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Sample records for acidified pig slurry

  1. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  2. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20°C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant...... not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile...

  3. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2014-01-01

    that methanogenic potential, rather than inhibitory effects of the chemical environment, caused the delay. In conclusion, NH3 emissions from slurry could be reduced by addition of BA to pig diets, or by controlling the dietary electrolyte balance, but there was no additive effect of combining the two strategies...

  4. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Højberg, Ole; Poulsen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Acidification with concentrated H2SO4 is a novel strategy to reduce NH3 emissions from livestock slurry. It was recently found that also CH4 emissions from acidified slurry are reduced. This study investigated the microbiological basis and temporal stability of these effects. Methods...

  5. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  6. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  7. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fer...

  8. The aggressiveness of pig slurry to cement mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Massana Guitart, Jordi; Guerrero Bustos, Ana; Antón Fuentes, Rebeca; Garcimartin Molina, Miguel Angel; Sanchez Espinosa, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to measure the behaviour of various mortars employed in livestock media in central Spain and to analyse the aggressiveness of pig slurry to cement blended with fly ash mortars. To achieve this, mortar specimens were immersed in ponds storing pig slurry. Mortar specimens, of 40 ? 40 ? 160 mm, were made from four types of cement commonly used and recommended for rural areas. The types were a sulphate-resistant Portland cement and three cements blended in different proportions with ...

  9. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyan Chen; Qiang Cai; Yuan Zhao; Guojuan Zheng; Yuting Liang

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested...

  10. ORGANIC MATTER AND HUMIC FRACTIONS OF A HAPLIC ACRISOL AS AFFECTED BY COMPOSTED PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lüdtke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of composted pig slurry (PS on the organic matter concentration and distribution of humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA and humin (HU fractions. The fractions were quantified following the addition of composted PS to the soil, which was produced with no acidification (T2 or with acidification with H3PO4 (T3; and in soil without compost addition (T1. The HA chemical composition was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The addition of the two composts did not change the soil carbon concentration but affected the distribution of the humic fractions. For the three treatments, the carbon concentration of humic substances increased until 52 days following compost addition, with more pronounced increases with the addition of non-acidified PS compost (14.5 g kg-1 and acidified PS compost (15.1 g kg-1. This increase was reflected in both the FA and HA concentrations. The addition of compost with PS acidification resulted in the formation of larger humic micelles (HA with higher aromatic content and fewer functional groups than the non-acidified PS compost. These findings, together with a lower proportion of carbohydrate-type structures, indicated the presence of more stable humic micelles in the soil treated with acidified PS compost.

  11. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.

  12. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-07-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  14. Combined pig slurry and mineral fertilization for corn cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Maritane Prior; Silvio César Sampaio; Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega; Miguel Angel Uribe Opazo; Jonhatan Dieter; Thaisa Pegoraro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental effects of the use of pig slurry to irrigate the corn crop grown in a typical Red Distroferric Latosol and in leachate composition. Twenty four lysimeters, filled with soil, in a protected environment, received five doses of pig slurry (0; 112.5; 225; 337.5 and 450 m³ ha-1 per growing cycle) combined with two mineral fertilization doses (50 and 75% of the recommended dose - 80 kg ha-1of nitrogen). Corn height and yield were evaluate...

  15. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Grudziński; Arkadiusz Pietruszka; Wojciech Sawicki

    2015-01-01

    Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig...

  16. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  17. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres...... press combined≈screw press. The maximum methane yield of manure fibres from decanter centrifuges and the combined shaking filter and screw press was approximately 330l [CH4]kg-1 [VS] at standard temperature and pressure (STP), while manure fibres from a screw press and a combination of belt press...

  18. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  19. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...... to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil–slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (... fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used...

  20. Anaerobic digestion of sulfate-acidified cattle slurry: One-stage vs. two-stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2016-05-15

    Two strategies to include acidified cattle manure (AcCM) in co-digestion with normal cattle manure (CM) are presented in this work. The strategies are a single thermophilic (50 °C) continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digestion and a two-step (65 °C + 50 °C) CSTR process. In both strategies, two different inclusion levels of H2SO4-acidified CM (10% and 20%) in co-digestion with normal CM were tested and compared with a control CSTR fed only CM. Important enhancement of methane (CH4) yield and solid reductions were observed in the thermophilic one-step CSTR working with 10% AcCM. However, a higher inclusion level of AcCM (20%) caused volatile fatty acid accumulation in the reactor and a more than 30% reduction in CH4 production. In terms of CH4 production, when 10% of AcCM was co-digested with 90% of CM, the two-step anaerobic co-digestion yielded less than the single step. During the first step of the two-step CSTR process, acidogenesis and a partial sulfate reduction were achieved. However, sulfide stripping between the first and the second step must be promoted in order to advance this technology.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of sulfate-acidified cattle slurry: One-stage vs. two-stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2016-05-15

    Two strategies to include acidified cattle manure (AcCM) in co-digestion with normal cattle manure (CM) are presented in this work. The strategies are a single thermophilic (50 °C) continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digestion and a two-step (65 °C + 50 °C) CSTR process. In both strategies, two different inclusion levels of H2SO4-acidified CM (10% and 20%) in co-digestion with normal CM were tested and compared with a control CSTR fed only CM. Important enhancement of methane (CH4) yield and solid reductions were observed in the thermophilic one-step CSTR working with 10% AcCM. However, a higher inclusion level of AcCM (20%) caused volatile fatty acid accumulation in the reactor and a more than 30% reduction in CH4 production. In terms of CH4 production, when 10% of AcCM was co-digested with 90% of CM, the two-step anaerobic co-digestion yielded less than the single step. During the first step of the two-step CSTR process, acidogenesis and a partial sulfate reduction were achieved. However, sulfide stripping between the first and the second step must be promoted in order to advance this technology. PMID:26985731

  2. Acidification of pig slurry before separation to improve slurry management on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Iria; Coutinho, João; Balsari, Paolo; Popovic, Olga; Fangueiro, David

    2016-08-01

    Pig slurry, rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), is generally applied to soil as organic fertilizer. However, costs related to slurry transport may limit its utilization to fields close to the farm, leading to significant N losses, namely ammonia (NH3) emissions. Slurry acidification, to minimize NH3 emissions, is a potential solution to this problem, while solid-liquid separation leads to a solid fraction (SF) - rich in organic matter (OM) and phosphorus - and a liquid fraction (LF) rich in soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that a combination of acidification and separation could affect the quality of the resulting fractions depending on the separation technique used. After acidification, the two most common techniques for separation, centrifugation (CF) and screw-press (SP), were applied. The main characteristics of the slurry fractions in terms of nutrient concentrations and speciation as well as the potential N mineralization (PNM) were analysed. Our results show SFs with improved properties, mostly N and PNM when acidification is performed before separation with both techniques. The PNM was significantly increased in LFs from both techniques after acidification. The [Formula: see text] concentration increased in LFs from SP with acidification; therefore, slurry acidification is recommended to avoid any N losses during the separation process with SP, while CF may not require such pretreatment. Acidification could allow the use of a cheaper technique such as SP relative to CF since it prevents NH3 emissions during the separation process and leads to more equilibrated fractions in terms of nutrient composition. PMID:26695081

  3. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  4. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Ver...

  5. Soil chemical properties related to acidity under successive pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi; Carlos Alberto Ceretta; Leandro Souza da Silva; Gustavo Trentin; Eduardo Girotto; Felipe Lorensini; Tadeu Luis Tiecher; Gustavo Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Pig slurry application as soil manure can alter the chemical properties of the soil and affect its acidity, modifying the environment for crop growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical properties related to soil acidity subjected to successive applications of pig slurry. The experiment was conducted in May 2000, in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) under no-tillage and lasted until January 2008. Nineteen surface applica...

  6. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  7. Population fluctuation in soil meso- and macrofauna by the successive application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pig farming has increased in recent years, resulting in the production of a large quantity of liquid manure, which can be used as a source of organic fertiliser. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of pig slurry on the community of soil fauna in a system of direct seeding. The study was carried out in an experimental area in the town of Taquaruçu do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a (4 + 1 x 4 factorial scheme, comprising five fertilisation treatments, 0 (no fertiliser, 20, 40 and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 and one additional treatment (mineral fertiliser, with four evaluations corresponding to the number of slurry application (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th application, and four replications. The soil fauna was sampled using PROVID traps. The following were evaluated: the relative frequency of the groups of soil fauna, the populations of springtails and mites, density, richness, Simpson's dominance index and the Shannon diversity index. The populations of mites and springtails, and indices of diversity, richness and dominance are influenced by the successive application of pig slurry. Successive applications of pig slurry increase the diversity of the soil fauna by reducing the population of organisms of the Order Collembola. Canonical correlation analysis showed an association between the number of springtails and 80 m3 of pig slurry ha-1 after the third application.

  8. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  9. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory M.;

    2014-01-01

    environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after......Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range...... of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...

  10. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  11. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L.) by pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido; Silvia Martínez-Martínez; Ángel Faz Cano; Asuman Büyükkilif-Yanardag; Arocena, Joselito M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg) and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose) or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum di...

  12. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2010-01-01

    ), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine...... and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems....

  13. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  14. Pig slurry characteristics, nutrient balance and biogas production as affected by separation and acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Hjorth, Maibritt; Leahy, J. J.;

    2015-01-01

    Animal slurry is separated in order to avoid excessive nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization of crops in the field. To enhance fertilizer efficiency further, slurry and its separation products may be acidified, for instance in animal houses. The current study quantified the effects...... of these treatments, both individually and in combination, on fertilizer efficiency, energy production and heavy metal accumulation as a result of manure management. Acidification increased the availability of N to plants in the manure applied, and provided a better match between plant-available NPK in the manure...

  15. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  16. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  17. Assessment of CO2 emissions during acidification, storage and after incorporation to soil of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, D.; Gusmão, M.; Surgy, S.; Cabral, F.

    2010-01-01

    RAMIRAN International Conference Large amounts of pig slurry are produced each year in Portugal leading to environmental problems such as water and air pollution. Previous studies have reported that livestock production is the main source of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in Europe (Kai et al., 2008) and an important source of greenhouse gases (Weiske and Petersen, 2006). Effluent treatment has been promoted to improve slurry management and to reduce its environmental im...

  18. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  19. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Milton da Veiga; Carla Maria Pandolfo; Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior; Evandro Spagnollo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0...

  20. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Haplu...

  1. Nutrients behavior from the association pig slurry and chemical fertilizers on soybean crop

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Smanhotto; Silvio César Sampaio; Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco; Maritane Prior; Rosimaldo Soncela

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of pig slurry application with mineral fertilizer on ions leaching from the soil in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in 24 drainage lysimeters under protection. The soybean cultivar CD 202/COODETEC was sown in a soil that received 0, 100, 200 and 300 m³ha-1of pig slurry in one cycle, with or without mineral fertilizer. There were three samplings of soil throughout the trial to determine the pH, N, NO3-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cu+2, Zn+2, OM...

  2. Response of wheat to additional nitrogen fertilizer application after pig slurry on over-fertilized soils

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaumes Cullell, Elisenda; Carrasco Martín, Israel; Villar Mir, Josep Ma.

    2006-01-01

    Pig slurry is a valuable nutrient resource but constitutes a waste disposal problem in areas of high animal density. In the semiarid area of Pla d’Urgell, in the Ebro Valley, North-East Spain, irrigated crops receive large amounts of nutrients in the form of manure and mineral fertilizers. We studied the effect of pig slurry and additional side-dress mineral fertilizers on irrigated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., on a coarse loam soil, with high soil P and K levels. Yields increased by 62...

  3. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    slurry solids reduced P availability in the initial phase after soil amendment. Only the solid fraction, had a high initial P availability, which was within the same range as mineral P fertilizer, but P availability decreased significantly within one growing season, whereas the thermally processed...... the pig slurry solid fraction as well as investigating their impact on the applicability of the product as P fertilizer. Special attention was moreover given to the effect of the soil properties on the development of P availability over time. In conclusion, both biological and thermal processing of pig...

  4. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  5. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;

    2014-01-01

    of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium...... carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids (acetate......Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects...

  6. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A;

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6...

  7. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  8. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry;

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables...... and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp....... and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  9. Environmental vulnerability and phosphorus fractions of areas with pig slurry applied to the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Couto, Rafael; Santos, Matheus Dos; Comin, Jucinei José; Pittol Martini, Luíz Carlos; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Martins, Sérgio Roberto; Filho, Paulo Belli; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry as a fertilizer can cause soil and water contamination. Intrinsic characteristics of the environment may enhance this effect and influence the vulnerability of the agricultural system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of soil P fractions in areas treated with pig slurry and in forest areas and to propose an evaluation of the areas' vulnerability to P contamination. Soil samples were collected from 10 areas with pig slurry applied to the soil and one in forest without a history of pig slurry application, all located in the Coruja and Bonito rivers microbasin at Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Samples were prepared and subjected to P chemical fractionation. Two versions of the P index method, based on soil P forms or only on P extracted by Mehlich-1, were used to evaluate the environmental risk of the studied areas. Estimated soil losses were lower for the forest and natural pasture and highest in areas with black oat ( Schreb.)-corn ( L.) crop cultivation. Concentrations of P fractions, especially of organic and inorganic P extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L NaOH and NaHCO and of inorganic P extracted by anion exchange resin and HCl, were higher in areas with a longer history and higher frequency of pig slurry applications. Vulnerability to P contamination was mainly influenced by soil P concentrations and soil losses in the studied areas. The P index based on Hedley's fractionation P forms resulted in a more accurate risk scoring of the studied areas than the P index based on the concentration of available P extracted by Mehlich-1. PMID:25602331

  10. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    Increasing livestock production and regulation of the amount of phosphorus (P) that may be applied to arable land may force livestock farmers to transport animal manure over long distances if plant nutrients in the manure are to be used in a sustainable way. Animal slurry contains large amounts of...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...

  11. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  12. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  13. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  14. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Beccaccia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4 and ammonia (NH3 emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean. Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p0.90 and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production.

  15. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P) content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the...

  16. Dry matter production and nitrogen use efficiency of giant missionary grass in response to pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of successive applications of pig slurry on the dry matter (DM production and the nitrogen use efficiency of giant missionary grass along two years. A total of 55, 110, 165, 220 and 275 m³ of pig slurry/ha/year were applied in order to supply 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg of total N/ha/year, respectively. These treatments were compared with the ammonium nitrate (200 kg of N/ha/year source of N and with a control (no nitrogen application. Annually, nitrogen was applied in four divided doses, after the cutting of forage grasses, which takes place five times a year. The total DM yield did not differ between years and increased linearly as a function of pig slurry application, ranging from 2,698 kg of DM/ha/year (control to 11,371 kg of DM/ha/year (275 m³ of pig slurry/ha/year. There was an increment of 32.3 kg of DM/m³ of pig slurry/ha or 17.7 kg of DM/kg of N/ha. The highest average daily DM accumulation rate (66.8 kg of DM/ha/day was achieved with the highest pig slurry rate, from February/2007 to April/2008. Nitrogen use efficiency did not differ across pig slurry rates (19.0 kg of DM/kg of N, but it was lower than that obtained with ammonium nitrate (30.3 kg of DM/kg of N. The efficiency index of pig slurry ranged from 0.52 to 0.72.

  17. Population fluctuation in soil meso- and macrofauna by the successive application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva; Gilvan Moisés Bertollo; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Geomar Mateus Corassa; Cassiano Carlos Kuss

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pig farming has increased in recent years, resulting in the production of a large quantity of liquid manure, which can be used as a source of organic fertiliser. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of pig slurry on the community of soil fauna in a system of direct seeding. The study was carried out in an experimental area in the town of Taquaruçu do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a (4 + 1) x 4 factor...

  18. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard;

    Objectives: Spread of pig slurry as an organic fertilizer is commonly used in Danish agriculture. The slurry is spread untreated so pathogens able to survive in slurry tanks will be widely distributed in the environment. The objective of this study was to examine if hepatitis E virus (HEV), which...... sing proteinase K treatment. Subsequently, viral genomic RNA, from both water and mussels, was purified using the NucliSENS miniMAG system and detection and quantification of HEV and mengovirus (used as process control) were performed by real time RT-PCR. Results: Water samples representing a total...... HEV cannot be cultivated in cells. We did not find any HEV positive mussel samples indicating that the release of HEV from fields is not a concern for shellfish production....

  19. Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling. PMID:21185175

  20. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best

  1. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best

  2. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue in diets for growing pigs may alter the chemical composition of faeces and slurry, whereas, the effect on ammonia emission under dynamic conditions requires further investigations....

  3. Soil chemical properties and maize yield under application of pig slurry biofertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo E. Bócoli; José R. Mantovani; José M. Miranda; Douglas J. Marques; Adriano B. da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Organic materials subjected to a process of anaerobic digestion in a digester produce biofertilizer that can be used in agriculture as nutrient source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pig slurry biofertilizer on soil chemical properties and on corn yield and nutrient concentrations in leaves and kernels. The experiment was conducted in the field from November 2012 to April 2013, and was arranged in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four rep...

  4. Crop yield and nutrient balance influenced by shoot biomass management and pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Carla M. Pandolfo; Milton da Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crop systems that export large amounts of nutrients from the farm may require higher doses of animal manure than those needed for grain production. This study aimed to evaluate the yield of crops and to determine the simplified nutrient balance in three management systems of shoot biomass of crops (cover-grain, cover-silage and hay-silage) associated with five fertilization treatments (control, soluble fertilizer and three doses of pig slurry). The experimental design was a split plo...

  5. Dicyandiamide as nitrification inhibitor of pig slurry ammonium nitrogen in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Gonzatto; Fernanda Stüker; Celso Aita; Sandro José Giacomini; Roberto Carlos Lüdtke; Alexandre Dessbesell; Diego Antonio Giacomini; Stefen Barbosa Pujol

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen pig slurry after its application to the soil can mitigate nitrogen (N) losses by nitrate (NO3 -) denitrification and leaching, with economical and environmental benefits. However, the use of this strategy is incipient in Brazil and, therefore, requires further assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of dicyandiamide (DCD) nitrification inhibitor in slowing the nitrification of ammoniacal N applied to the soi...

  6. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome.

  7. Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both rates of pig slurry applied, the presence of earthworms in young layers stimulated microbial growth which decreased once earthworms left the slurry and the layers aged. This increase was related to the initial activation of the microbial enzymes studied as correlations between microbial biomass and enzymes showed, which indicated an increase of intracellular enzyme activity. In the aged slurry, the pattern of activity of the four enzymes assayed depended on the rate of pig slurry applied. Thus, in low rate reactors, enzymatic activity through layers appeared to be related to microbial biomass, but in high rate reactors the activity of enzymes was more or less continuous. Further, these differences in overall enzyme activity agree with the variation found in extracellular enzyme activity suggesting certain dependence on substrate availability

  8. Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aira, Manuel E-mail: aira@uvigo.es; Monroy, Fernando; Dominguez, Jorge

    2007-10-15

    We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both rates of pig slurry applied, the presence of earthworms in young layers stimulated microbial growth which decreased once earthworms left the slurry and the layers aged. This increase was related to the initial activation of the microbial enzymes studied as correlations between microbial biomass and enzymes showed, which indicated an increase of intracellular enzyme activity. In the aged slurry, the pattern of activity of the four enzymes assayed depended on the rate of pig slurry applied. Thus, in low rate reactors, enzymatic activity through layers appeared to be related to microbial biomass, but in high rate reactors the activity of enzymes was more or less continuous. Further, these differences in overall enzyme activity agree with the variation found in extracellular enzyme activity suggesting certain dependence on substrate availability.

  9. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact.

  10. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  11. Modelling the Potential of Slurry Management Technologies to Reduce the Constraints of Environmental Legislation on Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke;

    2013-01-01

    ) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press......Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw......, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry...

  12. Phosphorus leaching from loamy sand and clay loam topsoils after application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian; Aronsson, Helena; Bergström, Lars; Sharpley, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate management of animal waste is essential for guaranteeing good water quality. A laboratory leaching study with intact soil columns was performed to investigate the risk of phosphorus (P) leaching from a clay loam and a loamy sand. The columns (0.2 m deep) were irrigated before and after application of pig slurry on the surface or after incorporation, or application of mineral P, each at a rate of 30 kg P ha-1. The two soils had different initial P contents (i.e. the ammonium lactat...

  13. Morphogenesis of the giant missionary grass in response to pig slurry fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Valdirene Zabot; Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso; Mario Miranda; Daiane Karla Kotwittz; Karen Doering Brustolin

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenesis of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuticus x A. scoparius) was evaluated in this study in response to the application of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200m³ ha-1year-1 of pig slurry, calculated to provide 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500kg N ha-1year-1, respectively. The experiment was carried out in the field, at Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2010-2011. The doses were fractioned in four applications, performed after the pasture cuttings, during the growth season of the gr...

  14. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  15. Dry matter production and nitrogen use efficiency of giant missionary grass in response to pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Miranda; Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso; Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy; Cristiano Reschke Lajús; Eloi Erhard Scherer; Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of successive applications of pig slurry on the dry matter (DM) production and the nitrogen use efficiency of giant missionary grass along two years. A total of 55, 110, 165, 220 and 275 m³ of pig slurry/ha/year were applied in order to supply 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg of total N/ha/year, respectively. These treatments were compared with the ammonium nitrate (200 kg of N/ha/year) source of N and with a control (no nitrogen application). Annually, nitrogen wa...

  16. Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05).

  17. Crop yield and nutrient balance influenced by shoot biomass management and pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pandolfo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop systems that export large amounts of nutrients from the farm may require higher doses of animal manure than those needed for grain production. This study aimed to evaluate the yield of crops and to determine the simplified nutrient balance in three management systems of shoot biomass of crops (cover-grain, cover-silage and hay-silage associated with five fertilization treatments (control, soluble fertilizer and three doses of pig slurry. The experimental design was a split plot, arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates. The management systems of shoot biomass did not affect the yield of the winter pasture, but there was an increase in yield with the application of pig slurry. The summer crops responded differently to fertilization, depending on the purpose for which they were grown, whether for grain or silage. In the three management systems of shoot biomass, there was an excess of Zn and Cu from the application of 25 m3 ha-1; N from 50 m3ha-1; and P, K and Ca + Mg at the dose of 100 m3ha-1.

  18. Dicyandiamide as nitrification inhibitor of pig slurry ammonium nitrogen in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Gonzatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Inhibition of nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen pig slurry after its application to the soil can mitigate nitrogen (N losses by nitrate (NO3 - denitrification and leaching, with economical and environmental benefits. However, the use of this strategy is incipient in Brazil and, therefore, requires further assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of dicyandiamide (DCD nitrification inhibitor in slowing the nitrification of ammoniacal N applied to the soil with pig slurry (PS. For this, incubation was performed in laboratory, where nitrification was assessed by NO3 - accumulation in the soil. Rates of 2.8, 5.7 and 11.3kg DCD ha-1 were compared, being applied to the soil during PS addition. Nitrification was inhibited by DCD, and inhibition magnitude and duration depended on DCD applied rate. At a dose of 11.3kg ha-1 DCD, nitrification was completely inhibited in the first 12 days. During the first month after PS application, each 2.8kg of DCD increase applied per hectare promoted NO3 --N reduction in the soil of 13.3kg ha-1, allowing longer ammoniacal N maintenance in the soil.

  19. Comparative assessment of raw and digested pig slurry treatment in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Oliveras, Judit; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and anaerobically digested pig slurries were investigated in batch assays in two chambered bioelectrochemical systems (BES) run in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) mode. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, nitrogen recovery, cation transport and anode microbial population evolutions were assessed. The Anaerobic Digestion-MEC (AD-MEC) integrated system achieved the highest COD removal (60% in 48h); while the maximum NH4(+) removal efficiency (40%, with an ammonia flux of 8.86g N-NH4(+) d(-1)m(-2)) was achieved in MFC mode fed with digested pig slurry in 24h. On the other hand, the high pH (12.1) achieved in MEC mode (NaCl solution as catholyte), could favour ammonium recovery in a subsequent stripping and absorption process. Ammonia was the main cation involved in maintaining the electroneutrality between both compartments. Regarding microbial population, Desulfuromonadaceae, a known family of exoelectrogenic bacteria, was enriched under MEC mode, whereas hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogen phylotypes belonging to Thermoplasmatales were also favoured against acetotrophic Methanosaetaceae. From these results, the integration of anaerobic digestion in BES seems to be an interesting alternative for the treatment of complex substrates, since a polished effluent can be obtained and ammonium can be simultaneously recovered for further reuse as fertilizer. PMID:27093494

  20. Physical properties and organic carbon content of a Rhodic Kandiudox fertilized with pig slurry and poultry litter

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Paulo Rauber; Cristiano Dela Piccolla; Andréia Patrícia Andrade; Augusto Friederichs; Álvaro Luiz Mafra; Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pig slurry and poultry litter fertilization on soils depends on the conditions of use and the amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of organic fertilizers after different application periods in different areas on the physical properties and organic carbon contents of a Rhodic Kandiudox, in Concordia, Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil. The treatments consisted of different land uses and periods of pig and poultry litter fertilization: silage maize (M7 years), silage m...

  1. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study......2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation...... content, each time followed by determination of CH4 fluxes. Only one surface crust material showed a relationship between CH4 fluxes and moisture content that would implicate gas diffusivity in the regulation of CH4 oxidation. The occurrence of inducible CH4 oxidation activity in slurry storage surface...

  2. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000. °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal...... changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16. weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying. >. composting. >. pyrolysis. >. combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would...... be available after pyrolysis above 700. °C or combustion above 400. °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800. °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil...

  3. Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

  4. Nitrogen dynamics in soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Borges Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of pig manure is of great importance because, when mishandled, it can contaminate water resources. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrogen dynamics in a Cerrado Oxisol and its absorption, over time, by a maize crop managed with pig slurry associated with mineral fertilization (N P K. The study was conducted at a private farm, in the region of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The maize crop was able to recover 62% of the mineral nitrogen that entered the soil-plant system, while 9% leached as nitrate and, to a lesser amount, as ammonium. The maximum average content of nitrate and ammonium of 92 kg ha-1 and 43 kg ha-1, respectively, was observed in the 0 to 0.3 m soil layer during the early crop development stage. A minimum content of 5.8 kg ha-1 of nitrate and 9.0 kg ha-1 of ammonium, respectively, was measured at the end of the cycle. In addition, the nitrate content at that soil layer, at the end of the maize cycle, remained below the values measured at the native Cerrado, indicating that the agricultural use of the land poses no additional risk to the nitrate accumulation and leaching into the soil profile.

  5. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  6. Leaf tissues proportion and chemical composition of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius as a function of pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús; Mário Miranda; Simone Meredith Scheffer Basso; Cercí Maria Carneiro; Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and anatomical attributes of leaves of giant missionary grass to application of 0, 62, 124, 186, 248 and 310m³ ha-1 of pig slurry. At 83 days after the last application of fertilizer, the leaf blades were collected, fixed in FAA 70%, sectioned, stained, photographed and digitalized. The transversal section of leaf blades were evaluated for proportion of epidermis, lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma, non-lignified vascular tissue and parenchyma w...

  7. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements. PMID:26172601

  8. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  9. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms. PMID:25089896

  10. Pig slurry as a nutrient source in wheat/corn succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wheat and corn are important grains in the agricultural scenario of Brazil, and demand adequate supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, in crop succession. The use of pig slurry (PS as a full and/or partial alternative to mineral fertilization in crop areas has been identified as an important alternative for the disposal of this waste. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of PS as fertilizer in wheat/corn succession under some plant parameters and grain yield. The experiment was conducted under field in randomized block design with four replications and five treatments, three with PS (40, 80, 160 m³ ha-1 and two controls (no fertilization and mineral NPK fertilization, which were applied manually in the soil shortly after sowing the crops. The application of PS proved to be a significant source of nutrients in wheat/corn succession. In comparison to NPK fertilization, this increase was only of 5.4% and 4.7% for wheat and corn, respectively. PS is an efficient alternative and it can be used as a source of these nutrients in wheat/corn succession, and the use of 80 m3ha-1 provides satisfactory results for all evaluated variables.

  11. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  12. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms.

  13. Pig slurry and nutrient accumulation and dry matter and grain yield in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry (PS represents an important nutrient source for plants and using it as fertilizer makes greater nutrient cycling in the environment possible. The aim of this study was to assess how PS application over a period of years can affect grain yield, dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in commercial grain and cover crops. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, from May 2000 to January 2008. In this period, 19 grain and cover crops were grown with PS application before sowing, at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The highest PS rate led to an increase in nutrient availability over the years, notably of P, but also of nutrients that are potentially toxic to plants, especially Cu and Zn. The apparent recovery of nutrients by commercial grain and cover crops decreased with the increasing number of PS applications to the soil. Accumulated dry matter production of the crops and maize grain yield were highest at an annual application rate of 80 m³ ha-1 PS. However, common bean yield increased up to 20 m³ ha-1 PS, showing that the crop to be grown should be considered to define the application rate.

  14. Forms and accumulation of copper and zinc in a sandy typic hapludalf soil after long-term application of pig slurry and deep litter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Successive applications of pig slurry and pig deep litter may lead to an accumulation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) fractions in the soil profile. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cu and Zn forms and accumulation in a Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil after long-term application of pig slurry and deep litter. In March 2010, eight years after initiating an experiment in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, on a Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil, soil samples were collected from the 0-2...

  15. Ammonia emissions from pig and cattle slurry in the field and utilization of slurry nitrogen in crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure is a major pathway for nitrogen (N) losses that cause eutrophication, acidification, and other environmental hazards. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques of manure treatment (aeration, separation, addition of peat) and application (broadcast spreading, band spreading, injection, incorporation by harrowing) on ammonia emissions in the field and on nitrogen uptake by ley or cereals was studied. The effect of a mixture of slurry ...

  16. Emissions of CH4, N2O, NH3 and odorants from pig slurry during winter and summer storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Dorno, Nadia; Lindholst, Sabine;

    2013-01-01

    eq m−3 day−1 during a 45-day winter storage, and 1.1–1.3 kg CO2 eq m−3 day−1 during a 58-day summer storage period independent of storage conditions; the GHG balance was dominated by CH4 emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions occurred only during summer storage where, apparently, emissions were related....... Pig slurry was stored with or without a straw crust, and with or without interception of precipitation, i.e., four treatments, in two randomized blocks. Emissions of total reduced S (mainly H2S) and p-cresol, but not skatole, were reduced by the straw crust. Total GHG emissions were 0.01–0.02 kg CO2......Manure storage contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG), NH3 and odour emissions from intensive livestock production. A pilot-scale facility with eight 6.5-m3 slurry storage units was used to quantify emissions of CH4, N2O, NH3, and odorants from pig slurry during winter and summer storage...

  17. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)). PMID:27344120

  18. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  19. Potential phosphorus leaching from sandy topsoils with different fertilizer histories before and after application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian; Aronsson, Helena; Ulen, Barbro; Bergström, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of historical long-term and recent single applications of pig slurry on P leaching from intact columns of two sandy topsoils (Mellby and Böslid). The soils had similar physical properties, but different soil P status (ammonium lactate-extractable P; P-AL) and degree of P saturation (DPS-AL). Mellby had P-AL of 220-280 mg kg-1 and DPS-AL of 32-42%, which was higher than for Böslid (P-AL 140 mg kg-1 and DPS 21%). The study investigated the effects since 1983 ...

  20. ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS AND STOCKS IN PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS OF A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY AND SOLUBLE FERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sueli Heberle Mafra; Paulo Cezar Cassol; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Marco André Grohskopf; Andreia Patrícia Andrade; Luiz Paulo Rauber; Augusto Friederichs

    2015-01-01

    The use of pig slurry (PS) as fertilizer can affect the soil quality and increase total stocks of soil organic carbon (TOC). However, the effects of PS on TOC amount and forms in the soil are not fully understood, particularly in areas under no-tillage (NT). The purpose of this study was to determine TOC contents and stocks in the particulate (POC) and mineral-associated C fractions (MAC) of an Oxisol after nine years of maize-oat rotation under NT, with annual applications of PS, soluble fer...

  1. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  2. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  3. Forms and accumulation of copper and zinc in a sandy typic hapludalf soil after long-term application of pig slurry and deep litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Luis Tiecher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry and pig deep litter may lead to an accumulation of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn fractions in the soil profile. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cu and Zn forms and accumulation in a Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil after long-term application of pig slurry and deep litter. In March 2010, eight years after initiating an experiment in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, on a Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil, soil samples were collected from the 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, 5-10 and 10-15 cm layers in treatments consisting of no manure application (control and with applications of pig slurry and deep litter at two levels: the single and double rate of N requirement for maize and black oat succession. The soil was dried, ground in an agate mortar and analyzed for Cu and Zn contents by 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA and chemically fractionated to determine Cu and Zn. The applications of Pig deep litter and slurry at doses equivalent to 90 kg ha-1 N increased the contents of available Cu and Zn in the surface soil layer, if the double of this dose was applied in pig deep litter or double this dose in pig slurry, Cu and Zn migrated to a depth of 15 cm. Copper is accumulated mainly in the organic and residual fractions, and zinc preferentially in the fraction linked to clay minerals, especially in the surface soil layers.

  4. Storage temperature affects distribution of carbon, VFA, ammonia, phosphorus, copper and zinc in raw pig slurry and its separated liquid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Olga; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-08-01

    Chemical-mechanical separation of pig slurry into a solid fraction rich in dry matter, P, Cu and Zn and a liquid fraction rich in inorganic N but poor in dry matter may allow farmers to manage surplus slurry by exporting the solid fraction to regions with no nutrient surplus. Pig slurry can be applied to arable land only in certain periods during the year, so it is commonly stored prior to field application. This study investigated the effect of storage duration and temperature on chemical characteristics and P, Cu and Zn distribution between particle size classes of raw slurry and its liquid separation fraction. Dry matter, VFA, total N and ammonium content of both slurry products decreased during storage and were affected by temperature, showing higher losses at higher storage temperatures. In both products, total P, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by storage duration or temperature. Particle size distribution was affected by slurry separation, storage duration and temperature. In raw slurry, particles larger than 1 mm decreased, whereas particles 250 μm-1 mm increased. The liquid fraction produced was free of particles >500 μm, with the highest proportions of P, Cu and Zn in the smallest particle size class (particles particle size classes followed a similar pattern to dry matter. PMID:22591817

  5. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use.

  6. Biohydrogen production from pig slurry in a CSTR reactor system with mixed cultures under hyper-thermophilic temperature (70 oC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) (750 cm3 working volume) was operated with pig slurry under hyper-thermophilic (70 oC) temperature for hydrogen production. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 h and the organic loading rate was 24.9 g d-1 of volatile solid (VS). The inoculum used in the hyper-thermophilic reactor was sludge obtained from a mesophilic methanogenic reactor. The continuous feeding with active biomass (inoculum) from the mesophilic methanogenic reactor was necessary in order to achieve hydrogen production. The hyper-thermophilic reactor started to produce hydrogen after a short adapted period of 4 days. During the steady state period the mean hydrogen yield was 3.65 cm3 g-1 of volatile solid added. The high operation temperature of the reactor enhanced the hydrolytic activity in pig slurry and increased the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The short HRT (24 h) and the hyper-thermophilic temperature applied in the reactor were enough to prevent methanogenesis. No pre-treatment methods or other control methods for preventing methanogenesis were necessary. Hyper-thermophilic hydrogen production was demonstrated for the first time in a CSTR system, fed with pig slurry, using mixed culture. The results indicate that this system is a promising one for biohydrogen production from pig slurry.

  7. Physical properties and organic carbon content of a Rhodic Kandiudox fertilized with pig slurry and poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rauber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of pig slurry and poultry litter fertilization on soils depends on the conditions of use and the amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of organic fertilizers after different application periods in different areas on the physical properties and organic carbon contents of a Rhodic Kandiudox, in Concordia, Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil. The treatments consisted of different land uses and periods of pig and poultry litter fertilization: silage maize (M7 years, silage maize (M20 years, annual ryegrass pasture (P3 years, annual ryegrass pasture (P15 years, perennial pasture (PP20 years, yerba mate tea (Mt20 years, native forest (NF, and native pasture without manure application (P0. The 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers were sampled and analyzed for total organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil physical properties such as density, porosity, aggregation, degree of flocculation, and penetration resistance. The organic carbon levels in the cultivated areas treated with organic fertilizer were even lower than in native forest soil. The organic fertilizers and studied management systems reduced the flocculation degree of the clay particles, and low macroporosity was observed in some areas. Despite these changes, a good soil physical structure was maintained, e.g., soil density and resistance to penetration were below the critical limits, whereas aggregate stability was high, which is important to reduce water erosion in these areas with rugged terrain in western Santa Catarina, used for pig and poultry farming.

  8. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  9. Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and

  10. Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries at 48 deg. C; Termofil udraadning af svinegylle ved 48 grader C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.; Joergensen, P.; Hannibal, E.

    1995-06-01

    Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries can give problems because of its high nitrogen content that, together with high concentrations of ammonia content, can encumber the growth activities of the bacteria so that the production of methane will be stopped. A series of experiments were carried out on a biomass conversion plant located on a farm in order to address this problem. These are described and the resulting data are given. It was concluded that it is possible to solve the problem by operating at a temperature of 48 deg. C, a low thermophilic temperature. The production of methane was also increased under these conditions, to 0.53 cubic meters per kilogram organic dry matter. Methane production is also highly dependent on residence time in the reactor, which is recommended as being 16 days and nights. Bentonite can have a stabilizing effect on the ammonia-binding process. (AB)

  11. The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55 °C and 80 °C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80 °C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38 kWh m(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55 °C and four days at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80 °C but doubled energy consumption. At 55 °C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7 °C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55 °C and organic/mineral deposits at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous. PMID:23376308

  12. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry.

  13. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  14. Effects of air exchange, temperature and slurry management on odorant emissions from pig production units and slurry tanks studied by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feilberg, A.; Adamsen, A.P.S.; Liu, D.; Hansen, M.J.; Bildsoe, P. [Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The factors affecting the variability of odorant emissions from intensive pig production facilities were examined using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to monitor emissions of odorants. Quantitative and time-resolved results for protonated ions representing hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), volatile organic sulphur compounds, organic amines, volatile carboxylic acids, carbonyls, phenols and indoles can be obtained. This study presented the results from PTRMS measurements of odorant emissions from finisher pig houses and finisher manure storage tanks. The measurements were performed at an experimental full-scale pig section with mechanical ventilation and at an experimental manure storage facility with controlled air exchange. Field measurements were taken during variable air exchange rates and temperatures, during finisher growth, and during emptying of the slurry pit. The results revealed a pronounced diurnal variation in emissions of odorants from the pig section with peaks in daytime coinciding with the highest ventilation rates and highest room temperatures. The highest emission rates were observed for H{sub 2}S and carboxylic acids. Based on odour threshold values, methanethiol and 4-methylphenol were estimated to contribute considerably to the odour nuisance. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced H{sub 2}S emissions, but peaks of H{sub 2}S were observed during manure handling.

  15. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Separation of Digested Fattening Pig Slurry for Optimal P Concentration, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    The purpose of this Life Cycle Assessment report is to investigate the potential for separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimise the utilisation of the phosphorous content of the manure. By separating, the phosphorous rich solid fraction can be brought to fields...... far away from the farm with a need for phosphorus, as the fields close to the pig farm areas usually contain abundant amounts of P. The environmental consequences of the separation has been assessed. Furthermore, the Life Cycle Assessment highlights the environmental impacts along the “manure...... of Manure Technology Chains in the project Baltic Manure....

  16. Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tappe, Wolfgang; Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an S...

  17. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species. PMID:27107257

  18. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  19. Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Wulff, Gitte; Vaclavik, Elvira;

    2006-01-01

    manure slurry and a tetracycline-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, CG I 10, containing the tetracycline resistance gene tet(m) (on the conjugative transposon, Tn916). The prevalence of both tetracycline-resistant aerobic bacteria and tetracycline-resistant enterococci declined rapidly until day 45 where...... no significant differences in the levels of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in any of the four types of microcosms could be detected. tet(M) could be detected in microcosms supplemented with either pig manure slurry and/or E. faecalis CG 110 (tet(M)) for the whole period (152 days). tet(M) could be detected...... longer than tetracycline-resistant enterococci could be isolated (limit of detection 100 CFU/g soil) probably due to viable but not culturable (VBNC) bacteria with tet(M), horizontal gene transfer of tet(M) to indigenous soil bacteria or presence of "free" DNA. The concentration of chlortetracycline...

  20. Changes in soil acidity and organic carbon in a sandy typic hapludalf after medium-term pig-slurry and deep-litter application

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Brunetto; Jucinei José Comin; Djalma Eugênio Schmitt; Renato Guardini; Célito Pescador Mezzari; Bruno Salvador Oliveira; Marcel Pires de Moraes; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; Paulo Emilio Lovato; Carlos Alberto Ceretta

    2012-01-01

    Successive applications of liquid swine waste to the soil can increase the contents of total organic carbon and nutrients and change acidity-related soil chemical properties. However, little information is available on the effects of swine waste application in solid form, as of swine deep-litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations of organic carbon and acidity-related properties of a soil after eight years of pig slurry and deep-litter application. In the eighth year of a...

  1. Soil microbial biomass under different tillage and levels of applied pig slurry Biomassa microbiana em solo submetido a diferentes preparos do solo e adição de dejetos líquidos de suínos

    OpenAIRE

    Elcio L. Balota; Oswaldo Machineski; Maria A. Matos

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in microbial biomass C, N and P due to the application of pig slurry under different soil tillage systems. The experiment was established in a clayey Oxisol, Eutrophic Red Latossol in Palotina, PR. Different quantities of pig slurry (0, 30, 60 and 120 m3 ha-1 year-1) were applied to the soil prior to the summer and winter crop season under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT), in three replicates. The area was cultivated...

  2. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  3. Effects of compost, pig slurry and lime on trace element solubility and toxicity in two soils differently affected by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-07-01

    The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35 μg g(-1) in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils.

  4. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer;

    2015-01-01

    dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  5. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2016-10-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories. PMID:27566935

  6. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  7. Degradation of sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus strain SDZm4, isolated from lysimeters previously manured with slurry from sulfadiazine-medicated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Wolfgang; Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-04-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with (14)C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no (14)CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as (14)CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified (14)C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

  8. Distribution of Pb and its chemical fractions in liquid and solid phases of digested pig and dairy slurries%猪、奶牛粪厌氧发酵中Pb的形态转化及其分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 付广青; 常志州; 叶小梅

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment effectively degrades the organic matter and causes obvious variations in physical and chemical properties of digested slurries, such as water content, pH, oxidation reduction potential and microbial activities. These changes may influence the chemical fraction of Pb, which is a critical factor in predicting its toxicity, environmental mobility, bioavailability and optimum removal methods. The speciation and phytotoxic effects of lead from sewage sludge and composted manure have been widely studied. There has been no study about the transfer and distribution of Pb during anaerobic digestion of manure slurries. The aim of the present work was to analyze the distribution of Pb in both liquid and solid phase after anaerobic digestion of pig slurries and dairy slurries, and their chemical speciation in solid fraction of digested residuals. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at condition of medium temperature [(37 ± 2)℃] was operated for 130 d. Lead in liquid and solid phases of raw materials and digested slurries was analyzed by first passing through a 0.45 µm filter paper. The chemical fractions in digested slurry solids were extracted by BCR method. Results showed that total amount of Pb was decreased 70% and 19% in digested pig slurries (DPS) and dairy slurries (DDS), respectively, , compared with raw slurries. The percentages of Pb in liquid fractions of DPS and DDS were 29%and 17%, which decreased by 17%and 58%. The decrease of Pb in DDS was significantly lower than that in DPS. One reason is that 90%of solids in DDS were discharged during the anaerobic digestion. Another reason is that Pb in digested slurries mainly exists as the solid form. Thus the amount of Pb left in the reactor for dairy manure digestion was significantly lower than that for pig manure digest. Due to the high removal efficiency, easy operation and low treatment cost of heavy metals in solid phase, transformation of liquid phase of heavy metals to the

  9. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

  10. 规模化养猪场处理废水对水稻中微量及重金属元素含量的影响%Effects of Pig Slurry from Large-scale Pig Farm on Medium, Micro-and Heavy Elements Contents of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高威; 王远玲; 陶晓婷; 施金琦; 徐杏; 陆建飞; 庄恒扬

    2013-01-01

    以迟熟中粳“淮稻5号”和经过无害化处理的规模化养猪场处理废水为供试材料,在减施N肥和不施入P、K肥的条件下,研究施入不同量废水对常规粳稻植株及籽粒中5种重金属元素和6种主要中微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:Pb、As、Ca、Mg和Fe元素含量均以基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2 N肥处理为最高;Cd、Hg、Cr和Mn元素含量均以常规施肥处理为最高;Cu除籽粒外,以纯废水处理(基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2、穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2,不施入肥料)为最高;Zn除拔节期外,基肥施入处理废水90 m3·hm-2,穗期施入处理废水120 m3·hm-2配施187.5 kg·hm-2处理最高.As、Pb、Mg、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn和Cu于各生育期在基施处理废水量相同的情况下,均随着穗期处理废水施用量的增加而增加,但是Hg、Cd和Cr与此相反.各处理中水稻籽粒Pb、Cd、Cr、As和Hg的含量均低于相应的污染物限量标准,而水稻植株和籽粒中Zn、Fe、Mn、Ca和Mg营养得到提高,特别是Fe和Ca的含量得到了强化.因此,与常规施肥处理相比,处理废水替代化肥能够提高水稻籽粒中的有益元素含量,同时并未引起重金属元素含量的显著上升,且使Hg、Cd和Cr含量下降.%With the rapid development of China's large-scale pig farms,increasing pig slurry is causing serious environmental pollution that in turn threatens the sustainable development of large-scale pig farming.The utilization of pig slurry,a kind source of nutrients,combined by pig farming with cropping is one of the best solutions to this problem.As the utilization of pig slurry in farmlands lacked systematic research,a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of pig slurry on the contents of medium,micro elements and heavy metals elements in rice.The results of the study could provide the scientific basis for efficient rice production

  11. Alterações no teor de fósforo no solo com aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos Soil phosphorus alteration by pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Léo Berwanger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dejetos líquidos de suínos servem como fonte de nutrientes às plantas, porém, quando o seu uso é inadequado, podem causar o acúmulo de P no solo, que posteriormente pode ser transferido para o meio aquático, causando eutrofização. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de risco de contaminação ambiental com o uso de dejeto líquido de suíno, mensurando as alterações ocorridas no teor de P no solo e nas isotermas de sorção. O trabalho foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arenico. Foram utilizadas as doses de 0, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 de dejetos líquidos de suínos, distribuídos a lanço sobre a superfície antes da semeadura de cada espécie numa rotação de culturas. A aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos na superfície do solo sob sistema plantio direto, aportando quantidades de P superiores àquelas exportadas pelas culturas, aumentou o P disponível do solo até 15 cm de profundidade. A saturação dos sítios de adsorção de fosfato do solo, avaliada pelos parâmetros de equação de Langmuir, é proporcional à dose de dejetos líquidos de suínos. A concentração de P na solução de equilíbrio P, a quantidade de P dessorvida com água e a constante que pode dar informação sobre a afinidade do fosfato com o solo da superfície foram alteradas pela aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos, indicando um favorecimento à dessorção de P caso estes sejam erodidos para mananciais de águas superficiais.Pig slurry serves as plant nutrient source, but may cause phosphorus accumulation in the soil when used improperly, which later can be transferred to the aquatic environment causing eutrophication. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of environmental contamination by continuous use of pig slurry, measuring alterations in phosphorus content in the soil and in the sorption isotherms. The study was carried out at the

  12. Distribution of Pb and its chemical fractions in liquid and solid phases of digested pig and dairy slurries%猪、奶牛粪厌氧发酵中Pb的形态转化及其分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳红梅; 付广青; 常志州; 叶小梅

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment effectively degrades the organic matter and causes obvious variations in physical and chemical properties of digested slurries, such as water content, pH, oxidation reduction potential and microbial activities. These changes may influence the chemical fraction of Pb, which is a critical factor in predicting its toxicity, environmental mobility, bioavailability and optimum removal methods. The speciation and phytotoxic effects of lead from sewage sludge and composted manure have been widely studied. There has been no study about the transfer and distribution of Pb during anaerobic digestion of manure slurries. The aim of the present work was to analyze the distribution of Pb in both liquid and solid phase after anaerobic digestion of pig slurries and dairy slurries, and their chemical speciation in solid fraction of digested residuals. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at condition of medium temperature [(37 ± 2)℃] was operated for 130 d. Lead in liquid and solid phases of raw materials and digested slurries was analyzed by first passing through a 0.45 µm filter paper. The chemical fractions in digested slurry solids were extracted by BCR method. Results showed that total amount of Pb was decreased 70% and 19% in digested pig slurries (DPS) and dairy slurries (DDS), respectively, , compared with raw slurries. The percentages of Pb in liquid fractions of DPS and DDS were 29%and 17%, which decreased by 17%and 58%. The decrease of Pb in DDS was significantly lower than that in DPS. One reason is that 90%of solids in DDS were discharged during the anaerobic digestion. Another reason is that Pb in digested slurries mainly exists as the solid form. Thus the amount of Pb left in the reactor for dairy manure digestion was significantly lower than that for pig manure digest. Due to the high removal efficiency, easy operation and low treatment cost of heavy metals in solid phase, transformation of liquid phase of heavy metals to the

  13. Nitrato no solo com a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos no milho em plantio direto Soil nitrate as affected by pig slurry application under no-till corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2008-10-01

    de perdas de N-NO3- por lixiviação com a aplicação dos dejetos, principalmente na dose de 80 m³ ha-1, em que a quantidade média de N total aplicada nos três anos foi de 244 kg ha-1 ano-1.The application of animal manure to the soil, particularly those generated in pig farms, has become an increasingly common practice in southern Brazil. However, depending on the dose applied, there is a risk of nutrient losses, mainly nitrate (NO3-, to the water courses through leaching and runoff, and to the atmosphere as N-oxide emissions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accumulation and displacement of N-NO3- in the soil after pig slurry application in no-tillage corn. The doses of 0, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 pig slurry were applied annually, for three years, on the mulch of cover crop of black oats and of winter spontaneous vegetation, preceding corn sowing. The N-NO3- concentration was evaluated in different soil layers to a depth of 60 cm and on six dates, from the slurry application until corn tasseling. The amount of N-NO3- increased quickly in the soil surface layer with the pig slurry application, evidencing the high nitrification rates of ammoniacal N in the slurry. N-NO3- produced in the surface layers moved down quickly in the soil profile. At a dose of 80 m³ ha-1 slurry the amounts of N-NO3- in the 30-60 cm soil layer on the 30th day of the first year, 29 th day in the second and 36 th day in the third year were higher than the average of the treatments without slurry in 9, 21 and 32 kg ha-1 N-NO3-, respectively. In the first two years the amount of soil N-NO3- in the surface layer did not differ with slurry application on mulch of oats or spontaneous vegetation, indicating the low potential of grass mulch in promoting microbial N immobilization. The high rate of nitrification of ammoniacal N in the slurry and the fast displacement of N-NO3- in the soil profile when the corn N demand was still small indicate a greater susceptibility of N-NO3- losses by

  14. Emissão de dióxido de carbono após aplicação de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos Carbon dioxide emission after application of pig slurry and pig deep-litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Giacomini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emissão de dióxido de carbono, após a aplicação ao solo de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos, na presença de palha de aveia, com e sem incorporação ao solo. O experimento foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação ou não de dejetos líquidos e cama sobreposta de suínos sobre palha de aveia, com e sem incorporação ao solo. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, iniciou-se a medida da emissão de CO2, continuamente, pelo período de 120 dias. A incorporação dos dejetos de suínos e da palha ao solo aumenta a emissão de CO2 para a atmosfera, em comparação à distribuição desses materiais orgânicos na superfície do solo. A aplicação conjunta dos dejetos líquidos e da cama sobreposta de suínos com a palha não aumenta a emissão de CO2 para a atmosfera, o que indica que esses materiais orgânicos não favorecem a mineralização do carbono presente na palha de aveia.The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon dioxide emission to atmosphere after pig slurry and deep-litter application to the soil, along with oat straw with and without soil incorporation. The experiment was carried out on a Hapludalf. The experimental design was a completely randomized one with three replicates. The treatments consisted of application, or not, of pig slurry and pig deep-litter on oat straw, with and without soil incorporation. The measurement of the CO2 emission began after treatment applications and lasted 120 days. Pig manure and oat straw incorporation to the soil increase C-CO2 emission to the atmosphere, compared to the distribution of those organic materials on soil surface. Pig slurry and pig deep-litter application on the straw do not increase CO2 emission to the atmosphere, which indicates that these organic materials do not influence C

  15. Changes of Nutrients in Anaerobically Digested Slurry of Pig Manure During Storage%猪粪沼液贮存过程中养分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华山; 郭德杰; 马艳; 常志州

    2012-01-01

    为实现沼液养分有效利用与管理,研究了规模化养猪场沼液在不同季节、不同方式贮存条件下,沼液中COD、pH、TN、TP、TK等变化,结果表明:贮存90d后,沼液中TN、TP、TK含量分别减少了67.22%~84.31%、59.70%~93.45%、35.27%~80.25%,COD下降了24.78%~42.96%;贮存期内铵态氮含量持续下降,至60d后基本保持稳定,90d后4个处理铵态氮减少了75.35%~89.71%,硝态氮含量增加了3~6倍.比较不同季节,在贮存期前60d内,夏秋季的COD浓度以及TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度高于冬春季,而在贮存60 d后,冬春季贮存沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度显著高于夏秋季;沼液加盖贮存,在前期可减少沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N量的下降,但贮存90 d时,其贮存方式对TN、TP、NH4+-N量变化的影响已不明显.试验结果为沼液的存放和农田施用提供了重要参数.%Changes of COD and nutrients content in anaerobically digested slurry (ADS) of pig manure produced from large biogas plant are monitored during 90-day storage under different conditions to achieve its effective utilization and management of nutrients The results showed that the contents of total N(TN), total P(TP), total K(TK) and COD decreased by 67.22%乣84.31%, 59.70%乣93.45%,35.27%乣 80.25% and 24.78%乣42.96%,respectively. The ammonium-N content decreased constantly in the 60-day storage time and remained stable in the next 30 days. The ammonium-N concentration reduced by 75.35%乣89.71% while the nitrate content increased by 4乣6 folds after storage for 90 days. During the first 60 days , the decrement of concentration of COD, TN, TP, TK , ammonium-N and nitrate was more significant in Summer-Autumn than those of in Winter-Spring. However, the reduction of T-N, T-P and ammonium-N contents were more significant in Winter-Spring than those of in Summer-Autumn 60 days later. The ADS stored in sedimentation pond covered by lid lessened the de-creasement of TN, TP

  16. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management. PMID:25463570

  17. Inibidor de nitrificação e aplicação parcelada de dejetos de suínos nas culturas do milho e trigo Nitrification inhibitor and split applications of pig slurry to corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janquieli Schirmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas com produção intensiva de suínos, os dejetos líquidos dos animais constituem importante fonte de nitrogênio (N às culturas; entretanto, esses dejetos são uma das principais causas de poluição do solo, do ar e da água. É preciso buscar estratégias que reduzam as perdas de N desse resíduo orgânico para o ambiente e que melhorem a sua eficiência agronômica, relativa ao fornecimento de N às culturas comerciais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso de inibidor de nitrificação (IN e da aplicação parcelada de dejetos líquidos de suínos (Dls sobre o acúmulo de N e a produtividade de milho e trigo em plantio direto. Os tratamentos avaliados constaram da aplicação da dose recomendada de Dls em aplicação única e parcelada (1/3 em pré-semeadura e 2/3 em cobertura, com e sem IN. Além desses quatro tratamentos, foi avaliado um tratamento com adubação mineral (NPK recomendada ao milho e ao trigo e outro sem IN e sem fertilizantes (testemunha. O IN, à base de dicianodiamida (DCD, foi misturado aos dejetos na dose de 7 kg ha-1. A aplicação de Dls, em dose única ou parcelada, aumentou o acúmulo de N e a produtividade de milho e trigo, proporcionando resultados similares aos observados com a adubação mineral recomendada às duas culturas. As estratégias de parcelar a dose recomendada de Dls ao milho e ao trigo e de usar a DCD para inibir a nitrificação não influenciaram o acúmulo de N e a produtividade do milho e trigo em plantio direto.In areas of intensive pig production, pig slurry is used as an important nitrogen (N source of crops, but is also a major cause of soil, air and water pollution. Strategies are required to reduce N losses from this organic material to the environment and to improve the agronomic efficiency as plant N source. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of a nitrification inhibitor (NI and the split application of pig slurry (PS on N

  18. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications Nutrientes em camadas de solo submetido a sucessivas aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos e sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Hapludalf. The treatments consisted of pig slurry applications (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 and at the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected (layers 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm. The levels of mineral N, available P and K and total N, P and K were evaluated. The 19 pig slurry applications in 93 months promoted migration of total N and P down to 30 cm and available P and K to the deepest layer analyzed. At the end of the experiment, no increase was observed in mineral N content in the deeper layers, but increased levels of available P and K, showing a transfer of N, P and K to layers below the sampled. This evidences undesirable environmental and economic consequences of the use of pig slurry and reinforces the need for a more rational use, i.e., applications of lower manure doses, combined with mineral fertilizers.Aplicações sucessivas de dejeto de suínos em solos sob plantio direto podem aumentar os teores de nutrientes em suas camadas superficiais, bem como parte desses podem ser transferidos para as mais profundas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de nutrientes no perfil de um solo com 19 aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos em sistema de plantio direto, durante 93 meses. O experimento foi conduzido em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio de 2000 a janeiro 2008, em um Argissolo Vermelho distr

  19. 自由空域对猪粪麦秸好氧堆肥的影响实验分析%Effects Analysis of Free Airspace to Pig Slurry Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting in Laboratory Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2011-01-01

    为研究不同水平自由空域(Fas)对堆肥效果的影响,利用实验室小型反应器进行了好氧堆肥试验,使用等量猪粪分别与等量不同粒径(0~1 cm、2~5 cm和7 cm)麦秸按照质量比1∶0.086混合获得不同Fas水平(56.70%、62.67%和68.36%),利用温度传感器、氧浓度传感器动态监测堆肥过程中温度和氧气体积分数的变化,研究分析了堆肥始末含水率和挥发性固体(VS)含量的变化,并基于Matlab平台建立了基于温度、氧气体积分数等多因素Monod形式的VS降解动力学模型.试验结果表明:等量猪粪与等量麦秸混合堆肥,麦秸粒径产生的Fas差异对堆肥过程影响显著;所建立的基于温度、氧气体积分数等多因素Monod形式VS降解动力学模型模拟结果与实际测量结果一致.%To study the effects of different initial free airspaces (Fas) on pig slurry-wheat straw reactor scale composting, three levels of Fas (56. 70% ,62. 67% ,68. 36% ) were obtained by mixing pig slurry and wheat straw with the same mass ratio (1:0. 086) but in different wheat straw sizes (0 ~1 cm, 2 -5 cm, 7 cm). Oxygen concentration and temperature were monitored by sensors during the whole composting period, while moisture and volatile solid (VS) content were checked by chemical analysis method at the end of composting. In addition, a Monod form model was employed to simulate VS content during composting period. According to the results of composting test, changes of oxygen concentration, temperature, moisture and VS based on different initial Fas levels were respectively clearly different; effects of bulking agent sizes on mixture structure were apparent.

  20. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH4 by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH4 production than fresh slurry. Sulfate...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle...... slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option....

  1. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  2. Emissão de óxido nitroso com a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos em solo sob plantio direto Nitrous oxide emissions following pig slurry application in soil under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Giacomini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as emissões de óxido nitroso (N2O para a atmosfera depois da aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos, em plantio direto (PD e preparo reduzido (PR do solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação (40 m³ ha-1, ou não, de dejetos líquidos em PD e PR. As emissões de N2O foram medidas in situ depois da aplicação dos dejetos, por 28 dias. Os fluxos de N2O aumentaram com a aplicação dos dejetos e, em apenas 20% das avaliações realizadas, foram superiores no PD. As emissões de N2O relacionaram-se com o aumento do espaço poroso ocupado pela água. Quantidades acumuladas de N na forma de N2O, emitidas em 28 dias, representaram 0,20 e 0,25% do N total aplicado com os dejetos no PD e PR, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a aplicação de dejetos líquidos de suínos em PD não aumenta a emissão acumulada de N2O em relação à aplicação em PR.The objective of this work was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O emissions to the atmosphere with pig slurry application on soil under no-tillage (NT and minimum tillage (MT. The experimental design was set as a completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments consisted of the application (40 m³ ha-1, or not, of pig slurry in NT and MT. The N2O emissions were measured in situ, after the slurry application, for 28 days. The N2O flux increased with the application of slurry and, only in 20% of the evaluations, they were greater in NT. Nitrous oxide emissions were related to the increase of the water-filled pore space. Amounts of N-N2O emitted in 28 days represented 0.20 and 0.25% of total N applied with slurry for NT and MT, respectively. Results work show that pig slurry application in NT does not increase the accumulated N2O emission in relation to application in MT.

  3. Nitrificação do nitrogênio amoniacal de dejetos líquidos de suínos em solo sob sistema de plantio direto Nitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen from pig slurry in soil under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de nitrificação do N amoniacal dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, aplicados ao solo em sistema de plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado durante três anos agrícolas, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As parcelas principais foram compostas por dois sistemas de cultura (aveia preta/milho e pousio/milho e as subparcelas, por doses de dejetos (0, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 por ano. A nitrificação foi estimada a partir da determinação dos teores de N mineral em diferentes camadas do solo, em diversas épocas, após a aplicação dos dejetos. Na média dos três anos, a taxa líquida de nitrificação no sistema aveia/milho atingiu 4,8 kg ha-1 dia-1 de N na forma de nitrato e superou aquela do sistema pousio/milho em 43%. A aplicação dos dejetos na dose 80 m³ ha-1 resultou em uma taxa de nitrificação superior à verificada na dose de 40 m³ ha-1 em 188%. O N amoniacal dos dejetos líquidos de suínos é rapidamente nitrificado no solo em plantio direto e completamente oxidado a N nítrico entre 15 e 20 dias após a aplicação dos dejetos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nitrification rate in no-tillaged soil treated with pig slurry. The experiment was carried out during three years in an Arenic Hapludult soil, in a complete randomized block design, with split plots and three replications. The main plots were composed of two crop systems (black oat/maize and fallow/maize and the split plots were composed of three rates of pig slurry (0, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The nitrification was evaluated based on concentrations of mineral N, in different soil layers, in several periods after pig slurry application. On the average of the three years, the nitrification rate in the black oat/maize system reached 4.8 kg ha-1 of NO3--N per day, overcoming that of the fallow/maize system in 43

  4. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-handling techniques, food protection principles, personal hygiene, plant sanitation practices, pH controls... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  5. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields.

  6. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields. PMID:26217884

  7. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with safe and suitable acidifiers, with or without addition of lactic acid producing bacteria.... Acidified sour cream has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5 percent, calculated as lactic acid....

  8. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boes, J.; Alban, L.; Bagger, J.;

    2005-01-01

    the survival times of E. coli and Salmonella in the soil surface following deposition of naturally contaminated pig slurry; and (3) simulate survival of Salmonella in different infection levels using E. coli data as input estimates. Slurry was deposited by four different methods: (1) hose applicator on black...... amended with contaminated pig slurry was an effective means to reduce environmental exposure to E. coli and Salmonella on this clay-soil farm....

  9. In Vitro Killing of Mycobacterium ulcerans by Acidified Nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Kuijper, S.; Benjamin, N.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Wilks, M.; Kolk, A. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, which causes Buruli ulcer, was exposed to acidified nitrite or to acid alone for 10 or 20 min. Killing was rapid, and viable counts were reduced below detectable limits within 10 min of exposure to 40 mM acidified nitrite. M. ulcerans is highly susceptible to acidified nitrite in vitro. PMID:15273132

  10. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods... requests for single copies of the draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods'' to...

  11. Effects of combined application of inorganic fertilizer with straw and pig slurry and their compost on wheat growth and nitrogen uptake%不同有机物及其堆肥与化肥配施对小麦生长及氮素吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁洁; 蒋益; 徐春淼; 沈其荣; 徐阳春

    2012-01-01

    Effects of combined application of inorganic fertilizer with straw, pig slurry, straw compost and pig slurry compost on wheat growth and nitrogen uptake were studied in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils. A pot experiment was carried out in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils in Yixing based on 15N isotope tracer. The results show that compared to the inorganic N fertilization treatments, the combined applications of organic and inorganic fertilizers increase wheat yields by 4.46%-24. 82% and 1.01%-20.53% in paddy soils and gray alluvial soils, respectively. Wheat yields under the combined applications of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost are higher than those of the combined applications of straw and pig slurry, respectively. The combined applications of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost stimulate N uptake and improve N accumulation of wheat. The treatments of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost have the highest ^15N recovery rates, while the ^15N recovery rates of the inorganic N fertilization the treatments are the lowest. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen under the combined application of straw and pig slurry is always higher than that under the combined application of the straw compost and the pig slurry compost during wheat growth season. At the tillering stage, soil mineral nitrogen under the inorganic N fertilization treatment is higher, and it is lower in the later growing stages. During the whole growing period, soil mineral nitrogen amounts under the combined applications of the straw compost and the pigslurry compost are higher than those under the combined applications of straw and slurry. In summary, the combined application of the composts and inorganic fertilizer is more conducive to improving crop yields and plant N uptake.%采用^15N示踪技术,选用水稻土和灰潮土在宜兴进行小麦盆栽试验,研究了稻草、猪粪及其堆肥与化肥配施对作物生长及氮素吸收的影响。结果表明,

  12. 猪粪麦秸反应器好氧堆肥水分平衡模型研究%Modeling of Moisture Balance during Pig Slurry Reactor Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2012-01-01

    分别建立了基于质量守恒方程和水分蒸发一级动力学方程的猪粪麦秸好氧堆肥水分平衡模型.水分平衡质量守恒模型考虑进口气体水分含量、出口气体携水量和堆肥微生物产水量对水分质量平衡的影响,并将堆肥过程有机质降解的梯次性作为影响生物产水量的重要因素.水分蒸发一级动力学模型考虑堆体自身含水率和通风速率对水分蒸发速率的影响,且堆体自身含水率在堆肥过程中呈动态变化.实验室好氧堆肥反应器验证试验结果表明,2种水分平衡模型的模拟结果与实际测量结果一致性良好,水分平衡质量守恒模型水分含量变化的实际结果与模拟结果的相对标准偏差为8.01%,水分蒸发一级动力学模型水分含量变化的实际结果与模拟结果的相对标准偏差为8.86%.%Simulation models regarding moisture content were developed respectively by law of conversation of mass and first order assumption with respect to the quality of moisture content. Approaches by law of conversation of mass to moisture content prediction was based on an analysis of biologically produced water, exit gas content and inlet air content, with the biological water estimated from yield factors based on biodegradable volatile solid degradation. The other approach to moisture content prediction based on first order moisture evaporation kinetics was developed by an analysis of composting pile moisture content and aeration rate. An aerobic composting process of pig slurry and wheat straw was conducted in order to verify the models constructed. The experimental results showed that modeling results gave good accuracy, and the relative standard error of law of conservation of mass model and first order assumption model were respectively 8. 01% and 8. 86% .

  13. 猪粪好氧堆肥过程有机质降解和热量平衡模型%Modeling of Organic Matter Degradation and Thermal Balance during Pig Slurry Aerobic Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永江; 黄光群; 韩鲁佳

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of organic matter degradation and thermal balance were built based on the first order assumption with respect to the quantity of biodegradable volatile solid ( BVS) and the law of thermal conservation during composting. Different kinds of organic matter were mainly degraded in different composting stages. For the organic matter degradation model,temperature,moisture content,oxygen content and free air space were considered as key influence factors to degeneration rate. For the model of thermal balance,forced convention and conduction were considered as the main heat removal form. In order to verify the constructed models,an aerobic composting process of pig slurry was conducted. Temperature,oxygen content,moisture content and organic matter concentration were all monitored in the process of composting. The results could be helpful for guiding composting process operation.%依据有机质降解一级动力学方程和系统热量平衡方程,充分考虑猪粪好氧堆肥有机质降解的梯次性对数学建模的影响,建立了反应器好氧堆肥过程有机质降解Monod模型和热量平衡模型.有机质降解Monod模型考虑了温度、含水率、氧体积分数和自由空域4种因素对降解系数的影响,其中温度作为最主要影响因素;热量平衡模型中主要考虑了对流、传导的热量传递方式.利用实验室好氧堆肥反应器进行的模型验证试验结果表明:堆肥试验实测值与模型模拟值表现出较好的一致性,有机质降解的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为13.02%,温度变化的实测值与模型模拟值的相对标准误差为9.9%.

  14. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  15. Formas de perdas de cobre e fósforo em água de escoamento superficial e percolação em solo sob aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos Forms of losses of copper and phosphorus in water of runoff and percolation in soil with successive pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Girotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos podem aumentar os teores de cobre e fósforo na camada superficial do solo, aumentando as perdas de suas formas por escoamento superficial e percolação. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as perdas e as formas de cobre e de fósforo na solução escoada, na superfície e percolada em solo submetido a aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento utilizado neste estudo foi instalado no ano de 2000, sobre um solo Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Os tratamentos foram aplicações sucessivas de 0, 40 e 80m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido de suínos a lanço e na superfície do solo, em sistema plantio direto. Para este trabalho, foram coletadas soluções escoadas e percoladas, durante o ciclo da aveia preta (Avena strigosa, no inverno de 2006, quando o solo apresentava um histórico de 16 aplicações de dejeto. Nas soluções, foi quantificado o sedimento e determinados os teores de Cu, P, cátions e ânions, pH, carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD e condutividade elétrica (CE. Usando o programa Visual MINTEQ, versão 2.15, se realizou a especiação iônica de Cu e P nas soluções. As maiores perdas de cobre e fósforo do solo ocorrem por escoamento superficial, em áreas submetidas a aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos em sistema plantio direto. O potencial contaminante desses elementos ficou evidenciado pela presença do cobre na forma predominante orgânica (CuCOD e do fósforo nas formas livres (HPO4(2- e H2PO4-, na solução escoada.Successive pig slurry application can increase the copper and phosphorus levels in the soil and the losses of these elements by surface runoff and percolation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the losses and the forms of both copper and phosphorus in the surface runoff and also in/on the percolation solution, on soils with successive pig slurry application under no tillage

  16. Dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e produção de fitomassa por plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno com o uso de dejetos de suínos Dynamics of soil nitrogen and cover crops dry matter production in the fall/winter as affected by pig slurry use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-10-01

    favoreceu o crescimento da aveia em detrimento da ervilhaca, ocorrendo o melhor equilíbrio entre a produção de fitomassa e a adição de N na dose de 20 m³ ha-1 de dejetos. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a eficiência das plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno em ciclar nutrientes fornecidos pelos dejetos de suínos e a importância da utilização de espécies com elevado potencial de produção de matéria seca e que sejam exigentes em N.The use of pig slurry before implanting cover crops in the fall/winter is becoming a common practice in southern Brazil, although its effects on crops and soil are still poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of soil N as well as to study the cover crop yields under use of pig slurry in the fall/winter. The study was developed in the growing season 2000 on an experimental area of the Soils Department of UFSM, RS. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and three replications. The main plots had black oat, black oat (30 % + common vetch (70 % mixture and spontaneous vegetation of the area (fallow. Four pig slurry rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 were applied on the split-plots. The mineral N contents (N-NH4+ and N-NO2- + N-NO3- were evaluated at seven dates in the layers of 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth. The dry matter production and N, P and K concentration of cover crops and spontaneous vegetation were evaluated. Mineral soil N increased with liquid manure application, with similar N dynamics when applied on residues of oat/corn or on weeds/corn residues. After application of 80 m³ ha-1 there was evidence of N-NO3- leaching to depths below 60 cm, higher in weeds/corn system than oat/corn crop system. Dry matter production as well as the content of N, P and K in cover crops increased with the use of slurry. For single oat the increase of dry matter production with a slurry dose of 40 was 2.7 mg ha-1 compared to no-slurry treatment. In

  17. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi;

    to high water content, suggesting a drying of the manure fibre would be favourable. The mean P concentration in the ashes was 112, 123, 157, and 51 g kg-1 for AD, pigs, mink and cattle respectively. Manure fibre ashes derived from cattle slurry and AD plants, which used feed with a high percentage...

  18. Effect of the nitrogen of biogas slurry and composted pig manure on yield of Brassica oleracea and soil quality%猪粪厌氧、有氧发酵物氮源对甘蓝生长及土壤养分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞龙; 叶美锋; 林代炎

    2015-01-01

    探讨了在等氮量供应下,猪粪厌氧发酵物(沼液)及有氧发酵物(堆肥)氮源对甘蓝生长及土壤养分的影响,结果表明:在等氮量供应的情况下,施用猪粪沼液不仅可以替代化肥为作物提供生长所必需的氮素,而且提高了养分的利用效率,对甘蓝的增产效果显著;而施用猪粪堆肥处理的甘蓝产量较低,但是施用猪粪堆肥可以提高土壤有机质和土壤pH值,减少施用化肥带来的土壤酸化危害;在等氮量供应的情况下,单施猪粪堆肥处理的土壤有效磷、速效钾含量最高。%The effects of different nitrogen sources from the anaerobic fermented product ( Biogas slurry) and the aerobic fermen-ted product ( Compost) of pig manure on Brassica oleracea growth and soil quality were discussed in this paper. The results indi-cated that at the same dosages of nitrogen fertilizr, yield of Brassica oleracea was higher when biogas slurry was applied than that of when compost was used. Biogas slurry could improve nutrient use efficiency. Meanwhile, the compost could increase soil or-ganic matter and improve soil the value of pH, reducing soil acidification due to fertilizer application. Also, at the same dosages of nitrogen fertilizer, the soil available phosphorus and available potassium with only compost application was the highest.

  19. Transformações do nitrogênio no solo após adição de dejeto líquido e cama sobreposta de suínos Nitrogen transformations in soil after the addition of pig slurry and pig deep‑litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Giacomini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as transformações do N no solo após a aplicação de dejeto líquido (DLS e cama sobreposta (CSS de suínos, com e sem palha de aveia, e com e sem incorporação ao solo. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: solo (S, S + palha incorporada (S + Pi, S + palha em superfície (S + Ps, S + CSS incorporada (S + CSSi, S + CSS em superfície (S + CSSs, S + DLS incorporado (S + DLSi, S + DLS em superfície (S + DLSs, S + Pi + DLSi e S + Ps + DLSs. Avaliaram-se a volatilização de amônia, a nitrificação e a mineralização do N do DLS e da CSS. A incorporação do DLS reduziu a volatilização de amônia em 93%, em comparação à aplicação na superfície do solo. O N amoniacal da CSS foi nitrificado nos cinco primeiros dias. A taxa de nitrificação líquida foi duas vezes maior com a incorporação do DLS ao solo do que na superfície. A mineralização do N orgânico não diferiu com o modo de aplicação do DLS e da CSS no solo. Na CSS, 14,6% do N foi mineralizado, contra 34,9% no DLS. A aplicação do DLS com a palha de aveia na superfície do solo favorece a imobilização microbiana de N, mas não reduz as perdas de N por volatilização de amônia.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil N transformations after the application of pig slurry (PS and pig deep‑litter (PDL, with and without oat straw, and with and without incorporation into the soil. The evaluated treatments were: soil (S, S + incorporated straw (S + Sti, S + straw on surface (S + Sts, S + incorporated PDL (S + PDLi, S + PDL on surface (S + PDLs, S + incorporated PS (S + PSi, S + PS on surface (S + PSs, S + Sti + Psi, and S + Sts + PSs. The following were evaluated: ammonia volatilization, nitrification and N mineralization of PS and PDL. Incorporation of PS reduced ammonia volatilization in 93% when compared to surface application. The ammoniacal N in PDL was nitrified within the first five days. The net nitrification rate was two

  20. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized that...

  1. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  2. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  3. Resposta de pastagens perenes à adubação com chorume suíno: cultivar Tifton 85 Response of perennial pasture to fertilization with pig slurry: cv. Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a resposta de uma pastagem de capim-tifton à adubação com chorume suíno (CS. O chorume suíno foi aplicado após os cortes em 15/10/2003 (emparelhamento, 24/11/2003, 10/1/2004 e 25/2/2004 nas doses de: 0, 15, 30 e 45 m³/ha/corte, totalizando 0, 60, 120 e 180 m³/ha na primavera-verão. Em 10/4/2004, foi realizado o último corte, quando não foi mais aplicado chorume suíno. A maior produção de MS (2.232 kg/ha foi obtida no segundo corte (janeiro de 2004, com 30 m³/ha, 347% superior à obtida sem aplicação de chorume suíno. A resposta da produção total de MS à adubação com chorume suíno foi quadrática e resultou em produções de 1.397 (sem CS, 2.971 (15 m³, 4.696 (30 m³ e 4.714 (45 m³ kg/ha. A eficiência (24,5 kg MS/m³/ha do chorume suíno não diferiu entre as doses aplicadas, mas variou de 5,6 a 49,7 kg MS/m³/ha entre os cortes. A extração máxima de nitrogênio foi de 28 kg N/ha (30 m³ e a recuperação de nitrogênio variou de 2% (quarto corte a 12% (segundo corte. Os teores de PB e FDA foram afetados pela aplicação de chorume suíno e pela data de corte e variaram de 8,3 (sem chorume a 10,7% (30 m³ no primeiro corte e de 45,9 (sem chorume a 42,8% (45 m³ no último corte. A aplicação de chorume suíno é uma alternativa para aumentar a produção de pastagens de capim-tifton 85. Sugere-se a dose de 30 m³/ha como valor-referência para aplicação depois de cada corte ou pastejo.The work was carried out with the aim to verify the response of a cv. Tifton 85 pasture, in Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul state, to pig slurry (PS fertilization, in the rates of 0, 15, 30 and 45 m³/ha/cutting, between October/03 and February/04, totalizing 0, 60, 120 e 180 m³/ha in the spring-summer. The PS was applied after cuttings, in: 15/10/2003 (uniformizing cutting, 11/24/2003, 1/10/2004 and 2/5/2004. The last cut was done in 4/10/2004 and then it was not applied

  4. Treatment pf pig slurry in Spain to minimize soil degradation and environmental impact; Tratamiento de purines de ganado porcino en Espana para minimizar la contaminacion de suelos y su impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo Marin, C.; Garcia Marin, R.

    2009-07-01

    The pig farms in Spain have experimented on the last years a great development, giving place to a new productive, sanitary, economic and environmental reality. His intensification has generated the presence of farms of great capacity, which generate high quantities of excrements and residues. Due to the dynamism of the sector, the legislative existing frame until ends of the nineties of the past 20th century remains obsolete. For such motive, the Government of Spain established basic standards of management of pig farms (RD 324/2000); regulatory rules for awarding grants to projects that seek to improve environmental management of pig farms (RD 987/2008); and, in December 2008, is approved, in Ministers council, a plan of bio-digestion of excrements, which has as aim decrease the greenhouse gases and reduce the risk of pollution of soils, fluvial riverbeds and underground aquifers. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Dejeto líquido de suínos: I - perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo na solução escoada na superfície do solo, sob plantio direto Pig slurry: I - nitrogen and phosphorus losses by surface run off in a soil cropped under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ceretta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de dejeto líquido de suínos em áreas de lavoura e/ou pastagem representa a adição de nutrientes às plantas e também uma alternativa de reciclagem. Contudo, as perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo por escoamento superficial no plantio direto podem diminuir sua eficiência à nutrição de plantas e representar um poluente potencial, comprometendo a qualidade da água no ambiente. Esse trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a importância do escoamento superficial às perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo aplicados via dejeto líquido de suínos. O trabalho foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no período de maio de 2000 a maio de 2002 em Argissolo Vermelho Arênico distrófico. Numa rotação aveia preta/milho/nabo forrageiro, foram estudadas as doses de 0, 20, 40 e 80 m³ ha-1 de dejetos líquidos de suínos, distribuídas a lanço sobre a superfície antes da semeadura de cada espécie da rotação. As concentrações de fósforo disponível e nitrogênio mineral na solução escoada na superfície do solo foram diretamente relacionados com as doses de dejeto aplicadas. As concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na solução escoada na superfície do solo, bem como a predominância de amônio ou nitrato, estão diretamente relacionadas ao intervalo entre a aplicação do dejeto e o primeiro escoamento superficial. As perdas de nitrogênio e fósforo por escoamento superficial, expressas em kg ha-1, são pequenas, porém as maiores concentrações observadas nos picos de perdas preocupam com relação à possibilidade de eutroficação de mananciais de água.The application of pig slurry in crop land and/or pasture areas, besides being an additional source of nutrients to plants is also an alternative for manure disposal. However, nitrogen and phosphorus losses by surface run off in no tillage can decrease the efficiency of organic fertilizers and also be a potential pollutant, threatening the quality of water

  6. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  7. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per;

    2009-01-01

    emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m-2 h-1 were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO2, CH4......) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH4 independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol...... storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m3 cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation...

  8. Copper, zinc and manganese in soils of two watersheds in Santa Catarina with intensive use of pig slurry Cobre, zinco e manganês em solos de duas microbacias hidrográficas de Santa Catarina, com uso intensivo de dejeto líquido de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Mattias

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic pig slurry application to crop soils may lead to the accumulation of heavy metals in regions with intensive pig raising. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of Cu, Zn and Mn in soils under systematic pig slurry application. For this purpose, soil samples were collected from two of the most representative watersheds of Santa Catarina where the predominant activity is pig raising. In each watershed, 12 properties were chosen to evaluate the different systems of pig husbandry (complete cycle (CC, farrowing (FaU and finishing units (FiU. Based on information of the producers, soil samples were collected in areas with and without systematic manure application. To determine the total Cu, Zn and Mn content in soils and manure, a methodology proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (USEPA, method nº 3050B, was used. For the available heavy metal content, Cu and Zn was extracted with HCl 0.1 mol L-1 and Mn with KCl 1 mol L-1. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, using the canonical discriminant analysis to identify the metals that best differentiate the soils studied within each swine housing system. Successive pig slurry applications cause an increase in Cu, Zn and Mn availability in the soil and this indicates the need for monitoring of the metal concentrations over time. The critical values of Cu in the soil can be reached and exceeded more rapidly than Zn. The results showed that the soil type may be one of the attribute underlying the determination of public policies in pig raising and waste management because soils such as Inceptisols were shown to be more prone to possible contamination since they may more rapidly reach total critical Cu levels.A aplicação sistemática de dejeto líquido de suínos em solos agrícolas pode levar ao acúmulo de metais pesados em regiões com criações intensivas de suínos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a acumulação de Cu, Zn e Mn em

  9. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  11. Decontamination pig carcasses of organic acids with commercial and saline acidified ultraviolet lightDescontaminação de cortes suínos com ácidos orgânicos comerciais, solução salina acidificada e luz ultravioleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria De

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the consumption of pork has increased significantly in recent years, mainly due to large public awareness campaigns, especially in relation to issues of concern for consumer health. The meat quality is the factor to be controlled so that the consumer can enjoy the benefits. There are many variables to be controlled. Aiming to reduce the contamination and increase the shelf life of pork were performed nine treatments with mixtures of organic acids, saline acidified, exposure to ultraviolet light and water at 80 º C during 30 days of storage, belly pork, and all analyzes performed in triplicate. Counts were performed aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, psychrotrophic, total and fecal coliforms, Salmonella, pH determination and the number of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA sensory evaluation. Showed a reduction in the contamination of pork belly cuts with a mixture of organic acids, followed by exposure to ultraviolet light for 1 minute. Regarding the pH treatments that were added to the mixture of organic acids differ from the other treatments except the control. The solutions of organic acids did not affect the sensory characteristics of pork roast. Through the experiments in this study, it was concluded that we can make further proposed as an alternative for industrial meat mixture obtaining a greater microbiological control features without changing the feedstock, increasing the life and thereby offering the consumer a quality product and commercially safe. No Brasil o consumo de carne suína tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos devido, principalmente, às grandes campanhas de esclarecimento ao público, sobretudo em relação às questões de interesse para a saúde do consumidor. A qualidade da carne é o fator a ser controlado para que o consumidor possa usufruir dos benefícios. Muitas são as variáveis a serem controladas. Com o objetivo de reduzir a contaminação inicial e aumentar a vida útil da

  12. Modelling of slurry droplet drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadja, M.; Bergeles, G. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    Heat, mass and momentum transfer between a slurry droplet and a gas flow are investigated numerically. The developed model can be applied to assess drying and combustion properties of slurries inside spray dryers or combustors and to estimate the time needed to reach ignition of the solid component in slurry fuels. The model was applied to coal water droplet slurries the properties of which are available in the literature but can also be used for study of drying of any other slurry such as that encountered in flue gas desulfurization systems. The parametric study revealed that the most important factor in slurry drying is the ambient temperature and that the injection velocity, the ambient pressure of the flowing medium or the particle initial temperature affect very little the drying rate.

  13. SOLUBLE ALUMINUM IN ACIDIFIED ORGANIC HORIZONS OF FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of labile and total Al in soil extracts were measured as a function of equilibrium solution pH in six forest soil organic horizons acidified with HNO, (0-20 cmol H+.kg-1) under controlled conditions of ionic strength (0.05 M NaNO3), temperature (23 C), and solution...

  14. International symposium on slurry flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on two-phase slurry flow. Topics considered at the conference included flow models, drag, flow rate, stresses in a fluid-solid mixture, kinetic models, the shear viscosity of dense-phase slurries at varying shear rates, the modeling of particulates based on the Markov process, fluid-particle flows in geothermal drilling applications, two-phase nozzle flow, laminar flow, centrifugal slurry pumps, slurry pipeline flow, and the beneficiation of coal by agglomeration during hydraulic transport

  15. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi; Basharat Salim; Ziyadh Suhibani

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pu...

  16. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  17. Formas de fósforo no solo após sucessivas adições de dejeto líquido de suínos em pastagem natural Soil phosphorus forms after successive pig slurry application in a native pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A suinocultura tem como inconveniente a grande produção de dejetos, os quais são reutilizados como fertilizantes agrícolas, porém, se utilizados em doses excessivas, tornam-se severos poluentes ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as formas de acumulação de P em um solo submetido a sucessivas aplicações de doses de dejeto líquido de suínos. O experimento foi instalado em 1995, em uma área cultivada com pastagem natural, que recebeu doses de 0, 20 e 40 m³ ha-1 de dejeto líquido de suínos (DLS, aplicadas em intervalos de 45 a 60 dias durante cinco anos. Em 1999, após 28 aplicações de DLS, que totalizaram 0, 560 e 1.120 m³ ha-1, foram coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0-2,5, 2,5-5, 5-10, 10-15 e 15-20 cm. A amostra foi seca, moída, passada em peneira de malha de 2 mm e submetida ao fracionamento químico do P pelo método de Hedley. No tratamento testemunha, foi determinada a capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo (CMAP, utilizando-se isotermas de adsorção e ajuste matemático pela equação de Langmuir. Os resultados mostraram que o P adicionado ao solo via DLS é acumulado essencialmente em formas inorgânicas, sendo as principais as extraídas por resina trocadora de ânions, NaHCO3 0,5 mol L-1, NaOH 0,1 mol L-1 e HCl 1,0 mol L-1.The swine industry generates large amounts of pig slurry (PS, which is reused as agricultural fertilizer. However, if applied at excessive rates, pig slurry becomes a severe environmental pollutant. The objective of this study was to evaluate forms of soil phosphorus accumulation after successive swine manure applications. The experiment was installed in 1995, in an area of native pasture. Rates of 0, 20 and 40 m³ha-1 of PS were applied periodically (at 45 to 60 days intervals during five years. In 1999, after 28 PS applications totaling 0, 560 and 1.120 m³ha-1 of PS, soil samples were collected from the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm. Soil

  18. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  19. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  20. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  1. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  2. Estimation of Pig Fecal Contamination in a River Catchment by Real-Time PCR Using Two Pig-Specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA Genetic Markers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mieszkin, Sophie; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Corthier, Gérard; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    The microbiological quality of coastal or river water can be affected by fecal contamination from human or animal sources. To discriminate pig fecal pollution from other pollution, a library-independent microbial source tracking method targeting Bacteroidales host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers by real-time PCR was designed. Two pig-specific Bacteroidales markers (Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac) were designed using 16S rRNA gene Bacteroidales clone libraries from pig feces and slurry. For these two ...

  3. Composition and biogas yield of a novel source segregation system for pig excreta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Phuong T.; Melse, Roland W.; Zeeman, Grietje; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a novel source segregation method for pig excreta (a V-shaped conveyor belt underneath the slatted pen floor) was compared to conventional separation methods for pig slurry (screw press, centrifugation, flocculation with/without centrifugation). For the source segregation syste

  4. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  5. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  6. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  7. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms.

  8. Modelling hydrological management for the restoration of acidified floating fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Barendregt, Aat; Bootsma, Margien C.; Schot, Paul P.

    2005-12-01

    Wetlands show a large decline in biodiversity. To protect and restore this biodiversity, many restoration projects are carried out. Hydrology in wetlands controls the chemical and biological processes and may be the most important factor regulating wetland function and development. Hydrological models may be used to simulate these processes and to evaluate management scenarios for restoration. HYDRUS2D, a combined saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and transport model, is presented. This simulates near-surface hydrological processes in an acidified floating fen, with the aim to evaluate the effect of hydrological restoration in terms of conditions for biodiversity. In the acidified floating fen in the nature reserve Ilperveld (The Netherlands), a trench system was dug for the purpose of creating a runoff channel for acid rainwater in wet periods and to enable circum-neutral surface water to enter the fen in dry periods. The model is calibrated against measured conductivity values for a 5 year period. From the model simulations, it was found that lateral flow in the floating raft is limited. Furthermore, the model shows that the best management option is a combination of trenches and inundation, which gave the best soil water quality in the root zone. It is concluded that hydrological models can be used for the calculation of management scenarios in restoration projects. The combined saturated-unsaturated model concept used in this paper is able to incorporate the governing hydrological processes in the wetland root zones. Copyright

  9. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  10. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  11. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  12. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  13. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  14. Organic phosphorus in solutions and leachates from soils treated with animal slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Chardon, W.J.; Oenema, O.; del Castilho, P; Vriesema, R.; Japenga, J.; Blaauw, D.

    1997-01-01

    A substantial part of the total phosphorus (P) in soil solution and leachates can be present as dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). The DOP may be more mobile than inorganic orthophosphate and thus it can be an important P source for surface water eutrophication. This paper describes a series of four experiments that investigated the effects of animal waste application to sandy soil on DOP leaching. The first experiment examined the effect of storing pig slurry on DOP fractionation, using gel...

  15. PigGIS: Pig Genomic Informatics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Jue; Guo, Yiran; Li, Heng;

    2007-01-01

    Pig Genomic Information System (PigGIS) is a web-based depository of pig (Sus scrofa) genomic learning mainly engineered for biomedical research to locate pig genes from their human homologs and position single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pig populations. It utilizes a variety of...

  16. Smart Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Smart Pigs are inspection vehicles that move inside a pipe line pushed along by the flowing material. Smart Pigs use different technologies to locate problems along the pipelines. Magnets have been used to detect corrosion where the most common technology is the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) that detects corrosion on thinning walls. Another detection technology uses ultrasonic sensors to detect coating disbondment, cracks, dents and gouges. The Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is bein...

  17. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan;

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers...... in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess...

  18. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect...

  19. Acidifying and yeast extract in diets for adults cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoshi, Rosana C S; Zangeronimo, Márcio G; Dos Reis, Jéssica S; França, Janine; Santos, João P F; Pires, Carolina P; Chizzotti, Ana F; Costa, Adriano C; Ferreira, Lívia G; Saad, Flávia M O B

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding an acidifying agent based on phosphoric acid (A), a yeast extract from a specific strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Y) and the combination of these two additives in food for adult cats. A test was conducted with 24 animals (mean 3.5 years old), mixed breed, weighing 3.72 ± 0.74 kg, kept in individual metabolic cages and distributed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial design (with or without A 0.6% of dry matter, with or without Y 1.5% of dry matter) totalling four treatments and six replicates of each condition. The experimental period was 15 days. The A or the Y reduced (P0.09) on other parameters evaluated. Results of this study show that the isolated use of 0.6% A or 1.5% Y in diets for cats is not recommended. However, the association of these two additives was beneficial in increasing nutrient digestibility.

  20. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, L.H.; Barnthouse, K. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    Gel extraction is evaluated as a novel technique for dewatering fine coal slurries. This technique uses temperature-responsive gels to absorb water from slurries at low temperatures; after separation of the swollen gel from the dewatered slurry, the gel is heated slightly above ambient temperature, which causes it to release the water it absorbed. The gel can then be recycled. The equilibrium and kinetic properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel were evaluated for utility in this process. The gels effectively dewatered slurries to around 70 wt% solids; performance was not a strong function of particle size, though coarser slurries ({minus}16 mesh) could be dewatered to greater extents than the finer slurries (325 x 400 mesh). The gels showed no sign of deterioration over a period of 2 months and 20 cycles.

  1. Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

  2. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Miller

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of poultry litter (PL to soil may lead to nitrogen (N losses through ammonia (NH3 volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P. Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter pH and by retaining litter-derived P, respectively. This study evaluated the effect of acidified biochars from pine chips (PC and peanut hulls (PH on NH3 losses and inorganic N and P released from surface-applied or incorporated PL. Poultry litter with or without acidified biochars was surface-applied or incorporated into the soil and incubated for 21 d. Volatilized NH3 was determined by trapping it in acid. Inorganic N and P were determined by leaching the soil with 0.01 M of CaCl2 during the study and by extracting it with 1 M KCl after incubation. Acidified biochars reduced NH3 losses by 58 to 63% with surface-applied PL, and by 56 to 60% with incorporated PL. Except for PH biochar, which caused a small increase in leached NH4+-N with incorporated PL, acidified biochars had no effect on leached or KCl-extractable inorganic N and P from surface-applied or incorporated PL. These results suggest that acidified biochars may decrease NH3 losses from PL but may not reduce the potential for P loss in surface runoff from soils receiving PL.

  3. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Tribollet, Aline; Valentino, Lauren; Kolodziej, Graham; Donham, Emily M; Fitchett, Mark D; Carlton, Renee; Price, Nichole N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion). Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite) along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2-195.5 μm) over the short duration of the study (3 mo.) and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat. PMID:27467570

  4. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Ian C.; Manzello, Derek P.; Tribollet, Aline; Valentino, Lauren; Kolodziej, Graham; Donham, Emily M.; Fitchett, Mark D.; Carlton, Renee; Price, Nichole N.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion). Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite) along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2–195.5 μm) over the short duration of the study (3 mo.) and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat. PMID:27467570

  5. SLURRY FLOW MODELLING BY CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Ghanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in the present study to develop a generalized slurry flow model using CFD and utilize the model to predict concentration profile. The purpose of the CFD model is to gain better insight into the solid liquid slur¬ry flow in pipelines. Initially a three-dimensional model problem was developed to understand the influence of the particle drag coefficient on the solid concen¬tration profile. The preliminary simulations highlighted the need for correct mo¬delling of the inter phase drag force. The various drag correlations available in the literature were incorporated into a two-fluid model (Euler-Euler along with the standard k- turbulence model with mixture properties to simulate the tur¬bulent solid-liquid flow in a pipeline. The computational model was mapped on to a commercial CFD solver FLUENT6.2 (of Fluent Inc., USA. To push the en¬velope of applicability of the simulation, recent data from Kaushal (2005 (with solid concentration up to 50% was selected to validate the three dimensional simulations. The experimental data consisted of water-glass bead slurry at 125 and 440-micron particle with different flow velocity (from 1 to 5 m/s and overall concentration up to 10 to 50% by volume. The predicted pressure drop and concentration profile were validated by experimental data and showed excel-lent agreement. Interesting findings came out from the parametric study of ve-locity and concentration profiles. The computational model and results discus¬sed in this work would be useful for extending the applications of CFD models for simulating large slurry pipelines.

  6. Estimation of emission factor for odorants released from swine excretion slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulejko, Jan E; Kim, Bo-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Kwon, Eilhann; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the odorant emission rates from excretory wastes collected in sealed containers from a large swine facility were determined offsite in a laboratory using both raw slurry from ([1] windowless pigpen (WP) and [2] open pigpen (OP)) and treated waste samples ([3] composting facility (CF) and [4] slurry treatment facility (SF)). The emission rates of up to 41 volatile odorants were measured for 100g waste samples (of all four types) in a 0.75L impinger with an air change rate of 8h(-1). The initial emission rates (mgkg(-1)·h(-1)) for the most dominant species from each waste type can be summarized as: (1) WP: NH3 (16.3) and H2S (0.54); (2) OP: H2S (1.78), NH3 (1.69), and p-cresol (0.36); (3) CF: NH3 (7.04), CH3SH (0.30), and DMS (0.12); and (4) SF: NH3 (11.7), H2S (11.7), and p-cresol (0.25). Accordingly, the emission factors for the key odorant (mE, kg·pig(-1))) for fattening pigs in the WP and OP facilities of S. Korea were extrapolated as 3.46 (NH3) and 0.38 (H2S), respectively. The emission factors were estimated assuming exponentially decaying emission rates and slurry production rates obtained from the literature. PMID:26888605

  7. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  8. Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, F. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Coetsier, C.; Carretier, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); Ennahali, M.; Laborie, B. [KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Serafino, C.; Bulgarelli, F. [Rockwood Wafer reclaim France, ZI des Pradeaux, 13850 Greasque (France); Moulin, P., E-mail: philippe.moulin@univ-cezanne.fr [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Membrane processes were used to regenerate Silicon CMP slurry effluent {yields} A two-step ultrafiltration process was performed at laboratory and industrial scales {yields} A new hybrid process (membrane ultrafiltration and chemical addition) is developed {yields} A ratio of 0.65 of dissolved chemicals allows RR and TTV to be within specifications {yields} At industrial scale, the hybrid process enables the reuse of electronic effluents. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called 'slurry', and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot.

  9. Advances in pigging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, J. [Pipeline Engineering, Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Pigging is now an essential aspect of pipeline planning and engineers, influencing every facet from design and routing to integrity management, rehabilitation, servicing and maintenance. Some recent developments are reviewed here but systems, equipment and products are being continually enhanced to improve operational efficiency and cost effectiveness. The paper describes special-purpose pigs and pigging systems, intelligent pigging, pig signaling and detection, and static pigging/pipeline isolation.

  10. Salmon protein hydrolysate as a protein source in feed for young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    combinations hereof. Five diets were composed, all fulfilling the nutrient recommendations for young pigs. All diets contained 172gsoybeanmeal/kg. One diet was supplemented with 123gSPH/kg, and equivalent protein was supplied as SPC or FM in two other diets. Two diets were composed by combining half the amount......Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) is made from fresh by-products from farmed salmon that are minced and acidified to hydrolyse proteins into peptides and free amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate SPH in young pigs compared to soy protein concentrate (SPC), fish meal (FM) and...

  11. The serum metabolite response to diet intervention with probiotic acidified milk in irritable bowel syndrome patients is indistinguishable from that of non-probiotic acidified milk by 1H NMR-based metabonomic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Andersen, Henrik J;

    2010-01-01

    of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum L-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained......The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using (1)H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 L per day...

  12. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 2: Numerical addendum to emissions, dispersion and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering Body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It presents the numerical fields and budgets of the acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in the form of three appendices: annual average air concentrations of acidifying and eutrophying species, 1996; country-to-country deposition budgets for acidifying/eutrophying air pollutants, 1985-95; and grid square deposition of acidifying/eutrophying components allocated to emitting countries, mean 1985-95. 19 figs.

  13. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pump was also tested with clean water. The performance of pump has been reported as variations of head, power and efficiency at various flow rates along with the system characteristics of the pump. The results reveal that the pump performance is grossly affected by the type of slurry, its concentration and size. Besides this the variation in speed also affects the performance as is observed in pumps with water. The maximum decrease in the head, with respect to clear water, at the operating point was found to be 47% for aggregate for size 20 mm, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm. The maximum decrement in efficiency at operating point for aggregate was found to be 47% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and at 2200 rpm. The power increment requirement for aggregate was 9% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm.

  14. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S...

  15. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per; Adamsen, Anders P S

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m(3) cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation duct. The stores can also be used as static enclosures. Ventilation can be regulated within the range of 50 to 250 m(3) h(-1). A gas sampling line enables sampling of odorants using automatic thermal desorption tubes, ammonia using acid traps, and greenhouse gases using gas sampling bags (pooled samples) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH(4) independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO(2) and CH(4) above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m(-2) h(-1) were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O indicated that pooled samples account for the diurnal variations under realistic storage conditions. PMID:19549932

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  17. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  18. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec; Davorin Matanović; Gracijan Krklec

    1994-01-01

    During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures) and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production...

  19. Effects of Organic Fertilizer on Fruit Quality and Acidified Soil Chemical Properties in Yantai Orchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao SUN; Yiming WANG; Peiping ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the improving effect of organic fertilizer on acidified soil as wel as their ef-fects on fruit quality and quantity in Yantai orchard. [Method] Plot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic fertilizer on fruit yield and quality of Red Fuji and chemical properties of acidified soil. [Result] The apple yield in acidified soil applied with organic fertilizer al increased. Under the application of biological organic fertilizer, the apple yield was higher, and it was 8.92% higher than that in the control group. Under the mixed application of chemical fertilizer and biological organic fertiliz-er, the growth and development of apple trees were improved, and the total soluble solid (TSS) content, vitamin C (Vc) content and TSS-acid ratio in mature apples al increased. The application of organic fertilizer significantly reduced soil acidity. Compared with those in the control group, the soil pH value, organic matter content and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content under the ap-plication of biological organic fertilizer were increased by 8.33%, 15.10% and 30.80%, respectively. [Conclusion] The application of biological organic fertilizer could improve the yield of apple in acidified soil.

  20. POOR REPRODUCTION IN FOREST PASSERINES FROM DECLINE OF SNAIL ABUNDANCE ON ACIDIFIED SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRAVELAND, J; VANDERWAL, R; VANBALEN, JH; VANNOORDWIJK, AJ

    1994-01-01

    ON poor, acidified soils in The Netherlands, an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and other forest passerines, produce eggs with thin and porous shells1. Here we show that the egg-shell defects, and the related high incidence of clutch desertion and empty nests, are caused by calcium def

  1. Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum (III) solutions. I. Titration of acidified aluminum nitrate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.C.; Geus, John W.; Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    1975-01-01

    Acidified aluminum nitrate solutions were titrated with alkali (NaOH or KOH) over a temperature range of 24°C to 90°C. A homogeneous distribution of added base was achieved by: (i) in situ decomposition of urea (90°C); and (ii) a novel method involving injection through a capillary submerged in the

  2. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous expe

  3. Prior exposure influences the behavioural avoidance by an intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, of acidified waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical to the maintenance of viable populations under future environmental change. Here we examined the role of behavioural avoidance of sub-optimal conditions in enabling the intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, to persist in mangrove forests affected by the low pH runoff from acid sulphate soils (ASS). Behaviourally, the gastropod may be able to avoid periods of particularly high acidity by using pneumatophores and/or mangrove trunks to vertically migrate above the water line or by retreating into its shell. We hypothesised that (1) B. auratum would display greater and more rapid vertical migration out of acidified than reference estuarine waters, and (2) responses would be more pronounced in gastropods collected from acidified than reference sites. Gastropods from acidified sites showed significantly higher activity in and more rapid migration out of acidified waters of pH 6.2-7.0, than reference waters or waters of pH impact of this stressor on their populations. The stronger response to acidification of gastropods from populations previously exposed to this stressor suggests that the response may be learned, inherited or induced over multiple exposures. Our study adds to growing evidence that estuarine organisms may exhibit considerable physiological and behaviour adaptive capacity to acidification. The potential for such adaptive capacity should be incorporated into studies seeking to forecast impacts to marine organisms of environmental change.

  4. SEQUESTRATION OF ORGANIC CATIONS BY ACIDIFIED HEPATIC ENDOCYTIC VESICLES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BILIARY-EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDYKE, RW; FABER, ED; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    A number of cationic amine drugs that are taken up by liver and excreted into bile may accumulate in acidified intracellular organelles such as lysosomes and endosomes. These studies were undertaken to assess directly the uptake and accumulation of three types of model organic cationic amines by end

  5. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  6. Optical measurement of slurry concentration profile in a concurrent-flow gas-slurry column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical technique is described which allows the measurement of steady-state slurry concentration profile in a slender concurrent-flow gas-slurry bubble column. The optically measured profile is compared with that predicted by a previously reported semiempirical dispersion model. Qualitative agreement is observed between them, and the reliability of the technique is supported by additional experimental data

  7. Dust in an acidified ocean: iron bioavailability, phytoplankton growth and DMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélançon, J.; Levasseur, M.; Lizotte, M.; Scarratt, M. G.; Tremblay, J. E.; Tortell, P. D.; Yang, G.; Shi, G. Y.; Gao, H.; Semeniuk, D.; Robert, M.; Arychuk, M.; Johnson, K.; Sutherland, N.; Davelaar, M.; Nemcek, N.; Pena, A.; Richardson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to have an effect on the fertilizing potential of desert dust in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceanic regions, either by modifying Fe speciation and bioavailability, or by altering phytoplankton Fe requirements and acquisition. To address this issue, short incubations (4 days) of northeast subarctic Pacific waters enriched with either FeSO4 or dust, and maintained at pH 8.0 (in situ) and 7.8 were conducted in August 2010. We assessed the impact of a decrease in pH on dissolved Fe concentration, phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy and productivity, and the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Chlorophyll a (chl a) remained unchanged in the controls and doubled in both the FeSO4-enriched and dust-enriched incubations, confirming the Fe-limited status of the plankton assemblage during the experiment. In the acidified treatments, a significant reduction (by 16-38%) of the final concentration of chl a was measured compared to their non-acidified counterparts, and a 15% reduction in particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the dust-enriched acidified treatment compared to the dust-enriched non-acidified treatment. FeSO4 and dust additions had a fertilizing effect mainly on diatoms and cyanobacteria. Lowering the pH affected mostly the haptophytes, but pelagophyte concentrations were also reduced in some acidified treatments. Acidification did not significantly alter DMSP and DMS concentrations. These results show that dust deposition events in a low-pH iron-limited Northeast subarctic Pacific are likely to stimulate phytoplankton growth to a lesser extent than in today's ocean during the few days following fertilization and point to a low initial sensitivity of the DMSP and DMS dynamics to OA.

  8. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  9. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  10. The Serum Metabolite Response to Diet Intervention with Probiotic Acidified Milk in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Is Indistinguishable from that of Non-Probiotic Acidified Milk by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Svensson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using 1H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 L per day of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum l-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained in a questionnaire-based evaluation of symptom relief. A specific probiotic effect is thus absent both in the patient subjective symptom evaluations and at the blood serum metabolite level. However, there was no correspondence between symptom relief and metabolite response on the patient level.

  11. Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Soil Using the Acidified Hydrazine Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yameng; Li, Fangfang; Jiang, Yuling; Yang, Weihua; Lv, Lv; Xue, Haotian; Wang, Yangyang

    2016-09-01

    Acidified hydrazine hydrate was used to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The content of water-soluble Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was 4977.53 mg/kg. The optimal initial pH of hydrazine hydrate solution, soil to solution ratio and molar ratio of Cr(VI) to hydrazine hydrate for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil were 5.0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Over 99.50 % of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the contaminated soil was reduced at the optimal condition within 30 min. The remediated soil can keep stable within 4 months. Meanwhile the total phosphorus increased from 0.47 to 4.29 g/kg, indicating that using of acidified hydrazine hydrate is an effective method to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

  12. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  13. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.; Bussink, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements were made of N2O and CH4 production during a 6 month storage (15 degrees C) period from either unamended cattle slurry or slurry unamended with HNO3 to pH 4.5 or pH 6. After storage the slurry was surface applied to grassland soil, under

  14. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  15. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  16. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow. PMID:11237295

  17. Farming Options for Ameliorating Acidifying Soils in South - Eastern Australia: An Economic Assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Q.; Mullen, John D.; Brennan, John P.; Li, G.D.; Helyar, K.R.; Jones, Randall E.

    1999-01-01

    Acid and acidifying soils occur extensively in Australia. Currently, some 90 million hectares of agricultural land in Australia is considered to be acidic and around 35 million hectares are considered to be highly acidic which is both a serious agricultural and environmental problem. The nature, impact, and causes of soil acidification vary across Australia, as do farming systems and the institutional and socioeconomic issues relating to land management. In high-rainfall areas of south-easter...

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  20. Determination of 5-log pathogen reduction times for heat-processed, acidified vegetable brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidt, F; Hayes, J S; Osborne, J A; McFeeters, R F

    2005-02-01

    Recent outbreaks of acid-resistant food pathogens in acid foods, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. We determined pasteurization times and temperatures needed to assure a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella strains in acidified cucumber pickle brines. Cocktails of five strains of each pathogen were (separately) used for heat-inactivation studies between 50 and 60 degrees C in brines that had an equilibrated pH value of 4.1. Salmonella strains were found to be less heat resistant than E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes strains. The nonlinear killing curves generated during these studies were modeled using a Weibull function. We found no significant difference in the heat-killing data for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (P = 0.9709). The predicted 5-log reduction times for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were found to fit an exponential decay function. These data were used to estimate minimum pasteurization times and temperatures needed to ensure safe processing of acidified pickle products and show that current industry pasteurization practices offer a significant margin of safety.

  1. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  2. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  3. Settlement of tailings slurries by creep compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Chalaturnyk, R.J.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Large volumes of sand, silt, clay and small amounts of bitumen are produced from the oil sand mining operations in northern Alberta. A model is being developed to predict the consolidation behaviour of highly thixotrophic tailings slurries. The model incorporates effective stress-void ratio and void ratio-hydraulic conductivity relationships for the material. The thixotrophic strength-time relationship and the void ratio-creep rate relationship is also considered along with the mineralogy, bitumen content and water chemistry. Most analytical predictions of the rate and magnitude tailings settling overestimate how fast pore pressures will dissipate. Field deposits of non-segregating tailings to mature fine tailings demonstrate continued high pore pressures near the surface which deter surface reclamation. A finite strain theory is used in geotechnical analyses which predict the consolidation behavior of soft soils. However, this theory does not predict the full range of sedimentation, consolidation and pore pressure dissipation which occurs in thixotrophic tailings slurries. This new strain consolidation model assumes that the creep rate of the slurry exceeds the pore pressure dissipation rate. The model is useful for rapidly deposited, low permeability thixotrophic slurries where the upwards drainage path increases by several metres a year such as in oil sand tailings ponds and consolidated tailings (CT) deposits. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    Full Text Available The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust. Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

  5. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  6. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas ch...

  7. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on On-site treatment of pig carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked for a scientific opinion on an alternative method for processing Category (Cat) 2 Animal By-Products (ABP). The materials to be treated are placentas and fallen pigs; this implies that the animals died due to a disease, which in most cases was not properly diagnosed. The target parameters are: i) particle size less than 150 mm and ii) heating for 10 – 12 hours at 100°C. The end-product obtained is mixed with pig slurry and used ...

  8. Emplacement-related layering in magma slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Textures and structures such as layering, grading and foliations preserved in igneous rocks offer a glimpse into the magma emplacement process. However, despite recent advances, a full and proper understanding of the fluid dynamics of congested fluid-particle mixtures during shear remains elusive. This is a shame as without recourse to such fundamental understanding, the interpretation of structural field data in the context of magma flow remains problematic. One way to gain insight into the process is to treat flowing magma as a dynamic material with a rheology similar to sheared, congested slurries. The idea that dense magma equates to a high temperature slurry is an attractive one, and opens up a way to examine the emplacement process that does not rely on equilibrium thermodynamics as a final explanation for commonly observed igneous structures. Using the Basement Sill, Antarctica, as a world class example of a magmatic slurry, shearing at high Peclet (Pe) number where particle diffusion is negligible has the potential to impart a rich diversity of structures including layering, grading and flow segregation. Work to model numerically the flow of the Basement Sill slurry using a range of theoretical and experimentally-derived non-Newtonian magma rheologies will be presented and assessed. A key impilcation is that in addition to more classical explanations such as compaction and gravitational settling, igneous layering can also arise spontaneously during shear associated with the ascent and emplacement of congested magma. A final aspect of the emplacement model considers the irregular geometry of the Basement Sill boundaries. Movement of magma along these boundaries results in the formation of local eddies and fluid swirl/back-flow that add additional complexity to macroscopic flow field.

  9. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  10. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  11. The most acidified Austrian lake in comparison to a neutralized mining lake

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Michael; Weisse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated two mining lakes located in the north of Lower Austria. These lakes arose 45 years ago when open cast lignite mining ceased. The lakes are separated by a 7-m wide dam. Due to the oxidation of pyrite, both lakes have been acidified and exhibit iron, sulphate, and heavy metal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in circumneutral lakes. The water column of both lakes is divided into two layers by a pronounced chemocline. The smaller mining lake (AML), wi...

  12. The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate-xanthan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A L M; Cunha, R L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate-xanthan-sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the colligative properties of sucrose whereas the equilibrium syneresis behaviour was associated with the changes in network dynamics caused by the kosmotropic properties of sucrose. The latter could enhance xanthan-sucrose association or favour xanthan-protein interactions.

  13. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were...... was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10 d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation...

  14. Study on QTi3.5-10graphite slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杜云慧; 刘汉武; 曾大本; 崔建忠; 巴立民

    2004-01-01

    QTi3.5-10graphite (mass fraction, %) slurry was prepared using electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology. The distribution of graphite particles in QTi3. 5-10graphite slurry was studied using cold quenching method. The results show that solid fraction of QTi3.5-10graphite slurry increases with the decreasing stirring temperature. There is a linear relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature. With increasing solid fraction, the rising of graphite particles in slurry is restricted gradually. When the solid fraction is larger than 42.5 %,the rising of graphite particles in slurry can be controlled, and QTi3.5-10graphite slurry with uniform distribution of graphite particles can be prepared.

  15. Injection of Aqueous Slurry for Making Zirconia Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shun'ai; LI Maoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia aqueous slurry was prepared with fine zirconia powder.Injection process for making zirconia fiber was demonstrated,including preparation of aqueous slurry,injection of slurry,fiber setting in acetone,and fiber firing.The principle of the process was discussed.The effects of solid loading in the zirconia slurry,addition of dispersant in the slurry,and ball milling time on the rheological properties of the slurry,especially yield stress,were illustrated.The role of acetone as curing agent was discussed.Zirconia poly-crystalline fber with at 1 530 ℃ for 5 h.Microstructure of the sintered zirconia fiber was investigated.

  16. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  17. Tail biting in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  18. Ultrasonic measurements in ice slurry generation by direct contact evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Vuarnoz, Didier; Ata-Caesar, Derrick; Sari, Osmann; Egolf, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Important reductions of refrigerant amounts can be achieved by using secondary refrigeration fluids. Ice slurry is a two-phase fluid and thus, compared to single phase secondary refrigeration fluids, offers the advantage of the latent heat of fusion when the ice phase melts during heat exchange. Therefore, the challenges that the introduction of ice slurry as a common thermal fluid is facing are, in the first place, how to generate ice slurry in an efficient and ecological way. Optimal design...

  19. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  20. Heterogeneous ice slurry flow and concentration distribution in horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Mixture CFD model is applied to describe heterogeneous ice slurry flow. • The ice slurry rheological behavior is considered piecewise. • The coupled flow and concentration profiles in heterogeneous slurry flow is acquired. • The current numerical model achieves good balance between precision and universality. -- Abstract: Ice slurry is an energy-intensive solid–liquid mixture fluid which may play an important role in various cooling purposes. Knowing detailed flow information is important from the system design point of view. However, the heterogeneous ice slurry flow makes it difficult to be quantified due to the complex two phase flow characteristic. The present study applies a Mixture computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on different rheological behavior to characterize the heterogeneous ice slurry flow. The Mixture CFD model was firstly validated by three different experiments. Then the validated Mixture CFD model was applied to solve the ice slurry isothermal flow by considering the rheological behavior piecewise. Finally, the numerical solutions have displayed the coupled flow information, such as slurry velocity, ice particle concentration and pressure drop distribution. The results show that, the ice slurry flow distribution will appear varying degree of asymmetry under different operating conditions. The rheological behavior will be affected by the asymmetric flow distributions. When mean flow velocity is high, Thomas equation can be appropriate for describing ice slurry viscosity. While with the decreasing of mean flow velocity, the ice slurry behaves Bingham rheology. As compared with experimental pressure drop results, the relative errors of numerical computation are almost within ±15%. The Mixture CFD model is validated to be an effective model for describing heterogeneous ice slurry flow and could supply plentiful flow information

  1. Rheological and structural properties of differently acidified and renneted milk gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X T; Zhang, H; Wang, F; Luo, J; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the rheological and structural properties of differently acidified and renneted milk gels by controlling pH value and renneting extent. Skim milk were exactly renneted to 4 extents (20, 35, 55, and 74%) and then direct acidified to the desired pH (4.8, 5.0, 5.2, 5.5, 5.8, and 6.2), respectively. Rheological properties were assessed by dynamic rheological measurements, structural properties were studied by spontaneous whey separation and confocal laser scanning micrograph, and protein interactions were studied by dissociation test. Results showed that minimally renneted milk samples (20 and 35%) formed weak gels with low storage modulus, and the acidification range within which gels could form was narrow (pH ≤ 5.2). Highly renneted milk samples formed more gels with high storage modulus. The results of this study revealed that acidification determined the structural properties of highly renneted milk gels. As pH increased from 5.0 to 6.2, highly renneted milk gels had lower loss tangent, decreased spontaneous syneresis, and smaller pores. For both the low and high rennetings, divalent calcium bonds contributed less at low pH than at high pH. In conclusion, renneting increased the pH range suitable for gel formation; acidification determined the spontaneous syneresis and microstructure of highly renneted milk gels.

  2. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  3. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Oenema, O.; G. L. Velthof

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various amounts of HNO3 to obtain a pH range of 6.0 to 3.0. The slurries were stirred once or twice a week and stored for 6 months at 15 degrees C. Changes in pH, Eh, NO3- and NH4 concn, and emissions of N2O, C...

  4. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  5. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  6. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...... of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part...

  7. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul (San Ramon, CA); Fuchs, Baruch A. (Aventura, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  8. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  9. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  10. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  11. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  13. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  14. Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

    2001-09-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases, that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles in the slurry layer are long and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to 1; unfortunately, compressibility can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore, determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just waste-level data. The non-uniqueness of the fit is also found with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and a spherical-pore model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502128

  15. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  16. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 1: Emissions, dispersions and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It gives an overview of the major aims of Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the basic modelling and meteorological tools, the status of the emission data, the trends in transboundary transport and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen since 1980, and the latest transboundary flows of sulphur and nitrogen, in both the 150 km and the 50 km grid. Complete source receptor matrices are now available in the 50 km grid derived from the multi-layer eulerian model. The new 50 km data constitutes a basis for further assessments of acidifying air pollution in the 50 km grid by subsidiary bodies under the Convention of Long Range Transport of Air Pollution. 63 refs., 42 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PERFOMANCES OF ACIDIFIED FISH MEAL MADE BY DIPPING INTO EXTRACT SOLUTION OF SAUERKRAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of soaking time into extract solution ofSauerkraut on physic and microbial performances of acidified fish meal. Sauerkraut extract (LPS'ssollution was made by fermentation of wastes vegetable market for 6 days. The LPS-extract was used toacidify " ikan rucah" by the method of dipping for 0, 4 and 8 hours. Changes in pH, the total number ofbacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria, moisture content, odor, colour and texture were parametersobserved. Results of experiment showed that total bacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria of acidifiedfish meal significantly influenced by soaking time (p <0.05. No significantly effect was shown to thephysically performance. LPS-extract in the soaking effectively reduced content of total bacteria, fungiand proteolytic's bacteria in fish meal.

  18. Shift from coral to macroalgae dominance on a volcanically acidified reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, I. C.; Manzello, D. P.; Donham, E. M.; Kolodziej, G.; Okano, R.; Johnston, L.; Young, C.; Iguel, J.; Edwards, C. B.; Fox, M. D.; Valentino, L.; Johnson, S.; Benavente, D.; Clark, S. J.; Carlton, R.; Burton, T.; Eynaud, Y.; Price, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere is accompanied by an increase in oceanic CO2 and a concomitant decline in seawater pH (ref. ). This phenomenon, known as ocean acidification (OA), has been experimentally shown to impact the biology and ecology of numerous animals and plants, most notably those that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons, such as reef-building corals. Volcanically acidified water at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is equivalent to near-future predictions for what coral reef ecosystems will experience worldwide due to OA. We provide the first chemical and ecological assessment of this unique site and show that acidification-related stress significantly influences the abundance and diversity of coral reef taxa, leading to the often-predicted shift from a coral to an algae-dominated state. This study provides field evidence that acidification can lead to macroalgae dominance on reefs.

  19. Removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from Wastewater Using Acidified Sewage Sludge Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Yiqun; Wang Yanxin; Zhang Congjun

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA), the waste generated in sewage sludge incineration, was obtained from Wuhan Sewage Treatment Plant and used as a low-cost sorbent for removing Cu(Ⅱ) from wastewaters. The sorbent was first modified with 5 % sulfuric acid to increase its sorption capacity. The specific surface area, porosity, cation-exchange capacity (CEC) and pHZPC of the sorbent were measured. Batch experiments were made to study the effect of contact time, solution pH value and temperature on sorption. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the Cu(Ⅱ) sorption process, with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.993 4 and 0.989 9 respectively. And the sorption process follows the Lagergren first order kinetic model. The equilibrium sorption capacity of acidified SSA to Cu(Ⅱ) is estimated to be 7.78 mg/g under optimal conditions.

  20. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard;

    2012-01-01

    with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...... of sulfate and methionine (P H2S production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral...... of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from H2S dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the H2S contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than...

  1. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2011-01-01

    retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained......Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... in soil after slurry application than other P forms. On these soils with low to intermediate P status, slurry injection lowered P leaching losses from clay-rich soil, but not from the sandy soils, highlighting the importance of soil texture in managing P losses following slurry application....

  2. Endoparasites in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of various endoparasites in commercial pig-breeding and comparing the prevalence of various endoparasites in swine in maternity units and individual housing. All the samples were collected from August to November 2011 and they were always processed in next 24 hours. Total number was 95 samples, 50 samples from the swine and 45 from fattening pigs, the samples were examined by quantitative coproovoscopic method by Zajíček (1978). Fo...

  3. Fatty acid composition and biogenic amines in acidified and fermented fish silage: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Gülsün; Gökdoğan, Saadet; Şimşek, Ayşe; Yuvka, Ilknur; Ergüven, Merve; Kuley Boga, Esmeray

    2016-01-01

    In the presented study, ensiling of discard fish by acidification or fermentation was evaluated. Klunzinger's ponyfish which is a discard fish was used for the production of fish silage by acidification (3% formic acid for Method FA; 1.5% formic and 1.5% sulphuric acid for Method FASA) and fermentation (Lactobacillus plantarum for Method LP and Streptococcus thermophilus for Method ST). The chemical, microbiological and nutritional properties of the differently preserved fish silages were estimated during a storage period of 60 d at ambient temperature. Compared to the raw material, a slight increase in saturated fatty acids and a slight decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all silages. At the end of the storage period, the aerobic bacteria counts after applying Methods FA, FASA, LP and ST amounted to 2.35, 2.39, 5.77 and 5.43 log cfu/g, respectively. The analysis of thiobarbituric acid revealed that acidification of silages accelerated the lipid oxidation. Nine biogenic amines were found in raw fish and different silages. The initial histamine concentration in raw fish was 0.17 mg/100 g and in all silages it remained at low levels during the storage period. The initial tyramine content was found to be 1.56 mg/100 g in raw fish and increased significantly in all silages. The increase of the tyramine content in fermented silages was considerably higher than in acidified silages (23-48 mg/100 g and 5-10 mg/100 g, respectively). It can be concluded that acidified or fermented fish silage should be considered as potential feed component for animals because of its high nutritional value and appropriate microbiological and chemical quality.

  4. Predicting recovery of acidified freshwaters in Europe and Canada: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Ferrier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The RECOVER: 2010 project was designed to assess the current and future anthropogenic pressures on sensitive European freshwater ecosystems. This pan–European assessment utilised a standardised predictive modelling approach to evaluate the degree of compliance with respect to the restoration of acidified waters by 2016, as specified under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, and evaluated the environmental benefits of proposed UN-ECE protocols on emissions control. Between 1970 and 2000, observations and model simulations show a significant decline in acidic surface water in all regions of Europe. This demonstrated the success of policies aimed at reducing emission of acidifying compounds. The nature and extent of future regional recovery from acidification is, however, dependent upon the historical pattern of deposition, regional ecosystem characteristics and the role of confounding factors, which may delay the onset of recovery or the magnitude of response. Model predictions to 2010 and beyond emphasise the continued benefit of currently proposed reductions, as reflected by the degree of recovery of freshwater ecosystems. A key component was to link such hydrochemical recovery with ecological response, and the project aimed to evaluate this against current WFD criteria of “good status' and “reference conditions'. The RECOVER: 2010 project research has also played a major role in defining the dynamic modelling outputs which will be required to support the review of the Gothenburg Protocol within the work of the UN-ECE CLRTAP Working Group on Effects (WGE, and model outputs have been made available to a range of national agencies throughout Europe. Keyword: recovery, acidification, modelling, policy, good status, reference conditions

  5. Synthesis of biodiesel from acidified soybean soapstock using a lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Lignin derived catalyst has hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, such as hydroxyl group and polycyclic aromatic carbon. Therefore, methanol and oleic acid are easily absorbed on the surface of solid acid catalysts, which is benefit to the contact between reactants and active sites. The active sites of SO3H groups play the role of Bronsted acid as proton donor in the reaction. Highlights: ► Lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst was firstly synthesized for biodiesel synthesis. ► Active sites are linked to amorphous structure by the form of C-O-SO3H. ► Acidified soybean soapstock (ASS) was used as oil material for biodiesel synthesis. ► A maximum biodiesel yield of 97.2% was achieved in esterification of ASS. ► The catalytic efficiency of solid acid was similar to that of 1.5 wt.% of H2SO4. -- Abstract: Biodiesel was produced from acidified soybean soapstocks by using lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst (LCC). LCC was a solid acidic catalyst prepared by direct sulfonation of residual lignin from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge hulls. The textural properties of the catalyst were characterized by 13C MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, elemental analysis and BET surface area measurement. When 7 wt.% of LCC was used in the esterification, the maximum free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion (above 97%) could be achieved at a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 1:9 and a reaction temperature of 70 °C for 5 h. A comparison of catalytic activity between sulfuric acid and LCC revealed that LCC performed 3.5 times higher activity than sulfuric acid with the equivalent active group (-SO3H). Additionally, LCC could be reused at least three times with high FFAs conversion (>80%).

  6. Mercury speciation, fluxes, and fate in the volcanically acidified fluids of Copahue volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, T.; Varekamp, J. C.; Andersson, M.; Balcom, P.; Mason, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    The behavior of mercury in volcanic acid springs and acidified rivers is poorly known, despite the potential impact this vector of contamination has on local surface and ground water quality. Mercury was measured in a volcanically acidified river system (pHNeuquen province of Argentina, which discharges into a large glacial lake (Lake Caviahue, pH 2.2-3.0). The Hg concentration ranged from 2 - 600 pM throughout the fluvial system. Mercury in the hot, hyperacidic source fluids was dominated by dissolved ionic species, with only 2% of total mercury as dissolved elemental mercury, and 11% being particulate bound. The Hg flux from the volcano, determined from river water flux measurements and Hg concentrations, was modest and varied between the 3/2008 and 3/2009 sampling campaigns resp. from 0.7 to 1.1 moles/year. The Hg:S ratio of the acid fluids was ~10-8, several orders of magnitude lower than that typically found in volcanic plumes and fumaroles. The small Hg flux and low Hg:S values suggest that the system is either inherently Hg-poor or has lost Hg through vapor loss deeper in the hydrothermal system. Support for the latter comes from high Hg concentrations in geothermal vents and mudpots on the flank of the mountain (24 - 55 ppm Hg). Mercury concentrations decreased conservatively downstream in the river as based on Hg/Cl and Hg/SO4. Non-conservative depletion occurs in the less acidic Lake Caviahue, suggesting that mercury is removed from the water column by sorption to organic matter or other phases. Mercury analyses of a short lake sediment core confirm this (Hg = 0.01 to 0.70 ppm). No evidence was found for preferential uptake of mercury by jarosite, schwertmannite, or goethite, although the latter two phases precipitate in the most distal and Hg-depleted section of the fluvial system.

  7. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  8. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  9. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  10. Pig Manure Application for Remediation of Mine Soils in Murcia Province, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In southern Spain, specifically in Murcia Province, an increased pig population causes large amounts of slurry production that creates a very serious environmental concern. Our aim was to use this waste to reduce the acid mine drainage process, heavy metal mobilization, and to improve soil conditions to enhance plant establishment in mine soils. Pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime were used as soil amendments in a field experiment and in undisturbed soil column. Field experiments showed an increase in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and carbonate contents; a reduction of diethylene-tetramine pentaacetic acid (DTPA– and water-extractable metals; and an improvement of plant establishment. The field studies showed that pig manure could be utilized to remediate polluted soils. Column studies in the laboratory showed that amendment of mine soil with pig manure initially increased soil pH from 2.21 to 6.34, promoted reduced conditions in the surface soil, and decreased the metal mobility. After 21 weeks, while the leachate was slightly acidic, however, the mobility of metals was substantially low. Additions of 7 and 14% of pig manure were insufficient to maintain a neutral pH in the leachate. Therefore, continuous application of the pig manure may be advised.

  11. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  12. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  13. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  14. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  15. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  16. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  17. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  18. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  19. Effects of airflow on odorants' emissions in a model pig house — A laboratory study using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of different factors that affect emissions of gasses, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is necessary to develop emission abatement technology. The objectives of this research were to quantify and study temporal variation of gas emissions from a model pig house under varying ventilation rates. The used model was a 1:12.5 scale of a section of a commercial finishing pig house. The VOC concentrations at inlet, outlet, and slurry pit of the model space were measured using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). PTR-MS can measure the temporal variations of odor compounds' emission from the slurry pit in real time. The emissions of H2S and 14 VOCs were lower compared to real pig buildings except for ammonia, which indicated possible other sources of those compounds than the slurry in the slurry pit. The ventilation rate affected significantly on ammonia and trimethylamine emission (p 2S) emission was independent of the ventilation rate. VFAs' emission dependency on ventilation rate increased with the increase of carbon chain. Phenols, indoles and ketones showed the positive correlation with ventilation rate to some extent. Generally, compounds with high solubility (low Henry's constant) showed stronger correlation with ventilation rates than the compounds with high Henry's constant.

  20. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  1. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which...... of the studies were specifically designed to investigate dietary or enteric pig factors that may influence the CH4 emission. The data used in the chapter is based on Danish pigs with reference to other European studies. In a global context Denmark’s 12 million pigs (FAOSTAT, 2009) contribute with 1.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...

  2. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  3. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    determined through minimizing the tool draft force with constraints which ensured that the desired amount of slurry can be injected into the soil without slurry being exposed on the soil surface. Four sweeps with different working widths (50, 110, 180, and 250 mm) and a constant rake angle of 15° were......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...

  4. Flow behavior of coarse-grained slurries in pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, P.; Chára, Z.; Kysela, B. (Bohuš); Sobota , J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the experimental investigation of model coarse-grained slurry on a recirculation pipe loop with smooth stainless steel pipes. Graded pebble gravel and glass balls were used as a model for poly-metallic nodules, and very fine glass beads as a model for fine-grained sand. The investigation was focused on evaluating the effect of slurry velocity and particle concentration on pressure drops and the slurry flow behavior in the turbulent regime. Also the effect of fine-grained p...

  5. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  6. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  7. Microstructure of silicon carbide nano powder-polycarbosilane-solvent mixed slurries and observed shear rate dependence in slurry viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SiC powder, polycarbosilane and xylene mixed slurries were prepared for microstructure observation and viscosity measurement. Slurries with averaged primary SiC size of 270 or 50 nm revealed existence of isolated secondary particles smaller than 1 μm in optical microscope observation. These secondary particles showed a Brownian motion in a xylene-PCS medium. On the other hand, slurry with an averaged primary SiC size of 20 nm revealed existence of large secondary particles in the size of 2-5 μm. The apparent area occupied with these secondary particles was far larger than that occupied by secondary particles of 270 or 50 nm in spite of a low SiC content. It was suggested that the secondary particles observed in the 20 nm slurry possessed small spaces among the primary SiC particles. Viscosity measurement presented that apparent viscosity of the slurry was high in general when the primary SiC particle size was small. In particular, the 20 nm SiC slurries showed quite high viscosity even at a SiC content of 5-6 mass%, which almost corresponded to that of 40 mass% for a SiC 270 nm slurry. Shear thinning effect was also remarkable when the primary SiC particle size was small

  8. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  9. Phosphorus accumulation and pollution potential in a hapludult fertilized with pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Guardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig litter to the soil surface can increase the phosphorus (P content and alter its adsorption, promoting P transfer to surface or subsurface waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate P accumulation and the pollution potential of a soil after application of pig litter. In March 2010, eight years after the installation of an experiment in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil, on a Typic Hapludult, soil was sampled (layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm after the following fertilization treatments: no pig litter fertilization, pig slurry application and pig manure application. In this period, 694 and 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 were applied in the treatments with pig slurry and pig manure, respectively. The P content was determined, based on Mehlich-1, anion exchange resin (AER, 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 and total P in the samples. The adsorption isotherm parameters were also determined by the Langmuir and Koski-Vähälä & Hartikainem models in the layers 0-2.5 and 20-30 cm. The application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure led to P accumulation, as evidenced by Mehlich-1, down to a depth of 15 cm, by AER and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 down to 20 cm and by total P to 30 cm. After application of 1,890 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of pig manure, the values of maximum P adsorption capacity were lowest in the deepest layer (20-30 cm, indicating the occupation of part of the adsorption sites of the particles. The application of swine manure to the soil over eight years increased the P quantity in the soil solution of the surface layer, indicating environmental contamination risk for surface and subsurface waters.

  10. Ammonia and methane gas emissions from pig slurry: variability induced through feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Beccaccia, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Esta Tesis doctoral fue desarrollada para estudiar las emisiones de amoniaco (NH3) y metano (CH4) en purines de cerdos, y los efectos ocasionados por cambios en la formulación de la dieta. Con este propósito, fueron llevados a cabo tres estudios. El experimento 1 fue realizado con el objetivo de analizar los factores de variación de la composición de purines y establecer ecuaciones de predicción para emisiones potenciales de NH3 y CH4. Fueron recogidas setenta y nueve muestras de piensos y p...

  11. Greenhouse gas microbiology in wet and dry straw crust covering pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Ruth; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Schramm, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    microbiology had an effect on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) when crust moisture was manipulated ("Dry", "Moderate", and "Wet"). The dry crust had the deepest oxygen penetration (45 mm as compared to 20 mm in the Wet treatment) as measured with microsensors, the highest...

  12. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Cooling of Manure, Applied to Fattening Pigs Slurry, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    the “manure management chain” from in-house storage, outdoor storage and to application of the manure to field in combination with the environmental impacts from the energy production for the manure cooling, by use of consequential Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report on Manure Cooling was prepared...... as part of Work Package 5 on Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains in the project Baltic Manure....

  13. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain); Estudio sobre contaminacion ambiental en balsas de purines en la Region de Murcia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. Effect of Impeller Agitation on Preparation of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semiclathrate Hydrate Slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiro Inoue; Kazunari Ohgaki; Shunsuke Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    The slurries-containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution and its semiclathrate hydrate have attracted a lot of interest as latent heat transport media. These hydrate slurries contain some microparticles of crystal, and the size and shape of these hydrate particles could affect the mobility of slurries. Hence, it is essential to investigate the efficient hydrate-slurry preparation methods and the effect of hydrate particles on the fluid property of slurries for the application to...

  15. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  16. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  17. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. (paper)

  18. Ice slurry based thermal storage in multifunctional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M. J.; Kusumoto, N.

    Ice slurry based thermal storage plays an important role in reshaping patterns of electricity use for space cooling and heating. It offers inherent advantages in energy efficiency, operating savings, load follow-up and flexible installation over conventional thermal storage technologies. This paper provides discussions on the generation mechanism and performance of ice slurry, as well as the operation principle of the ice slurry based thermal storage system. Details of the system design, control strategy and operation performance are given through a case study on a recent installation in Herbis Osaka, the largest simple building complex in Japan. An evaluation of different installations with ice slurry thermal storage reveals that it is a rewarding technology that provides significant operating savings for the building air-conditioning and improves energy utilization efficiency in modern society.

  19. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2011-01-01

    -textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  20. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  1. Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, S; Kawaguchi, M; Yasuhara, K

    2000-09-15

    A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years and reported its potential for (1) underwater fills, (2) light weight backfills, and (3) light weight structural fills, through both laboratory tests and construction works. This paper is an overview of the results obtained for slurry, focusing on the following. (1) Coal fly ash reclaimed by slurry placement shows lower compressibility, higher ground density, and higher strength than by the other methods. This higher strength increases stability against liquefaction during earthquake. (2) Higher stability of the fly ash ground formed by slurry placement is caused by higher density and its self-hardening property. (3) Stability of fly ash reclaimed ground can be increased by increasing density and also by strength enhancement by cement addition. (4) Technical data obtained through a man-made island construction project shows the advantages of fly ash slurry in terms of mechanical properties such as higher stability against sliding failure, sufficient ground strength, and also in terms of cost saving. (5) Concentration in leachates from the placed slurry is lower than the Japanese environmental law. (6) In order to enlarge the fly ash slurry application toward a lightweight fill, mixtures of air foam, cement and fly ash were examined. Test results shows sufficient durability of this material against creep failure. This material was then used as lightweight structural fill around a high-rise building, and showed sufficient quality. From the above data, it can be concluded that coal fly ash slurry can be effectively utilized in civil engineering projects.

  2. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. (Univ. of Metz (France))

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Extracellular DNA Acidifies Biofilms and Induces Aminoglycoside Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Mike; Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Moore, Richard; Lewenza, Shawn

    2015-11-09

    Biofilms consist of surface-adhered bacterial communities encased in an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, exopolysaccharides, and proteins. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has a structural role in the formation of biofilms, can bind and shield biofilms from aminoglycosides, and induces antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that eDNA is responsible for the acidification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic cultures and biofilms. Further, we show that acidic pH and acidification via eDNA constitute a signal that is perceived by P. aeruginosa to induce the expression of genes regulated by the PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems. Planktonic P. aeruginosa cultured in exogenous 0.2% DNA or under acidic conditions demonstrates a 2- to 8-fold increase in aminoglycoside resistance. This resistance phenotype requires the aminoarabinose modification of lipid A and the production of spermidine on the bacterial outer membrane, which likely reduce the entry of aminoglycosides. Interestingly, the additions of the basic amino acid L-arginine and sodium bicarbonate neutralize the pH and restore P. aeruginosa susceptibility to aminoglycosides, even in the presence of eDNA. These data illustrate that the accumulation of eDNA in biofilms and infection sites can acidify the local environment and that acidic pH promotes the P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance phenotype.

  4. Characteristics of Soluble and Exchangeable Acidity in an Extremely Acidified Acid Sulfate Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Lin; M.D.MELVILLE; 等

    1999-01-01

    An extremely acidified acid sulfate soil(ASS) was investigated to characterise its soluble and exchangeable acidity,The results showed that soluble acidity of a sample dtermined by titration with a KOH soulution was much significantly greater than that indicated by pH measured using a pH meter,paricularly for the extremely acidic soil samples,This is because the total soluble acidity of the extremely acidic soil samples was mainly composed of various soluble Al and Fe species,possibly in forms of Al sulfate complexes(e.g.,AlSO4+) and feerous Fe(Fe2+)_,It is therefore suggested not to use pH alone as an indicator of soluble acidity in ASS,particularly for extremely acidic ASS,It is also likely that AlSO4+ actively participated in cation exchange reactions.It appears that the possible involvement of this Al sulfate cation in the cation adsorption has significant effect on increasing the amount of acidity being adsorbed by the soils.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Marie-Josée; Choquette, Julie; Delaquis, Pascal J; Claude, Gariépy; Rodrigue, Natalie; Saucier, Linda

    2002-10-25

    The inhibitory effect of Microgard 100, Microgard 300, nisin, Alta 2002, Perlac 1902, sodium lactate and essential oil of mustard on microorganisms experimentally inoculated was screened in an acidified chicken meat model (pH = 5.0) and stored for 2 weeks at a none restrictive growth temperature of 22 degrees C. All antimicrobials tested were used at the highest concentration recommended by their manufacturer. Sausage batter made with mechanically deboned chicken was inoculated with a mixed culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Brochothrix thermosphacta CRDAV452, and a protective culture Lactobacillus alimentarius BJ33 (FloraCan L-2). A final cell concentration of 3-4 log CFU g (-1) was targeted after cooking at a core temperature of 55 degrees C for each microorganism in order to assess cell count variation effectively. Composition, water activity (a(w)), pH and redox potential of the sausage model was also evaluated. The E. coli population decreased steadily during storage and was close or below detection level (oil of mustard was used, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were significantly lower than the control after 2 days of storage (P < or = 0.05). The other antimicrobial agents tested had no significant effect on the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, B. thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria counts, when compared to the control.

  6. Extracellular DNA Acidifies Biofilms and Induces Aminoglycoside Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Mike; Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Moore, Richard; Lewenza, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms consist of surface-adhered bacterial communities encased in an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, exopolysaccharides, and proteins. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has a structural role in the formation of biofilms, can bind and shield biofilms from aminoglycosides, and induces antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that eDNA is responsible for the acidification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic cultures and biofilms. Further, we show that acidic pH and acidification via eDNA constitute a signal that is perceived by P. aeruginosa to induce the expression of genes regulated by the PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems. Planktonic P. aeruginosa cultured in exogenous 0.2% DNA or under acidic conditions demonstrates a 2- to 8-fold increase in aminoglycoside resistance. This resistance phenotype requires the aminoarabinose modification of lipid A and the production of spermidine on the bacterial outer membrane, which likely reduce the entry of aminoglycosides. Interestingly, the additions of the basic amino acid L-arginine and sodium bicarbonate neutralize the pH and restore P. aeruginosa susceptibility to aminoglycosides, even in the presence of eDNA. These data illustrate that the accumulation of eDNA in biofilms and infection sites can acidify the local environment and that acidic pH promotes the P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance phenotype. PMID:26552982

  7. Juvenile Antarctic rockcod (Trematomus bernacchii) are physiologically robust to CO2-acidified seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brittany E; Miller, Nathan A; Flynn, Erin E; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-04-15

    To date, numerous studies have shown negative impacts of CO2-acidified seawater (i.e. ocean acidification, OA) on marine organisms, including calcifying invertebrates and fishes; however, limited research has been conducted on the physiological effects of OA on polar fishes and even less on the impact of OA on early developmental stages of polar fishes. We evaluated aspects of aerobic metabolism and cardiorespiratory physiology of juvenile emerald rockcod, ITALIC! Trematomus bernacchii, an abundant fish in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( ITALIC! PCO2 ) [420 (ambient), 650 (moderate) and 1050 (high) μatm ITALIC! PCO2 ] over a 1 month period. We examined cardiorespiratory physiology, including heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and ventilation rate, whole organism metabolism via oxygen consumption rate and sub-organismal aerobic capacity by citrate synthase enzyme activity. Juvenile fish showed an increase in ventilation rate under high ITALIC! PCO2 compared with ambient ITALIC! PCO2 , whereas cardiac performance, oxygen consumption and citrate synthase activity were not significantly affected by elevated ITALIC! PCO2 Acclimation time had a significant effect on ventilation rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and citrate synthase activity, such that all metrics increased over the 4 week exposure period. These results suggest that juvenile emerald rockcod are robust to near-future increases in OA and may have the capacity to adjust for future increases in ITALIC! PCO2  by increasing acid-base compensation through increased ventilation. PMID:26944503

  8. Increased microsporidian parasitism of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in an experimentally acidified lake. [Thelohania contejeani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, R.L.; Graham, L.

    1985-10-01

    Orconectes virilis has been identified as a host of the microsporidian Thelohania contejeani in four lakes in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario. Prevalence of parasitism increased from 1.7% in autumn 1979, to 6.5% and 7.7% in autumns 1980 and 1981 concomitant with experimental acidification of Lake 223 to pH 5.1. By comparison, mean infection rates observed within three reference lakes were between 0.3 to 0.6%. Enhanced microsporidosis is believed to have contributed to a reduction in annual crayfish survival rates for the Lake 223 population of 8% in 1979 and 18% in 1980 compared to averages calculated for the non-acidified lakes. Hypotheses to explain the ten-fold increase in Thelohania parasitism in Lake 223 over background levels for the ELA region include a) increased probagative ability due to elevated rate of crayfish cannibalism or low pH-favored parasite life cycle, and b) decreased host resistance when under sublethal stress.

  9. Urinary acidifier in diet with high excess base for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Padovani Pires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the pH of urine in the ideal range (6.2 - 6.4 is of great importance for health promotion in the lower urinary tract of cats. In the economic and standard feed sector this is a major concern, given that the animal urine tends to be alkaline after food consumption of those commercial segments, which predispose to the formation of struvite urolith. Therefore, this study aimed to study the effects of increasing levels of urinary acidifiers (0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%, on a dry matter base in feed with high excess base over the acid-basic balance in the organism, apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, urinary pH, hydro-electrolyte balance in cats, as well as the adequacy of equations proposed in the literature to estimate the urinary pH. Twenty-four adult cats, males and females were distributed in a completely randomized design, consisting of six animals per treatment. The dry matter content of urine presented a quadratic behavior (p0.05. The equations proposed in the literature, which use excess of base in feed to estimate urinary pH, overestimated the pH values found in this study.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Marie-Josée; Choquette, Julie; Delaquis, Pascal J; Claude, Gariépy; Rodrigue, Natalie; Saucier, Linda

    2002-10-25

    The inhibitory effect of Microgard 100, Microgard 300, nisin, Alta 2002, Perlac 1902, sodium lactate and essential oil of mustard on microorganisms experimentally inoculated was screened in an acidified chicken meat model (pH = 5.0) and stored for 2 weeks at a none restrictive growth temperature of 22 degrees C. All antimicrobials tested were used at the highest concentration recommended by their manufacturer. Sausage batter made with mechanically deboned chicken was inoculated with a mixed culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Brochothrix thermosphacta CRDAV452, and a protective culture Lactobacillus alimentarius BJ33 (FloraCan L-2). A final cell concentration of 3-4 log CFU g (-1) was targeted after cooking at a core temperature of 55 degrees C for each microorganism in order to assess cell count variation effectively. Composition, water activity (a(w)), pH and redox potential of the sausage model was also evaluated. The E. coli population decreased steadily during storage and was close or below detection level (aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were significantly lower than the control after 2 days of storage (P aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, B. thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria counts, when compared to the control. PMID:12227640

  11. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  12. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  13. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  14. Complex responses of intertidal molluscan embryos to a warming and acidifying ocean in the presence of UV radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Davis

    Full Text Available Climate change and ocean acidification will expose marine organisms to synchronous multiple stressors, with early life stages being potentially most vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. We simultaneously exposed encapsulated molluscan embryos to three abiotic stressors-acidified conditions, elevated temperate, and solar UV radiation in large outdoor water tables in a multifactorial design. Solar UV radiation was modified with plastic filters, while levels of the other factors reflected IPCC predictions for near-future change. We quantified mortality and the rate of embryonic development for a mid-shore littorinid, Bembicium nanum, and low-shore opisthobranch, Dolabrifera brazieri. Outcomes were consistent for these model species with embryos faring significantly better at 26°C than 22°C. Mortality sharply increased at the lowest temperature (22°C and lowest pH (7.6 examined, producing a significant interaction. Under these conditions mortality approached 100% for each species, representing a 2- to 4-fold increase in mortality relative to warm (26°C non-acidified conditions. Predictably, development was more rapid at the highest temperature but this again interacted with acidified conditions. Development was slowed under acidified conditions at the lowest temperature. The presence of UV radiation had minimal impact on the outcomes, only slowing development for the littorinid and not interacting with the other factors. Our findings suggest that a warming ocean, at least to a threshold, may compensate for the effects of decreasing pH for some species. It also appears that stressors will interact in complex and unpredictable ways in a changing climate.

  15. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  16. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  17. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  18. An acidified thermostabilizing mini-peptide derived from the carboxyl extension of the larger isoform of the plant Rubisco activase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengru; Li, Xujuan; Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2015-10-20

    Thermostable fusion peptide partners are valuable in engineering thermostability in proteins. We evaluated the Arabidopsis counterpart (AtRAce) and an acidified derivative (mRAce) of the conserved carboxyl extension (RAce) of plant Rubisco activase (RCA) for their thermostabilizing properties in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a protein fusion strategy. We used AtRAce and mRAce as fusion tails for the thermolabile protein RCA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The homologous fusion of AtRAce with Arabidopsis RCA2 and the heterologous fusion of AtRAce with tobacco RCA2 increased the thermostability of both proteins. The acidified derivative mRAce conferred greater thermostability upon both proteins as compared with AtRAce. Moreover, mRAce enhanced the thermostability of other two thermolabile proteins from Jatropha curcas: the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 (JcAPX1) and the TATA-box binding protein isoform 1 (JcTBP1). We further report - for the first time - that JcTBP1 mediates heat tolerance in vivo in yeast. Thus, our study identifies a C-terminal acidic mini-peptide - the acidified derivative mRAce - with potential uses in improving the thermostability of heat-labile proteins and their associated heat tolerance in host organisms. PMID:26321073

  19. An observational prospective study of topical acidified nitrite for killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in contaminated wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Gail P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous nitric oxide (NO kills bacteria and other organisms as part of the innate immune response. When nitrite is exposed to low pH, NO is generated and has been used as an NO delivery system to treat skin infections. We demonstrated eradication of MRSA carriage from wounds using a topical formulation of citric acid (4.5% and sodium nitrite (3% creams co-applied for 5 days to 15 wounds in an observational prospective pilot study of 8 patients. Findings Following treatment with topical citric acid and sodium nitrite, 9 of 15 wounds (60% and 3 of 8 patients (37% were cleared of infection. MRSA isolates from these patients were all sensitive to acidified nitrite in vitro compared to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and a reference strain of MRSA. Conclusions Nitric oxide and acidified nitrite offer a novel therapy for control of MRSA in wounds. Wounds that were not cleared of infection may have been re-contaminated or the bioavailability of acidified nitrite impaired by local factors in the tissue.

  20. Slurry and processing technique of CLBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-li; LIU Yu-ling; NIU Xin-huan; TAN Bai-mei

    2006-01-01

    CsLiB6O10(CLBO) is a new-type nonlinear optical crystal material. CLBO has many good performances,especially the frequency multiplication performance in deep ultraviolet band. CLBO has important application prospect on solid-state UV laser,broad band tunable laser and laser nucleus flame igniter. Though,CLBO will be air slaking and cracking when the ambient humidity is more than 40%,which brings more difficult on CLBO surface finishing. According to the performance and structure characteristic of CLBO crystal,a new water-free slurry applying for CLBO crystal chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was investigated. The abrasive is SiO2. The influence of polishing processing parameter on polishing process for CLBO crystal was discussed,and the parameter optimal value of polishing plate speed,pressure,pH value and abrasive concentration were determined. Through such parameters,high efficiency and precision plane polishing was gotten. The CLBO CMP process was studied,the results show that low pressure and high speed can improve the CLBO crystal surface removal rate and flatness.

  1. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  2. Stability for a novel low-pH alkaline slurry during the copper chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of a novel low-pH alkaline slurry (marked as slurry A, pH = 8.5) for copper chemical mechanical planarization was investigated in this paper. First of all, the stability mechanism of the alkaline slurry was studied. Then many parameters have been tested for researching the stability of the slurry through comparing with a traditional alkaline slurry (marked as slurry B, pH = 9.5), such as the pH value, particle size and zeta potential. Apart from this, the stability of the copper removal rate, dishing, erosion and surface roughness were also studied. All the results show that the stability of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry is better than the traditional alkaline slurry. The working-life of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry reaches 48 h. (semiconductor technology)

  3. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  4. Can the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) persist in an acidified landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cheryl A; Beier, Colin M.; Ducey, Peter K; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Hardwood forests of eastern North America have experienced decades of acidic deposition, leading to soil acidification where base cation supply was insufficient to neutralize acid inputs. Negative impacts of soil acidity on amphibians include disrupted embryonic development, lower growth rates, and habitat loss. However, some amphibians exhibit intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, suggesting the potential for local adaptation in areas where soils are naturally acidic. The eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a highly abundant top predator of the northern hardwood forest floor. Early research found that P. cinereus was sensitive to acidic soils, avoiding substrates with pH health (body size and condition), and microhabitat selection, based on surveys of 34 hardwood forests in northeastern United States that encompass a regional soil pH gradient. We found no associations between soil pH and P. cinereus abundance or health, and observed that this salamander used substrates with pH similar to that available, suggesting that pH does not mediate their fine-scale distributions. The strongest negative predictor of P. cinereus abundance was the presence of dusky salamanders (Desmognathus spp.), which were most abundant in the western Adirondacks. Our results indicate that P. cinereus occupies a wider range of soil pH than has been previously thought, which has implications for their functional role in forest food webs and nutrient cycles in acid-impaired ecosystems. Tolerance of P. cinereus for more acidic habitats, including anthropogenically acidified forests, may be due to local adaptation in reproductively isolated populations and/or generalist life history traits that allow them to exploit a wider resource niche.

  5. Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO2 and NOx that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO2 in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO2 emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NOx, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO2 remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NOx, will become more and more important in the future

  6. Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrate and nitrite on six common oral pathogens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Deng-sheng; LIU Yin; ZHANG Chun-mei; YANG Sheng-hui; WANG Song-lin

    2006-01-01

    Background Salivary nitrate is positively correlated with plasma nitrate and its level is 9 times the plasma level after nitrate loading. Nitrate in saliva is known to be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. Nitrate and nitrite levels in saliva are 3-5 times those in serum in physiological conditions respectively in our previous study. The biological functions of high salivary nitrate and nitrite are still not well understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of nitrate and nitrite on main oral pathogens under acidic conditions.Methods Six common oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, Capnocytophaga gingivalis ATCC 33624, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were cultured in liquid medium. Sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite was added to the medium to final concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 mmol/L. All of the microorganisms were incubated for 24 to 48 hours. The optical densities (OD) of cell suspensions were determined and the cultures were transferred to solid nutrient broth medium to observe the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration for the six tested pathogens.Results Nitrite at concentrations of 0.5 to 10 mmol/L had an inhibitory effect on all tested organisms at low pH values. The antimicrobial effect of nitrite increased with the acidity of the medium. Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 was highly sensitive to nitrite at low pH values. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4646 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were relatively resistant to acidified nitrite. Nitrate at the given concentrations and under acidic conditions had no inhibitory effect on the growth of any of the tested pathogens.Conclusion Nitrite, at a concentration equal to that in human saliva, is both cytocidal and cytostatic to six principal oral pathogens in vitro, whereas nitrate at a similar

  7. Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina Ø; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of −275 mV to −10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from −200 mV to −80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (−200 mV to −80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry. PMID:22778588

  8. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  9. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemicalephysical combined method (CPCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Wu; Wenyu Xu; Romy Tjuar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemicalephysical combined methods (CPCMs) for treatment of marine clay (MC) slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP), while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu) of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  10. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the...

  12. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  13. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  14. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer

  15. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  16. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  17. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  18. Simulating the evolution of fracture surface alteration exposed to CO2-acidified brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.; Steefel, C. I.; Molins, S.; DePaolo, D. J.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Voltolini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the flow, transport, and reaction in fractures and the evolution of fracture geometries as a result of geochemical reactions is especially relevant to geologic carbon storage. Both natural and injection-induced fractures may be abundant and thus control fluid migration in the subsurface. A second effect is that the development of low pH fluid as the CO2 dissolves into the native brine can alter fracture geometries and thus dominant flow pathways substantially over relatively short time scales, particularly when rapidly-reacting carbonate minerals are present. Existing experimental studies performed under conditions relevant to geologic carbon storage have shown complex dissolution patterns, which depend on the flow regimes and spatial distributions of reactive minerals. One of the dissolution patterns observed is the formation of a porous altered layer in the near-fracture region that is created by preferential dissolution of a reactive phase (e.g. calcite) dispersed in the rock matrix. However, there is still a lack of predictive understanding of this phenomenon and an even more limited ability to predict how the altered layer may influence subsequent evolution of the fracture. In this study, we present a reactive transport model that captures and predicts the development of the altered layer when the fracture surfaces are exposed to CO2-acidified brine. The model explicitly accounts for permeability heterogeneity caused by initial fracture aperture variations, and updates fracture apertures and the porosity of rock matrix in the near-fracture region based on local reactions. The simulation results lend important insights into the factors that control the evolution of the spatial distribution and thickness of the altered layer. This altered layer in turn affects flow distribution in the fracture and formation of preferential flow channels. It also has an impact on the mass transport between the fracture and the rock matrix, the accessibility of

  19. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO{sub 2}-Acidified Brine Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-01

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel

  20. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin HUAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  1. Experimental investigation of ice slurry heat transfer in horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per; Palm, Bjoern; Melinder, Aake [Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Heat transfer of ice slurry flow based on ethanol-water mixture in a circular horizontal tube has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethanol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The heat transfer tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 22% depending on test performed. Measured heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry are found to be higher than those for single phase fluid, especially for laminar flow conditions and high ice mass fractions where the heat transfer is increased with a factor 2 in comparison to the single phase flow. In addition, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry flow were compared to the analytical results, based on the correlation by Sieder and Tate for laminar single phase regime, by Dittus-Boelter for turbulent single phase regime and empirical correlation by Christensen and Kauffeld derived for laminar/turbulent ice slurry flow in circular horizontal tubes. It was found that the classical correlation proposed by Sieder and Tate for laminar forced convection in smooth straight circular ducts cannot be used for heat transfer prediction of ice slurry flow since it strongly underestimates measured values, while, for the turbulent flow regime the simple Dittus-Boelter relation predicts the heat transfer coefficient of ice slurry flow with high accuracy but only up to an ice mass fraction of 10% and Re{sub cf} > 2300 regardless of imposed heat flux. For higher ice mass fractions and regardless of the flow regime, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  2. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  3. An advanced alkaline slurry for barrier chemical mechanical planarization on patterned wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Niu Xinhuan; Tian Jianying; Gao Baohong; Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an alkaline barrier slurry (named FA/O slurry) for barrier removal and evaluated its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance through comparison with a commercially developed barrier slurry.The FA/O slurry consists of colloidal silica,which is a complexing and an oxidizing agent,and does not have any inhibitors.It was found that the surface roughness of copper blanket wafers polished by the FA/O slurry was lower than the commercial barrier slurry,demonstrating that it leads to a better surface quality.In addition,the dishing and electrical tests also showed that the patterned wafers have a lower dishing value and sheet resistance as compared to the commercial barrier slurry.By comparison,the FA/O slurry demonstrates good planarization performance and can be used for barrier CMP.

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  5. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises...... the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed...

  6. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  7. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of an Ice-slurry Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪若瑜; 董梁; 尚德义; 徐建生; Kawaji M

    2004-01-01

    A new test facility equipped with refrigerant and brine circulation systems, and a rotating-scraper ice-slurry generator was constructed to analyze the ice-slurry flow and heat transfer accompanied by phase change in an industrial generator. The axial and transverse brine temperature and ice fraction concentration profiles in the ice generator were measured. The heat transfer efficiency lower than the average was identified in the upper half of the ice generator and its cause was determined by conducting three-dimensional numerical simulation using a commercial CFD code, FLUENT. Approaches of improving the brine-side heat transfer rates were investigated by incorporating extra mixing blades from numerical simulation.

  9. Electrochemical behaviors of silicon wafers in silica slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Song; Haiping Yang; Xunda Shi; Xi He; Guanzhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of n-type silicon wafers in silica-based slurry were investigated, and the influences of the pH value and solid content of the slurry on the corrosion of silicon wafers were studied by using electrochemical DC polarization and AC impedance techniques. The results revealed that these factors affected the corrosion behaviors of silicon wafers to different degrees and had their suitable parameters that made the maximum corrosion rate of the wafers. The corrosion potential of (100) surface was lower than that of (111), whereas the current density of (100) was much higher than that of (111).

  10. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...... this problem by proposing extensions to Pig that deal with linked data in RDF to bridge the gap between Pig and SPARQL for analytics. These extensions are realized by a set of user-defined functions and rewriting rules, still allowing to compile the enhanced Pig scripts to plain MapReduce programs. For all......-defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  11. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  12. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  13. Study on Formulation of Compound Acidifiers Using Uniform Design%利用均匀设计方法研制复合酸化剂的配方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 武书庚; 张海军; 齐广海

    2009-01-01

    The uniform design method was used to study the formula of compound acidifiers.Two types of acidifiers, I.e.phosphoric acid type (acidifier A) and lactic acid type (acidifier B), with 6 different formulas for each type were selected.Based on the pH of feed, acid-binding capacity and the bacteriostatic ability of the two types of acidifiers with different for-mulas, a regression equation was set and the optimum formula was determined with stepwise regression analysis method.Re-sults indicated that the optimum effects occurred when the phosphoric acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and calcium formiate of acidifier A accounted for 30%, 20%, 20% and 5%, respectively, while the optimum effects occurred when the lactic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid of acidifier B accounted for 40%, 20% and 20%, respectively.It was concluded that the study of acidifier formula with the uniform design method was feasible and the test efficiency of formula of acidifier study was im-proved with the uniform design method.%本研究旨在探讨复合酸化剂配方的研制方法.试验采用均匀设计方法,设计了2个类型的酸化剂:磷酸型(酸化剂A)和乳酸型(酸化剂B),每种酸化剂设置6种不同的配方,通过研究不同配方的2种酸化剂的饲料pH、系酸力以及抑菌能力,建立回归方程,并用逐步回归分析法确定2种酸化剂的最佳配方.结果表明,当酸化剂A中磷酸占30%、柠檬酸占20%、延胡索酸占20%、甲酸钙占5%时,酸化剂A对饲料pH、饲料系酸力以及有关细菌的抑制作用方面效果最佳;当酸化剂B中乳酸占40%、柠檬酸占20%、延胡索酸占20%时,综合效果最佳.结果提示,用均匀设计方法研制复合酸化剂的配方完全可行,而且可减少试验次数,提高试验效率.

  14. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  15. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  16. THE RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STOWING SLURRY WITH HIGH-WATER MATERIAL SOLIDIFYING TAILINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本生; 刘文永

    1996-01-01

    High-water material, tailings from goldmine and water are mixed into a new slurry.Testing of rheological properties of stowing slurries A and B is made to determine type and rheo-logical parameters of the slurry. The main factors influencing rheological properties of the slurryare analyzed and the rational concentration and empirical resistance calculating formula of pipeline transportation are presented.

  17. MICRODISSECTION OF MINIATURE PIG EAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Haijin; GuoWeiwei; Chen Lei; Wu Na; Li Jiana; Ren Lili; Yang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of miniature pigs as an animal model for otological research. Methods Microdissection of the temporal bone was performed on 10 miniature pigs and recorded on photo-graphs. Results The morphology and measurement of the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral re-cess of the miniature pigs were obtained by microdissection. Conclusion Compared to traditional animal models, the miniature pig may be a better model for biomedical research because of its many similarities in physiological functions with humans. Similarities of the temporal bone structures, including the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral recess, between the miniature pig and human make the animal a poten-tially useful model for otological research.

  18. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral......-measurements in three pigs. This relationship was approximately linear (R(2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive spectrophotometric oximetry is sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation in pigs and correlated with intravitreal pO2-measurements and with femoral artery pO2. Pigs present a higher intra...

  19. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  20. Frank Pig Says Hello

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy, Una

    2013-01-01

    Patrick McCabe’s Frank Pig Says Hello is an explosively powerful, angry-poignant and ultimately heart-rending dramatisation of Frank Brady who, as a young boy and adolescent, is driven beyond the boundaries of his mental and emotional health by his inability to cope with growing up, the loss of his parents and the preservation of his damaged and fragile mental and emotional health. Emphasising the difficulties that Frank experiences, McCabe splits his eponymous character into two: an adult Fr...

  1. Hydrate plugging or slurry flow : effect of key variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellecase, E.; Geraci, G.; Barrios, L.; Estanga, D.; Domingues, R.; Volk, M. [Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Although oil and gas companies have proven design criteria and proper operating procedures to prevent hydrate plugs from forming, hydrates remain the primary issue in flow assurance. The costs associated with hydrate prevention affect project economics, particularly in deepwater pipelines. As such, there is an interest in developing a technology that allows hydrates to be transported as a slurry, while avoiding plugs. The feasibility of managing such hydrate flow was investigated. This study used a hydrate flow loop to investigate the effects of flow conditions on the transportability of a slurry in both steady-state and restart conditions. For most cases, uninhibited steady-state slurry flow conditions above 25 per cent water-cut were marginal, and most likely not feasible at 50 per cent water-cut or above. Liquid loading and velocity appeared to have a marginal effect on plugging tendency. However, minimum velocity may be needed to guarantee slurry transportation. Some of the important parameters and key variables that determine if a plug will form, particularly in restart conditions, include oil-water dispersion properties; oil-water phase segregation on the plugging tendency of model fluids; the location and state of the water; and the flow pattern. It was concluded that the plugging behaviour of oil systems changes with these variables, and with the oil-water chemistry. As such, specific strategies must be developed for each field. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  2. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  3. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  4. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  5. Field Efficiency of Slurry Applications Involving In-field Transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Green, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    event model for the simulation of CTF operations executed by cooperating machines has been introduced. The use of this model makes it possible to estimate the extent of reduction of the field efficiency. In this paper, a field experiment involving slurry application under the conventional unconstrained...

  6. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  7. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  8. Response of antioxidant defense system in copepodCalanus sinicus Brodsky exposed to CO2-acidified seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dajuan; GUO Donghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    Marine zooplankton responds sensitively to elevated seawater CO2 concentration. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not been studied well. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (0.08%, 0.20%, 0.50% and 1.00%) on antioxidant defense components, as well as two detoxification enzymes ofCalanus sinicus (copepod). The results showed that glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity exposed to CO2-acidified seawater was significantly stimulated while other antioxidant components, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly with reduced glutathione (GSH) level and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) value. CO2-acidified seawater exhibited stimulatory effects on adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity was inhibited. Moreover, the results of principal component analysis indicated that 75.93% of the overall variance was explained by the first two principal components. The elevated CO2 concentration may affect the metabolism and survivals of copepods through impacts these enzymes activities. Further studies are needed to focus on the synergistic effects of elevated CO2 concentration and other environmental factors on copepods.

  9. European transboundary acidifying air pollution. Ten years calculated fields and budgets to the end of the first Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.; Seland, Oe.; Foss, A.; Mylona, S.; Sandnes, H.; Styve, H.; Tarrason, L.

    1995-07-01

    The Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission and Air Pollutants in Europe, EMEP, plays an integral part in data collection and scientific cooperation for implementation of the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Within EMEP, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (MSC-W) is an international technical centre. The purpose of the MSC-W, focusing in part on acidifying substances, is to estimate the concentrations of relevant sulphur and nitrogen pollutants across Europe on the basis of emission information and meteorological data, and to estimate the transboundary fluxes of these substances. Responding to these specific obligations, the report presents calculations of sulphur and nitrogen concentrations and depositions and of their transboundary fluxes. The calculations are performed by the receptor oriented one layer trajectory (Lagrangian) acid deposition model, which during 1995 has been used to estimate acidifying pollutant fluxes for the ten year period 1985-1994. This corresponds to the period between initial signing and conclusion of the first Sulphur Protocol, signed in Helsinki in 1985. 90 refs., 42 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. [The pig sty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J C

    1993-11-01

    A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  13. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  14. Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Sultana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers’ perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 34 and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n = 18. Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases.

  15. Gaseous emissions during the fattening of pigs kept either on fully slatted floors or on straw flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F-X; Laitat, M; Canart, B; Vandenheede, M; Nicks, B

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impact of the straw-flow system for fattening pigs with the slatted-floor system by measuring pollutant gas emissions such as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), manure nitrogen (N) content and emissions of water vapour (H2O). Three successive batches of 32 pigs were fattened. For each batch, pigs were allotted to two groups raised in separated rooms fitted either with a concrete totally slatted-floor system (0.75 m2 per pig) or with a straw-flow system (0.79 m2 per pig). With this last system, pigs were kept on a sloped floor, straw being provided daily at the top of the pen. Throughout the fattening period, about 34.4 kg of straw were supplied per pig. The straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. Rooms were ventilated mechanically in order to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O were measured hourly for 6 consecutive days via infrared photoacoustic detection. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the slatted floor or on the sloped floor were, respectively, 4.98 and 13.31 g NH3, 0.67 and 0.68 g N2O, 15.2 and 8.88 g CH4, 548 g and 406 g CO2 equivalents, 1.61 and 1.77 kg CO2 and 2.33 and 2.95 kg H2O. Except for N2O emissions, all the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). From the slatted-floor system, the amount of slurry removed per fattening period was on average 256 kg per pig. From the straw-flow system, solid manure amounted on average to 209 kg per pig and liquid manure to 53 kg per pig. The total N-content of the manure

  16. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  17. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;

    2014-01-01

    risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction......Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do...... not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...

  18. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  19. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  20. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  1. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  2. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  3. Naphthalene biodegradation kinetics in an aerobic slurry-phase bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collina, E.; Bestetti, G.; Di Gennaro, P.; Franzetti, A.; Gugliersi, F.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D. [Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy). Dip. Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio

    2005-02-01

    The research was focused on the slurry-phase biodegradation of naphthalene in soil. Among ex situ techniques, the slurry phase offers the advantage of increased availability of contaminants to bacteria. From naphthalene contaminated soil, a Pseudomonas putida M8 strain capable to degrade naphthalene was selected. Experiments were performed in a stirred and oxygenated reactor. In this study, the influence of air flow rate and agitation rate on volatilisation and biodegradation of naphthalene was investigated. The hydrocarbon disappearance, the carbon dioxide production, and the ratio of total heterotrophic and naphthalene-degrading bacteria was monitored. The results obtained confirm that the selected bioremediation technology is successful in the treatment of contaminated soils. (author)

  4. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  5. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  6. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  7. Permeability and compressibility of slurries from seepage-induced consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Antonio; Kriegsmann, Gregory; Krizek, Raymond J.

    1988-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model based on finite-strain theory is developed to solve the problem of seepage-induced consolidation in sedimented slurries or very soft clays. The direct solution employs known or assumed material property relationships to determine the final thickness of a soft sediment subjected to a constant piezometric head. It is useful for predicting the capacity of a disposal area and the time-dependent improvement in material properties. Alternatively, the inver...

  8. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  9. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  10. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  11. Automation of the second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Juliana M.; Fonseca, Mario L.; Drumond, Pablo P.; Barbosa, Sylvio [IHM Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco was build to attend the Third Pellet Plant Project, which includes a new Concentration Plant at Germano-MG and a third Pellet Plant at Ubu-ES. It has 396km of extension and links the two plants by pulping the iron ore slurry prepared at Germano Unit. This works aims to present the iron ore slurry pipeline with emphasis on the automation architecture for the supervision and control system, interconnect throughout the pipe extension by fiber optics. The control system is composed of ControlLogix CLP's at the pulping and valve station and Micrologix CLP's at the pressure and cathodic protection monitoring points, totalizing 19 PLC's. The supervisory system was developed using the Wonderware IAS 3.0 suite, including the supervisory software InTouch 9.5 and the integrated ArchestrA IDE, and is composed of two data servers in redundancy and nine operation stations. The control and supervision system is interconnect through and Ethernet network using fiber optics and multiplexer modules (GE JungleMux) for voice, data and video. Among the expected results, it can be highlighted the sequence automation, greater process data availability (real and historical) and greater facility for the operation and detection of failures. (author)

  12. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  13. Diffusion controlled deposition of particulate matter from flowing slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been carried out to determine the rate of deposition of micron sized magnetite particles from flowing slurry onto the inner walls of simulated heat exchanger tubes. Slurry was circulated in a closed-loop facility with deposition measurements being made in an aluminium tube of 19mm bore. Runs were conducted under isothermal conditions at temperatures between 293K and 350K over a Reynolds Number range 9,600 to 147,000. Slurry concentration was maintained in the range 200 to 600 mg/kg. The average magnetite particle size as measured on a Coulter Counter was approximately 1.5 μm. Deposit growth on the test section was measured by means of a low energy X-ray machine. The results showed high initial deposition rates accompanied by steadily increasing removal rates producing asymptotic curves. Analysis indicates that deposition is governed by the forced convective diffusion of particles to the tube wall. Correlation of deposition rates is possible using standard mass transfer equations. Deposits were friable and porous with void fractions ≅70%

  14. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  15. Catalytic oxidation of calcium sulfite in solution/aqueous slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qin; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2004-01-01

    Forced oxidation of calcium sulfite aqueous slurry is a key step for the calcium-based flue gas desulfurization(FGD) residue. Experiments were conducted in a semi-batch system and a continuous flow system on lab scales. The main reactor in semi-batch system is a 1000 ml volume flask. It has five necks for continuous feeding of gas and a batch of calcium sulfite solution/aqueous slurry. In continuous flow system, the main part is a jacketed Pyrex glass reactor in which gas and solution/aqueous slurry are fed continuously. Calcium sulfite oxidation is a series of complex free-radical reactions. According to experimental results and literature data, the reactions are influenced significantly by manganese as catalyst. At low concentration of manganese and calcium sulfite, the reaction rate is dependent on 1.5 order of sulfite concentration, 0.5 order of manganese concentration, and zero order of oxygen concentration in which the oxidation is controlled by chemical kinetics. With concentrations of calcium sulfite and manganese increasing, the reactions are independent gradually on the constituents in solution but are impacted by oxygen concentration. Manganese can accelerate the free-radical reactions, and then enhances the mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid. The critical concentration of calcium sulfite is 0.007 mol/L, manganese is 10-4 mol/L, and oxygen is of 0.2-0.4 atm.

  16. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Three-Phase Airlift Loop Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 王金福; 王铁峰; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber optic probe system and a set of commercial ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters have been used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of a three-phase airlift loop (TPAL) slurry reactor. Experiments have been carried out in a loop reactor with 100 mm inner diameter and 2.5 m height, in which air, tap water and silica gel particles are used as the gas, liquid and solid phase, respectively. The radial profile of gas holdup, bubble size, bubble rising velocity, liquid circulating velocity, and the influence of the main operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity and solids concentration have been studied experimentally in the TPAL slurry reactor. The experimental results show that the bubble characteristics are different in various flow regimes and the radial profiles of some hydrodynamic parameters in the TPAL slurry reactor are more uniform than those in traditional three-phase reactors. The distribution of the bubble size and bubble rising velocity can be described by a lognormal function. The influence of superficial gas velocity on the hydrodynamic parameters is more remarkable than that of the solids concentration.

  17. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  18. Start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge physicochemical composition, methane (CH4) yield, and methanogenic community structure and dynamics using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were determined after start-up of anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Eight thermophilic continuous stirred anaerobic digesters were used during 126 days. Four management strategies were investigated: a feedless and a non-feedless period followed by a gradual or an abrupt addition of pig manure (two digesters per strategy). During the first 43 days, VFA (volatile fatty acids) accumulations and low CH4 yield were observed in all digesters. After this period, digesters recovered their initial status being propionic acid the last parameter to be re-established. Non-feedless digesters with an abrupt addition of pig manure showed the best performances (lower VFA accumulation and higher CH4 yield). Differences in microbial orders and dynamics, however, were less evident among treatments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, Methanomicrobiales first and Methanobacteriales second, was the dominant metabolic pathway in all digesters. Further research is needed to clarify the role and activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens during the recovery start-up period and to identify the best molecular tools and methodologies to monitor microbial populations and dynamics reliably and accurately in anaerobic digesters. - Highlights: • Four start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure were tested. • Physicochemical composition, methane yield and methanogenic community were determined. • During the first 43 days, a decline in reactor's performance occurred. • The best start-up strategy was non-feedless with an abrupt addition of pig slurry. • Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant metabolic pathway

  19. Influence of Solid Fraction on Structure of QTi3.5-15/Graghite Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Hanwu LIU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was used to prepare QTi3.5-15/graghite slurry. The distribution of graphite particles in QTi3.5-15/graghite slurry was studied using cold quenching method. The results show that solid fraction of QTi3.5-15/graphite slurry increases with the decreasing of stirring temperature. There is a linear relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature. With the increasing of solid fraction, the distribution of graphite particles in slurry becomes uniform gradually. When the solid fraction is larger than 45%, the rising of graphite particles in slurry can be restricted, and QTi3.5-15/graghite slurry with uniform distribution of graphite particles can be prepared.

  20. Rheological behavior of Shengli coal-solvent slurry at low-temperatures and atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; YAN Yan; GUO Xiang-kun; Xu De-ping

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from systematic studies of Shengli lignite coal-solvent slurries. Solvent type, temperature, coal to solvent ratio, particle granularity, shear rate and shear time were investigated. The viscosity of the solvents is time independent. However, the slurries are thixotropic. A change from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian behavior occurs as the temperature, or as the solvent to coal ratio, increases. The solvent used in the slurry affects the point at which the theology changes from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian. The REC slurry changes at 1 : 1.2 coal to solvent ratio and at 40 ℃. The HAR slurry changes at a 1:1.5 ratio and at 60 ℃. The theology of the slurries is pseudo-plastic at low shear rates but Newtonian at high shear rates.

  1. Effects of Main Parameters on Rheological Properties of Oil-Coal Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; HAO Li-fang; XIONG Chu-an; SUN Xiu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration.

  2. 2D and 3D stability analysis of slurry trench in frictional/cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-yu HAN; Jin-jian CHEN; Jian-hua WANG; Xiao-he XIA

    2013-01-01

    A 2D and 3D kinematically admissible rotational failure mechanism is presented for homogeneous slurry trenches in frictional/cohesive soils.Analytical approaches are derived to obtain the upper bounds on slurry trench stability in the strict framework of limit analysis.It is shown that the factor of safety from a 3D analysis will be greater than that from a 2D analysis.Compared with the limit equilibrium method,the limit analysis method yields an unconservative estimate on the safety factors.A set of examples are presented in a wide range of parameters for 2D and 3D homogeneous slurry trenches.The factor of safety increases with increasing slurry and soil bulk density ratio,cohesion,friction angle,and with decreasing slurry level depth and trench depth ratio,trench width and depth ratio.It is convenient to assess the safety for the homogeneous slurry trenches in practical applications.

  3. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    and ground char slurry samples with 5e20 wt% solid loading obtain a volumetric energy density of 21e23 GJ/m3. The slurry sample with 20 wt% ground char having a d80 of 118 mm was pumped successfully into a pressurized chamber (0e6 bar) while plugging appeared when the slurry samples with 15 wt% char having...... a d80 of 276 mm was pumped into the pressurized chamber....

  4. Advertising and Australian Pig Producers Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2000-01-01

    The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. Impact of advertising on pig meat consumption has been a long-standing argument. So far, there have been several studies done on the effectiveness of generic pork advertising in Australia up to 1988. However, the previous studi...

  5. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  6. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D.F.; Evans, G.O.; Harrell, P.A.; Whitehurst, B.M.

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  7. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita;

    2014-01-01

    Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0...... were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence...

  8. Fused metallic slurry coatings for improving the oxidation resistance of wrought alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Cedillo, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the potential of fused-slurry coatings for improving the oxidation resistance of wrought alloys. Slurry-aluminised coatings were deposited on Alloy 800H (Fe-33Ni-20Cr), Alloy HCM12A (Fe-12Cr-2W), Alloy 214 (Ni-16Cr-4Al-3Fe), Fe-27Cr-4Al and Fe-14Cr-4Al alloys. The slurry contained a cellulose-based binder in an aqueous carrier and spherical aluminium powder, with a particle size below 20 microns. The slurries were applied with a paint-brush, dried in...

  9. Anaerobic digestion as a slurry management strategy : a consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H.; Petersen, B.M. [Southern Denmark Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of slurry represents an environmental opportunity for both slurry management and renewable energy production in countries with high animal density. This study evaluated the environmental impacts of 4 biogas production alternatives in which slurry was the only input in the process, without supplementary addition of easily degradable carbon. This was achieved by exposing the slurry to different separation technologies. The biomass mixture input for biogas production included solid fraction from slurry separation as well as raw slurry, proportioned in order to achieve economical methane yield. The separation processes considered in this study were mechanical separation; mechanical separation combined with the addition of flocculants; and mechanical separation combined with a thermal treatment. Four biogas alternatives were compared to a reference slurry management scenario, notably to use the slurry as a fertilizer without prior treatment. The modelling was based on Danish conditions and used the consequential life cycle assessment methodology. The produced biogas was used for production of heat and power and the degassed slurry was used as an organic fertilizer.

  10. Effect of storage temperature and type of slurry on survivability of Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina OLSZEWSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of the inactivation rate of Salmonella Senftenberg W775 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cattle and swine slurry stored under laboratory conditions at 4 and 20C. Salmonella bacilli underwent constant, gradual elimination from the slurry during its storage. This process occurred more efficiently in samples stored at 20C than at 4C. At both studied temperatures elimination of bacteria was faster in swine slurry than in cattle. Shorter survivability in research material, in both temperature variants and kinds of slurry, showed Salmonella Typhimurium.

  11. Numerical simulation of the preparation of semi-solid metal slurry with damper cooling tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In semi-solid forming process, preparing the slurry with rosette or globular microstructure is very important. A new approach named the damper cooling tube method (DCT), to produce the semi-solid metal slurry, has been introduced. To optimize the technical parameters in designing the apparatus, the finite volume method was adopted to simulate the flow process. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries were also considered. The effects of the technical parameters on the slurry properties were studied in detail.

  12. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  14. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  15. Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage through intact soil cores following surface application and injection of slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-11-01

    Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions. PMID:21948848

  16. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...... carcasses were weighed and CT-scanned. The explained variance of the model was R-2 = 0.9994 with a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 83.6 g. Applying this method as a reference will ensure a more robust calibration of sensors for measuring the LMP, which is less prone to variation induced by manual...

  17. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  18. Surface characteristics of ruthenium in periodate-based slurry during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The Ru surface chemical and mechanical property varies with KIO{sub 4} slurry pH. • In alkaline slurry, the corrosion proceeds uniformly like a direct dissolution. • In neutral and acidic slurries, Ru exhibits passivation behavior. • MRR is highest in neutral slurry due to inhomogeneous RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} passivation. • Weak alkaline slurry is preferred to get good MRR and avoid toxic RuO{sub 4} formation. - Abstract: When the feature size of integrated circuit continues to shrink below 14 nm, ruthenium (Ru) has become one of the most promising candidates for the application of novel barrier layer. To reveal the material removal mechanism of Ru during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), surface characteristics of Ru in KIO{sub 4}-based slurry were investigated. The corrosion behavior of ruthenium was measured by the surface chemistry and morphology analysis. Then the mechanical properties of the passivated/corroded surface were evaluated by AES and tribocorrosion experiments. CMP experiments were carried out to make clear the effects of surface property during polishing. It was found that the Ru surface chemistry and mechanical properties vary obviously as a function of slurry pH. In neutral slurries, the Ru surface is covered with RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} inhomogeneous passivation films, with the highest material removal rate obtained during the CMP process. It could be concluded that the material removal mechanism largely depends on the slurry pH values. In near neutral slurries, Ru is passivated with thick and heterogeneous oxides film, which proves the easiest to be mechanically removed during polishing. The weak alkaline slurry is preferred in order to achieve desirable polishing rate as well as avoid the formation of toxic RuO{sub 4}.

  19. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  20. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V. E.; Breuer, K.; O Connell, N. E.; Sneddon, I. A.; Mercer, J. T.; Rance, K. A.; Sutcliffe, M. E. M.; Edwards, S A

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals. The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each...

  1. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  2. Dynamic injection tests of dense slurry into fine rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic injection is the technology that efficiently injects with high dense slurry into small rock fractures. This technology may be expected for the improvement of fluidity and a penetration property of grout materials and the prevention of blockade phenomena. On this study, in order to make clear the effect of the dynamic injection method and the condition of pulsation pressure, injection tests with a fine model fractures and rheological tests under a proper vibration were made for high dense and viscosity grout materials. (author)

  3. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  4. Advanced control of propylene polimerizations in slurry reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsoni A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a strategy of nonlinear model predictive control for industrial slurry reactors of propylene polymerizations. The controlled variables are the melt index (polymer quality and the amount of unreacted monomer (productivity. The model used in the controller presents a linear dynamics and a nonlinear static gain given by a neuronal network MLP (multilayer perceptron. The simulated performance of the controller was evaluated for a typical propylene polymerization process. It is shown that the performance of the proposed control strategy is much better than the one obtained with the use of linear predictive controllers for setpoint tracking control problems.

  5. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  6. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  7. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Wittaya Julklang; Boris Golman

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model,...

  8. An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

  9. Development of Local Pig in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Dewantoro Putro Soewandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country that has the largest swine germplasm in the world and having five out of eight species, but the population of local pig has been decreasing toward extinction. This paper describes characteristic of local pig and factors that cause endangered of germplasm and strategy to prevent the declined population. One of the factors that causing decreased of local pig population is due to its lower productivity. Government policies for the development of local pigs have not been planned yet because of the socio-cultural barriers. Therefore, establishment of the genetic resource conservation for local pig area is required. In addition, local pig preservation activities can be integrated with the promotion of cultural heritage and local traditions. Development strategy should be planned to increase local pig value, including (1 Build a genetic resource conservation area in the outer islands in Indonesia for wild pigs; (2 Preserving local pigs to develop local pig farms by community; and (3 Integrating maintenance of local pig farm with cultural activities through the establishment of village/tourist area.

  10. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  11. Characterisation of the microbial diversity in a pig manure storage pit using small subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Castro, Raúl; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Dabert, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    The microbial community structure of pig manure slurry (PMS) was determined with comparative analysis of 202 bacterial, 44 archaeal and 33 eukaryotic small subunit (SSU) rDNA partial sequences. Based on a criterion of 97% of sequence similarity, the phylogenetic analyses revealed a total of 108, eight and five phylotypes for the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya lineages, respectively. Only 36% of the bacterial phylotypes were closely related (>or=97% similarity) to any previously known sequence in databases. The bacterial groups most often represented in terms of phylotype and clone abundance were the Eubacterium (22% of total sequences), the Clostridium (15% of sequences), the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus subdivision (20% of sequences), theMycoplasma and relatives (10% of sequences) and the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides (20% of sequences). The global microbial community structure and phylotype diversity show a close relationship to the pig gastrointestinal tract ecosystem whereas phylotypes from the Acholeplasma-Anaeroplasma and the Clostridium purinolyticum groups appear to be better represented in manure. Archaeal diversity was dominated by three phylotypes clustering with a group of uncultured microorganisms of unknown activity and only distantly related to the Thermoplasmales and relatives. Other Archaea were methanogenic H2/CO2 utilisers. No known acetoclastic Archaea methanogen was found. Eukaryotic diversity was represented by a pluricellular nematode, two Alveolata, a Blastocystis and an Entamoebidae. Manure slurry physico-chemical characteristics were analysed. Possible inhibitory effects of acetate, sulphide and ammonia concentrations on the microbial anaerobic ecosystem are discussed. PMID:16329909

  12. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.A.R.; Heck, I.C.C; Hesen, P.L.G.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulphate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulphate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulphate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulphate deposition led to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr, the acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulphate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulphate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 references.

  13. Wet deposition of acidifying substances in different regions of China and the rest of East Asia: Modeling with updated NAQPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional way to study Sources–Receptor Relationships (SRRs) of wet deposition is based on sensitivity simulation, which has weakness in dealing with the non-linear secondary formation pollutants (e.g. ozone and nitrate). An on-line source tracking method has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with cloud-process module for the first time. The new model can not only quantify the total volume of the sulfate, nitrate and ammonium wet deposition with more accuracy, but also trace these acidic species to their emitted precursors. Compared with previous studies, our result clearly shows: (1) East China and Central China, which are the two primary export regions, have 15–30% and 10% effect on wet deposition in other areas, respectively; (2) Besides the above two regions, the total acid deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China have reached or exceeded the critical loads under their own environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We updated NAQPMS model so that it can trace the secondary formation species at real time. • We modeled the acidic deposition and the SRRs based on the updated NAQPMS. • Eastern and Central China are the highest export regions in wet deposition of acidic substances. • The total acidic deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China exceeded the critical loads. - The wet deposition of acidify substances and their SRRs over China have been studied using the updated NAQPMS

  14. Exceeding of critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen acidifying components in forest soils; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map exceeding of critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen acidifying components in forest soils on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. For forest ecosystems protection against acid precipitation effects (atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen) it is necessary to know not only the values of critical loads (CL) of sulphur and nitrogen, but also exceeding values of CL, by which is necessary to decrease sulphur and nitrogen deposition with the aim to protect the forest environment. Exceeding of critical loads of acidity in forest soils represents the value, by which the deposition of sulphur or nitrogen exceeds the established critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. All deposition values over this line mean that the critical load was exceeded. The critical sulphur and nitrogen loads are determined by the following values: maximum critical load of sulphur, maximum critical load of nitrogen, minimum critical load of nitrogen and critical load of nutritional nitrogen. These values determine deposition of nitrogen and sulphur in the co-ordinate system, i.e. the line of zero excess. (authors)

  15. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase in temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  16. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  17. Corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel and anti-corrosion materials in a high acidified chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.H. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Ge, H.H., E-mail: gehonghua@shiep.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Lin, W.W. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities for Corrosion Control in Electric Power System and Applied Electrochemistry, 2103 Pingliang Road, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zong, Y.W.; Liu, S.J. [Power Plant of Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Tieli Road, Shanghai 200941 (China); Shi, J.M. [Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe general corrosion accompanied by localized pitting occurred on 316L SS surface in a high acidified chloride solution. • Surface roughness, surface potential difference and the electrochemical non-homogeneity of 316L SS in the test solution were investigated. • TA2, type 2507 SS and type 254SMo SS exhibit good corrosion resistance in the test solution. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour of a type 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel (SS) expansion joint in a simulated leaching solution of sediment on blast furnace gas pipeline in a power plant is investigated by using dynamic potential polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), optical microscope, atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scan Kelvin Probe (SKP). Severe general corrosion accompanied by pitting corrosion occurs on the type 316L SS surface in this solution. As the immersion period increases, the charge transfer resistance R{sub ct} decreases, the dissolution rate accelerates, the surface roughness increases and the surface potential difference enhances significantly. Then eight corrosion-resistant materials are tested, the corrosion rates of type 254SMo SS, type 2507 SS and TA2 are relatively minor in the solution. The corrosion resistance properties of TA2 is most excellent, indicating it would be the superior material choice for blast furnace gas pipeline.

  18. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  19. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  20. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (pfresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  2. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, A.;

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agric...

  3. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  4. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  5. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  6. Erosion Characteristics of Aluminum-based Metal Matrix Composites in Slurry Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Jiangping

    2000-01-01

    The erosion resistance of the Al18B4O33 whisker reinforced AC4C Al composites in water and saline slurry were investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed at slurry velocities between 6.4 m/s to 15.2 m/s and at normal impact angle. The detachment of flake and dislodgement of whisker were identified as the major mechanisms of material removal in slurry environments. The composites showed better erosion resistance due to the protection of the matrix by the whisker at low slurry velocities. Because of reduced fracture strain, the erosion rates of the composites were generally greater than that of the unreinforced alloy at high slurry velocities. Owing to interfacial reaction which resulted in decrease in hardness and fracture strain,the T6 treatment for the composites had a deleterious influence on the erosion resistance. By considering the material removal processes in the water slurry, a simple rationalization of the inverse dependence of slurry erosion rate on Hεf was obtained. In the saline slurry, there exists a strong synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion. The volume loss of the composites was enhanced through cracking of flakes and detaching of whisker induced by stress and corrosion.

  7. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the N

  8. Effect of novel alkaline copper slurry on 300 mm copper global planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The copper removal rate and uniformity of two types copper slurries were investigated, which was performed on the 300 mm chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) platform. The experiment results illustrate that the removal rate of the two slurries is nearly the same. Slurry A is mainly composed of a FA/OII type chelating agent and the uniformity reaches to 88.32%. While the uniformity of slurry B is 96.68%, which is mainly composed of a FA/OV type chelating agent. This phenomenon demonstrates that under the same process conditions, the uniformity of different slurries is vastly different. The CMP performance was evaluated in terms of the dishing and erosion values. In this paper, the relationship between the uniformity and the planarization was deeply analyzed, which is mainly based on the endpoint detection mechanism. The experiment results reveal that the slurry with good uniformity has low dishing and erosion. The slurry with bad uniformity, by contract, increases Cu dishing significantly and causes copper loss in the recessed region. Therefore, the following conclusions are drawn: slurry B can improve the wafer leveling efficiently and minimize the resistance and current density along the line, which is helpful to improve the device yield and product reliability. This investigation provides a guide to improve the uniformity and achieve the global and local planarization. It is very significant to meet the requirements for 22 nm technology nodes and control the dishing and erosion efficiently. (semiconductor technology)

  9. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga;

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...

  10. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H2O, CO2, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  11. Slurry-phase Biological Treatment of Nitrophenol Using Bioaugmentation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; GANG ZHAO; LI-BO WU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of soil-slurry bioreactor used for remediating contaminated soil with 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Methods The slurry bioreactor was used to degrade different concentrations of 4-nitrophenol with or without inoculating the acclimated activated sludge. HPLC system (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with a UV detector) was used for the quantification of 4-nitrophenol. Results The indigenous microorganisms exhibited a little activity for simulated soil with 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil. However, at the concentration of 10 mg 4-NPkg soil, a considerable degradation occurred within two weeks. It appeared that high concentrations of 4-nitrophenol apparently produced an inhibitory effect on microbial activity. For system receiving 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil, the maximum rate of 4-NP degradation measured in the reactor inoculated with 25 g sludge/kg soil was approximately 10 times higher than the uninoculated reactor, suggesting that the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol could be enhanced greatly by means of inoculating acclimated sludge. Conclusion The addition of sludge capable of degrading 4-nitrophenol can result in enhance the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol.

  12. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model. PMID:16933643

  13. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITE BY SLURRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI PRAKASH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina has got some excellent properties like chemical inertness, thermal and mechanical strength against hazardous environment. Alumina is a good ceramic material which is being used for structuralapplications. To enhance the toughness and strength of the body some Zirconia is also used with it. The use of Zirconia in alumina is known as toughening of alumina. One difficulty arises, when alumina and alumina toughened composite are sintered , because the low sinterability of Alumina-Zirconia forced the compact to give very low density body. To overcome this problem alumina and alumina composites are made from slurry method which gives nearly theoretical density. The combined effect of alumina and Zirconia on the phase transformation and microstructure development of heat-treated Alumina-Zirconia composites has been studied. Slurry is prepared by adding water, dispersant, binder and anti-foaming agent. In the present study, Sintering schedule is optimized and kept constant for all samples. After sintering, mechanical behaviour of the composite has been studied.

  14. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  15. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  17. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  18. Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R

    1998-12-22

    A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock. PMID:9926995

  19. Comparison of Single and Blend Acidifiers as Alternative to Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Fecal Microflora, and Humoral Immunity in Weaned Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S. T.; Hwang, J. A.; de Hoon, J; Mun, H. S.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The banning of the use of antibiotics as feed additive has accelerated investigations of alternative feed additives in animal production. This experiment investigated the effect of pure citric acid or acidifier blend supplementation as substitute for antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, fecal microbial count, and humoral immunity in weaned piglets challenged with Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium and Escherichia coli KCTC 2571. A total of 60 newly weaned piglets (crossbred...

  20. Intracellular pH homeostasis plays a role in the tolerance ofDebaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides to acidified nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koch, Anette Granly;

    2008-01-01

    . hansenii at an external pH (pHex) value of 4.5 butdid not at pHex 5.5. These results indicate that nitrous acid as such plays an important role in the antifungal effect of acidified nitrite. Furthermore, both yeast species experienced severe growth inhibition and a pHi decrease at pHex 4.5, suggesting...

  1. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  2. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively....... Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI/PI) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r=0...

  3. Promoted slurryability of petroleum coke-water slurry by using black liquor as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijie; Wang, Fuchen [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kang, Wanzhong [School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to prepare the petroleum coke-water slurry with a maximal coke mass fraction and the superior slurry natures using black liquor as an additive. The variations of rheological properties, contact angle, fluidity, stability and zeta potential of the coke-water slurry with different black liquor dosages were investigated. It was observed that the addition of a black liquor dosage around 1.0 wt.% of the petroleum coke remarkably improved the rheological properties, fluidity and stability of the slurry, and the slurry could hold a mass of petroleum coke as high as 70 wt.%, with the superior apparent viscosity, fluidity and stability available for practical utilization. (author)

  4. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2010-05-01

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but spoilage then occurred due to growth of fermentative yeasts, which produced ethanol in the cucumbers. Allyl isothiocyanate (2 mM) prevented growth of Zygosaccharomyces globiformis, which has been responsible for commercial pickle spoilage, as well as the yeasts that were present on fresh cucumbers. However, allyl isothiocyanate did not prevent growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. When these compounds were added in combination to acidified cucumbers, the cucumbers were successfully preserved as indicated by the fact that neither yeasts or lactic acid bacteria increased in numbers nor were lactic acid or ethanol produced by microorganisms when cucumbers were stored at 30 degrees C for at least 2 mo. This combination of 2 naturally occurring preservative compounds may serve as an alternative approach to the use of sodium benzoate or sodium metabisulfite for preservation of acidified vegetables without a thermal process.

  5. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfrae, J A; Skene, K R; Sheppard, L J; Ingleby, K; Crossley, A

    2006-05-01

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. PMID:16246472

  6. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfrae, J.A. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jeac@ceh.ac.uk; Skene, K.R. [Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, Biological Science Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Sheppard, L.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Ingleby, K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Crossley, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} at 48 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}), sulphur (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 50 kg ha{sup -1}y{sup -1}), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation.

  7. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha-1 y-1), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha-1y-1), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. - N deposition effects on T. fibrillosa versus L. rufus colonisation of a Sitka spruce plantation

  8. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  9. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  10. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  11. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  12. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  13. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  14. Technical and economical assessment of formic acid to recycle phosphorus from pig slurry by a combined acidification-precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, M-L; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, P; Dabert, P

    2010-08-15

    Dissolution by acidification followed by a liquid/solid separation and precipitation of phosphorus from the liquid phase is one possibility to recycle phosphorus from livestock effluents. To avoid increase of effluent salinity by using mineral acids in the recycling process, the efficiency of two organic acids, formic and acetic acid, in dissolving the mineral phosphorus from piggery wastewater was compared. The amount of formic acid needed to dissolve the phosphorus was reduced three fold, compared to acetic acid. The amount of magnesium oxide needed for further precipitation was decreased by two with formic acid. Neither the carbon load nor the effluent salinity was significantly increased by using formic acid. An economical comparison was performed for the chemical recycling process (mineral fertilizer) vs. centrifugation (organic fertilizer) considering the centrifugation and the mineral fertilizers sold in the market. After optimisation of the process, the product could be economically competitive with mineral fertilizer as superphosphate in less than 10 years. PMID:20471746

  15. Optimised biogas production from the co-digestion of sugar beet with pig slurry: Integrating energy, GHG and economic accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos;

    2016-01-01

    , utilising SB negatively affects the profitability of biogas production, because of the increased costs involved in feedstock supply. The scale of the processing plant is neutral in terms of profitability when SB is added. The results indicate that medium-to large-sized biogas plants, using low shares of SB...

  16. FOULING CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE CONTACTORS USED FOR THE RECOVERY AND CONCENTRATION OF AMMONIA FROM UNDIGESTED PIG SLURRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2012-01-01

    The main obstacle impeding implementation of membrane contactors for the recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure is the phenomena of membrane fouling. Fouling is defined as the accumulation of suspended or dissolved substances on the membrane surface and/or within its pores. Due...... a week of running the contactor without cleaning. This indicates that fouling could be a severe problem. The intensity of fouling can be reduced by feed pretreatment and by optimizing the operating conditions of the membrane contactor. This will also facilitate removal of ammonia....

  17. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  18. Sludge Heel Removal Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and recommend a slurry pump operational strategy for sludge heel removal in Tank 11. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation. The models focused on removal of the sludge heel located at the edge of Tank 11 using the four existing slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project (TCP) Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 11 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT(tm) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed pump orientations until an efficient flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge mound was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 1600 rpm could remove the sludge mound from the tank with a 103 in. liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. In this case, the only exception is the region within about 2 ft. from the tank wall. Further results showed that the capabilities of sludge removal were affected by the indexed pump orientation, the number of operating pumps, and the pump speed. A recommended operational strategy for an efficient flow pattern was developed to remove the sludge mound assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and removal. Sensitivity results showed that for a given pump speed, a higher tank

  19. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH WASTE ACIDIFIED USING FERMENTED VEGETABLES WASTE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish waste (“ikan rucah” is part of discarded fishing product, which is composed by non-foodcategorized fish (NFC-fish. Quality of NFC-fish meal that was made by dipping in extract of fermentedvegetable’s waste has been reported better than commercial fish meal, but the effect after storingremained in question. Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time of storing onphysic-organoleptical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the acidified NFC-fish meal thatwas made by dipped in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste (FVW-exctract. The NFC-Fish wassoaked in the FVW-exctract by the ratio 1:1 (w/v for 4 hours, and then it was dripped out and dried. Thedried fish was ground passed through 20 mesh, kept into plastic bags and stored at the room temperature(23-25 °C and 70-80% RH for 0, 1, 2 and 4 months. Physic-organoleptical, chemical and biologycalcharacteristics were parameters observed. Experiment was conducted by completely randomized design(CRD. Data were analysed by the GLM of SAS. Actual number of moisture, crude protein, extractether, and proteolytic bacteria of fish meal were significantly influenced by time of storing (P<0.05.Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract effectively maintain the physical characteristics, pH, moisture,crude protein, extract ether and the number of proteolytic bacteria of fish meal up to 2 months ofstorage. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract provide better characteristics on physical, chemical andmicrobiologycal than the commercial fish meal at the same condition of storage.

  20. Metabolomic phenotyping of af cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes...... and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...