparison of the 11B+237NP and 16O+232Th data.Based on the observations a new version model of preequilibrium fission is put forward to explain the anomaly.

  5. Glucocorticoid-related genetic susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Poirier, Raphael; Wollmer, M Axel; Grimaldi, Luigi M E; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Streffer, Johannes R; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Because glucocorticoid excess increases neuronal vulnerability, genetic variations in the glucocorticoid system may be related to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 glucocorticoid-related genes in a population of 814 AD patients and unrelated control subjects. Set-association analysis revealed that a rare haplotype in the 5' regulatory region of the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) was associated with a 6-fold increased risk for sporadic AD. Results of a reporter-gene assay indicated that the rare risk-associated haplotype altered HSD11B1 transcription. HSD11B1 controls tissue levels of biologically active glucocorticoids and thereby influences neuronal vulnerability. Our results indicate that a functional variation in the glucocorticoid system increases the risk for AD, which may have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  6. Supernova neutrino nucleosynthesis of light elements with neutrino oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H

    2006-03-10

    Light element synthesis in supernovae through neutrino-nucleus interactions, i.e., the v process, is affected by neutrino oscillations in the supernova environment. There is a resonance of 13-mixing in the O/C layer, which increases the rates of charged-current -process reactions in the outer He-rich layer. The yields of 7Li and 11B increase by about a factor of 1.9 and 1.3, respectively, for a normal mass hierarchy and an adiabatic 13-mixing resonance, compared to those without neutrino oscillations. In the case of an inverted mass hierarchy and a nonadiabatic 13-mixing resonance, the increase in the 7Li and 11B yields is much smaller. Observations of the 7Li/11B ratio in stars showing signs of supernova enrichment could thus provide a unique test of neutrino oscillations and constrain their parameters and the mass hierarchy.

  7. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs.

  8. High risk of adrenal toxicity of N1-desoxy quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives and the protection of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) in the inhibition of the expression of aldosterone synthetase in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Chunhui; Ihsan, Awais; Luo, Xun; Guo, Pu; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-02-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the formulation of safety controls for animal products and the design of new QdNOs with less harmful effects.

  9. Down-regulation of complement receptors on the surface of host monocyte even as in vitro complement pathway blocking interferes in dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marins-Dos-Santos, Alessandro; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; de Souza, Luiz José; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In dengue virus (DENV) infection, complement system (CS) activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF), the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b), CR4 (CD11c) and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b) pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms.

  10. Down-regulation of complement receptors on the surface of host monocyte even as in vitro complement pathway blocking interferes in dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Ferreira Marinho

    Full Text Available In dengue virus (DENV infection, complement system (CS activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF, the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b, CR4 (CD11c and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b or CR3 (CD11b/CD18 reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b or CR3 (CD11b/CD18 blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms.

  11. Detrital, metamorphic and metasomatic tourmaline in high-pressure metasediments from Syros (Greece): intra-grain boron isotope patterns determined by secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Altherr, Rainer; Kalt, Angelika; Ludwig, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    The boron isotopic composition of zoned tourmaline in two metasediments from the island of Syros, determined by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), reflects the sedimentary and metamorphic record of the rocks. Tourmaline from a silicate-bearing marble contains small (≤20 μm) detrital cores with highly variable δ 11B values (-10.7 to +3.6‰), pointing to a heterogeneous protolith derived from multiple sources. The sedimentary B isotopic record survived the entire metamorphic cycle with peak temperatures of ˜500°C. Prograde to peak metamorphic rims are homogeneous and similar among all analysed grains ( δ 11B ≈ +0.9‰). The varying δ 11B values of detrital cores in the siliceous marble demonstrate that in situ B isotope analysis of tourmaline by SIMS is a potentially powerful tool for provenance studies not only in sediments but also in metasediments. A meta-tuffitic blueschist bears abundant tourmaline with dravitic cores of detrital or authigenic origin ( δ 11B ≈ -3.3‰), and prograde to peak metamorphic overgrowth zones (-1.6‰). Fe-rich rims, formed during influx of B-bearing fluids under retrograde conditions, show strongly increasing δ 11B values (up to +7.7‰) towards the margins of the grains. The δ 11B values of metamorphic tourmaline from Syros, formed in mixed terrigenous-marine sediments, reflect the B signal blended from these two different sources, and was probably not altered by dehydration during subduction.

  12. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi

    2017-01-24

    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 011B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  13. The TIS11 primary response gene is a member of a gene family that encodes proteins with a highly conserved sequence containing an unusual Cys-His repeat.

    OpenAIRE

    Varnum, B C; Ma, Q F; T. H. Chi; Fletcher, B.; Herschman, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    The TIS11 primary response gene is rapidly and transiently induced by both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and growth factors. The predicted TIS11 protein contains a 6-amino-acid repeat, YKTELC. We cloned two additional cDNAs, TIS11b and TIS11d, that contain the YKTELC sequence. TIS11, TIS11b, and TIS11d proteins share a 67-amino-acid region of sequence similarity that includes the YKTELC repeat and two cysteine-histidine containing repeats. TIS11 gene family members are not coordinately...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16245-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EU576013 ) HIV-1 isolate 9026.07_p12 from USA, partial seque... 44 4.5 2 ( DR021070 ) STRS1_42_E03.b1_A034 Shoot tip pitch canker...olated mature leaf cDNA library KHLW ... 40 4.8 2 ( DR015023 ) STRS1_1_B11.b1_A034 Shoot tip pitch canker... suscep... 36 4.9 2 ( DR016053 ) STRS1_7_H07.b1_A034 Shoot tip pitch canker suscep..

  15. Syntheses of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid analogues modified by α-acylaminoamido groups at the C-4 position using isocyanide-based four-component coupling and biological evaluation as inhibitors of human parainfluenza virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Reiko; Hayakawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sato, Masayuki; Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Novel sialidase inhibitors 11 having an α-acylaminoamido group at the C-4 position of Neu5Ac2en 1 against human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) were synthesized using one-pot isocyanide-based four-component condensation, and their inhibitory activities against hPIV-1 sialidase were studied. Compound 11b showed inhibitory activity (IC(50)=5.1 mM) against hPIV-1 sialidase. The degree of inhibition of 11b was much weaker than that of 1 (IC(50)=0.3 mM).

  16. La lezione di Pietro Leopoldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Becattini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upon leaving Tuscany to become Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II left some notes (1790 that prove very interesting to today’s economist. They show how a holistic approach to the socio-economic characteristics of a region should always be considered, starting from a people’s spirit, or ‘representative character’. This article summarises Leopold’s notes and draws some implication for the modern study of urban and regional economics.  JEL Codes: R11, B11, B15Keywords: regional economics, people’s character; Leopold II, Nicholas Georgescu Roegen, implications

  17. Analysis of Double Layer and Adsorption Effects at the Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte-Electrode Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2011 . Published in Journal of the Electrochemical Society , Vol. Ed. 0 (2011), (Ed. ). DoD Components reserve a royalty...unlimited. ... 55036.7-CH Journal of The Electrochemical Society , 158 (11) B1423-B1431 (2011) B1423 0013-4651/2011/158(11)/B1423/9/$28.00 © The... Electrochemical Society Analysis of Double Layer and Adsorption Effects at the Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte-Electrode Interface Murat Ünlü,a,∗ Daniel Abbott,b

  18. Determination of Geochemical Characteristics of Glass Alteration Environments Using Boron Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, B. D.; Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.

    2012-12-01

    Palagonite (palagonitized sideromelane) is the initial, low-temperature alteration product of basaltic glass in the presence of water and/or water vapor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that palagonite is a mineraloid consisting of sheeted, smectite-like areas and amorphous areas. The presence of clay-like material raises the possibility for environmentally-controlled boron isotope fractionation during palagonitization, potentially similar to that observed due to formation of authigenic clay in bentonites. We measured boron isotope ratios in thin-sectioned palagonite samples using secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and devised a procedure for in-situ removal of surface contaminants of boron as well as boron within the interlayers of this authigenic material, permitting determination of both bulk and tetrahedral boron isotopic ratios. The samples were basaltic hyaloclastites from submarine volcaniclastic, submarine volcanic, and marine phreatomagmatic environments. Measured tetrahedral boron isotopic ratios (δ11B) ranged from -7.7 (±2.2) to 43.6 (±0.9)‰. All samples with relatively heavy δ11B values also had relatively low initial porosities (determined by point counting), whereas all but one of the samples with relatively light δ11B values also had relatively high initial porosities. In previous clay mineralization studies, boron isotope fractionation has been shown to depend not only on temperature but also on the proportions of aqueous B(OH)3 and B(OH)4-, which is controlled by pH. At high pH, tetrahedral B(OH)4- is the dominant aqueous species, so relatively less B-isotope fractionation occurs than at low pH, where trigonal B(OH)3 is the dominant aqueous species. During palagonitization at high pH, the measured tetrahedral δ11B would be closer to δ11B of the water (less fractionation), whereas at low pH, the measured tetrahedral δ11B would be significantly lighter than δ11B of the water (more fractionation). Geochemical

  19. AT1R基因、ACE基因和CYP基因多态性与妊娠期高血压疾病的相关性研究%Polymorphism of angiotension Ⅱ type 1 receptor gene, angiotensin converting enzyme gene and aldosterone synthase gene and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛建清; 李宏芬; 沈志霞; 范淑英; 代琪; 张蕴霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨血管紧张素Ⅱ-1型受体(AT1R)基因A1166-C、血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)基因插入/缺失(I/D)和醛固酮合成酶(CYP11B2)基因-344T/C位点多态性与妊娠期高血压疾病(HDCP)的相关关系.方法 采用聚合酶链反应-限制性内切酶片段长度多态性技术(PCR-RFLP),分别检测HDCP组86例和正常对照组175例AT1R基因A1166-C、ACE基因I/D和CYP11B2基因-344T/C突变位点的基因型.结果 HDCP组和正常对照组AT1R基因A1166-C、ACE基因I/D和CYPllB2基因-344T/C多态性18种组合的分布不同,构成比不同;这18种组合中,相对于AT1R-AA+ACE-Ⅱ+CYP 1182-TT基因型,携带AT1R-AA+ACE-DD+CYP11B2-TC基因型人群的OR值为7.289;携带AT1R-AC+ACE-ID+CYP11B2-TC基因型人群的OR值为5.315;携带AT1R.AC+ACE-DD+CYP11B2-TC基因型人群的OR值为5.694.其余联合基因型,差异均无统计学意义(P均0.05);或者由于样本量小,不具有代表性.结论 HDCP组和正常对照组AT1R基因A1166-C、ACE基因I/D和CYPllB2基因-344T/C多态性18种组合中,AT1R-AA+ACE-DD+CYP11B2-TC联合基因型、AT1R-AC+ACE-ID+CYP11B2-TC联合基因型、AT1R-AC+ACE-DD+CYP11B2-TC联合基因型可能增加HDCP的遗传易感性;HDCP的发生,可能是多个基因共同作用的结果 .%Objective To explore the relationship among genetic polymorphism of angiotension Ⅱ type 1 re-ceptor(AT1 R) A1166-C, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)-344T/C and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods Polymerase chain reaction-re-striction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used to detect the genotypes of AT1 R A1166-C ,ACE (I/O) ,CYP11B2 -344T/C in 86 cases of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and 175 cases of normal control.Results There was 18 combined types in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy cases and normal control cases.Compared to AT1R-AA + ACE-Ⅱ + CYP11B2-TT, Odds ratios (OR) of AT1R-AA + ACE-DO +CYP11

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHH347 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MM1-0008P-R014-B11.B, mRNA sequence. 72 2e-08 1 CV511301 |CV511301.1 kc39e08.y1 Xiphinema... index CSEQDA01 Xiphinema index cDNA 5' similar to SW:KAPC_CAEEL P21137 CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINA

  1. 40 CFR 63.8 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard(s) unless the Administrator— (i) Specifies or approves the use of minor changes in methodology for the specified monitoring requirements and procedures (see § 63.90(a) for definition); or (ii) Approves... (see § 63.90(a) for definition). (iii) Owners or operators with flares subject to § 63.11(b) are...

  2. Power Conditioning for MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    capacitive or inductive according to the circuit or device). To determine the impedance of the device, Quad Core 7600 RLC meter is used. For a...multimeter, oscilloscope and LIA, respectively. In Quad Core 7600 RLC meter measurements, impedance of the device is represented as an equivalent...11 B. IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT ................................................................12 C

  3. Generating GraphML XML Files for Graph Visualization of Architectures and Event Traces for the Monterey Phoenix Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    11 b. Business Process Model and Notation ( BPMN ) ....................12 c. Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD...diagram (From EETimes Website Authors, 2011) ...........12 Figure 9. BPMN example diagram (From Wikipedia contributors, 2012) .....................13...Association for Computing Machinery BPMN Business Process Model and Notation DAG Directed Acyclic Graph DOM Document Object Model ERD Entity

  4. 40 CFR 279.70 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.70 Applicability. (a) Any... forth in § 279.11. (b) The following persons are not marketers subject to this subpart: (1) Used oil... oil to processor/re-refiners who incidentally burn used oil are not marketers subject to this...

  5. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  6. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology.

  7. 8 CFR 274a.7 - Pre-enactment provisions for employees hired prior to November 7, 1986 or in the CNMI prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 CFR 274a.2(b)(1)(viii)), except those individuals described in 8 CFR 274a.2(b)(1)(viii)(A)(7)(iii... CNMI prior to the transition program effective date as defined in 8 CFR 1.1. (b) For purposes of this..., situations in which an employee is subject to seasonal employment; or (3) Is excluded or deported from...

  8. InterProScan Result: BP124820 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP124820 BP124820_3_ORF2 35CD3B2AD11B04C6 PANTHER PTHR22762:SF7 NEUTRAL ALPHA-GLUCOSIDA...SE AB PRECURSOR (GLUCOSIDASE II ALPHA SUBUNIT) (ALPHA GLUCOSIDASE 2) NA ? IPR000322 unintegrated ...

  9. EST Table: FY025170 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY025170 bmte11b10 11/11/04 30 %/184 aa ref|XP_974065.1| PREDICTED: similar to Outer dense fiber... protein 2 (Outer dense fiber of sperm tails protein 2) (84 kDa outer dense fiber protein) (Cen

  10. Different HIV pox viral vector-based vaccines and adjuvants can induce unique antigen presenting cells that modulate CD8 T cell avidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Jackson, Ronald J; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2014-11-01

    The lung-derived dendritic cell (LDC) recruitment following intranasal (i.n.) vaccination of different poxviral vector-based vaccines/adjuvants were evaluated to decipher how these factors influenced CD8(+) T cell avidity. Compared to the standard i.n. recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV)-HIV vaccination, the FPV-HIV IL-13Rα2 or IL-4Rα antagonist adjuvanted vaccines that induced higher avidity CD8(+) T cells, also recruited significantly elevated MHCII(+) CD11c(+) CD11b(+) CD103(-) CD64(-) MAR-1(-) conventional DC (cDCs) to the lung mucosae (hierarchy: IL-4R antagonist>IL-13Rα2>unadjuvanted). In contrast, elevated CD11b(-) CD103(+) LDCs were detected in animals that received recombinant HIV vaccinia virus (rVV) or Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) vector-based vaccines. Adoptive transfer studies indicated that CD11b(-) CD103(+) LDCs significantly dampened HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell avidity compared to CD11b(+) CD103(-) LDCs. Collectively; our observations revealed that rFPV vector prime and transient inhibition of IL-4/IL-13 at the vaccination site favoured the recruitment of unique LDCs, associated with the induction of high quality immunity.

  11. SOME REMARKS ABOUT STIRLING NUMBERS OF THE SECOND KIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Vugdalić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a representation of Stirling numbers of the second kind, we obtain explicit formulas for some cases of Stirling numbers of the second kind and illustrate a method for founding other such formulas. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 11B73, 05A10.

  12. 10 CFR 35.27 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 35.27 Section 35.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.27 Supervision. (a) A... under the supervision of an authorized user, as allowed by § 35.11(b)(1), shall— (1) In addition to...

  13. Integrin activation as an alternative treatment approach for inflammatory diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Kam Wai WONG; Liang LIU

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of immune responses is a complex process that involves many signaling molecules in their specific interactions and interplays.For instance,the leukocytic integrin CD11b/CD18 plays a crucial role in leukocyte infiltration,which is commonly found in most inflammatory diseases.

  14. 76 FR 16724 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service... School Lunch Act and section 11(b) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1760(e) and 1780(b...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility...

  15. Socially Coherent Negotiation for Cooperative Multiagent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-16

    Logical Essays, R. B. Braithwaite, Ed. New York, NY: The Humanities Press, 1950. [9] B. de Finetti , “La prévision: ses lois logiques, ses sources...Springer Verlag, New York, NY, 1999. 10. F. G. Cozman. Credal networks. Artificial Intelligence, 120:199– 233, 2000. 11. B. de Finetti . La prévision: ses

  16. 77 FR 7011 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... fabric seat that fits over a frame, the fabric padding slips off. In most cases, if the seat fails, the... attributable to inadequate space between the infant seat and the swing frame. This hazard is responsible for... 2088-11b, requires the tester to pull the mobile in a vertical downward direction toward where...

  17. Isotopic fractionation of boron in growing corals and its palaeoenvironmental implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V; Zhang, C.G.; Wei, H.Z.; Liu, W.G.; Zhou, W.J.

    to be incorporated into corals. Based on the measured δ11B values of growing corals and coexisting sea water as well as the pH of co-existing sea water, a new isotopic fractionation factor α43 between two boron species, B(OH)4 – and B(OH)3, has been measured to be 0...

  18. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., consists of the division number followed by the compatibility group letter. Compatibility group letters are..., cap-type, are included, even though they do not contain primary explosives. B 1.1B1.2B 1.4B...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16299-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 ) JBW089C03.b_027.abi Pineapple week 5-10 nematode-... 139 1e-36 4 ( CT910186 ) Phaeodactylum tricornutum...e-31 2 ( D35256 ) Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA clone yk19a6 : 5' end, ... 92 5e-31 3 ( DT338842 ) JBW090D11.b_089.abi Pineapple

  20. The Role of Neutrophil Activation in Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effect of neutrophil activation on pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, neutrophil activation was examined by using flow cytometry to assess the CD11b expression and the levels of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and serum NO-2 were also measured by using non-equilibrium radioimmunoassay and by Griess assay in 29 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and 31 normal pregnant women at third trimester. The expression of neutrophil CD11b was significantly elevated in women with pre-eclampsia as compared with that of normal pregnant women at third trimester. The mean fluorescence index of CD11b was 438.38±179.91 and 326.97±170.14 respectively (P<0.05). The plasma ET-1 level and serum NO 2 concentration in pre-eclampsic women (63.69±48.33 pg/ml and 20.03±4.77 μmol/L, respectively) were both significantly increased as compared with those in the normal pregnancy women (29.98±20.25 pg/ml and 15.47±5.47 μmol/L, respectively, P<0.01). The neutrophil CD11b expression was significantly elevated in pre-eclampsia. The increased neutrophil activation may cause the damage of vascular endothelium and result in NO release compensatory increase in endothelial cells, suggesting that the neutrophil activation may play a key role in pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  1. The AS (Administrative Sciences) Financial Reporting System: Some Experience on Prototyping and User Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-27

    adopted as the system generator . X-’lan was chosen necause of its flexiole relational dataoase conceot and -ne oossiaility to perform spreadsheet...developed to test tie feasioility of using K-74an as the system generator . 12 e .11 B. METHODOLOGY: THE "DIARY APPROACH" Ginzberg argues for a "Diary

  2. Myeloma cell expression of 10 candidate genes for osteolytic bone disease. Only overexpression of DKK1 correlates with clinical bone involvement at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, N.; Knudsen, L.M.; Dahl, I.M.;

    2008-01-01

    ), TNFSF11A (RANK), TNFRSF11B (OPG), CCL3 (MIP1A), CCL4 (MIP1B), PTHR1 (PTHrp), DKK1, CKS2, PSME2 and DHFR in purified, immunophenotypic FACS-sorted plasma cells from 171 newly diagnosed MM patients, 20 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 12 controls. The gene expressions...

  3. 77 FR 60741 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... called on during the public comment period. Handout materials should be limited to one printed page..., Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B, Knoxville, Tennessee 37902. DATES: The... Summit Hill Drive, 37902 and will be open to the public. Anyone needing special access or...

  4. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Energy Resource Council, Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B... Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, Knoxville, TN 37902 and will be open to the...

  5. Progranulin promotes activation of microglia/macrophage after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanshan; Tai, Chao; Petkau, Terri L; Zhang, Si; Liao, Chengyong; Dong, Zhifang; Wen, Wendy; Chang, Qing; Tian Wang, Yu; MacVicar, Brian A; Leavitt, Blair R; Jia, William; Cynader, Max S

    2013-09-12

    Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency accounts for up to 10% of frontotemporal lobe dementia. PGRN has also been implicated in neuroinflammation in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Here we report that both protein and mRNA levels of cortical and hippocampal PGRN are significantly enhanced following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. We also identify intense PGRN immunoreactivity that colocalizes with CD11b in seizure-induced animals, suggesting that PGRN elevation occurs primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. To test the role of PGRN in activation of microglia/macrophages, we apply recombinant PGRN protein directly into the hippocampal formation, and observe no change in the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus. However, with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, PGRN application significantly increases the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus, without affecting the extent of hilar cell death. In addition, the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages induced by status epilepticus is not significantly different between PGRN knockout mice and wildtype. Our findings suggest that status epilepticus induces PGRN expression, and that PGRN potentiates but is not required for seizure-induced microglia/macrophage activation.

  6. Building the Human Domain Multi-Tool: Recruiting for Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    recruiting. Charles Darwin noted that organisms that are the most adaptable to changes in their environment would succeed.41 Diversity enables...IS an 11B = 3 pts 40 Page, The Difference, 3786, Kindle e-book. 41 Charles Darwin , Origin of Species, (London: John

  7. 49 CFR 572.18 - Thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dummy midsagittal plane. (6) Guide the probe during impact so that it moves with no significant lateral... 11. (b) When impacted by a test probe conforming to § 572.21(a) at 13 fps in accordance with... milliseconds. The lateral acceleration shall not exceed 5g. (c) Test procedure. (1) With the dummy...

  8. Enhancement of G-CSF-induced stem cell mobilization by antibodies against the beta 2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, GA; Pruijt, JFM; Verzaal, P; van Os, R; van Kooyk, Y; Figdor, CG; de Kruijf, EJFM; Willemze, R; Fibbe, WE

    2002-01-01

    The beta2 integrins leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a) and macrophage antigen-1 (Mac-1, CD11b) have been reported to play a role in the attachment of CD34(+) cells to stromal cells in the bone marrow. When administered prior to interleukin-8 (IL-8), anti-LFA-1 antibodies completely prevent

  9. Isotopic composition of dissolved boron and its geochemical behavior in a freshwater-seawater mixture at the estuary of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The isotopic composition of dissolved boron, in combination with the elemental concentrations of B, Cl and salinities in freshwater-seawater mixed samples taken from the estuary of the Changjiang River, the largest one in China, was investigated in detail in this study. Brackish water and seawater samples from the estuary of the Changjiang River were collected during low water season in November, 1998. Boron isotopic compositions were determined by the Cs2BO2+-graphite technique with a analytical uncertainty of 0.2‰ for NIST SRM 951 and an average analytical uncertainty of 0.8‰ for the samples. The isotopic compositions of boron, expressed in δ11B, and boron concentrations in the Changjiang River at Nanjing and seawater from the open marine East Sea, China, are characterized by δ11B values of -5.4‰ and 40.0‰, as well as 0.0272 and 4.43 mg B/L, respectively. Well-defined correlations between δ11B values, B concentrations and Cl concentrations are interpreted in terms of binary mixing between river input water and East Sea seawater by a process of straightforward dilution. The offsets of δ11B values are not related to the contents of clastic sediment and to the addition of boron. These relationships favor a conservative behavior of boron at the estuarine of the Changjiang River.

  10. Geochemical study of boron isotopes in the process of loess weathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志琦; 刘丛强; 肖应凯; 郎赟超

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the boron contents and boron isotopic composition of acid-soluble phases in loess and paleosol samples are determined for the first time. The boron contents of acid-soluble phases in the Luochuan loess section (S0 -S2) vary within the range of (0.8-2.7)×10-6 and theirδ11B values vary from -1.8‰ to +18.6‰, mostly within the range of 0-+10‰. The boron contents andδ11B values of paleosol layers are higher than those of loess layers, especially in the loess layer S1. Varying chemical weathering intensity and loess adsorption capability are the main factors leading to the variations of boron contents and δ11B values of acid-soluble phases in the loess section. The variation of chemical weathering intensity in response to the variation of climatic conditions seems to be the main factor leading to the variations of boron contents andδ11B values of acid-soluble phases in the loess section.

  11. Preparação e caracterização espectroscópica de complexos de boro: uma proposta para uma prática integrada de química inorgânica Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of boron complexes: a proposal for an integrated inorganic laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Eberhard Bessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a proposal for an undergraduate second or third year inorganic laboratory course, the present paper describes the preparation of three representative boron complexes: potassium tetrafluoroborate, pyridoxin boron complex and potassium bis(oxalatoborate. The complexes are characterised by infrared and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H, 11B and 19F where isotopic effects are demonstrated.

  12. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Picciotto, A.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014)], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  13. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase (IDO) as a Mediator of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-31

    Ronca, R., Serafini , P ., Zam boni, P., Restifo, N. P., and Zanovello, P. Identification of a CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+)/CD31(+) myeloid progenitor capable...of activating or suppressing CD8(+) T cells. Blood, 96: 3838-3846, 2000. 6. Serafini , P., De Santo, C., Marigo, I. , Cingarlini, S., Dolcetti, L

  14. 46 CFR 12.25-10 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ordinary seaman, wiper, and steward's department (F.H.) endorsements do not require an exam. Holders of.... MMCs or MMDs endorsed as steward's department (F.H.) will authorize the holder's service in any capacity in the steward's department. (See § 12.02-11(b) of this part for unqualified ratings in the...

  15. Regularity of solutions in semilinear elliptic theory

    KAUST Repository

    Indrei, Emanuel

    2016-07-08

    We study the semilinear Poisson equation Δu=f(x,u)inB1. (1) Our main results provide conditions on f which ensure that weak solutions of (1) belong to C1,1(B1/2). In some configurations, the conditions are sharp.

  16. Reactor for boron fusion with picosecond ultrahigh power laser pulses and ultrahigh magnetic field trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, G H; Kirchhoff, G

    2015-01-01

    Compared with the deuterium tritium (DT) fusion, the environmentally clean fusion of protons with 11B is extremely difficult. When instead of nanosecond laser pulses for thermal-ablating driven ignition, picosecond pulses are used, a drastic change by nonlinearity results in ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks. This radically changes to economic boron fusion by a measured new avalanche ignition.

  17. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    Data on gastric evacuation of cod from the International Data Base on Gastric Evacuation Experiments have been reanalysed. A general evacuation models was fitted to the data by means of non-linear regression techniques: dS/dt= - R × SB or integrated:| S(1 - B) t=S1)(1 - B) - R × (1 - B) × 1, where...

  18. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  19. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  20. Structure fragmentation of a surface layer of commercial purity titanium during ultrasonic impact treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozelskaya, Anna, E-mail: annakozelskaya@gmail.com; Kazachenok, Marina, E-mail: kms@ispms.tsc.ru; Sinyakova, Elena, E-mail: mea@ispms.tsc.ru; Pochivalov, Yurii, E-mail: pochiv@ispms.tsc.ru; Perevalova, Olga, E-mail: perevalova52@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Panin, Alexey, E-mail: pav@ispms.tsc.ru; Hairullin, Rustam, E-mail: hairullin@list.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The mechanisms of surface layer fragmentation of titanium specimens subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment is investigated by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is shown that the twin boundaries Σ7b and Σ11b are unable to be strong obstacles for propagation of dislocations and other twins.

  1. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Co-Registration Facilities Towards Diagnostic Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    spectroscopy,” UCI Undergraduate Res. J. II, pp. 43–49, 1999. [11] B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza , T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J...mammography,” Acad. Ra- diol., vol. 8, pp. 211–218, 2001. [14] N. Shah, A. Cerussi, C. Eker, J. Espinoza , J. Butler, J. Fishkin, R. Hor- nung, and B

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-7 - Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified separate lines of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified separate lines of business. 1.414(r)-7 Section 1.414(r)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(r)-7 Determination of the employees of an employer's qualified... residual shared employee as defined in § 1.414(r)-11(b)(2) and (4)) is assigned to a single...

  3. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this subpart, if an owner or operator of an affected source uses a flare to comply with any of the... previously for a flare, using the techniques specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(3) of this section... gas being combusted, using the techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(6); and (3) Determine the...

  4. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of 40 CFR 60.503(c) do not apply to flares defined in § 63.421 and meeting the flare requirements in § 63.11(b). The owner or operator shall demonstrate that the flare and associated vapor collection... adding commercial grade nitrogen gas from a high pressure cylinder capable of maintaining a pressure of...

  5. Experimental study of the enhancement effect of aminopeptidase N inhibitor ubenimex on the differentiation induction activity of all-trans-retinoic acid in acute promyeiocytic leukemia cells and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱习军

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aminopeptidase N inhibitor ubenimex on differentiation induction of alltrans -retinoic acid (ATRA) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells and its mechanism. Methods The expression of CD11b was analyzed by flow cytometry and nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was per-

  6. ATR Using Multi-view Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Khan, P. Yan, and M. Shah. A homographic framework for the fusion of multi-view silhouettes. In ICCV, 2007. 11. B. Leibe and B. Schiele . Scale-invariant...hierarchical models of scenes, objects, and parts. In ICCV, pages 1331–1338, 2005. 16. A. Thomas, V. Ferrari, B. Leibe, T. Tuytelaars, B. Schiele , and

  7. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  8. Irradiation Effects in Fortiweld Steel Containing Different Boron Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M.

    1967-07-15

    Tensile specimens and miniature impact specimens of the low alloyed pressure vessel steel Fortiweld have been irradiated at 265 deg C in R2 to two neutron doses, 6.5 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) and 4 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (thermal) and also 9.0 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) and 6 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (thermal). Material from three laboratory melts, in which the boron consisted of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B and natural boron respectively, were investigated. The results both of tensile tests and impact tests with miniature impact specimens show that the {sup 10}B-alloyed material was changed more and the {sup 11}B-alloyed material was changed less than the material containing natural boron. At the higher neutron dose the increase in yield strength (0.2 % offset yield strength) was 11 kg/mm in the {sup 10}B containing material compared to 5 kg/mm in the {sup 11}B-containing material. The decrease in total elongation was 5 and 0 percentage units respectively. The transition temperature was increased 190 deg C at the higher neutron dose in the {sup 10}B-alloyed material, 40 deg C in the {sup 11}B-alloyed material and 80 deg C in the material containing natural boron.

  9. Simulation of proton-boron nuclear burning in the potential well of virtual cathode at nanosecond vacuum discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu

    2016-11-01

    The neutron-free reaction of proton-boron nuclear burning accompanied with the yield of three alpha particles (p + 11B → α + 8Be* → 3α) is of great fundamental and applied interest. However, the implementation of the synthesis of p +11B requires such extreme plasma parameters that are difficult to achieve at well-known schemes of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Earlier, the yield of DD neutrons in a compact nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD) of low energy with deuterated Pd anode have been observed. Further detailed particle-in-cell simulation by the electrodynamic code have recognized that this experiment represents the realization of rather old scheme of inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC). This IEC scheme is one of the few where the energies of ions needed for p + 11B reaction are quite possible. The purpose of this work on simulation of proton-boron reaction is studying the features of possible p + 11B burning at the IEC scheme based on NVD, thus, to look forward and planning the real experiment.

  10. EST Table: FS924625 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS924625 E_FL_fwgP_11B16_F_0 10/09/28 89 %/281 aa ref|NP_001036933.1| molting fluid... carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD60916.1| molting fluid carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 44

  11. Distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, leukocyte adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins in plastic-embedded human and rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Coers, W; van der Horst, MLC; Suurmeijer, AJH

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins (actin, alpha -actinin, vinculin, beta -tubulin, keratin, vimentin, desmin), adhesion molecules for cell-matrix interations (very later antigens [VLA1-6], beta1, beta2 [CD18], vitronectin receptor [alphav beta3], CD 11b), leukocyte adhesi

  12. Fluorescent activated cell sorting: an effective approach to study dendritic cell subsets in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Ilse; Ammi, Rachid; Rombouts, Miche; Cools, Nathalie; Vercauteren, Sven R; De Roover, Dominique; Hendriks, Jeroen M H; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; Schrijvers, Dorien M

    2015-02-01

    Different immune cell types are present within atherosclerotic plaques. Dendritic cells (DC) are of special interest, since they are considered as the 'center of the immuniverse'. Identifying inflammatory DC subtypes within plaques is important for a better understanding of the lesion pathogenesis and pinpoints their contribution to the atherosclerotic process. We have developed a flow cytometry-based method to characterize and isolate different DC subsets (i.e. CD11b(+), Clec9A(+) and CD16(+) conventional (c)DC and CD123(+) plasmacytoid (p)DC) in human atherosclerotic plaques. We revealed a predominance of pro-inflammatory CD11b(+) DC in advanced human lesions, whereas atheroprotective Clec9A(+) DC were almost absent. CD123(+) pDC and CD16(+) DC were also detectable in plaques. Remarkably, plaques from distinct anatomical locations exhibited different cellular compositions: femoral plaques contained less CD11b(+) and Clec9A(+) DC than carotid plaques. Twice as many monocytes/macrophages were observed compared to DC. Moreover, relative amounts of T cells/B cells/NK cells were 6 times as high as DC numbers. For the first time, fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis of DC subsets in human plaques indicated a predominance of CD11b(+) cDC, in comparison with other DC subsets. Isolation of the different subsets will facilitate detailed functional analysis and may have significant implications for tailoring appropriate therapy.

  13. 34 CFR 645.13 - What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are they...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional services do Upward Bound Math and... Program? § 645.13 What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are... provided under § 645.11(b), an Upward Bound Math and Science Center must provide— (1) Intensive...

  14. 36 CFR 242.12 - Local advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local advisory committees. 242.12 Section 242.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., the particular Regional Council in carrying out its function as set forth in § 242.11. (b)...

  15. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ta; You, Chen-Feng; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Chao, Hung-Chun; Liu, Hou-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of B and Sr in rocks and sediments can be used as tracers for plant provincial sources. This study aims to test whether tea leaf origin can be discriminated using (10)B/(11)B and Sr isotopic composition data, along with concentrations of major/trace elements, in tea specimens collected from major plantation gardens in Taiwan. The tea leaves were digested by microwave and analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The data showed significant variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (from 0.70482 to 0.71462), which reflect changes in soil, groundwater or irrigation conditions. The most radiogenic tea leaves were found at the Taitung garden and the least radiogenic ones were from the Hualien garden. The δ (11)B was found to change appreciably (δ (11)B = 0.38-23.73 ‰) which could be due to fertilizers. The maximum δ (11)B was also observed in tea samples from the Hualien garden. Principal component analysis combining (87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ (11)B and major/trace elements results successfully discriminated different sources of major tea gardens in Taiwan, except the Hualien gardens, and this may be due to rather complicated local geological settings.

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1600 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TD ZM_0.6_1.0_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBTa362D24, DNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476467 |BQ476467.1 curculio5c1...1.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c11 5', mRNA seq

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1555 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TD ZM_0.6_1.0_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBTa362D24, DNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476467 |BQ476467.1 curculio5c1...1.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c11 5', mRNA seq

  18. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-12-24

    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α-vinyl-ω-hydroxypolymethylenes is given. By designing/synthesizing different allylic borate initiators, and using 1H and 11B NMR spectroscopy, the initiation mechanism was elucidated.

  19. Interference Measurements in IEEE 802.11 Communication Links Due to Different Types of Interference Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, van Jan-Willem; Schiphorst, Roel; Kluwer, Taco; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    The number of wireless devices (smartphones, laptops, sensors) that use the 2.4 GHz ISM band is rapidly increasing. The most common communication system in this band is Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g/n). For that reason coexistence between Wi-Fi and other systems becomes more and more important. In this pape

  20. V/STOL Aircraft Noise Prediction (Jet Propulsors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    11 are used to compute OASPL. The directivity as a function of elevation angle is given as Acoso , where A Is determined from Figure 1-11(b). Vip Is...ing edge. Vm is the same as the jet velocity, Vj. The directivity as a function of elevation angle, is given as Acoso , where A can be obtained from

  1. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte integrin pattern, at baseline and after activation, in type 2 diabetic subjects with macrovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Montana, M; Ferrara, F; Porretto, F; Musso, M; Canino, B; Lo Presti, R

    2003-03-01

    In vascular atherosclerotic disease and in diabetes mellitus few studies have evaluated the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion molecule pattern. In this study we examined the PMN integrin expression at baseline and after activation in controls and type 2 diabetic subjects with macrovascular complications (MVC). We enrolled 21 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and macrovascular complications, localized in peripheral, coronary and cerebral sites. The patients had peripheral occlusive arterial disease, chronic cerebrovascular disease or coronary heart disease. We evaluated the expression of some PMN integrins (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18), using flow cytofluorimetry, at baseline and after in vitro activation with 4-phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate. Type 2 diabetic subjects with MVC showed, compared to normals, an increase of CD11a and CD18 and a decrease of CD11b and CD11c. After activation, in PMN(s) of normal subjects, we found an increase in the expression of all adhesion molecules, while in PMNS of type 2 diabetic subjects with MVC we observed an increase of CD11b and CD11c and a decrease of CD11a. In type 2 diabetic patients with MVC the basal upregulation of CD11a and CD18 may be related to the PMN spontaneous activation, while the behavior of CD11b may depend on its self-consumption. After activation the CD11a modification may be due to its cleavage or to an altered integrin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation balance.

  2. Neutron scattering studies of the flux line lattice in ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, T. E-mail: nagata@phys.ocha.ac.jp; Yano, F.; Habuta, E.; Kawano-Furukawa, H.; Nagao, M.; Yoshizawa, H.; Furukawa, N.; Takeya, H.; Kadowaki, K

    2004-05-01

    We examined the flux line lattice in ErNi{sub 2}{sup 11}B{sub 2}C by small angle neutron scattering technique. On field cooling process, effective field (H{sub eff}) determined by the observed vortex distance increased by 200 Oe below the weak ferromagnetic transition temperature T{sub WFM}.

  3. 40 CFR 67.33 - Procedure where a formal State hearing was held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... was held. 67.33 Section 67.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance or Exemption Decisions § 67.33 Procedure where a formal State hearing was held. (a) In reviewing a... for which a hearing conforming to § 67.11(b) (4) or (6) was held, the Administrator may invite...

  4. 40 CFR 67.43 - Procedure where a formal State hearing was held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... was held. 67.43 Section 67.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Penalty Assessments § 67.43 Procedure where a formal State hearing was held. (a) In reviewing a penalty calculation for which a hearing conforming to § 67.11(b)(4) was held, the Administrator may invite comment...

  5. 40 CFR 67.32 - Procedure where no formal State hearing was held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing was held. 67.32 Section 67.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance or Exemption Decisions § 67.32 Procedure where no formal State hearing was held. (a) In reviewing... exemption for which no hearing conforming to § 67.11(b) (4) or (6) was held, the Administrator...

  6. 40 CFR 67.42 - Procedure where no formal State hearing was held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing was held. 67.42 Section 67.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Penalty Assessments § 67.42 Procedure where no formal State hearing was held. (a) In reviewing a penalty calculation for which no hearing conforming to the requirements of § 67.11(b)(4) was held, the...

  7. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  8. Real-time NMR studies of electrochemical double-layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Köster, Thomas K-J; Trease, Nicole M; Ségalini, Julie; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury; Grey, Clare P

    2011-12-07

    (11)B NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the sorption of BF(4)(-) anions on a highly porous, high surface area carbon, and different binding sites have been identified. By implementing in situ NMR approaches, the migration of ions between the electrodes of the supercapacitors and changes in the nature of ion binding to the surface have been observed in real time.

  9. States in [sup 12]B and primordial nucleosynthesis. Pt. 2; Resonance properties and astrophysical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Z.Q. (Dept. of Physics, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Vogelaar, R.B. (Dept. of Physics, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Champagne, A.E. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) Triangle Univs. Nuclear Lab., Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Blackmon, J.C. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) Triangle Univs. Nuclear Lab., Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Das, R.K. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) Triangle Univs. Nuclear Lab., Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Hahn, K.I. (A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Lab., Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Yuan, J. (Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1994-01-10

    The [sup 9]Be([alpha],p)[sup 12]B has been used to populate states which could correspond to astrophysically significant resonances in the [sup 8]Li([alpha],n)[sup 11]B reaction. The branching ratios for neutron decays have been measured and the neutron angular distributions have been used to determine J[sup [pi

  10. EST Table: FS877907 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS877907 E_FL_ftes_11B10_F_0 10/09/28 42 %/170 aa ref|XP_969213.1| PREDICTED: similar to artemis...2-PA 10/09/10 42 %/170 aa gi|91090768|ref|XP_969213.1| PREDICTED: similar to artemis protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS920671 ftes ...

  11. Subduction erosion of forearc mantle wedge implicated in the genesis of the South Sandwich Island (SSI) arc: Evidence from boron isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonarini, Sonia; Leeman, William P.; Leat, Phil T.

    2011-01-01

    The South Sandwich volcanic arc is sited on a young oceanic crust, erupts low-K tholeiitic rocks, is characterized by unexotic pelagic and volcanogenic sediments on the down-going slab, and simple tectonic setting, and is ideal for assessing element transport through subduction zones. As a means of quantifying processes attending transfer of subduction-related fluids from the slab to the mantle wedge, boron concentrations and isotopic compositions were determined for representative lavas from along the arc. The samples show variable fluid-mobile/fluid-immobile element ratios and high enrichments of B/Nb (2.7 to 55) and B/Zr (0.12 to 0.57), similar to those observed in western Pacific arcs. δ11B values are among the highest so far reported for mantle-derived lavas; these are highest in the central part of the arc (+ 15 to + 18‰) and decrease toward the southern and northern ends (+ 12 to + 14‰). δ11B is roughly positively correlated with B concentrations and with 87Sr/86Sr ratios, but poorly coupled with other fluid-mobile elements such as Rb, Ba, Sr and U. Peridotites dredged from the forearc trench also have high δ11B (ca. + 10‰) and elevated B contents (38-140 ppm). Incoming pelagic sediments sampled at ODP Site 701 display a wide range in δ11B (+ 5 to - 13‰; average = - 4.1‰), with negative values most common. The unusually high δ11B values inferred for the South Sandwich mantle wedge cannot easily be attributed to direct incorporation of subducting slab materials or fluids derived directly therefrom. Rather, the heavy B isotopic signature of the magma sources is more plausibly explained by ingress of fluids derived from subduction erosion of altered frontal arc mantle wedge materials similar to those in the Marianas forearc. We propose that multi-stage recycling of high-δ11B and high-B serpentinite (possibly embellished by arc crust and volcaniclastic sediments) can produce extremely 11B-rich fluids at slab depths beneath the volcanic arc

  12. A Spitzer Transit of the Most Inflated Planet Known, Around an Extremely Bright Sub-giant Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Collins, Karen; Colon, Knicole; James, David; Kriedberg, Laura; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph; Siverd, Robert; Stassun, Keivan; Stevens, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    KELT-11b is a newly discovered transiting Saturn-mass planet (Mp~0.22MJ) that promises to become a unique benchmark. KELT-11b orbits HD 93396,the second brightest star in the near-IR (K=6.122) and the third brightest star in the optical (V=8.04) to host a transiting giant planet. This makes KELT-11 comparable to the well-studied benchmarks HD 189733 and HD 209458. But unlike these other bright systems, KELT-11b's host star is a sub-giant, with log(g)~3.7. Thus KELT-11b is the first transiting giant planet known around a sub-giant star bright enough for precise follow-up observations. Furthermore, KELT-11b is the most inflated planet known, with the lowest surface gravity (log[g]~2.5) of any transiting planet. This makes it an exciting target for atmospheric characterization and studying the effect of post main-sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter. But to correctly interpret any follow-up observations, we will first need to measure accurate stellar and planetary parameters for the system via a precise transit observation. Unfortunately, this is effectively impossible to do from the ground. Spitzer's ability to provide high precision continuous photometry provides the only current way in which we may precisely observe a complete transit of KELT-11b. We therefore propose for 15.5 hours, to observe a single transit KELT-11b at 3.6um. This would reduce the uncertainties on the transit depth and stellar density by at least a factor of twenty, and will improve the model-derived stellar mass by at least a factor of ten, compared to ground-based observations. This will serve two goals. First, it will be a valuable legacy to the community, by providing a precise set of system parameters that will enable future observation and interpretation of this unique, bright, system. Second, an observation of a transit will allow us to strongly constrain the mass of KELT-11, and thus help resolve the disagreement over the true masses of the 'retired A stars' radial

  13. The Boron Isotopic Composition of Elephant Dung: Inputs to the Global Boron Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    A survey of boron in kerogen showed isotopically light δ11B values (0 to -50%) that are distinctly different from most mineral and natural water B reservoirs. Diagenesis releases this isotopically light B into pore fluids when hydrocarbons are generated, thus enriching oilfield brines in 10B. This observation suggests that borated biomolecules (BM) are primarily tetrahedral favoring 10B, whereas 11B is preferred in trigonal coordination. Plants, with optimal concentrations up to 100ppm, contribute more B than animal remains to sediment. Elephants are one of the largest herbivores on earth, consuming 200 - 250 kg of plant material/day and producing 50 kg of manure/day. They are inefficient at digestion, thus the manure contains >50% undigested plant material. Dung samples are therefore ideal for studying the δ11B of both the food input and digested output of a significant B supply to sedimentary systems. Horse and rabbit manure were studied for comparison to evaluate B isotope variations in the food supply and potential vital effects on the output. B-content and isotopic composition of dung plant material and digested fractions were measured in the solid state by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The digests were rinsed in 1.8% mannitol, a B-complexing agent, to remove surface adsorbed-B, then air dried and Au-coated for charge compensation. Results showed that the elephant diet contains 3-13 ppm B, with an average δ11B of -20 ± 0.8% (1σ), while rabbit food had 88 ppm B with a δ11B of -50 ± 1.3 %. The digested fraction of the elephant dung contains 4-10ppm B with average δ11B values of -12 ± 1.2%. In comparison, horse manure with 11-21 ppm B has a δ11B of -10.7 ± 0.5% and rabbit manure contains 2-3 ppm B with a δ11B of -8.8 ± 1%. Boron isotope compositions of these manures are indistinguishable (within error). Clearly plant material is a major contributor of isotopically light B to sediments. The herbivores studied fractionate their total B intake in

  14. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy induces sex-specific changes in methylation and expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penailillo, Reyna; Guajardo, Angelica; Llanos, Miguel; Hirsch, Sandra; Ronco, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the placenta, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and its inhibition has been associated to low birth weight. Its expression, encoded by the HSD11B2 gene is regulated by DNA methylation. We hypothesized that maternal diets supplemented with folic acid (FA) during pregnancy modify the expression of placental HSD11B2 through gene methylation. Wistar rats were fed with high (8 mg/kg) or normal low (1mg/kg, control) levels of FA during pregnancy. Concentrations of mRNA and protein in placentas were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Methylation in five CpG sites of the placental HSD11B2 promoter (-378 to -275) was analyzed by bacterial cloning and subsequent sequencing. In the FA-supplemented group, mRNA and protein levels of 11β-HSD2 decreased by 58% and increased by 89%, respectively, only in placentas attached to males. In controls, most CpG sites were not methylated except for the CpG2 site which was 80% methylated. CpG2 methylation level increased under the FA treatment; however, only in placentas attached to females was this increase significant (113%). This change was not related to HSD11B2 expression. Fetal weight of females from FA- supplemented mothers was 6% higher than females from control mothers. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting that FA over supplementation during pregnancy modifies the placental HSD11B2 gene expression and methylation in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that maternal diets with high content of FA can induce early sex-specific responses, which may lead to long-term consequences for the offspring.

  15. CCR2 knockout exacerbates cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia via decreased GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Kanai, Takanori; Saeki, Keita; Takabe, Miho; Irie, Junichiro; Miyoshi, Jun; Mikami, Yohei; Teratani, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Miyata, Naoteru; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Hajime; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Hozawa, Shigenari; Saito, Hidetsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promotes insulin release; however, the relationship between the GLP-1 signal and chronic pancreatitis is not well understood. Here we focus on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) axis, which regulates various immune cells, including macrophages, to clarify the mechanism of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion in chronic pancreatitis in mice. One and multiple series of repetitive cerulein administrations were used to induce acute and chronic cerulein pancreatitis, respectively. Acute cerulein-administered CCR2-knockout (KO) mice showed suppressed infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) macrophages and pancreatic inflammation and significantly upregulated insulin secretion compared with paired wild-type (WT) mice. However, chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice showed significantly increased infiltration of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(-) and CD11b(+)/Gr-1(high) cells, but not CD11b(+)/Gr-1(low) cells, in pancreas with severe inflammation and significantly decreased insulin secretion compared with their WT counterparts. Furthermore, although serum GLP-1 levels in chronic cerulein-administered WT and CCR2-KO mice were comparably upregulated after cerulein administrations, GLP-1 receptor levels in pancreases of chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice were significantly lower than in paired WT mice. Nevertheless, a significantly higher hyperglycemia level in chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice was markedly restored by treatment with a GLP-1 analog to a level comparable to the paired WT mice. Collectively, the CCR2/CCL2 axis-mediated CD11b(+)-cell migration to the pancreas is critically involved in chronic pancreatitis-mediated hyperglycemia through the modulation of GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

  16. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  17. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention.

  18. Real-Time Imaging of Interactions of Neutrophils with Cryptococcus neoformans Demonstrates a Crucial Role of Complement C5a-C5aR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Donglei; Zhang, Mingshun; Liu, Gongguan; Wu, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Hong; Shi, Meiqing

    2015-10-26

    Neutrophils have been shown to efficiently kill Cryptococcus neoformans, a causative agent of meningoencephalitis. Here, using live-cell imaging, we characterize the dynamic interactions of neutrophils with C. neoformans and the underlying mechanisms in real time. Neutrophils were directly seen to chase C. neoformans cells and then rapidly internalize them. Complement C5a-C5aR signaling guided neutrophils to migrate to the yeast cells, resulting in optimal phagocytosis and subsequent killing of the organisms. The addition of recombinant complement C5a enhanced neutrophil movement but did not induce chemotaxis, suggesting that the C5a gradient is crucial. Incubation with C. neoformans resulted in enhanced activation of Erk and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPKs) in neutrophils. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway, but not the Erk pathway, significantly impaired neutrophil migration and its subsequent killing of C. neoformans. Deficiency of CD11b or blocking of CD11b did not affect the migration of neutrophils toward C. neoformans but almost completely abolished phagocytosis and killing of the organisms by neutrophils. C5a-C5aR signaling induced enhanced surface expression of CD11b. Interestingly, the original surface expression of CD11b was essential and sufficient for neutrophils to attach to C. neoformans but was unable to mediate phagocytosis. In contrast, the enhanced surface expression of CD11b induced by C5a-C5aR signaling was essential for neutrophil phagocytosis and subsequent killing of yeast cells. Collectively, this is the first report of the dynamic interactions of neutrophils with C. neoformans, demonstrating a crucial role of C5a-C5aR signaling in neutrophil killing of C. neoformans in real time.

  19. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  20. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy induces sex-specific changes in methylation and expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Penailillo

    Full Text Available In the placenta, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2 limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and its inhibition has been associated to low birth weight. Its expression, encoded by the HSD11B2 gene is regulated by DNA methylation. We hypothesized that maternal diets supplemented with folic acid (FA during pregnancy modify the expression of placental HSD11B2 through gene methylation. Wistar rats were fed with high (8 mg/kg or normal low (1mg/kg, control levels of FA during pregnancy. Concentrations of mRNA and protein in placentas were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Methylation in five CpG sites of the placental HSD11B2 promoter (-378 to -275 was analyzed by bacterial cloning and subsequent sequencing. In the FA-supplemented group, mRNA and protein levels of 11β-HSD2 decreased by 58% and increased by 89%, respectively, only in placentas attached to males. In controls, most CpG sites were not methylated except for the CpG2 site which was 80% methylated. CpG2 methylation level increased under the FA treatment; however, only in placentas attached to females was this increase significant (113%. This change was not related to HSD11B2 expression. Fetal weight of females from FA- supplemented mothers was 6% higher than females from control mothers. In conclusion, this is the first study reporting that FA over supplementation during pregnancy modifies the placental HSD11B2 gene expression and methylation in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that maternal diets with high content of FA can induce early sex-specific responses, which may lead to long-term consequences for the offspring.

  1. Inheritance and Expression of Copies of Transgenes 1Dx5 and 1Ax1 in Elite Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties Transferred from Transgenic Wheat through Conventional Crossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanhe LI; Ju LI; Nali WANG; Yuesheng WANG; Guangxiao YANG; Jingye FANG; Guangyuan HE

    2007-01-01

    To study the inheritance and expression of multiple copies of transgenes from transgenic wheat lines, three crosses between transgenic wheat lines B72-8-11b and B102-1-2 and Chinese elite wheat varieties Chuan89-107 and Emai 18 were carried out. Chuan89-107×B72-8-11b, Chuan89-107×B102-1-2 and Emai18×B72-8-11b, and F1 plants were selfed or backcrossed to obtain different generation populations.Protein analysis in grains of F1 and F2 and backcross progenies of BC1F1, BC1F2, BC1F3, BC2F1, BC2F2 and BC2F3 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the transgenes 1Dx5 and 1Ax1 were expressed and segregated in the target wheat according to Mendelian laws. A range of 1Dx5 expression levels were observed in the progenies of Chuan89-107×B72-8-11b and Emai18×B72-8-11b, but the expression levels of 1Ax1 in progenies of Chuan89-107×B102-1-2 rarely changed. It suggested that the two foreign genes had different mechanisms of expression in the cross progeny, even though they were produced in the same way and the foreign 1Dx5 gene of 5-10 copies had the more complicated expression mechanism than the 1Ax1 gene of 4-5 copies.

  2. Stat3 and C/EBPβ synergize to induce miR-21 and miR-181b expression during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Clara; McPeak, Melissa B; Youssef, Dima; Yao, Zhi Q; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) increase late sepsis immunosuppression and mortality in mice. We reported that microRNA (miR) 21 and miR-181b expression in Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid progenitors increase septic MDSCs in mice by arresting macrophage and dendritic cell differentiation. Here, we report how sepsis regulates miR-21 and miR-181b transcription. In vivo and in vitro binding studies have shown that C/EBPα transcription factor, which promotes normal myeloid cell differentiation, binds both miRNA promoters in Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells from sham mice. In contrast, in sepsis Gr1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs miR-21 and miR-181b promoters bind both transcription factors Stat3 and C/EBPβ, which co-imunoprecipitate as a single complex. Mechanistically, transcription factor Rb phosphorylation supports Stat3 and C/EBPβ accumulation at both miRNA promoters, and C/EBPβ or Stat3 depletion by siRNA in sepsis Gr1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs inhibits miR-21 and miR-181b expression. To further support this molecular path for MDSC accumulation, we found that Stat3 and C/EBP binding at miR-21 or miR-181b promoter was induced by IL-6, using a luciferase reporter gene transfection into naive Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Identifying how sepsis MDSCs are generated may inform new treatments to reverse sepsis immunosuppression.

  3. Boron as a tracer for material transfer in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Martin Siegfried

    2003-10-01

    Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanic rocks from the frontal arc to the back-arc region of the Central Volcanic Zone in the Andes show a wide range of delta 11B values (+4 to -7 ‰) and boron concentrations (6 to 60 ppm). Positive delta 11B values of samples from the volcanic front indicate involvement of a 11B-enriched slab component, most likely derived from altered oceanic crust, despite the thick Andean continental lithosphere, and rule out a pure crust-mantle origin for these lavas. The delta 11B values and B concentrations in the lavas decrease systematically with increasing depth of the Wadati-Benioff Zone. This across-arc variation in delta 11B values and decreasing B/Nb ratios from the arc to the back-arc samples are attributed to the combined effects of B-isotope fractionation during progressive dehydration in the slab and a steady decrease in slab-fluid flux towards the back arc, coupled with a relatively constant degree of crustal contamination as indicated by similar Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios in all samples. Modelling of fluid-mineral B-isotope fractionation as a function of temperature fits the across-arc variation in delta 11B and we conclude that the B-isotope composition of arc volcanics is dominated by changing delta 11B composition of B-rich slab-fluids during progressive dehydration. Crustal contamination becomes more important towards the back-arc due to the decrease in slab-derived fluid flux. Because of this isotope fractionation effect, high delta 11B signatures in volcanic arcs need not necessarily reflect differences in the initial composition of the subducting slab. Three-component mixing calculations for slab-derived fluid, the mantle wedge and the continental crust based on B, Sr and Nd isotope data indicate that the slab-fluid component dominates the B composition of the fertile mantle and that the primary arc magmas were contaminated by an average addition of 15 to 30 % crustal material. Spät-miozäne bis quartäre Vulkanite der

  4. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  5. Seawater pH at the advent of metazoan calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Justin; Gonzalez-Roubaud, Cécile; Douville, Eric; Montagna, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of bulk limestones provides a potentially powerful tool for reconstructing seawater pH deep into the geologic past (Kasemann et al., 2005; Paris et al., 2010; Ohnemueller et al., 2014). Here, we present δ11B of 35 calcitic limestones derived from a ca. 9 m.y. interval of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group of southern Namibia. These units immediately precede the so-called Cambrian Radiation - the greatest diversification of metazoans in Earth history marked by the near-simultaneous advent of calcification across most animal phyla. The Nama Group represents one of the best preserved (average [Sr] = 1805 ppm; Mn/Sr -10‰) and most continuous terminal Proterozoic limestone sequences known in the world. The carbonate units investigated here were deposited between ca. 552 and 543 Ma in a semi-divided foreland basin of the Kalahari Craton (Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). Depositional environments were shore-associated and ranged from upper shoreline/tidal flats to below-wave-base lower shoreface, and comprise calcisiltites, calcarenites, heterolithic interbeds, grainstones, and microbialites (Saylor et al., 1998; Grotzinger and Miller, 2008). The δ11B of the 35 sampled Nama Group carbonates were obtained via MC-ICP-MS. Samples were screened for contamination of the δ11B signal by clays (using [Al] as a proxy for clay content) (Paris et al., 2010) and by open-system meteoric diagenesis (δ11B-δ18O correlation). The δ11B values of the limestones ranged from 0.5 to 10.8‰ (avg. = 5.3‰), which is consistent with the previously observed increasing trend in carbonate δ11B (Paris et al., 2010) from the -6.2 to 2.7‰ values reported for Neoproterozoic cap carbonate dolostones (Kasemann et al., 2005) to the ca. 25‰ value reported for most modern marine carbonates. B/Ca ratios for the sampled limestones ranged from 3.4 to 24.0 ppm (avg. = 11.0). Assuming a seawater temperature of 25° C, a salinity of 35, a depth of 10 m, a

  6. Evaluation of boron isotope ratio as a pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus: Evidence of physiological pH adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, E.; Huang, K.-F.; You, C.-F.; Sikes, E. L.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    The boron isotope ratio (δ11B) of foraminifers and tropical corals has been proposed to record seawater pH. To test the veracity and practicality of this potential paleo-pH proxy in deep sea corals, samples of skeletal material from twelve archived modern Desmophyllum dianthus (D. dianthus) corals from a depth range of 274-1470 m in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans, ambient pH range 7.57-8.05, were analyzed for δ11B. The δ11B values for these corals, spanning a range from 23.56 to 27.88, are found to be related to seawater borate δ11B by the linear regression: δ11Bcoral=(0.76±0.28) δ11Bborate+(14.67±4.19) (1 standard error (SE)). The D. dianthus δ11B values are greater than those measured in tropical corals, and suggest substantial physiological modification of pH in the calcifying space by a value that is an inverse function of seawater pH. This mechanism partially compensates for the range of ocean pH and aragonite saturation at which this species grows, enhancing aragonite precipitation and suggesting an adaptation mechanism to low pH environments in intermediate and deep waters. Consistent with the findings of Trotter et al. (2011) for tropical surface corals, the data suggest an inverse correlation between the magnitude of a biologically driven pH offset recorded in the coral skeleton, and the seawater pH, described by the equation: ΔpH=pH recorded by coral-seawater pH=-(0.75±0.12) pHw+(6.88±0.93) (1 SE). Error analysis based on 95% confidence interval(CI) and the standard deviation of the regression residuals suggests that the uncertainty of seawater pH reconstructed from δ11Bcoral is ±0.07 to 0.12 pH units. This study demonstrates the applicability of δ11B in D. dianthus to record ambient seawater pH and holds promise for reconstructing oceanic pH distribution and history using fossil corals.

  7. Development of a calibration for the B isotope paleo-pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, E.; Huang, K.; You, C.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The boron isotope ratio (δ11B) of foraminifera and coral carbonate has been proposed to record seawater pH. Here we test this pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus (D. dianthus ). This coral species is cosmopolitan in geographic distribution and tolerates a wide temperature and depth range. Previous studies have shown that fossil D. dianthus skeletons can be dated precisely with U/Th measurements. Additionally, skeletal mass is sufficient for multiple elemental, isotopic, and radiocarbon measurements per sample making it a powerful candidate for paleoceanographic reconstructions. Ten modern corals from a depth range of 274-1470m in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans were analyzed using the sublimation method and multi-collector ICP-MS (Neptune), and the measured δ11B was regressed against ambient pH taken from hydrographic data sets (range pH 7.6 to 8.1). Replicate skeletal subsamples from a single coral agree within 0.35% (2SD). The array of δ11B values for these corals plots above the seawater borate δ11B vs. pH curve (Klochko et al., 2006) by an apparently constant value of 11.7 ± 1.2%, well above the range of values seen in foraminifera and surface corals. This offset is attributed to either partial incorporation of boric acid from seawater or, more likely, to physiological manipulation of the calcifying fluid to pH 8.7-9.0. The uncertainty in calculation of seawater pH from δ11B, dominated by the uncertainty in the offset value, currently limits the precision of absolute pH reconstructions to ±0.09pH units. However, the empirical calibration could be used to examine relative pH changes, thereby overcoming contributions to the uncertainty in the offset that result from the calculation of the empirical fractionation factor α and from sampling bias and variable vital effects among individuals, reducing the reconstruction error envelope. This study provides the first evidence that δ11B in D. dianthus has the potential to record

  8. Studies of One-Nucleon Transfer Reactions on Boron -11 and CARBON-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Penelope Bernadette

    This thesis describes a study of the ^{11}B(d,n)^{12 }C and ^{12}C(t, alpha)^{11} B reactions. The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility produced the 79 MeV deuterons for the ^{11} B(d,n)^{12}C experiment. Time of flight measurements were performed to obtain neutron energy spectra. The energy resolution was typically 300 keV (~{1over 2} nsec). Cross sections were extracted for five well-resolved bound states in ^{12}C at 0.00, 4.44, 9.64, 12.71 and 15.11 MeV. The experimental cross sections were compared with the results of theoretical predictions. The effect of including, in these calculations, the breakup of the deuteron into low energy relative S states during the course of the reaction was investigated. Spectroscopic factors were then determined for the above five states in ^{12}C and compared with theoretical values. A subsequent experiment was performed at the same energy with vector polarized deuterons in order to study the effects of deuteron breakup on the corresponding analysing powers. This was the first time that analysing powers had been measured for this reaction. The effects on the cross section and analysing power calculations of exact finite range and the D state of the deuteron were investigated using the Reid soft-core potential for the proton-neutron interaction. The possible role of a two step process in the population of the 2 ^{+} state at 4.44 MeV in ^{12}C was examined. The effects on the analysing power for this state, of contributions from the 2p-1f shell in the 4.44 MeV wavefunction, were also discussed. Differential cross sections for the ^ {12}C(t,alpha) ^{11}B reaction, using 33 MeV tritons from the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility, were extracted for transitions to the 0.00, 2.125, 4.445, 5.021, 6.743, 7.286, 7.978 and 8.559 MeV states in ^{11 }B. The results of CRC calculations were compared with DWBA and CCBA calculation for the single step and two step transitions respectively. The spin of the 8.559 MeV state in ^{11}B, which

  9. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C D; Azevedo, I; Monteiro, R; Martins, M J

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly argues for a pathogenic role of glucocorticoids and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that includes insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, hypertension and visceral obesity. This has been partially prompted not only by the striking clinical resemblances between the metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome (a state characterized by hypercortisolism that associates with metabolic syndrome components) but also from monogenic rodent models for the metabolic syndrome (e.g. the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse or the leptin-resistant Zucker rat) that display overall increased secretion of glucocorticoids. However, systemic circulating glucocorticoids are not elevated in obese patients and/or patients with metabolic syndrome. The study of the role of 11β-HSD system shed light on this conundrum, showing that local glucocorticoids are finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner at the pre-receptor level. The system comprises two microsomal enzymes that either activate cortisone to cortisol (11β-HSD1) or inactivate cortisol to cortisone (11β-HSD2). Transgenic rodent models, knockout (KO) for HSD11B1 or with HSD11B1 or HSD11B2 overexpression, specifically targeted to the liver or adipose tissue, have been developed and helped unravel the currently undisputable role of the enzymes in metabolic syndrome pathophysiology, in each of its isolated components and in their prevention. In the transgenic HSD11B1 overexpressing models, different features of the metabolic syndrome and obesity are replicated. HSD11B1 gene deficiency or HSD11B2 gene overexpression associates with improvements in the metabolic profile. In face of these demonstrations, research efforts are now being turned both into the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 as a possible pharmacological target and into the role of dietary habits on the

  10. Intracellular bacillary burden reflects a burst size for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Repasy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers macrophage necrosis in vitro at a threshold intracellular load of ~25 bacilli. This suggests a model for tuberculosis where bacilli invading lung macrophages at low multiplicity of infection proliferate to burst size and spread to naïve phagocytes for repeated cycles of replication and cytolysis. The current study evaluated that model in vivo, an environment significantly more complex than in vitro culture. In the lungs of mice infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol we observed three distinct mononuclear leukocyte populations (CD11b(- CD11c(+/hi, CD11b(+/lo CD11c(lo/-, CD11b(+/hi CD11c(+/hi and neutrophils hosting bacilli. Four weeks after aerosol challenge, CD11b(+/hi CD11c(+/hi mononuclear cells and neutrophils were the predominant hosts for M. tuberculosis while CD11b(+/lo CD11c(lo/- cells assumed that role by ten weeks. Alveolar macrophages (CD11b(- CD11c(+/hi were a minority infected cell type at both time points. The burst size model predicts that individual lung phagocytes would harbor a range of bacillary loads with most containing few bacilli, a smaller proportion containing many bacilli, and few or none exceeding a burst size load. Bacterial load per cell was enumerated in lung monocytic cells and neutrophils at time points after aerosol challenge of wild type and interferon-γ null mice. The resulting data fulfilled those predictions, suggesting a median in vivo burst size in the range of 20 to 40 bacilli for monocytic cells. Most heavily burdened monocytic cells were nonviable, with morphological features similar to those observed after high multiplicity challenge in vitro: nuclear condensation without fragmentation and disintegration of cell membranes without apoptotic vesicle formation. Neutrophils had a narrow range and lower peak bacillary burden than monocytic cells and some exhibited cell death with release of extracellular neutrophil traps. Our studies suggest

  11. New boron isotopic evidence for sedimentary and magmatic fluid influence in the shallow hydrothermal vent system of Milos Island (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shein-Fu; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Yen-Po; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Baltatzis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Magmatic sources may contribute a significant amount of volatiles in geothermal springs; however, their role is poorly understood in submarine hydrothermal systems worldwide. In this study, new results of B and δ11B in 41 hydrothermal vent waters collected from the shallow hydrothermal system of Milos island in the Aegean Sea were combined with previously published data from other tectonic settings and laboratory experiments to quantify the effects of phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution. Two Cl-extreme solutions were identified, high-Cl waters (Cl as high as 2000 mM) and low-Cl waters (Cl < 80 mM). Both sets of waters were characterized by high B/Cl (~ 1.2-5.3 × 10- 3 mol/mol) and extremely low δ11B (1.4-6.3‰), except for the waters with Mg content of near the seawater value and δ11B = 10.3-17.4‰. These high-Cl waters with high B/Cl and low δ11B plot close to the vent waters in sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (i.e., Okinawa Trough) or fumarole condensates from on-land volcanoes, implying B addition from sediment or magmatic fluids plays an important role. This is in agreement with fluid/sediment interactions resulting in the observed B and δ11B, as well as previously reported Br/I/Cl ratios, supporting a scenario of slab-derived fluid addition with elevated B, 11B-rich, and low Br/Cl and I/Cl, which is derived from the dehydration of subducted-sediments. The slab fluid becomes subsequently mixed with the parent magma of Milos. The deep brine reservoir is partially affected by injections of magmatic fluid/gases during degassing. The results presented here are crucial for deciphering the evolution of the brine reservoirs involved in phase separation, fluid/sediment interaction and magmatic contribution in the deep reaction zone of the Milos hydrothermal system; they also have implications in the understanding of the formation of metallic vein mineralization.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Irena D; Kostadinova, Radina M; Goldring, Christopher E; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M

    2009-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoids. 11beta-HSD1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and controls glucocorticoid actions in inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that TNF-alpha increases 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity in various cell models. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and activity of 11beta-HSD1 is increased in liver tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-alpha, indicating that this effect also occurs in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanism of this increase, we investigated basal and TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the 11beta-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) in HepG2 cells. We found that TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfections with variable lengths of human HSD11B1 promoter revealed highest activity with or without TNF-alpha in the proximal promoter region (-180 to +74). Cotransfection with human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPbeta-LAP expression vectors activated the HSD11B1 promoter with the strongest effect within the same region. Gel shift and RNA interference assays revealed the involvement of mainly C/EBPalpha, but also C/EBPbeta, in basal and only of C/EBPbeta in the TNF-alpha-induced HSD11B1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed in vivo the increased abundance of C/EBPbeta on the proximal HSD11B1 promoter upon TNF-alpha treatment. In conclusion, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta control basal transcription, and TNF-alpha upregulates 11beta-HSD1, most likely by p38 MAPK-mediated increased binding of C/EBPbeta to the human HSD11B1 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo.

  13. Effects of Yishendaluo decoction on blood-brain barrier integrity in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing Wu; Ying Gao; Lingqun Zhu; Yonghong Gao; Dongmei Zhang; Lixia Lou; Yanfang Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Yishendaluo decoction on the loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in mice exhibiting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.To this end,we used real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR to measure the levels of mRNAs specific to the T cell markers CD4 and CD8,and the monocyte marker CD11b.In addition,we used Evans blue dye extravasation in the spinal cord and brain tissues to assess blood-brain barrier permeability.The results indicated that an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was associated with an increase in CD4,CD8 and CD11b mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.Yishendaluo decoction administration significantly reversed inflammatory cell accumulation in cerebral tissues of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

  14. Proficiency Testing Program of Detection of Arsenic and Cadmium in Rice%大米中总砷和镉测定能力验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彤

    2016-01-01

    通过对国家认监委能力验证项目《大米中总砷和镉的测定》(CNCA-11-B13)的组织和实施,详细介绍该能力验证的方案设计、结果统计和评价、技术分析,对提高实验室的检测能力和组织相关能力验证活动有着一定的借鉴作用。%This paper summarized the organization and implementation of the program of(CNCA-11-B13) .The program came from the national accreditation and supervi-sion commission.It introduced the scheme design, result statistics and evaluation, technical analysis in detail . Some experience can be used for reference to improve the testing ability and organized the proficiency testing program.

  15. The Cost of Seven-brane Gauge Symmetry in a Quadrillion F-theory Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Halverson, James

    2016-01-01

    We study seven-branes in $O(10^{15})$ four-dimensional F-theory compactifications where seven-brane moduli must be tuned in order to achieve non-abelian gauge symmetry. The associated compact spaces $B$ are the set of all smooth weak Fano toric threefolds. By a study of fine star regular triangulations of three dimensional reflexive polytopes, the number of such spaces is estimated to be $5.8\\times 10^{14}\\lesssim N_\\text{bases}\\lesssim 1.8\\times 10^{17}$. Typically hundreds or thousands of moduli must be tuned to achieve symmetry for $h^{11}(B)<10$, but the average number drops sharply into the range $O(25)$-$O(200)$ as $h^{11}(B)$ increases. For some low rank groups, such as $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$, there exist examples where only a few moduli must be tuned in order to achieve seven-brane gauge symmetry.

  16. Neutrino Oscillation Effects on Supernova Light Element Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, T; Yokomakura, H; Kimura, K; Takamura, A; Hartmann, D H

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations affect light element synthesis through the neutrino-process in supernova explosions. The 7Li and 11B yields produced in a supernova explosion of a 16.2 solar-mass star model increase by factors of 1.9 and 1.3 in the case of large mixing angle solution with normal mass hierarchy and sin^{2}2theta_{13} > 0.002 compared with those without the oscillations. In the case of inverted mass hierarchy or nonadiabatic 13-mixing resonance, the increment of their yields is much smaller. Neutrino oscillations raise the reaction rates of charged-current neutrino-process reactions in the region outside oxygen-rich layers. The number ratio of 7Li/11B could be a tracer of normal mass hierarchy and relatively large theta_{13}, still satisfying sin^{2}2theta_{13} < 0.1, through future precise observations in stars having strong supernova component.

  17. Structure–Activity Relationship Study of Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitor 2-Amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101) and Absolute Configurational Assignment Using Infrared and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy in Combination with ab Initio Hartree–Fock Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tri H.V.; Shim, Irene; Bohr, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    in rodents, respectively. In this paper, we present the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of seven 7-N-substituted analogues of UCPH-101/102. Analogue 9 inhibited EAAT1 in the micromolar range (IC50 value 20 μM), whereas analogues 8 and 10 were inactive (IC50 values >100 μ......M). The diastereomeric pairs 11a/11b and 12a/12b were separated by HPLC and the absolute configuration assigned by VCD technique in combination with ab initio Hartree–Fock calculations. Analogues 11a (RS-isomer) and 12b (RR-isomer) inhibited EAAT1 (IC50 values 5.5 and 3.8 μM, respectively), whereas analogues 11b (SS......-isomer) and 12a (SR-isomer) failed to inhibit EAAT1 uptake (IC50 values >300 μM)....

  18. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  19. First Evidence on the Role of Heavy Ion Irradiation of Meteorites and Formamide in the Origin of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Carota, Eleonora; Botta, Giorgia; Kapralov, Michail; Timoshenko, Gennady N.; Rozanov, Alexei; Krasavin, Eugene; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    Formamide (NH2CHO) has been irradiated in condensed phase at 273 K by 11B-boron beams in the presence of powdered meteorites of the chondrite and stony-iron types. Relative to the controls (no radiation or no catalysis), a variegate panel of compounds was observed, including purine and pyrimidine nucleobases (uracil, cytosine, adenine, and guanine), nucleobase analogues, heterocycles, and carboxylic acids involved in metabolic pathways. The presence of amino imidazole carbonitrile (AICN), 4,6-diamino purine (4,6-DAP) and 2,4-diamino pyrimidine (2,4-DAPy) among the observed products suggests the occurrence of an unified mechanism based on the generation of radical cyanide species (•CN). These observations contribute to outline plausible prebiotic scenarios involving 11B-boron as energy source.

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of mast cells and steroidogenic enzymes in the human fetal adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Alexandre; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Laquerrière, Annie; Patrier, Sophie; Renouf, Sylvie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Mukai, Kuniaki; Lefebvre, Hervé; Castanet, Mireille

    2016-10-15

    Mast cells are present in the human adult adrenal with a potential role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in both normal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas. We have investigated the human developing adrenal gland for the presence of mast cells in parallel with steroidogenic enzymes profile and serotonin signaling pathway. RT-QPCR and immunohistochemical studies were performed on adrenals at 16-41 weeks of gestation (WG). Tryptase-immunopositive mast cells were found from 18 WG in the adrenal subcapsular layer, close to 3βHSD- and CYP11B2-immunoreactive cells, firstly detected at 18 and 24 WG, respectively. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor type 4 expression increased at 30 WG before the CYP11B2 expression surge. In addition, HDL and LDL cholesterol receptors were expressed in the subcapsular zone from 24 WG. Altogether, our findings suggest the implication of mast cells and serotonin in the establishment of the mineralocorticoid synthesizing pathway during fetal adrenal development.

  1. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranzoni, Elisa; Zilio, Serena; Marigo, Ilaria; Dolcetti, Luigi; Zanovello, Paola; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are defined in mice on the basis of CD11b and Gr-1 marker expression and the functional ability to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless the term 'heterogeneous' remains the first, informal feature commonly attributed to this population. It is clear that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are part of a myeloid macropopulation, which comprises at least two subsets of polymorphonuclear and monocytic cells with different immunosuppressive properties. While recent literature shows substantial agreement on the immunoregulatory property of the monocytic MDSC subset, there is still contrasting evidence on the role of the granulocytic fraction. Moreover, this dichotomy holds true for human MDSCs. We attempt here to summarize conflicting findings in the field and provide some possible, unifying explanations.

  2. Boron isotope method for study of seawater intrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 尹德忠; 刘卫国; 王庆忠; 魏海珍

    2001-01-01

    A distinct difference in boron isotopes between seawater and terrestrial water is emphasized by δ11B values reported for seawater and groundwater, with an average of 38.8‰ and in the range of -8.9‰ to 9.8‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in groundwater can be used to quantify seawater intrusion and identify intrusion types, e.g. seawater or brine intrusions with different chemical and isotopic characteristics, by using the relation of δ11B and chloride concentration. The feasibility of utilizing boron isotope in groundwater for studying seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Region, China, is reported in this study, which shows that boron isotope is a useful and excellent tool for the study of seawater intrusion.

  3. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production......Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and chronic neuroinflammation are significant neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells in aged brains have potential to produce cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 family members (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra) and to phagocytose Aβ in Alzheimer's disease...... were higher in IL-1α(+) and IL-1Ra(+) microglia, than microglia that did not produce these cytokines. In contrast, total Aβ load was lower in IL-1β(+) and TNF(+) microglia, compared to IL-1β(-) and TNF(-) microglia, and TNF(+) microglia also had a lower phagocytic index. Using GFP bone marrow chimeric...

  4. Elastic properties and spectroscopic studies of Na2O–ZnO–B2O3 glass system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Veeranna Gowda; R V Anavekar

    2004-04-01

    Elastic properties, 11B MAS–NMR and IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the structure of Na2O–ZnO–B2O3 glasses. Sound velocities and elastic moduli such as longitudinal, Young’s, bulk and shear modulus have been measured at a frequency of 10 MHz as a function of ZnO concentration. Both sound velocities and elastic moduli increase with increasing ZnO concentration. Poisson’s ratio and Debye temperature were also found to increase with ZnO concentration. 11B MAS–NMR and IR spectra show characteristic features of borate network and compositional dependence trends as a function of Na2O/ZnO concentration. The results are discussed in view of borate network and dual structural role of Zn2+ ion into the network. The results indicate that the Zn2+ ions are likely to occupy network forming positions in this glass system.

  5. AcEST: DK960095 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s-Prot sp_hit_id Q61900 Definition sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3A OS...E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary...6 OS=Homo... 32 4.2 >sp|Q61900|SMR3A_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3A OS=Mus musculus ...4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 40 0.14 tr|B7ZP11|B7ZP11_MOUSE Submaxillary gland andro...LRCVCKRWNEI 109 >tr|B7ZP11|B7ZP11_MOUSE Submaxillary gland androgen regulated pro

  6. In Situ and Ex Situ Formation Models of Kepler 11 Planets

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    We present formation simulations of the six Kepler 11 planets. Models assume either in situ or ex situ assembly, the latter with migration, and are evolved to the estimated age of the system, 8 Gyr. Models combine detailed calculations of both the gaseous envelope and the condensed core structures, including accretion of gas and solids, of the disk's viscous and thermal evolution, including photo-evaporation and disk-planet interactions, and of the planets' evaporative mass loss after disk dispersal. Planet-planet interactions are neglected. Both sets of simulations successfully reproduce measured radii, masses, and orbital distances of the planets, except for the radius of Kepler 11b, which loses its entire gaseous envelope shortly after formation. Gaseous (H+He) envelopes account for 1000 K), planetary interiors can only be composed of metals and highly refractory materials. Sequestration of hydrogen by the core and subsequent outgassing is required to account for the observed radius of Kepler 11b. Ex situ...

  7. The HAT-P-7 and HAT-P-11 Star-Planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jennifer; Manrique, Maria; van Hamme, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Radial velocities and KEPLER light curves of the transiting exoplanets HAT-P-7b and HAT-P-11b are analyzed using a general binary star model. The HAT-P-7 system has been a subject of interest due to the irregular orbit of the HAT-P-7b exoplanet with respect to its parent star. HAT-P-7b's orbit has shed light on the diversity of systems that exist in our observable Universe. HAT-P-11 hosts a K type variable star which we were able to analyze with a fourier fit on the light curve data. It is also a host to exoplanet HAT-P-11b which has a slightly inclined orbit. Using our own software, we have calculated the parameters for star-planet pair of HAT-P-7 and HAT-P-11. This presents another way for astronomers to study these complex systems.

  8. Ignition threshold for non-Maxwellian plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    An optically thin $p$-$^{11}$B plasma loses more energy to bremsstrahlung than it gains from fusion reactions, unless the ion temperature can be elevated above the electron temperature. In thermal plasmas, the temperature differences required are possible in small Coulomb logarithm regimes, characterized by high density and low temperature. The minimum Lawson criterion for thermal $p$-$^{11}$B plasmas and the minimum $\\rho R$ required for ICF volume ignition are calculated. Ignition could be reached more easily if the fusion reactivity can be improved with nonthermal ion distributions. To establish an upper bound for this utility, we consider a monoenergetic beam with particle energy selected to maximize the beam- thermal reactivity. Channeling fusion alpha energy to maintain such a beam facilitates ignition at lower densities and $\\rho R$, improves reactivity at constant pressure, and could be used to remove helium ash. The gains realized with a beam thus establish an upper bound for the reductions in igniti...

  9. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 BY MYOFIBERS IN mdx MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    TORRES-PALSA, MARIA J.; KOZIOL, MATTHEW V.; GOH, QINGNIAN; CICINELLI, PETER A.; PETERSON, JENNIFER M.; PIZZA, FRANCIS X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the extent to which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a critical protein of the inflammatory response, is expressed in skeletal muscles of mdx mice (a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Methods Muscles were collected from control and mdx mice at 2–24 weeks of age and analyzed for ICAM-1 expression by means of Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results Western blot revealed higher expression of ICAM-1 in mdx compared with control muscles through 24 weeks of age. In contrast to control muscles, ICAM-1 was expressed on the membrane of damaged, regenerating, and normal myofibers of mdx mice. CD11b+ myeloid cells also expressed ICAM-1 in mdx muscles, and CD11b+ cells were closely associated with the membrane of myofibers expressing ICAM-1. Conclusions These findings support a paradigm in which ICAM-1 and its localization to myofibers in muscles of mdx mice contributes to the dystrophic pathology. PMID:25728314

  10. cAMP stimulation of StAR expression and cholesterol metabolism is modulated by co-expression of labile suppressors of transcription and mRNA turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefcoate, Colin R; Lee, Jinwoo; Cherradi, Nadia; Takemori, Hiroshi; Duan, Haichuan

    2011-04-10

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is generated in rodents from 1.6 kb and 3.5 kb mRNA formed by alternative polyadenylation. The zinc finger protein, TIS11B (also Znf36L1), is elevated by cAMP in adrenal cells in parallel with StAR mRNA. TIS11b selectively destabilizes the 3.5 kb mRNA through AU-rich sequences at the end of the 3'UTR. siRNA suppression shows that TIS11b surprisingly increases StAR protein and cholesterol metabolism. StAR transcription is directly activated by PKA phosphorylation. cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein 1 phosphorylation is a key step leading to recruitment of the co-activator, CREB binding protein (CBP). A second protein, CREB regulated transcription coactivator (TORC/CRTC), enhances this recruitment, but is inhibited by salt inducible kinase (SIK). Basal StAR transcription is constrained through this phosphorylation of TORC. PKA provides an alternative stimulation by phosphorylating SIK, which prevents TORC inactivation. PKA stimulation of StAR nuclear transcripts substantially precedes TORC recruitment to the StAR promoter, which may, therefore, mediate a later step in mRNA production. Inhibition of SIK by staurosporine elevates StAR transcription and TORC recruitment to maximum levels, but without CREB phosphorylation. TORC suppression by SIK evidently limits basal StAR transcription. Staurosporine and cAMP stimulate synergistically. SIK targets the phosphatase, PP2a (activation), and Type 2 histone de-acetylases (inhibition), which may each contribute to suppression. Staurosporine stimulation through SIK inhibition is repeated in cAMP stimulation of many steroidogenic genes regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and CREB. TIS11b and SIK may combine to attenuate StAR expression when hormonal stimuli decline.

  11. The effect of aprotinin on hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced changes in neutrophil and endothelial function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An acute inflammatory response associated with cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion contributes to the development of brain injury. Aprotinin has potential, though unexplained, neuroprotective effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: Human neutrophil CD11 b\\/CD18, endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and endothelial interleukin (IL)-1beta supernatant concentrations in response to in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation was studied in the presence or absence of aprotinin (1600 KIU mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified using flow cytometry and IL-1beta concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test as appropriate. RESULTS: Exposure to 60-min hypoxia increased neutrophil CD11b expression compared to normoxia (170+\\/-46% vs. 91+\\/-27%, P = 0.001) (percent intensity of fluorescence compared to time 0) (n = 8). Hypoxia (60 min) produced greater upregulation of CD11b expression in controls compared to aprotinin-treated neutrophils [(170+\\/-46% vs. 129+\\/-40%) (P = 0.04)] (n = 8). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression (155+\\/-3.7 vs. 43+\\/-21 mean channel fluorescence, P = 0.0003) and IL-1beta supernatant concentrations compared to normoxia (3.4+\\/-0.4 vs. 2.6+\\/-0.2, P = 0.02) (n = 3). Hypoxia-reoxygenation produced greater upregulation of ICAM- 1 expression [(155+\\/-3.3 vs. 116+\\/-0.7) (P = 0.001)] and IL-1beta supernatant concentrations [(3.4+\\/-0.3 vs. 2.6+\\/-0.1) (P = 0.01)] in controls compared to aprotinin-treated endothelial cell preparation (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced upregulation of neutrophil CD11b, endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations is decreased by aprotinin at clinically relevant concentrations.

  12. Investigations into Army Enlisted Classification Systems: Concurrent Validation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    FT Lewis FT Carson Korea MOS Totals 11B 0 33 22 14 38 107 19K 0 47 0 11 39 97 25U 3 6 3 0 10 22 63B 40 7 12 16 27 102 68W 25 20 9 13 29 96 Site...W. C., Kubisiak, U. C., & Schneider, R. J. (1999). Work styles. In N. G. Peterson, M. D. Mumford , W. C. Borman, P. R. Jeanneret, & E. A. Fleishman

  13. Gene : CBRC-PABE-12-0107 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-12-0107 Novel 11 B Family 2 (B) receptors PCD16_HUMAN 1e-178 87% ref|NP_003728.1| dachsous... 1 precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96JQ0|PCD16_HUMAN Protocadherin-16 precursor (Dachsous-1) (...Cadherin-19) (Fibroblast cadherin 1) gb|EAW68683.1| dachsous 1 (Drosophila) [Homo sapiens] 1e-177 87% MYIYMC

  14. Drug discovery for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: ten novel biological targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolaevich Tyurenkov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss ten promising biological targets of interest for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Namely, we address current experimental and clinical data on several new compounds that affect SGLT2, 11b-HSD1, PTP1B, SCD1, Il-1β, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase, SIRT1, DGAT-1 and GPR119. The body of data shows potential of these substances to become effective antidiabetic agents.

  15. A facile and green microwave-assisted synthesis of new functionalized picolinium-based ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Mouslim Messali

    2016-01-01

    A facile preparation of a series of 17 new functionalized picolinium-based ionic liquids under “green chemistry” conditions is described. For the first time, target ionic liquids were prepared using standard methodology and under microwave irradiation in short duration of time with quantitative yields. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 11B, 19F, 31P and mass spectra.

  16. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  17. Separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCandless, F.P.; Herbst, R.S.

    1995-05-30

    The isotopes of boron, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B, are separated by means of a gas-liquid chemical exchange reaction involving the isotopic equilibrium between gaseous BF{sub 3} and a liquid BF{sub 3} donor molecular addition complex formed between BF{sub 3} gas and a donor chosen from the group consisting of: nitromethane, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or diisobutyl ketone. 1 Fig.

  18. TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R; Michael, Emily S; Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Steer, Michael L

    2011-04-15

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(+/+) donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(-/-) donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6C(hi) monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  19. Resident macrophages (ramified microglia) of the adult brown Norway rat central nervous system are constitutively major histocompatibility complex class II positive

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometric phenotype for isolated adult central nervous system (CNS) ramified microglia was previously defined (CD45low CD11b/c+) in the Lewis strain rat, that clearly distinguished these cells from all blood-derived leucocytes, the latter being CD45high. Consistent with the reported lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in the CNS, isolated microglia were mostly MHC class II-. Employing these phenotypic criteria, we now show that a proportion of microglia in Brown ...

  20. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals.

  1. Normal adult ramified microglia separated from other central nervous system macrophages by flow cytometric sorting: Phenotypic differences defined and direct ex vivo antigen presentation to myelin basic protein-reactive CD4{sup +} T cells compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, A.L.; Goodsall, A.L.; Sedgwick, J.D. [Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Sydney (Australia)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ramified microglia in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are the principal glial element up-regulating MHC class I and II expression in response to inflammatory events or neuronal damage. A proportion of these cells also express MHC class II constitutively in the normal CNS. The role of microglia as APCs for CD4{sup +} cells extravasating into the CNS remains undefined. In this study, using irradiation bone marrow chimeras in CD45-congenic rats, the phenotype CD45{sup low}CD11b/c{sup +} is shown to identify microglial cells specifically within the CNS. Highly purified populations of microglia and nonmicroglial but CNS-associated macrophages (CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +}) have been obtained directly from the adult CNS, by using flow cytometric sorting. Morphologically, freshly isolated microglia vs other CNS macrophages are quite distinct. Of the two populations recovered from the normal CNS, it is the minority CD45{sup high}CD11 b/c{sup +} transitional macrophage population, and not microglia, that is the effective APC for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-inducing CD4{sup +} myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells. CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +} CNS macrophages also stimulate MBP-reactive T cells without addition of MBP to culture suggesting presentation of endogenous Ag. This is the first study in which microglia vs other CNS macrophages have been analyzed for APC ability directly from the CNS, with substantial cross-contamination between the two populations eliminated. The heterogeneity of these populations in terms of APC function is clearly demonstrated. Evidence is still lacking that adult CNS microglia have the capacity to interact with and stimulate CD4{sup +} T cells to proliferate or secrete IL-2. 60 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with chronic heart failure: an intervention study of long-term treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.Q. [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China); Hong, H.S. [Department of Geriatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Lin, X.H. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Chen, L.L. [Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Y.H. [Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2014-07-11

    The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis.

  3. Two Series of Synthetic Territrem B Analogues and their Biological Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng ZHAO; Jin Hao ZHAO; Hai Bo LI; Lei Xiang YANG; Hua BAI; Yan Guang WANG; Shoei Sheng LEE; Yu ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Two series of territrem B analogues (6, 11) were designed and synthesized from jujubogenin 2. Compound 11c inhibited AChE with the ratio of 70% at 10-4 mol/L. Compounds5a, 5b, 6a and 11b showed moderate cytotoxicity on cultured KB cells at 10-6 mol/L.Compounds 5c and 6b alleviated injury arising from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD).

  4. Mode-selective optical packet switching in mode-division multiplexing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, N P; Hayashi, M; Yoshida, Y; Maruta, A; Maruyama, R; Kuwaki, N; Takenaga, K; Uemura, H; Matsuo, S; Kitayama, K

    2015-09-07

    A novel mode-selective optical packet switching, based on mode-multiplexers/demultiplexers and multi-port optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switches, has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The experimental demonstration was performed using the LP(01), LP(11a) and LP(11b) modes of a 30-km long mode-division multiplexed few-mode fiber link, utilizing 40 Gb/s, 16-QAM signals.

  5. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi

    2017-01-24

    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  6. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV. Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  7. Genetic ablation of soluble TNF does not affect lesion size and functional recovery after moderate spinal cord injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellman, Ditte Gry; Degn, Matilda; Lund, Minna C.

    2016-01-01

    in other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-5, IL-2, CXCL1, CCL2, or CCL5), despite a tendency towards increased IL-10 and decreased IL-1β, TNFR1, and TNFR2 levels in mTNF(Δ/Δ) mice. In addition, microglial and leukocyte infiltration, activation state (Iba1, CD11b, CD11c, CD45...

  8. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Prostate Cancer: Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-6 and Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    7-10-2010 11 Fig 6. When RAW 264.7 cells were treated with SB203580 and BMP-6, ChIP assay using GATA4 antibody no longer amplified...neuroendocrine differentiation was no longer observed. Mechanistically, series of studies including shRNA knockdowns and immunoprecipitation assays have...et al., 2005). These mice express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under the control of cd11b, a macrophage-specific promoter. Because the

  9. Boron incorporation in the foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii under a decoupled carbonate chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    BOH4-/HCO3- of the culture media. The latter indicates that boron uptake of A. lessonii features a competition between B(OH4- and HCO3-. Furthermore, the simultaneous determination of B/Ca and δ11B on single specimens allows for assessing the relative variability of these parameters. Among different treatments the B/Ca shows an increasing variability with increasing boron concentration in the test whereas the variability in the isotope distribution is constant.

  10. Drug: D08993 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] Others Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs...83 3689] [KO:K05718 K06464]; CD11B / CD18 (CR3) [HSA:3684 3689] [KO:K06461 K06464] hsa04514(3683+3684+3689+3689) Cell adhesion molecu...les (CAMs) hsa04670(3683+3684+3689+3689) Leukocyte transendothelial migration Targe

  11. New insights into the photochemistry of carotenoid spheroidenone in light-harvesting complex 2 from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Martin, Elizabeth C; Bocian, David F; Hunter, C Neil; Holten, Dewey

    2017-03-01

    Light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the semi-aerobically grown purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides was studied using optical (static and time-resolved) and resonance Raman spectroscopies. This antenna complex comprises bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and the carotenoid spheroidenone, a ketolated derivative of spheroidene. The results indicate that the spheroidenone-LH2 complex contains two spectral forms of the carotenoid: (1) a minor, "blue" form with an S2 (1(1)B u(+) ) spectral origin band at 522 nm, shifted from the position in organic media simply by the high polarizability of the binding site, and (2) the major, "red" form with the origin band at 562 nm that is associated with a pool of pigments that more strongly interact with protein residues, most likely via hydrogen bonding. Application of targeted modeling of excited-state decay pathways after carotenoid excitation suggests that the high (92%) carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in this LH2 system, relative to LH2 complexes binding carotenoids with comparable double-bond conjugation lengths, derives mainly from resonance energy transfer from spheroidenone S2 (1(1)B u(+) ) state to BChl a via the Qx state of the latter, accounting for 60% of the total transfer. The elevated S2 (1(1)B u(+) ) → Qx transfer efficiency is apparently associated with substantially decreased energy gap (increased spectral overlap) between the virtual S2 (1(1)B u(+) ) → S0 (1(1)A g(-) ) carotenoid emission and Qx absorption of BChl a. This reduced energetic gap is the ultimate consequence of strong carotenoid-protein interactions, including the inferred hydrogen bonding.

  12. 局部醛固酮系统与糖尿病肾病%Local aldosterone system and diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珊; 杜超; 周波

    2012-01-01

    肾上腺以外组织局部醛固酮合酶(CYP11B2)及盐皮质激素受体(MR)的表达提示了局部醛固酮系统的形成,研究证实肾脏内存在局部醛固酮系统,在肾脏足细胞、系膜细胞和肾小管上皮细胞内存在局部醛固酮系统的全部组分.高血糖可激活肾脏局部醛固酮系统,进而通过炎性反应、氧化应激、细胞外基质积聚、细胞凋亡和肾小管间质转分化等方式加速糖尿病肾病的发生与发展.MR拮抗剂和CYP11 B2抑制剂均可阻断局部醛固酮系统,这将是糖尿病肾病治疗的一个新方向.%The expression of aldosterone synthase(CYP11B2) and mineralocorticoid receptor(MR) in extraadrenal tissues suggests the formation of local aldosterone system.Studies have confirmed the presence of local aldosterone systems in kidney.All the essential components of an aldosterone system could be found in renal podocytes,mesangial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells.Hyperglycemia could activate these renal aldosterone systems,which may accelerate the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) via inflammatory response,oxidative stress,extracellular matrix accumulation,cell apoptosis and renal tubular mesenchymal transdifferentiation.Both MR antagonsits and CYP11B2 inhibitors could block local aldosterone system,this may be a new direction in the treatment of DN.

  13. EST Table: BJ983036 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983036 E_FL_BmN-_11B02_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/126 aa ref|XP_001651215.1| vitellogenin,... putative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT42854.1| vitellogenin, putative [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 67 %/146 aa FBpp027...gi|91086835|ref|XP_974078.1| PREDICTED: similar to vitellogenin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS729194 BmN- ...

  14. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  15. Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Mark E. Warner; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui,Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Andréa G Grottoli

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ1...

  16. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Contreras

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2 as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+ -type and CD103(+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness.

  17. The Technology of Wireless Local Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 李翠霞

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Wireless LAN. Firstly, the article introduces the history ofdevelopment of IEEE 802.11.Then, the article will discuss the basic technology of the IEEE 802.11 including IEEE 802.11b, a, and g. The finally, IEEE 802.11 a / b / gComparison and the trend of WLANs will be prospected by this article.

  18. Postflight analysis for Delta Program Mission no. 113: COS-B Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    On 8 August 1975, the COS-B spacecraft was launched successfully from the Western Test Range (Delta Program Mission No. 113). The launch vehicle was a three stage Extended Long Tank Delta DSV-3P-11B vehicle. Postflight analyses performed in connection with flight are presented. Vehicle trajectory, stage performance, vehicle reliability and the propulsion, guidance, flight control, electronics, mechanical and structural systems are evaluated.

  19. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations.

  20. The prevalence of CTNNB1 mutations in primary aldosteronism and consequences for clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Yang, Shao-Yu; Huang, Kuo-How; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Jian-Jhong; Connolly, Rory; Hu, Ya-Hui; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Peng, Kang-Yung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway/β-catenin signaling may be important in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the prevalence and clinical outcomes after adrenalectomy in APA patients harboring CTNNB1 mutations. The molecular expression of CYP11B2 and gonadal receptors in adenomas were also explored. Adenomas from 219 APA patients (95 men; 44.2%; aged 50.5 ± 11.9 years) showed a high rate of somatic mutations (n = 128, 58.4%). The majority of them harbored KCNJ5 mutations (n = 116, 52.9%); 8 patients (3.7%, 6 women) had CTNNB1 mutations. Patients with APAs harboring CTNNB1 mutations were older and had shorter duration of hypertension. After adrenalectomy, CTNNB1 mutation carriers had a higher possibility (87.5%) of residual hypertension than other APA patients. APAs harboring CTNNB1 mutations have heterogeneous staining of β-catenin and variable expression of gonadal receptors and both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. This suggests that CTNNB1 mutations may be more related to tumorigenesis rather than excessive aldosterone production. PMID:28102204

  1. Synthesis of Pyridine– and Pyrazine–BF 3 Complexes and Their Characterization in Solution and Solid State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chénard, Etienne; Sutrisno, Andre; Zhu, Lingyang; Assary, Rajeev S.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Barton, John L.; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Gray, Danielle L.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2016-03-31

    Following the discovery of the redox-active 1,4- bis-BF3-quinoxaline complex, we undertook a structure- activity study with the objective to understand the active nature of the quinoxaline complex. Through systematic synthesis and characterization, we have compared complexes prepared from pyridine and pyrazine derivatives, as heterocyclic core analogues. This paper reports the structural requirements that give rise to the electrochemical features of the 1,4-bis-BF3-quinoxaline adduct. Using solution and solidstate NMR spectroscopy, the role of aromatic ring fusion and nitrogen incorporation in bonding and electronics was elucidated. We establish the boron atom location and its interaction with its environment from 1D and 2D solution NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and 11B solid-state NMR experiments. Crystallographic analysis of single crystals helped to correlate the boron geometry with 11B quadrupolar coupling constant (CQ) and asymmetry parameter (ηQ), extracted from 11B solid-state NMR spectra. Additionally, computations based on density functional theory were performed to predict electrochemical behavior of the BF3-heteroaromatic complexes. We then experimentally measured electrochemical potential using cyclic voltammetry and found that the redox potentials and CQ values are similarly affected by electronic changes in the complexes.

  2. Neutrino-Nucleus Reaction Cross Sections for Light Element Synthesis in Supernova Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, T; Chiba, S; Kajino, T; Yokomakura, H; Kimura, K; Takamura, A; Hartmann, D H

    2008-01-01

    The neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections of 4He and 12C are evaluated using new shell model Hamiltonians. Branching ratios of various decay channels are calculated to evaluate the yields of Li, Be, and B produced through the nu-process in supernova explosions. The new cross sections enhance the yields of 7Li and 11B produced during the supernova explosion of a 16.2 M_odot star model compared to the case using the conventional cross sections by about 10%. On the other hand, the yield of 10B decreases by a factor of two. The yields of 6Li, 9Be, and the radioactive nucleus 10Be are found at a level of 10^{-11} M_odot. The temperature of nu_{mu,tau}- and bar{nu}_{mu,tau}-neutrinos inferred from the supernova contribution of 11B in Galactic chemical evolution models is constrained to the 4.3 MeV to 6.5 MeV range. The increase in the 7Li and 11B yields due to neutrino oscillations is demonstrated with the new cross sections.

  3. Isotope and ion selectivity in reverse osmosis desalination: geochemical tracers for man-made freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Vengosh, Avner; Guerrot, Catherine; Millot, Romain; Pankratov, Irena

    2008-07-01

    A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/ 16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). The degree of isotope fractionation during the passage of water and solutes through the RO membranes depends on the medium (solvent-water vs. solutes), chemical speciation of the solutes, their charge, and their mass difference. O, H, and Sr isotopes are not fractionated during the RO process. 7Li is preferentially rejected in low pH RO, and B isotope fractionation depends on the pH conditions. Under low pH conditions, B isotopes are not significantly fractionated, whereas at high pH, RO permeates are enriched by 20 per thousand in 11B due to selective rejection of borate ion and preferential permeation of 11B-enriched boric acid through the membrane. The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing "man-made" fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources.

  4. Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Haider, Shozeb; Kumar, Ameet; Dhawan, Samarth; Alam, Dauood; Romero, Raquel; Burns, James; Li, Di; Estatico, Jessica; Rahi, Simran; Fatima, Saleel; Alzahrani, Ali; Hafez, Mona; Musa, Noha; Razzghy Azar, Maryam; Khaloul, Najoua; Gribaa, Moez; Saad, Ali; Charfeddine, Ilhem Ben; Bilharinho de Mendonça, Berenice; Belgorosky, Alicia; Dumic, Katja; Dumic, Miroslav; Aisenberg, Javier; Kandemir, Nurgun; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Ozon, Alev; Gonc, Nazli; Cheng, Tina; Kuhnle-Krahl, Ursula; Cappa, Marco; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Nour, Munier A; Pacaud, Daniele; Holtzman, Assaf; Li, Sun; Zaidi, Mone; Yuen, Tony; New, Maria I

    2017-03-07

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), resulting from mutations in CYP11B1, a gene encoding 11β-hydroxylase, represents a rare autosomal recessive Mendelian disorder of aberrant sex steroid production. Unlike CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the disease is far more common in the Middle East and North Africa, where consanguinity is common often resulting in identical mutations. Clinically, affected female newborns are profoundly virilized (Prader score of 4/5), and both genders display significantly advanced bone ages and are oftentimes hypertensive. We find that 11-deoxycortisol, not frequently measured, is the most robust biochemical marker for diagnosing 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. Finally, computational modeling of 25 missense mutations of CYP11B1 revealed that specific modifications in the heme-binding (R374W and R448C) or substrate-binding (W116C) site of 11β-hydroxylase, or alterations in its stability (L299P and G267S), may predict severe disease. Thus, we report clinical, genetic, hormonal, and structural effects of CYP11B1 gene mutations in the largest international cohort of 108 patients with steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency CAH.

  5. The selection of alkaline protease-producing yeasts from marine environments and evaluation of their bioactive peptide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; CHI Zhenming; WANG Xianghong; PENG Ying; CHI Zhe

    2009-01-01

    A total of 400 yeast strains from seawater, sediments, saltern mud, marine fish guts, and marine algae were obtained. The protease activity of the yeast cultures was estimated, after which four strains (HN3.11, N11b, YF04C and HN4.9) capable of secreting extracellular alkaline protease were isolated. The isolated strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans, Yarrowia lipolytica, Issatchenkia orientalis and Cryptococcus cf. aureus. The optimal pH of the protease activity produced by strains HN3.11, YF04C, and HN4.9 was 9.0, while that of the protease produced by strain N11b was 10.0. The optimal temperature for protease activity was 45°C for strains HN3.11, N11b, and YF04C, and 50°C for strain HN4.9. After digestion of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) protein and spirulina (Arthospira platensis) protein with the four crude alkaline proteases, the filtrate from spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) powder digested by the crude alkaline protease of strain HN3.11 was found to have the highest antioxidant activity (61.4%) and the highest angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities (68.4%). The other filtrates had much lower antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory activities.

  6. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Giuffrida, L; Cirrone, G A P; Picciotto, A; Korn, G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [1], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstr...

  7. Two Potent α3/5 Conotoxins from Piscivorous Conus achatinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIU; Geoffrey CHEW; Edward HAWROT; Chengwu CHI; Chunguang WANG

    2007-01-01

    Every cone snail produces a mixture of different conotoxins and secretes them to immobilize their prey and predators, α3/5 Conotoxins, isolated from fish-hunting cone snails, target muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The structure and function of α3/5 conotoxin from the piscivorous Conus achatinus have not been studied. We synthesized two pentadecamer peptides, Ac1.1a and Ac1.1b, with appropriate disulfide bonding, based on cDNA sequences of α3/5 conotoxins from C. achatinus. Ac1.1a and Ac1.1b differ by only one amino acid residue. They have similar potency on blocking recombinant mouse muscle acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, with IC50 values of 36 nM and 26 nM, respectively.For Ac1.1b, deletion of the first three N-terminal amino acids did not change its activity, indicating that the N-terminus is not involved in the interaction with its receptor. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that both toxins strongly prefer the α1-δ subunit interface instead of the α1-γ binding site on the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These peptides provide additional tools for the study of the structure and function of nicotinic receptor.

  8. A matured fruit extract of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stimulates the cellular immune system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Uzuhashi, Yuji; Hirota, Mitsuru; Otani, Hajime

    2011-10-26

    The immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract from matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were investigated in comparison to those of prune and fig fruit in mice. The number of spleen IFN-γ(+)CD4(+), IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells was highest in mice given the date extract-added diet. Polyphenols identified in the date extract, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid, stimulated IFN-γ mRNA expression significantly in mouse Peyer's patch cell cultures. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid also increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells significantly, while some polyphenols increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. On the other hand, a 70% ethanol-insoluble date extract treated with trypsin increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. These results indicate that some polyphenols and polysaccharides present in date fruit stimulate the cellular immune system in mice.

  9. Regulation of Adrenal Aldosterone Production by Serine Protease Prostasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine protease prostasin has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the activation of the epithelial sodium channel. Systemic administration of adenovirus carrying human prostasin gene in rats resulted in an increase in plasma prostasin and aldosterone levels. However, the mechanism by which the elevation of prostasin levels in the systemic circulation stimulated the plasma aldosterone levels remains unknown. Therefore, we examined if prostasin increases the aldosterone synthesis in a human adrenocortical cell line (H295R cells. Luciferase assay using CYP11B2 promoter revealed that prostasin significantly increased the transcriptional activity of CYP11B2. Prostasin significantly increased both CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, treatment with camostat mesilate, a potent prostasin inhibitor, had no effect on the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin and also a protease-dead mutant of prostasin significantly stimulated the aldosterone production. A T-type/L-type calcium channel blocker and a protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor significantly reduced the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin. Our findings suggest a stimulatory effect of prostasin on the aldosterone synthesis by adrenal gland through the nonproteolytic action and indicate a new role of prostasin in the systemic circulation.

  10. The Correlation of CD206, CD209, and Disease Severity in Behçet’s Disease with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunsoon Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of pattern recognition receptors in Behçet’s disease (BD. The frequencies of several pattern recognition receptors (CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1 were analyzed in patients with BD by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels, interleukin- (IL- 18, IL-23, and IL-17A, were compared in plasma. The analysis was performed in active (n=13 and inactive (n=13 stages of BD patients. Rheumatoid arthritis patients (n=19, as a disease control, and healthy control (HC (n=19 were enrolled. The frequencies of CD11b+ and CD32+ cells were significantly increased in active BD patients compared to HC. Disease severity score was correlated to CD11c+, CD206+, and CD209+ in whole leukocytes and CD11b+, CD11c+, CD206+, CD209+, and Dectin-1+ in granulocytes. The plasma levels of IL-17A were significantly different between HC and active BD. IL-18 showed significant difference between active and inactive BD patients. From this study, we concluded the expressions of several pattern recognition receptors were correlated to the joint symptoms of BD.

  11. High potassium promotes mutual interaction between (pro)renin receptor and the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanming; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Lu, Aihua; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-10-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the collecting duct (CD) with unclear functional implication. It is not known whether CD PRR is regulated by high potassium (HK). Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of HK on PRR expression and its role in regulation of aldosterone synthesis and release in the CD. In primary rat inner medullary CD cells, HK augmented PRR expression and soluble PPR (sPRR) release in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by PRR small interfering RNA (siRNA), eplerenone, and losartan. HK upregulated aldosterone release in parallel with an increase of CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2) protein expression and upregulation of medium renin activity, both of which were attenuated by a PRR antagonist PRO20, PRR siRNA, eplerenone, and losartan. Similarly, prorenin upregulated aldosterone release and CYP11B2 expression, both of which were attenuated by PRR siRNA. Interestingly, a recombinant sPRR (sPRR-His) also stimulated aldosterone release and CYP11B2 expression. Taken together, we conclude that HK enhances a local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), leading to increased PRR expression, which in turn amplifies the response of the RAAS, ultimately contributing to heightened aldosterone release.

  12. Vaginal epithelial dendritic cells renew from bone marrow precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Norifumi; Linehan, Melissa M; Saeland, Sem; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2007-11-27

    Dendritic cells (DCs) represent key professional antigen-presenting cells capable of initiating primary immune responses. A specialized subset of DCs, the Langerhans cells (LCs), are located in the stratified squamous epithelial layer of the skin and within the mucosal epithelial lining of the vaginal and oral cavities. The vaginal mucosa undergoes cyclic changes under the control of sex hormones, and the renewal characteristics of the vaginal epithelial DCs (VEDCs) remain unknown. Here, we examined the origin of VEDCs. In contrast to the skin epidermal LCs, the DCs in the epithelium of the vagina were found to be repopulated mainly by nonmonocyte bone-marrow-derived precursors, with a half-life of 13 days under steady-state conditions. Upon infection with HSV-2, the Gr-1(hi) monocytes were found to give rise to VEDCs. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of the VEDCs revealed the presence of at least three distinct populations, namely, CD11b(+)F4/80(hi), CD11b(+)F4/80(int), and CD11b(-)F4/80(-). Importantly, these VEDC populations expressed CD207 at low levels and had a constitutively more activated phenotype compared with the skin LCs. Collectively, our results revealed mucosa-specific features of the VEDCs with respect to their phenotype, activation status, and homeostatic renewal potential.

  13. A Novel Dual-Shorting Point PIFA (GSM850 to IMT-A for Mobile Handsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA with dual-shorting points is proposed for multiband mobile handsets. The antenna comprises a meandered strip, a feeding point, two shorting points, and a slotted ground plane. For bandwidth enhancement of DCS/PCS/UMTS/WLAN 11.b/LTE2300/2500 and IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced, the antenna applies a dual-shorting points design, which generates a multimode between 1707 and 2815 MHz. The proposed antenna has good impedance matching characteristics for GSM (824–960 MHz/DCS (1710–1880 MHz/PCS (1850–1990 MHz/UMTS (1920–2170 MHz/LTE (2300–2400 MHz, 2500–2690 MHz/WLAN 11.b (2400–2480 MHz and IMT-A (4200–4800 MHz. The measured radiation efficiencies of the proposed antenna were all higher than 60% in GSM850/900, DCS/PCS, UMTS, LTE2300/2500, and WLAN 802.11 b, and it is up to 86% in IMT-A.

  14. Petrogenesis of tourmaline rocks associated with Fe-carbonate graphite metapelite, metabasite and strata-bound polymetallic sulphide mineralisation, Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Paolo; Meli, Carmelina

    2007-12-01

    Tourmalinite and tourmaline-rich rocks associated with Fe-carbonate-graphite phyllite, strata-bound polymetallic sulphide deposits, metabasite and marble were studied, for information on the mechanism of tourmaline formation in the pre-Hercynian low-grade metamorphic sequence of the Mandanici Unit in the Peloritani Mountains of Sicily, southern Italy. The major and trace element compositions of the tourmaline rocks suggest the existence of a sedimentary protolith with pre-metamorphic black shale and bedded chert. Boron was interpreted to be accumulated in a restricted sedimentary basin, between platform carbonate formations, with abundant organic matter and Fe-Al-Ti-rich laterite-bauxite soil-derived clastic supply, under a continental volcano-tectonic extensional regime accompanied by a local convective hydrothermal system along faults. Petrographic, crystal-chemical and δ11B isotopic data are compatible with a model of marine sediment dewatering at temperatures below 200 °C, which caused the removal of boron from clay. Metamorphism led to the development of tourmaline in an Al-Ti-rich environment, in equilibrium with other minerals such as ilmenite, albite and muscovite. The upper temperature of metamorphism (almost 375 °C), estimated on the basis of δ11B, fits geothermometric results from Δ 13C carbonate-graphite on associated rocks. The estimated value of δ11B in the tourmalinite protolith, - 7.5‰ , is also compatible with continental-derived Al-rich sediments.

  15. Intra-Shell boron isotope ratios in benthic foraminifera: Implications for paleo-pH reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.

    2009-12-01

    The boron isotope composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a seawater pH proxy. Nevertheless, the use of δ11B has some limitations: 1) the knowledge of fractionation factor (α4-3) between the two boron dissolved species (boric acid and borate ion), 2) the δ11B of seawater may have varied with time and 3) the amplitude of the "vital effects" of this proxy. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), we looked at the internal variability in the boron isotope ratio of the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera. Specimens were cultured at constant temperature (24±0.1 °C) in seawater with pH ranging between 7.90 and 8.45. We performed 6 to 8 measurements of δ11B in each foraminifera. Intra-shell boron isotopes show large variability with an upper threshold value of pH ~ 9. The ranges of the skeletal calculated pH values in different cultured foraminifera, show strong correlation with the culture pH values and may thus serve as proxy for pH in the past ocean.

  16. Characterization of Hydrocortisone Biometabolites and 18S rRNA Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bagher Mosavi-Azam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A unicellular microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was isolated from rice paddy-field soil and water samples and used in the biotransformation of hydrocortisone (1. This strain has not been previously tested for steroid bioconversion. Fermentation was carried out in BG-11 medium supplemented with 0.05% substrate at 25ºC for 14 days of incubation. The products obtained were chromatographically purified and characterized using spectroscopic methods. 11b,17b-Dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (2, 11b-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (3, 11b,17a,20b,21-tetrahydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (4 and prednisolone (5 were the main products of the bioconversion. The observed bioreaction features were the side chain degradation of the substrate to give compounds 2 and 3 and the 20-ketone reduction and 1,2-dehydrogenation affording compounds 4 and 5, respectively. A time course study showed the accumulation of product 2 from the second day of the fermentation and of compounds 3, 4 and 5 from the third day. All the metabolites reached their maximum concentration in seven days. Microalgal 18S rRNA gene was also amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their authenticity as 18S rRNA gene of microalgae. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced microalgae in NCBI showed 100% homology to the 18S small subunit rRNA of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii spp.

  17. DC within the pregnant mouse uterus influence growth and functional properties of uterine NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Christian M; Behrends, Jochen; Wagner, Arnika K; Fuchs, Franca; Figge, Julia; Schmudde, Inken; Hellberg, Lars; Kruse, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    The vascular addressins mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin and ICAM-1 permit alpha(4)beta(7)-integrin-expressing DC, especially those of the myeloid lineage (CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DC), to access the pregnant mouse uterus. Injection of blocking monoclonal antibodies against mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in P-selectin(-/-) mice or experimental approaches with beta7-integrin(-/-) or ICAM-1(-/-) mice revealed that limited access or absence of CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DC at the maternal/fetal interface negatively affects the frequency, size and functional properties of uterine NK (uNK) cells. Adoptive transfer of DC obtained from WT mice into beta7-integrin(-/-) mice abrogates these effects and emphasizes the importance of DC in uNK cell differentiation. Interestingly, those implantation sites lacking CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DC are characterized by decreased IL-15 and IL-12 mRNA and/or protein levels. Chronic administration of IL-15 in these mice gives rise to uNK cell numbers and size comparable to those of WT mice, whereas additional injection of IL-12 positively affects the IFN-gamma expression of uNK cells. Real-time RT-PCR and protein arrays performed with isolated uterine DC underline the role of DC as a source of IL-15 and IL-12 in the pregnant mouse uterus.

  18. Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Geneviève

    2009-04-01

    Aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte and water homeostasis and plays a central role in blood pressure regulation. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, among them increased progesterone and aldosterone production, lead to the required plasma volume expansion of the maternal body as an accommodation mechanism for fetus growth. This review discusses the regulation of aldosterone production by aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2); the impact on aldosterone secretion due to the presence of a chimeric gene originating from a crossover between CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA) - the inherited form of hypertension; enhanced aldosterone production in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA); and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Features of hyperaldosteronism are also found in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), in which glucocorticoids exacerbate activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) because of a defect in the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme. Regulation of aldosterone production and tissue-specific activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor are prerequisites for optimal control of body fluids and blood pressure during pregnancy and contribute largely to the wellbeing of the mother-to-be.

  19. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells precondition lung monocytes/macrophages to produce tolerance against allo- and autoimmunity in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Yoon, Sun-Ok; Choi, Hosoon; Prockop, Darwin J; Oh, Joo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Intravenously administered mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) engraft only transiently in recipients, but confer long-term therapeutic benefits in patients with immune disorders. This suggests that MSCs induce immune tolerance by long-lasting effects on the recipient immune regulatory system. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. infusion of MSCs preconditioned lung monocytes/macrophages toward an immune regulatory phenotype in a TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6-dependent manner. As a result, mice were protected against subsequent immune challenge in two models of allo- and autoimmune ocular inflammation: corneal allotransplantation and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). The monocytes/macrophages primed by MSCs expressed high levels of MHC class II, B220, CD11b, and IL-10, and exhibited T-cell-suppressive activities independently of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Adoptive transfer of MSC-induced B220(+)CD11b(+) monocytes/macrophages prevented corneal allograft rejection and EAU. Deletion of monocytes/macrophages abrogated the MSC-induced tolerance. However, MSCs with TSG-6 knockdown did not induce MHC II(+)B220(+)CD11b(+) cells, and failed to attenuate EAU. Therefore, the results demonstrate a mechanism of the MSC-mediated immune modulation through induction of innate immune tolerance that involves monocytes/macrophages.

  20. Energies of low-lying excited states of linear polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ronald L; Galinato, Mary Grace I; Chu, Emily F; Howard, Jason N; Broene, Richard D; Frank, Harry A

    2008-12-11

    Room temperature absorption and emission spectra of the all-trans isomers of decatetraene, dodecapentaene, tetradecahexaene, and hexadecaheptaene have been obtained in a series of nonpolar solvents. The resolved vibronic features in the optical spectra of these model systems allow the accurate determination of S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(2) (1(1)B(u)(+)) and S(1) (2(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) electronic origins as a function of solvent polarizability. These data can be extrapolated to predict the transition energies in the absence of solvent perturbations. The effects of the terminal methyl substituents on the transition energies also can be estimated. Franck-Condon maxima in the absorption and emission spectra were used to estimate differences between S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(1) (2(1)A(g)(-)) and S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(2) (1(1)B(u)(+)) electronic origins and "vertical" transition energies. Experimental estimates of the vertical transition energies of unsubstituted, all-trans polyenes in vacuum as a function of conjugation length are compared with long-standing multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) treatments and with more recent ab initio calculations of the energies of the 2(1)A(g)(-) (S(1)) and 1(1)B(u)(+) (S(2)) states.