WorldWideScience

Sample records for acidified foods availability

  1. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, belong to a separate category that is not relevant to the... the draft guidance, processors of non-acidified foods (e.g., some acid foods or fermented foods) who... regulations. Under the draft guidance, processors of acid foods and fermented foods who conclude that such...

  2. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration on Form FDA 2541 (food canning establishment registration) information including, but not limited... continuous inspection of the meat and poultry inspection program of the Food Safety and Inspection Service of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and...

  3. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  4. A review on acidifying treatments for vegetable canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derossi, A; Fiore, A G; De Pilli, T; Severini, C

    2011-12-01

    As is well known, pasteurization treatments are not sufficient for destroying heat resistance of spore forming microorganisms, which are prevented from germination and growing by pH reducing. So, the acidification process becomes one of the most important pre-treatments for the canning industry. It is commonly applied before pasteurization treatment with the purpose of inhibiting spore germination and for reducing heat resistance of the microorganism, thereby allowing to reduce the time or temperature values of the heat treatment. With the aim to reduce the pH of vegetables several techniques are available but their application is not easy to plan. Often, industries define operative conditions only on the basis of empirical experience, thus increasing the risk of microbial growth or imparting an unpleasant sour taste. With the aim of highlighting the correct plan and management of acidification treatments to reach safety without degrading quality of canned fruit and vegetables, the topics that are reviewed and discussed are the effects of low pH on heat resistance of the most important microorganisms, acidification techniques and significant process variables, the effect of low pH on sensorial properties, and future trends.

  5. Food selectivity of perch (Perca fluviatilis L. ) in acidified lakes on the west coast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B

    1972-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine presumed changes in the food composition of perch in lakes subjected to recent acidification, which emanates from sulfuric acid in the precipitation. The material analyzed (825 preserved specimens from 49 different lakes) was collected by the Fishery Board. These lakes represent a great variability in terms of pH. The perch were divided into four size groups and the stomach contents of each specimen was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicate that fish, which make up the bulk of food for adult perch, are replaced by various invertebrates at a decreasing pH. With a moderate decrease the water hog-louse (Asellus aquaticus) appears of major importance, whereas its place is taken by Corixa bugs in the most acidified lakes. These latter invertebrates are normally absent in the food of adult perch. Also, plankton accounts for a substantial share of the stomach contents. The reasons for these changes are manifold, but two factors are primarily discussed in this paper, viz. the effect of the acidification on the prey populations and the elimination of certain species by selective predation in a normal lake.

  6. Development of an Effective Chain Elongation Process From Acidified Food Waste and Ethanol Into n-Caproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Roghair

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol.Results: We fed acidified food waste (AFW and ethanol to an anaerobic reactor while operating the reactor at long (4 d and at short (1 d hydraulic retention time (HRT. At long HRT, n-caproate was continuously produced (5.5 g/L/d at an average concentration of 23.4 g/L. The highest n-caproate concentration was 25.7 g/L which is the highest reported n-caproate concentration in a chain elongation process to date. Compared to short HRT (7.1 g/L n-caproate at 5.6 g/L/d, long HRT resulted in 6.2 times less excessive ethanol oxidation. This led to a two times lower ethanol consumption and a two times lower base consumption per produced MCFA at long HRT compared to short HRT.Conclusions: Chain elongation from AFW and ethanol is more effective at long HRT than at short HRT not only because it results in a higher concentration of MCFAs but also because it leads to a more efficient use of ethanol and base. The HRT did not influence the n-caproate production rate. The obtained n-caproate concentration is more than twice as high as the maximum solubility of n-caproic acid in water which is beneficial for its separation from the fermentation broth. This study does not only set the record on the highest n-caproate concentration observed in a chain elongation process to date, it notably demonstrates that

  7. Measurement of in situ phosphorus availability in acidified soils using iron-infused resin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tahovská, K.; Čapek, P.; Šantrůčková, H.; Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2016), s. 487-494 ISSN 0010-3624 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidification * aluminium * forest soil * ion exchange resin * iron * phosphorus availability Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  8. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dental erosions in adults: influence of acidified food intake and impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Daiane C; Venturini, Ana Paula C; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Fornari, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and dental erosions (DE) have an established association. We assessed whether GORD is associated with DE controlling for acidified food intake and their relationships with quality of life (QOL). In this cross-sectional study, 419 adult patients who sought dentistry consultation were considered eligible. Patients responded to questionnaires for GORD symptoms, acidified food ingestion and World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL Bref), followed by an oral examination, in which DE were characterized according to the Smith & Knight criteria. A total of 417 patients were included (43.8±13.7 years; 68.8% women). There were 143 patients with GORD (34.3%) and 274 controls without GORD. The prevalence of DE was higher in GORD patients compared with the controls (25.9 vs. 17.2%; P=0.041). GORD was associated with DE after adjusting for acidified food intake (P=0.035), with a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (0.95 confidence interval 1.03-2.22). The WHOQOL Bref score was significantly lower in the presence of GORD [median 17.2 (GORD-DE-) vs. 15.4 (GORD+DE+); P<0.01], irrespective of DE. In adults examined in a referential dentistry centre in South America, DE were prevalent and significantly associated with GORD. This association was independent of the intake of acidified food in our study. Impairment in QOL was observed in GORD patients irrespective of the presence of DE.

  9. Food availability after nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of acute-phase food shortage vulnerabilities for 15 countries clearly indicates that in many countries massive levels of malnutrition and starvation are a possible outcome of a major nuclear war. The principal direct cause of such food shortages would be the climatic disturbances and societal disruptions during the initial post-war year. Even without climatic disturbances, import-dependent countries could suffer food shortages. Many of the countries with the highest levels of agricultural production and storage would probably be targets of nuclear weapons. It seems unlikely that food exports would continue from severely damaged countries, thus propagating effects to non-combatant countries. A similar analysis of food storage vulnerability in 130 countries indicates that a majority of people live in countries with inadequate food stores for such major perturbations. This is true even if consumption rates of 1,000 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/ are assumed rather than 1,500 kcal . person/sup -1/ . day/sup -1/. This vulnerability is particularly severe in Africa, and South America. Even though most of the countries of these continents have no nuclear weapons and are not likely to be targeted, the human consequences of a major nuclear war could be nearly as severe as in the principal combatant countries. Few countries would have sufficient food stores for their entire population and massive mortality would result if only pre-harvest levels were available. These conclusions represent an aspect of nuclear war that has only been recently realized. The possibility of climatic disturbances following a large nuclear war has introduced a new element to the global consequences expected. Not only are the populations of the major combatant countries at risk in a nuclear exchange, but also most of the global human population

  10. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  11. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  12. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to understand the local food distribution system in Avian Park, with a focus on food availability and accessibility. Study design: This was a quantitative food store survey that employed semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Setting: The study was conducted in Avian Park, ...

  13. Water availability and management for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  14. Food availability/convenience and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  16. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... contact materials. Uses of BPA were approved by FDA under its food additive regulations in the early 1960s..., Division of 2009 Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and...

  17. A key role of aluminium in phosphorus availability, food web structure, and plankton dynamics in strongly acidified lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Jaroslav; Kopáček, Jiří; Bittl, T.; Nedoma, Jiří; Štrojsová, Alena; Nedbalová, Linda; Kohout, L.; Fott, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl. 20 (2006), S441-S451 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0072; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0063; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1583; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) G4 1841; MSM(CZ) 6007665801; EC(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : extracellular phosphatases * bacterioplankton * phytoplankton * zooplankton * acidification * recovery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  18. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accessibility of food in retail outlets can influence dietary choices, and therefore the food ..... the personal views, cultural practices, beliefs and experiences .... consumption.4 The mark ups for chips (116%), pilchards in tomato sauce (90%) ...

  19. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  20. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Singleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  1. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794

  2. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-10-18

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  3. Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chimaobi Valentine Okolo; Chizoba Obidigbo

    2015-01-01

    As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revea...

  4. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... information sources, such as the Child Nutrition Database, USDA Foods nutrition fact sheets, and information... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information...

  5. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  6. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  7. Quality and availability of organic foods by Slovak consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Fikselová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer demand for organic products caused that the organic food market has expanded in all continents of the world. Organic foods represent a specific segment of the food market. Currently land area farmed organically in Slovakia represents 9% of the total agricultural land. In this work we identified organic foods purchase by Slovak consumers, the availability, reasons of purchase and quality assortment of organic foods at the Slovak market. Questionnaire survey involved 271 respondents. The Hierarchical multiple factor analysis was used for the segregation and classification of consumers into representative groups. The group of respondents was based on algorithms divided into three groups. In the first group of respondents, prevalent are responses that assortment is not sufficient and no answer, in the second group think that organic food assortment is not sufficient, and in the third group of respondents also dominates opinion that is not sufficient. At the question of organic food quality in all three groups is prevalent opinion that it is rather high, in the first group nearly the third of respondents considered the quality of organic foods as rather low, in the second group of respondents is rate: „rather low“ response and „rather high“ almost equal. In the third group of respondents strongly dominated response that the quality of organic food is rather high. Regarding the availability of organic products at the Slovak market, 16% of respondents considered it to be sufficient, 54% of consumers considered assortment as not enough available for all. We also analyzed the reasons of buying organic food. 42% of respondents reported that the main reason for buying organic food is a concern for the environment and landscape, 33% of respondents state it is a pleasure and the opportunity to try something unusual, 11% reported confidence in the quality of organic food and 7% their health care. Environmental education in

  8. Folate content and availability in Malaysian cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S C; Khor, G L; Loh, S P

    2012-12-01

    Data on folate availability of Malaysian cooked foods would be useful for estimation of dietary folate intake; however such information is scarce. A total of 53 samples of frequently consumed foods in Malaysia were selected from the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Foods. Folate content was determined using HPLC method hyphenated with a stainless steel C18 column and ultraviolet detector (lambda = 280 nm). The index of folate availability was defined as the proportion of folate identified as monoglutamyl derivatives from the total folate content. Total folate content of different food samples varied from 30-95 microg/100g fresh weight. Among rice-based dishes, the highest and the lowest total folate was in coconut milk rice (nasi lemak) and ghee rice (nasi minyak), respectively. In noodle dishes, fried rice noodle (kuey teow goreng) and curry noodle (mee kari) had the highest folate contents. The highest index of folate availability was in a flat rice noodle dish (kuey teow bandung) (12.13%), while the lowest was in a festival cake (kuih bakul) (0.13%). Folate content was found to be negatively related to its availability. This study determined folate content and folate availability in commonly consumed cooked foods in Malaysia. The uptake of folate from foods with high folate content may not be necessarily high as folate absorption also depends on the capacity of intestinal deconjugation and the presence of high fibre in the foods.

  9. Modelling the effect of food availability on recruitment success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling the effect of food availability on recruitment success of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton in ... To characterise the recruitment dynamics of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton, we used an individual-based ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  11. School wellness policies and foods and beverages available in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-08-01

    Since 2006-2007, education agencies (e.g., school districts) participating in U.S. federal meal programs are required to have wellness policies. To date, this is the only federal policy that addresses foods and beverages sold outside of school meals (in competitive venues). To examine the extent to which federally required components of school wellness policies are associated with availability of foods and beverages in competitive venues. Questionnaire data were collected in 2007-2008 through 2010-2011 school years from 892 middle and 1019 high schools in nationally representative samples. School administrators reported the extent to which schools had required wellness policy components (goals, nutrition guidelines, implementation plan/person responsible, stakeholder involvement) and healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages available in competitive venues. Analyses were conducted in 2012. About one third of students (31.8%) were in schools with all four wellness policy components. Predominantly white schools had higher wellness policy scores than other schools. After controlling for school characteristics, higher wellness policy scores were associated with higher availability of low-fat and whole-grain foods and lower availability of regular-fat/sugared foods in middle and high schools. In middle schools, higher scores also were associated with lower availability of 2%/whole milk. High schools with higher scores also had lower sugar-sweetened beverage availability and higher availability of 1%/nonfat milk, fruits/vegetables, and salad bars. Because they are associated with lower availability of less-healthy and higher availability of healthier foods and beverages in competitive venues, federally required components of school wellness policies should be encouraged in all schools. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  13. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Cassady, Diana L

    2006-01-01

    Many people, especially low-income consumers, do not successfully follow dietary recommendations to eat more whole grains and less fat and added sugar. The food environment may have a significant impact on the choice by low-income consumers to eat healthier foods, as both the availability and price of healthier food items may limit their ability to eat a healthier diet. We investigated the cost and availability of a standard market basket of foods, and a healthier basket that included low-fat meat and dairy and whole grain products. Market-basket surveys were conducted in 25 stores in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Stores were selected from neighborhoods that were varied by income and surveyed three times from September 2003 to June 2004. The average cost of a standard market basket (based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Thrifty Food Plan [TFP]) and a healthier market basket was calculated from these prices and compared using a standard t-test to determine if they were significantly different from each other. The analysis was conducted in 2005. In neighborhoods served by smaller grocery stores, access to whole-grain products, low-fat cheeses, and ground meat with cost was $194, and the healthier market-basket cost was $230. The average cost of the healthier market basket was more expensive by $36 due to higher costs of whole grains, lean ground beef, and skinless poultry. The higher cost of the healthier basket is equal to about 35% to 40% of low-income consumers' food budgets of $2410 a year. The lack of availability in small grocery stores located in low-income neighborhoods, and the higher cost of the healthier market basket may be a deterrent to eating healthier among very low-income consumers. Public policies should take the food environment into account in order to develop successful strategies to encourage the consumption of healthier foods.

  14. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  15. Bioactive small molecules in commercially available cereal food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine K.; Adhikari, Khem B.; Laursen, Bente B.

    2017-01-01

    processes. The concentrations of 11 BX compounds were determined by liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in 25 supermarket-available cereal food products. The total BX content varied from below the limit of detection to >500 μg/g dry matter (DM) with some degree of variation...

  16. Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction can occur during processing of pet foods. During this reaction, the e-amino group of lysine reacts with reducing sugars to become unavailable for metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the reactive lysine (RL; the remaining available lysine) to total lysine

  17. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  18. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  19. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did...

  20. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  1. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  2. Food availability and the rising obesity prevalence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Geok-Lin Khor

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.1 billion adultsand 115 million children worldwide are overweight.In Malaysia, the second and third National Healthand Morbidity Surveys in 1996 and 2006 respectivelyreported a three-fold increase in obesity prevalenceamong adults, surging from 4.4% to 14% over the10-year period. Evidence of rising childhood obesityhas also emerged. The aim of this article is to gatherevidence from food availability data for an insightinto population shifts in dietary patterns...

  3. Food Cost and Nutrient Availability in Urban Indonesia: Estimates for Food Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teklu, Tesfaye; Jensen, Helen H.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels

  4. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  5. ANALYZING CONSUMERS’ OPINION ON ORGANIC FOOD, THEIR SAFETY AND AVAILABILITY IN THE SLOVAK FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan Qineti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  In our paper we focus on the consumers´ opinion on bio - food, their safety and availability in the Slovak food market. The analysis is based on a survey organized in the period between December 2009 and January 2010. From the methodological aspect, basic approaches of descriptive statistics have been used, as well as methods of association measurement. The test of robustness tested Chi-Square statistic. The robustness have been judged based on the p-values. Correlations have been tested through the Contingency coefficient and Cramer's V coefficient. From the survey it can be concluded that even though consumers have some idea about bio – food and trust them more compared to other conventional food, they think that their market supply is not sufficient. Respondents consider media and internet, as the most important information source that they wish to be informed on bio-food safety and control, ecological agriculture, eco-agroturism, as well as on the effect of agriculture on the environment. Through the statistics of robustness, it was found out that the effect of gender, education, economic activity and faculty of the surveyed respondents (students from Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences (FBP had a better information on bio – food proved to be statistically significant.  doi:10.5219/16

  6. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  7. Acceptability of Weaning Mixes from Locally Available Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwin, Theingi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Two types of legume-based (lentils/chickpea) and two types of fish-based (carp/catfish) formulas have been made in the form of dry powder, from locally available foods. By analysis of the nutrient composition of formulas, the lentil formula provides 410 calories (11.7g of protein), chickpea formula (418 calories, 13.5g of protein), catfish formula (428 calories, 16.1g of protein) and carp formula (432 calories, 15.8g of protein) in 100g dry weight of each formula. All the formulas were adequate in protein and energy density to meet the WHO recommended value for nutrition needs of 6-12 months old infants. The results of bacteriological analyses showed all the samples were within the recommended microbiological limits for dried products requiring preparation with boiling water. No physical changes were observed when the formulas were stored in sealed plastic bags at room temperature for 6 months. Developed products were evaluated for their acceptability by a panel of 20 persons using 4-point Hedonic Rating Scale. Results from sensory analysis showed that catfish formula obtained highest score for its color, lentil formula for its aroma and taste, and the lowest to carp formula. In the acceptability trials done on 25 children, 82%-90% of the mothers reported that the mixes were acceptable to their children. No adverse side effects were noticed. More than half of the mothers reported their children refused to eat other family foods and showed an obvious preference for the mixes, especially the one made by lentil. (author)

  8. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm 2 after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances

  9. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  10. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  11. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...... was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed...

  12. Greater food availability reduces tarsus assymmetry in nestling Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the quantity or quality of food affects the degree of asymmetry in bilateral body traits in adult birds, but so far there is no evidence that this is the case in early phases of growth too. I studied asymmetry of tarsus length of nestling Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in

  13. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  14. Response of food organisms to inorganic nitrogen availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of inorganic N2 forms on pond food organisms was investigated. Seven identified plankton taxa comprising four phytoplankton: Desmidiaceae (desmids), Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) and Chlorophyceae (green algae) and three zooplankton: Protozoa, Cladocera and Rotifera ...

  15. HORTALIÇAS ACIDIFICADAS ACIDIFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clícia Maria de Jesus BENEVIDES

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente trabalho, elaborar um produto à base de hortaliças acidificadas, avaliando suas características. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e o teste de preferência. Pelos resultados apresentados, verificou-se uma variação na acidez total e pH, ausência de contaminação microbiológica e uma aceitabilidade de 78,6% no teste de aceitação após o período de 120 dias à temp. ambiente.The objective in the present work was the preparation of a product " acidify vegetables" evaluating its characteristics. It was made physical-chemical, microbiological analyses and test of preference. From results, it was noticed a variation in the total acidity and pH , absence of microbiological contamination, and an approval of 78,6% in the test of acceptability after the period of 120 days at room temperature.

  16. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  17. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may ...

  18. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Freedom of Information Staff's Public Reading Room is...

  19. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  20. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pconvenience or nontraditional food stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  1. Indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in supermarkets: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, Tara; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-01-01

    Background In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed. Methods Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-ra...

  2. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  3. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  4. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  5. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  6. [Food and beverages available in automatic food dispensers in health care facilities of the Portugal North Health Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Filipa Gomes; Ramos, Elisabete; Freitas, Mário; Neto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Patients and health staff frequently need to stay in health care facilities for quite a long time. Therefore, it's necessary to create the conditions that allow the ingestion of food during those periods, namely through the existence of automatic food dispensers. However, the available food and beverages might not always be compatible with a healthy diet. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the food and beverages available in automatic food dispensers in public Ambulatory Care Facilities (ACF) and Hospitals of the Portugal North Health Region were contributing to a healthy diet, during the year of 2007. A questionnaire was elaborated and sent to the Coordinators of the Health Sub-Regions and to the Hospital Administrators. The questionnaire requested information about the existence of automatic food dispensers in the several departments of each health care facility, as well as which food and beverages were available and most sold. Afterwards, the pre-processing of the results involved the classification of the food and beverages in three categories: recommended, sometimes recommended and not recommended. The questionnaire reply ratio was 71% in ACF and 83% in Hospitals. Automatic food dispensers were available in all the Hospitals and 86.5% of ACF. It wasn't possible to acquire food in 37% of the health facility departments. These departments were all located in ACF. The more frequently available beverages in departments with automatic food dispensers were coffee, still water, tea, juices and nectars and soft drinks. Still water, coffee, yogurt, juices and nectars and soft drinks were reported as the most sold. The more frequently avaliable food items were chocolate, recommended cookies, not recommended cakes, recommended sandwiches and sometimes recommended croissants. The food items reported as being the most sold were recommended sandwiches, chocolate, recommended cookies, sometimes recommended croissants and not recommended cookies. The beverages in the

  7. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  8. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  9. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  11. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  12. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  13. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  14. Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Cannon, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity. Ecological, cross-sectional study. Europe. Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time. Across the nineteen countries, median average household availability amounted to 33·9 % of total purchased dietary energy for unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 20·3 % for processed culinary ingredients, 19·6 % for processed foods and 26·4 % for ultra-processed foods. The average household availability of ultra-processed foods ranged from 10·2 % in Portugal and 13·4 % in Italy to 46·2 % in Germany and 50·4 % in the UK. A significant positive association was found between national household availability of ultra-processed foods and national prevalence of obesity among adults. After adjustment for national income, prevalence of physical inactivity, prevalence of smoking, measured or self-reported prevalence of obesity, and time lag between estimates on household food availability and obesity, each percentage point increase in the household availability of ultra-processed foods resulted in an increase of 0·25 percentage points in obesity prevalence. The study contributes to a growing literature showing that the consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with an increased risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Its findings reinforce the need for public policies and actions that promote consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and make ultra-processed foods less available and affordable.

  15. Availability of processed foods in the perimeter of public schools in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de; Cremm, Elena Carvalho; Abreu, Débora Silva Costa de; Maron, Luana Rieffe; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2012-07-01

    To assess the availability of food in relation to their degree of industrial processing and the types of food stores in the perimeters of elementary schools. This is a cross-sectional study. 82 food stores located within a 500 m radius buffer of three public schools located in three distinct regions with different socioeconomic levels in the municipality of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, were assessed. All streets within a 500-meter radius of the schools were covered, geographic coordinates were recorded and information about the stores and food items available were collected by direct observation and interview with store managers. Available food items were classified in relation to their degree of industrial processing as ultra-processed foods and minimally processed foods. Kernel's density maps were used to assess the degree of agglomeration of stores near the schools. The stores that offered mostly ultra-processed foods were significantly closer to schools than those who offered mostly minimally processed foods. There was a significant difference between the availability of processed food in different types of stores and between the three regions assessed. The data found by this work evidence that children who attend the three public schools assessed are exposed to an environment that encourages the consumption of ultra-processed foods through easier access of these products in the studied stores.

  16. Adolescent television viewing and unhealthy snack food consumption: the mediating role of home availability of unhealthy snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.

  17. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramirez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources:

  18. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS, we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR, plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  19. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramírez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-12-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources: population growth reduces the land and water per person; and adoption of affluent diets increases the demand for land and water per person. This study shows potentials of global food supply by linking food demand drivers with national land and water availability. Whether the available land and water is enough to meet national food demand was calculated for 187 countries. The calculations were performed for the past situation (1960 and 2010) and to assess four future scenarios (2050) to discuss different paths of diets, population numbers and agricultural expansion. Inclusion of the demand perspective in the analysis has shown stronger challenges for future global food supply than have other studies. The results show that with the "business as usual" scenario, 40% of the global population in 2050 will live in countries with not enough land nor water to meet the demands of their population. Restriction to basic diets will be the most effective in lowering both land and water constraints. Our results identify both food production and food demand factors, and the regions that may experience the strongest challenges in 2050.

  20. Availability and marketing of food and beverages to children through sports settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Edwards, R; Signal, L; Hoek, J

    2012-08-01

    The current systematic review aimed to identify and critically appraise research on food environments in sports settings, including research into the types of food and beverages available, the extent and impact of food and beverage sponsorship and marketing, and views about food environments among key stakeholders. A systematic review. Fourteen English-language studies (two were papers describing different facets of the same study), published between 1985 and 2011, were identified from searches of electronic databases and bibliographies of primary studies. Most studies originated from Australia (n 10), with the remaining studies originating in the UK (n 1), New Zealand (n 1), the USA (n 1) and Canada (n 1). Data were collected from observations in stadia, websites and televised sports events, through in-depth interviews, focus groups and surveys with sports club members, parents and quick serve restaurant managers. Literature exploring food environments in sports settings was limited and had some important methodological limitations. No studies comprehensively described foods available at clubs or stadia, and only one explored the association between food and beverage sponsorship and club incomes. Club policies focused on the impact of health promotion funding rather than the impact of sponsorship or food availability in sports settings. Further research, including comprehensive studies of the food environment in sports settings, is required to document the availability, sponsorship and marketing of food and beverages at national, regional and club levels and to estimate how sports settings may influence children's diets.

  1. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermeen M. Abu Elala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p < 0.05. Dietary supplementation of 0.3% KDF appeared to stimulate the beneficial intestinal flora; a proliferation was observed of indigenous probionts (Eubiosis associated with the relative activation of cellular and humeral innate immunity (phagocytic activity/index, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test and serum/gut mucous lysozyme activity. The cumulative mortality of the fish groups fed on KDF and challenged orally with Aeromonas hydrophila was lower than that of the control group. The resistance against diseases increased with dietary KDF in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the use of acidifiers can be an efficient tool to achieve sustainable, economical and safe fish production.

  2. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  3. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  4. Future technology needs for enhancing food availability and nutrition in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    The increased food production during the past 50 years in Asia has not solved the problem of food availability and its access to large sections of the population. In addition, the nutritional level of the consumed food is highly inadequate to meet the daily requirements of minerals and vitamins. No doubt, the national policies on price support and subsidies for increasing food production and procurement have had a motor influence on access to food. However, the infrastructures for increasing storage capacity, prevent food wastage, and enhance food quality have not kept with the increased food production and its equitable access to the low income groups. The malnutrition of the poor, especially among children and women, remains a challenge to the policy makers and scientists alike. The building of food storage capacity at the village level and adoption of nuclear techniques to store grains under minimal insect and fungal infestation would cut down losses and enhance grain quality. Breeding new varieties of staple food grains (rice, wheat, maize and mallets), vegetables and fruits with enhanced minerals, vitamins and their bio-availability is seen as a complementary approach to food diversification to reduce malnutrition. Conventional breeding assisted by induced mutations, tissue culture, gene insertion and molecular gene modification holds promise to enhance food nutrition. However, the adoption of the appropriate combination of technologies is essential to enhance food availability and nutrition in Asia. Unfortunately, transgenic approach is seen by many as the only option or many times the major solution to enhance food access and its quality. It is often forgotten that a yardstick has many markings, each of which is important to reach the goal. (Author)

  5. Price and availability of healthy food: a study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P; Fourie, Jean; De Villiers, Anniza

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the availability of healthier food choices and whether a healthier diet costs more than a diet commonly eaten by low-income families in South Africa. We visited 21 food stores in 14 rural towns of the Western Cape province of South Africa. We recorded the price and availability of 66 food items, including both commonly consumed foods as well as healthy options. Healthier food choices are available in supermarkets. However, many towns only have small food stores with a limited selection of healthy foods. We compared the prices of six commonly consumed foods with healthier versions of those foods (e.g., whole-wheat bread in place of white bread). Healthier foods typically cost between 10% and 60% more when compared on a weight basis (Rand per 100 g), and between 30% and 110% more when compared based on the cost of food energy (Rand per 100 kJ). Next, we compared the extra cost of a healthier diet compared to a typical South African menu. On average, for an adult male, the healthier diet costs Rand 10.2 (US$1.22) per day more (69% more). For a household with five occupants, the increased expenditure on food by eating a healthier diet is approximately Rand 1090 per month (US$140); this represents a high proportion (>30%) of the total household income for most of the population. Healthier food choices are, in general, considerably more expensive than commonly consumed foods. As a result, a healthy diet is unaffordable for the large majority of the population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 471 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... acquired in FY 2011 are being delivered to States in FY 2012. These foods include carrots, chicken (leg... distribution through TEFAP: Dehydrated potatoes, dried plums, raisins, frozen ground beef, frozen whole chicken, frozen ham, frozen turkey roast, blackeye beans, garbanzo beans, great northern beans, light red kidney...

  7. Awareness of pesticide residues in locally available food and condiments among food sellers: a case study of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Ayo Deji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives are: i to determine the level of awareness of pesticide residue in locally available food among food sellers in Ile Ife area of Osun state, Nigeria; ii to identify the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of food sellers who use pesticides, natural means in preserving their foodstuff from getting spoilt; iii to determine the level of understanding of food sellers who use pesticides about the likely health implications that could result. The design of the study is cross sectional. Structured open-ended questionnaires were administered to 98 randomly selected food sellers in Ile Ife area Osun state, Nigeria. This includes males and female. The inference from the study shows that majority of the food sellers were between ages 21 and 30 years, suggesting that more of the young people are involved in the selling of foodstuff in the area of study. Most of the food sellers used phostozin, an organophosphate compound as preservatives for cereals. The majority of those that were aware of the health hazards associated with the usage of pesticides as preservative were literate school leavers. Among respondents to the questionnaire, it was expected that many of those food sellers likely to demonstrate caution in the usage of pesticide would be the literate school leavers. This is because they are more aware of the possible associated health hazards than their fellow food sellers who are not literate. The level of awareness of health implications associated with use of pesticides on consumable food items is higher among school certificate holders who are food sellers. Phostozin, an organophosphate, is a common preservative pesticide used on cereals foodstuff (e.g., bean, rice, maize in the area of study, especially among the age group between 21 and 30 years.

  8. Socioeconomic differences in the cost, availability and quality of healthy food in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Belinda; Byun, Roy; Mitchell, Emily; Thompson, Susan; Jalaludin, Bin; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2017-12-01

    To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables. Two major supermarket retailers, a discount supermarket chain and independent grocery stores were surveyed. The food basket was significantly cheaper in low compared to high socioeconomic suburbs ($177 vs $189, ptype and socioeconomic status of suburb. Implications for public health: A nationwide food and nutrition surveillance system is required to inform public health policy and practice initiatives. In addition to the food retail environment, these initiatives must address the underlying contributors to inequity and food insecurity for disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  10. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiang; Liu Yajie; Zheng Zhihong; Yuan Baohua; Shen Chuan; Shi Weijun

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  11. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations.

  12. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioecono...

  13. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Serum Metabolite Response to Diet Intervention with Probiotic Acidified Milk in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Is Indistinguishable from that of Non-Probiotic Acidified Milk by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Svensson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using 1H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 L per day of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum l-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained in a questionnaire-based evaluation of symptom relief. A specific probiotic effect is thus absent both in the patient subjective symptom evaluations and at the blood serum metabolite level. However, there was no correspondence between symptom relief and metabolite response on the patient level.

  15. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Diabetes Association (ADA recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1 identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2 compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2=4.17, P=0.003, whole grain bread (χ2=8.33, P=0.004, and baked potato chips (χ2=13.68, P<0.001. On average, the price of diet cola (t=−2.12, P=0.044 and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community’s food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  17. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  18. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  19. Fast Food in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana: Characteristics, Availability and the Cuisine Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omari, R.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Frempong, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Fast food has been extensively debated but most studies have focused on one or two of its characteristics. Using the cuisine concept, we propose a more comprehensive approach to the study of fast food characteristics and availability, while taking cultural context into account. The objectives of

  20. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  1. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  2. Food bar labels: consumer behaviour and veracity of the available information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonçalo Domiciano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for high nutritional value, convenience, low-calorie foods with pleasant sensory characteristics which provide health benefits, makes food bars a promising product in the food sector, and they are already being considered as healthy alternatives according to common sense. The objectives of this study were: (i to evaluate the interest and the way in which consumers understand the information on food labels; (ii to determine consumer habits; and (iii to determine the sugar contents of commercial food bars (conventional, sugar-free and light to confirm the veracity of the information available on the labels of these products. Regarding the consumption of food bars, the majority of the respondents consumed this product and, although most of them considered them to be a healthy product due to the allegation of being rich in fibre and cereals, even with the knowledge of the presence of sugar, the main reasons taken into consideration when buying them were convenience and practicality. Socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, income and educational level influenced the standards and behaviours of consumption of the product. The quantification of sugar in commercial food bars indicated that these products could be considered as foods with intermediate to high amounts of sugar. The results obtained for sugar-free bars were even more worrying because the concentrations of sugar found indicated a lack of compliance with applicable regulations for this category for all the brands evaluated.

  3. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-11-02

    Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the pricing studies we reviewed

  4. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. Methods We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Results Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the

  5. Food and nutrient availability in New Zealand: an analysis of supermarket sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sally; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Priest, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To examine food and nutrient availability in New Zealand using supermarket sales data in conjunction with a brand-specific supermarket food composition database (SFD). The SFD was developed by selecting the top-selling supermarket food products and linking them to food composition data from a variety of sources, before merging with individualised sales data. Supermarket food and nutrient data were then compared with data from national nutrition and household budget/economic surveys. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eight hundred and eighty-two customers (73% female; mean age 38 years) who shopped regularly at the participating supermarket store and for whom electronic sales data were available for the period February 2004-January 2005. Top-selling supermarket food products included full-fat milk, white bread, sugary soft drinks and butter. Key food sources of macronutrients were similar between the supermarket sales database and national nutrition surveys. For example, bread was the major source of energy and contributed 12-13% of energy in all three data sources. Proportional expenditure on fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, farm products and oils, and cereal products recorded in the Household Economic Survey and supermarket sales data were within 2% of each other. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to evaluate a number of important aspects of food and nutrient availability. Many of our findings were broadly comparable with national nutrition and food expenditure survey data, and supermarket sales have the advantage of being an objective, convenient, up-to-date and cost-effective measure of household food purchases.

  6. Effect of temperature, salinity, and food availability on the growth and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.S.; Boyd, M.T.; DeVane, J.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rate, feeding rate, and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were measured under various combinations of temperature, salinity, and food availability. Data were analyzed by multiple regression and presented as response surfaces. Temperature accounted for most of the variation in maximum feeding rate. Temperature and feeding rate accounted for over 90 percent of the observed variation in growth rate. Salinity effects were more important in predicting growth efficiency than in predicting growth rate. Because a feeding--temperature interaction affects growth and because the effect of thermal effluents on food availability is unknown, it is impossible at this time to predict whether thermal alteration of the environment would increase or decrease growth of pinfish

  7. Fast facts: The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition information at the point-of-sale assists consumers to make informed fast food choices. This study provides a baseline measure of the availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in Australia, filling a gap in the literature. An in-store observational survey was conducted in 222 outlets of five fast food chains in five states. The Australian websites for each chain were surveyed for nutrition information. At least some nutrition information was available in 66% of outlets. The availability of information was higher in lower socioeconomic areas. Significantly less information was available in signatory chains of the self-regulatory marketing code. Information provided was generally incomplete; only one outlet (0.5%) provided information for all food and beverage items. In some instances information was old. Information was more available for 'healthier' products and less available for meal combinations. Information was provided on all chains' websites, however it was sometimes difficult to locate. While most outlets surveyed made some nutrition information available to consumers, it was generally incomplete. Fast food chains should provide comprehensive, up-to-date information for all menu items. Chains should also ensure their staff members are adequately trained in providing nutrition information.

  8. Application of impedance microbiology for evaluating potential acidifying performances of starter lactic acid bacteria to employ in milk transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bancalari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Impedance microbiology is a method that enables tracing microbial growth by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity. Different systems, able to perform this measurement, are available in commerce and are commonly used for food control analysis by mean of measuring a point of the impedance curve, defined time of detection. With this work we wanted to find an objective way to interpret the metabolic significance of impedance curves and propose it as a valid approach to evaluate the potential acidifying performances of starter lactic acid bacteria to be employed in milk transformation. To do this it was firstly investigated the possibility to use the Gompertz equation to describe the data coming from the impedance curve obtained by mean of BacTrac 4300®. Lag time (λ, maximum specific M% rate (µmax, and maximum value of M% (Yend have been calculated and, given the similarity of the impedance fitted curve to the bacterial growth curve, their meaning has been interpreted. Potential acidifying performances of eighty strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus species have been evaluated by using the kinetics parameters, obtained from Excel add-in DMFit version 2.1. The novelty and importance of our findings, obtained by means of BacTrac 4300®, is that they can also be applied to data obtained from other devices. Moreover, the meaning of λ, μmax and Yend that we have extrapolated from Modified Gompertz equation and discussed for lactic acid bacteria in milk, can be exploited also to other food environment or other bacteria, assuming that they can give a curve and that curve is properly fitted with Gompertz equation.

  9. The Availability of Food for a Gluten-free Diet and Possibilities at Dining Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Regnerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate options for customers-consumers with a gluten-free diet (coeliac disease patients at food establishments on the Czech market. A gluten-free diet is the only treatment for patients with coeliac disease and it significantly affects their health. The availability of food was investigated during February and March 2014 in three types of food operations. These establishments were visited in forty-three urban, rural and non-residential areas, and the availability of food for people with a gluten-free diet was investigated through interviews at 226 facilities. The preferences of the specific group of customers with a gluten-free diet were determined through comprehensive comparative research. The data was collected from February to June 2014, and 441 respondents were interviewed. The survey revealed that the majority of consumers who must follow this diet fall in the age group of up to 40 years old. This age group consists of preschool and school-age children, students and people of working age who frequently eat away from home. The paper deals with the evaluation of the level of public food services used by customers with gluten intolerance and gives some recommendations for improving the availability and offer of food for a gluten-free diet in selected types of hospitality establishments.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  11. Determination of Synthetic Colors in Some Locally Available Foods of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafati Chaleshtori R.* PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: The synthetic colors are preferred by the food industry because of the variety of shades, intensity, uniformity, excellent solubility and stability. They are used in a variety of food products such as dairy products, beverages, baked products, confections and pet foods. Food colors may have toxic effects on the human body. This study aimed to examine the amount of synthetic colors in some ready to use foods in Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this cross sectional study, conducted in Kashan City, Iran, in March to October 2015, a total of 52 samples of meat products, 33 samples of sweets, 43 samples of drinks and 21 samples of miscellaneous foods were collected. The coloring agents were extracted of samples and purified using the hydrochloric acid extraction method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the samples. Findings: 72 samples (48.30% contained no coloring and 77 samples (51.7% contained artificial colors. The most coloring agents were in sweets (72.7%, drinks (51.2% and meat products samples (48.10%. The quinoline yellow, tartrazine and sunset yellow were the most common coloring used in the various foods. Conclusion: About 52% of examined foods contained artificial colors that have been banned by the national Iranian standards organization.

  12. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B.; Vieira, Stella M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  13. The effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna exposed to silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Gergs, A.

    ) were performed using 30 nm citric acid stabilized AgNP. The aim of the study was, besides providing data for the chronic toxicity of AgNP, to study the influence of the food availability on the reproductive toxicity of AgNP in Daphnia magna. The exposure concentrations applied ranged from 2 to 50 μg...... to controls, whereas concentrations above 10 μgAg/L resulted in inhibition of growth and reproduction as well as an increased mortality. The addition of higher amounts of food showed a beneficial effect on animal survival, growth and reproduction. Similar as in normal food availability treatment, animals......The number of available studies on the acute effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on aquatic organisms has increased dramatically in recent years, but there is still very limited information available on chronic effects. In this study, a series of Daphnia magna 21-days reproduction test (OECD 211...

  14. Application of Impedance Microbiology for Evaluating Potential Acidifying Performances of Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria to Employ in Milk Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Elena; Bernini, Valentina; Bottari, Benedetta; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Impedance microbiology is a method that enables tracing microbial growth by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity. Different systems, able to perform this measurement, are available in commerce and are commonly used for food control analysis by mean of measuring a point of the impedance curve, defined "time of detection." With this work we wanted to find an objective way to interpret the metabolic significance of impedance curves and propose it as a valid approach to evaluate the potential acidifying performances of starter lactic acid bacteria to be employed in milk transformation. To do this it was firstly investigated the possibility to use the Gompertz equation to describe the data coming from the impedance curve obtained by mean of BacTrac 4300®. Lag time (λ), maximum specific M% rate (μmax), and maximum value of M% (Yend) have been calculated and, given the similarity of the impedance fitted curve to the bacterial growth curve, their meaning has been interpreted. Potential acidifying performances of eighty strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis , and Streptococcus thermophilus species have been evaluated by using the kinetics parameters, obtained from Excel add-in DMFit version 2.1. The novelty and importance of our findings, obtained by means of BacTrac 4300®, is that they can also be applied to data obtained from other devices. Moreover, the meaning of λ, μmax, and Yend that we have extrapolated from Modified Gompertz equation and discussed for lactic acid bacteria in milk, can be exploited also to other food environment or other bacteria, assuming that they can give a curve and that curve is properly fitted with Gompertz equation.

  15. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gluten-Free Foods in Rural Maritime Provinces: Limited Availability, High Price, and Low Iron Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Gougeon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the price difference between gluten-free (GF) and gluten-containing (GC) foods available in rural Maritime stores. GF foods and comparable GC items were sampled through random visits to 21 grocery stores in nonurban areas of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada. Wilcoxon rank tests were conducted on price per 100 g of product, and on the price relative to iron content; 2226 GF foods (27.2% staple items, defined as breads, cereals, flours, and pastas) and 1625 GC foods were sampled, with an average ± SD of 66 ± 2.7 GF items per store in rural areas and 331 ± 12 in towns. The median price of GF items ($1.76/100 g) was more expensive than GC counterparts ($1.05/100 g) and iron density was approximately 50% less. GF staple foods were priced 5% higher in rural stores than in town stores. Although the variety of GF products available to consumers has improved, higher cost and lower nutrient density remain issues in nonurban Maritime regions. Dietitians working in nonurban areas should consider the relative high price, difficult access, and low iron density of key GF items, and work together with clients to find alternatives and enhance their food literacy.

  18. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    The food environment can have an important influence on the availability of and access to food, which plays a significant role in the health of individuals. The goal of this study was to compare the consumption of fruits, legumes and vegetables (FLV) by adults and the availability of food stores in the context of socioeconomic and geographic space connected to basic health units in a Brazilian capital city. The study was developed from information obtained through the Risk Factors Surveillance for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL), using samples from Belo Horizonte from the years 2008 to 2010. A total of 5611 records were geocoded based on the postal code. A score was created based on the weekly and daily frequency of FLV intake of individuals. The coverage area of basic health units was used as a neighborhood unit. Georeferenced data on food stores in the city and neighborhood income were used. As neighborhood income increased, there was an increase in the distribution of food establishments for all of the studied categories. The highest FLV intake scores were observed in areas with higher income levels. The highest concentration of food stores, regardless of supply quality, was observed in geographic areas with higher purchasing power and in those where there was a greater concentration of other types of businesses and services, a different pattern from that found in other countries. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Food choice in hyperthyroidism: potential influence of the autonomic nervous system and brain serotonin precursor availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, H; de Meijer, P H; Langius, J; Coenegracht, C I; van den Berk, A H; Chandie Shaw, P K; Boom, H; Schoemaker, R C; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J; Meinders, A E

    2001-12-01

    We explored energy and macronutrient intake in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. We specifically hypothesized that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased appetite for carbohydrates, because of enhanced sympathetic tone and diminished serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake by dietary history and food selected for lunch in the laboratory in 14 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Twenty-four-hour catecholamine excretion was used as a measure of activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio was measured to estimate (rate limiting) precursor availability for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. All measurements were repeated after the subjects had been treated to establish euthyroidism. In addition, the effects of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade upon these parameters were studied to evaluate the influence of beta-adrenergic hyperactivity on food intake. Hyperthyroidism was marked by increased SNS activity and reduced plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio. Accordingly, energy intake was considerably and significantly increased in hyper vs. euthyroidism, which was fully attributable to enhanced carbohydrate consumption, as protein and fat intake were not affected. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism alters the neurophysiology of food intake regulation. Increased SNS activity and reduced Trp precursor availability for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brain may drive the marked hyperphagia and craving for carbohydrates that appears to characterize hyperthyroid patients. Because propranolol did not affect food intake in hyperthyroidism, the potential effect of catecholamines on food intake might be mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  20. Interactive effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta-Artero, Irene; Janssen, Reneé; van der Meer, Jaap; Witbaard, Rob

    2018-02-01

    The interest in Arctica islandica growth biology has recently increased due to the widespread use of its shell as a bioarchive. Although temperature and food availability are considered key factors in its growth, their combined influence has not been studied so far under laboratory conditions. We tested the interactive effect of temperature and food availability on the shell and tissue growth of A. islandica juveniles (9-15 mm in height) in a multi-factorial experiment with four food levels (no food, low, medium, and high) and three different temperatures (3, 8, 13 °C). Shell and tissue growth were observed in all treatments, with significant differences occurring only among food levels (2-way ANOVA; P-value food, and the interaction between them (2-way ANOVA; P-value < 0.05). Siphon observations, as indication of feeding activities, played a key role to better understand the growth variation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of chronic food restriction on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity depend on morning versus evening availability of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Ons, Sheila; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Partial food restriction (FR) protocols have been used not only to study behavioral and physiological consequences of decrease food intake, but as a necessary treatment of the animals in some operant learning tasks. It is well-established in rodents that restricting food availability to a few hours in the morning causes an alteration of the daily rhythm of corticosterone, thus making it difficult to evaluate whether or not such treatments are stressful. In the present experiment adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two different FR schedules: food availability after 1100 h (LFR) or after 1900 h (DFR). After 14 days, animals from both groups, together with corresponding controls, were killed under resting conditions, either in the morning or in the evening, just before daily access to food in FR rats. Both FR schedules reduced body weight gain to the same extent, but their impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was different: DFR increased relative, but not absolute, adrenal weight and morning and evening levels of corticosterone, whereas LFR increased both absolute and relative adrenal weights and increased morning corticosterone levels to a greater extent than DFR rats. Neither serum ACTH nor corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were altered by DFR or LFR protocols, suggesting that factors other than CRF and ACTH are involved in the control of adrenocortical secretion under FR. It appears that LFR caused more alterations in the HPA axis than DFR and, therefore, the latter FR schedule should be used in those protocols necessarily involving partial FR.

  2. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, M Iqbal; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Islam, M Munirul; de Pee, Saskia; Steiger, Georg; Fuli, Rachel; Sarker, Shafiqul A M; Parveen, Monira; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-06-27

    Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6-18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice-lentil and chickpea-based RUSF are well accepted

  3. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  5. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control, D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water, D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water, D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control, T2 (5% Azolla in the diet, T3 (7% Azolla in the diet and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p0.05. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR (p0.05. However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  6. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    1. Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. 2. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. 3. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). 4. SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. 5. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species' resilience in the face of global change. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  7. Indonesian CPO availability analysis to support food and energy security: a system dynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, T.; Arkeman, Y.; Setyaningsih, D.; Saparita, R.

    2017-05-01

    The development of biofuels could be a solution to overcome the energy problem. One of biofuel that has the potential to be developed, namely palm oil biodiesel that is also the raw material for food. As a provider of CPO raw materials, the production of palm biodiesel could trigger competitions, from biofuels demand growth and utilization of agricultural resources. Thus, it needs to be analyzed to determine the adequency of CPO supply to fulfill the need of food and policy recomendation which sets the development of palm oil biodiesel can be synergies with food need especially for the supply of raw material CPO. To obtain the optimal policy in the synergy between the raw material of CPO for food and energy is a need to establish some policy scenarios that allow to be applied and then chosen the best policy alternative of all scenarios. The purpose of this research were to : 1) analysis the availability of CPO to meet the needs of food and energy, 2) provide policy recommendation with regard biodiesel development of food security. The model made used system dynamic method. Several scenarios that used in the model are: 1) existing condition, 2) The scenario increase biodiesel production capacity and increase land productivity, 3) reduction scenario CPO export by 30%, 4) scenario use othe raw material for biodiesel by 20%. The simulation results showed the availability of CPO raw materials would answer all needs of both food and biodiesel when there was an increase in productivity, diversification of raw materials, and also a reduction in palm oil exports. It was needed an integrated policy from upstream to downstream along with the consistency of implementation. Policy suggestions that could be considered were increased productivity through agricultural intensification, enforcement disincentive policies of CPO to exports, and development of non-CPO biodiesel raw materials and development of renewable energy.

  8. Interactive effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Janssen, R.; Van der Meer, J.; Witbaard, R.

    2018-01-01

    The interest in Arctica islandica growth biology has recently increased due to the widespread use of its shell as a bioarchive. Although temperature and food availability are considered key factors in its growth, their combined influence has not been studied so far under laboratory conditions. We

  9. Floods and food security: A method to estimate the effect of inundation on crops availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Caporali, Enrica; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The inner connections between floods and food security are extremely relevant, especially in developing countries where food availability can be highly jeopardized by extreme events that damage the primary access to food, i.e. agriculture. A method for the evaluation of the effects of floods on food supply, consisting of the integration of remote sensing data, agricultural statistics and water footprint databases, is proposed and applied to two different case studies. Based on the existing literature related to extreme floods, the events in Bangladesh (2007) and in Pakistan (2010) have been selected as exemplary case studies. Results show that the use of remote sensing data combined with other sources of onsite information is particularly useful to assess the effects of flood events on food availability. The damages caused by floods on agricultural areas are estimated in terms of crop losses and then converted into lost calories and water footprint as complementary indicators. Method results are fully repeatable; whereas, for remote sensed data the sources of data are valid worldwide and the data regarding land use and crops characteristics are strongly site specific, which need to be carefully evaluated. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the water depth critical on the crops in Bangladesh, varying the assumed level by ±20%. The results show a difference in the energy content losses estimation of 12% underlying the importance of an accurate data choice.

  10. Lutein in food supplements available on the markets of the Viszegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šivel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC method with UV-VIS detection was implemented for determination of contents of lutein in food supplements available on the markets in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. Altogether, 48 samples of food supplements in three dosage forms (22 samples of tablets, 18 samples of soft capsules, and 8 samples of hard capsules were analysed. The amounts of lutein specified by the producer complied with their real contents only in 7 samples of the food supplements. Lutein in soft capsules showed the highest stability against oxidation; lutein in tablets was more prone to oxidation and lutein in hard capsules was most susceptible to oxidation process. Out of 21 Czech products, only four fell into the category of satisfactory products, three of them were soft capsules and one was a tablet. Out of 27 products manufactured abroad, only three were evaluated as satisfactory products, all of them were soft capsules, out of 48 analysed food supplement samples just seven fell into the category of satisfactory preparations, eight were evaluated as less satisfactory preparations, five were found inadequate products and 28 samples were labelled unsatisfactory. Only one in six analyzed samples contained the amount of lutein specified by the manufacturer, almost 60% of monitored lutein containing food supplement samples fell into the unsatisfactory product category.

  11. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea after Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The…

  12. Fruit and vegetable availability and selection: federal food package revisions, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel; Krauss, Ramona C; Strode, Steven; Armbruster, James

    2012-10-01

    With nearly 49,000 authorized retailers nationwide, a policy change that added fruits and vegetables (FV) to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages in 2009 had the potential to expand neighborhood FV availability. This study examined changes in availability and selection of commonly consumed and culturally specific FV at authorized retailers (WIC vendors) before and after implementation of the revised WIC food packages. Quasi-experimental, one-group design with two pre-policy observations and one post-policy observation. Trained observers assessed a list of fresh, frozen, and canned FV at each vendor in seven northern Illinois counties. Eight indices of FV availability and selection were derived. Multiple regression estimated relationships. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Overall, availability and selection of commonly consumed fresh FV and availability of African-American culturally specific fresh FV improved after implementation of the new policy. Modest improvements in the overall availability of canned low-sodium vegetables and frozen FV were observed. Changes differed by vendor type (large vendor, small vendor, and pharmacy). Changes in availability or selection did not differ by neighborhood characteristics (population density, median household income, racial/ethnic composition). Expansion of WIC foods was associated with small positive externalities on the food environment. Larger subsidies to create more demand and more-substantial stocking requirements for retailers may yield significantly larger improvements and thus warrant further investigation. Approaches targeting rural, low-income, and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods also may be needed. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  14. Digestive and locomotor capacity show opposing responses to changing food availability in an ambush predatory fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Jing; Killen, Shaun S

    2018-06-14

    Metabolic rates vary widely within species, but little is known about how variation in the 'floor' [i.e. standard metabolic rate (SMR) in ectotherms] and 'ceiling' [maximum metabolic rate (MMR)] for an individual's aerobic scope (AS) are linked with digestive and locomotor function. Any links among metabolic traits and aspects of physiological performance may also be modulated by fluctuations in food availability. This study followed changes in SMR, MMR, and digestive and locomotor capacity in southern catfish ( Silurus meridionalis ) throughout 15 days of food deprivation and 15 days of refeeding. Individuals downregulated SMR during food deprivation and showed only a 10% body mass decrease during this time. Whereas critical swim speed ( U crit ) was robust to food deprivation, digestive function decreased after fasting with a reduced peak oxygen uptake during specific dynamic action (SDA) and prolonged SDA duration. During refeeding, individuals displayed rapid growth and digestive function recovered to pre-fasting levels. However, refed fish showed a lower U crit than would be expected for their increased body length and in comparison to measures at the start of the study. Reduced swimming ability may be a consequence of compensatory growth: growth rate was negatively correlated with changes in U crit during refeeding. Southern catfish downregulate digestive function to reduce energy expenditure during food deprivation, but regain digestive capacity during refeeding, potentially at the cost of decreased swimming performance. The plasticity of maintenance requirements suggests that SMR is a key fitness trait for in this ambush predator. Shifts in trait correlations with food availability suggest that the potential for correlated selection may depend on context. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Characterisation and potential migration of silver nanoparticles from commercially available polymeric food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo Ntim, Susana; Thomas, Treye A; Begley, Timothy H; Noonan, Gregory O

    2015-01-01

    The potential for consumer exposure to nano-components in food contact materials (FCMs) is dependent on the migration of nanomaterials into food. Therefore, characterising the physico-chemical properties and potential for migration of constituents is an important step in assessing the safety of FCMs. A number of commercially available food storage products, purchased domestically within the United States and internationally, that claim to contain nanosilver were evaluated. The products were made of polyethylene, polypropylene and polyphenylene ether sulfone and all contained silver (0.001-36 mg kg(-1) of polymer). Silver migration was measured under various conditions, including using 3% acetic acid and water as food simulants. Low concentrations (sub-ppb levels) of silver were detected in the migration studies generally following a trend characterised by a surface desorption phenomenon, where the majority of the silver migration occurred in the first of three consecutive exposures. Silver nanoparticles were not detected in food simulants, suggesting that the silver migration may be due solely to ionic silver released into solution from oxidation of the silver nanoparticle surface. The absence of detectable silver nanoparticles was consistent with expectations from a physico-chemical view point. For the products tested, current USFDA guidance for evaluating migration from FCMs was applicable.

  16. Organic foods in Danish municipal school food systems – a multistakeholder analysis of available evidence on constraints and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Olsen, Tenna Doktor

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic supply and healthy eating initiatives in school food services share common features. Both types involves changes in supply, the collaboration of a number of different stakeholders and both include a physical food part as well as a non physical symbolic aspect. Studies have shown that introducing organic food in public food systems seems to affect the nutritional profile of the food service and anecdotal evidence suggest that organic supply forces food ...

  17. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  19. Availability, Location, and Format of Nutrition Information in Fast-food Chain Restaurants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Lebenbaum, Michael; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2015-03-01

    To assess the availability, location, and format of nutrition information in fast-food chain restaurants in Ontario. Nutrition information in restaurants was assessed using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Study for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Two raters independently visited 50 restaurants, 5 outlets of each of the top-10 fast-food chain restaurants in Canada. The locations of the restaurants were randomly selected within the Waterloo, Wellington, and Peel regions in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive results are presented for the proportion of restaurants presenting nutrition information by location (e.g., brochure), format (e.g., use of symbols), and then by type of restaurant (e.g., quick take-away, full-service). Overall, 96.0% (n = 48) of the restaurants had at least some nutrition information available in the restaurant. However, no restaurant listed calorie information for all items on menu boards or menus, and only 14.0% (n = 7) of the restaurants posted calorie information and 26.0% (n = 13) of restaurants posted other nutrients (e.g., total fat) for at least some items on menus boards or menus. The majority of the fast-food chain restaurants included in our study provided at least some nutrition information in restaurants; however, very few restaurants made nutrition information readily available for consumers on menu boards and menus.

  20. Adaptation of chemical methods of analysis to the matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzsprung, P.; Friese, K.

    2000-01-01

    Owing to the unusual matrix of pyrite-acidified mining lakes, the analysis of chemical parameters may be difficult. A number of methodological improvements have been developed so far, and a comprehensive validation of methods is envisaged. The adaptation of the available methods to small-volume samples of sediment pore waters and the adaptation of sensitivity to the expected concentration ranges is an important element of the methods applied in analyses of biogeochemical processes in mining lakes [de

  1. Estrous cycle and food availability affect feeding induced by amygdala 5-HT receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Graham C; Bishop, Christopher; Coscina, Donald V

    2002-04-01

    We have recently reported that bilateral infusions of the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (MET) into the posterior basolateral amygdala (pBLA) elicit feeding in female rats tested at mid-light cycle. The present study was performed to determine whether (1) testing at two different phases of the estrous cycle, and/or (2) the palatability of the food might modify this effect. Subjects were 18 adult females with bilateral pBLA cannulae. Following familiarization with Froot Loops cereal, a within-subjects design tested all animals for 1- and 2-h food intake under 2 Drug (0.3 nmol MET vs. Vehicle), 2 Estrous Cycle (diestrus vs. estrus) and 2 Food (lab chow vs. Froot Loops) conditions. Rats weighed more at diestrus than at proestrus (Pestrus (Pestrus. A three-way interaction (Pestrus than in diestrus to lab chow but not Froot Loops. These data suggest pBLA MET differentially affects feeding over the estrous cycle depending on the palatability of food available.

  2. Availability of added sugars in Brazil: distribution, food sources and time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Mondini, Lenise; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-03-01

    To describe the regional and socio-economic distribution of consumption of added sugar in Brazil in 2002/03, particularly products, sources of sugar and trends in the past 15 years. The study used data from Household Budget Surveys since the 1980s about the type and quantity of food and beverages bought by Brazilian families. Different indicators were analyzed: % of sugar calories over the total diet energy and caloric % of table sugar fractions and sugar added to processed food/ sugar calories of diet. In 2002/03, of the total energy available for consumption, 16.7% came from added sugar in all regional and socio-economic strata. The table sugar/ sugar added to processed food ratio was inversely proportional to increase in income. Although this proportion fell in the past 15 years, sugar added to processed food doubled, especially in terms of consumption of soft drinks and cookies. Brazilians consume more sugar than the recommended levels determined by the WHO and the sources of consumption of sugar have changed significantly.

  3. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  4. Sustainable food security in India-Domestic production and macronutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Hannah; Reay, David; Higgins, Peter

    2018-01-01

    India has been perceived as a development enigma: Recent rates of economic growth have not been matched by similar rates in health and nutritional improvements. To meet the second Sustainable Development Goal (SDG2) of achieving zero hunger by 2030, India faces a substantial challenge in meeting basic nutritional needs in addition to addressing population, environmental and dietary pressures. Here we have mapped-for the first time-the Indian food system from crop production to household-level availability across three key macronutrients categories of 'calories', 'digestible protein' and 'fat'. To better understand the potential of reduced food chain losses and improved crop yields to close future food deficits, scenario analysis was conducted to 2030 and 2050. Under India's current self-sufficiency model, our analysis indicates severe shortfalls in availability of all macronutrients across a large proportion (>60%) of the Indian population. The extent of projected shortfalls continues to grow such that, even in ambitious waste reduction and yield scenarios, enhanced domestic production alone will be inadequate in closing the nutrition supply gap. We suggest that to meet SDG2 India will need to take a combined approach of optimising domestic production and increasing its participation in global trade.

  5. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  6. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  7. Home food preparation techniques impacted the availability of natural antioxidants and bioactivities in kale and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Gao, Boyan; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Thomas T Y; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-01-24

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding and chopping with/without microwaving on the health-beneficial components, and antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation capacities of commercial kale and broccoli samples. The availability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic contents, the scavenging activities against DPPH, oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS cation radicals, and cell-based antioxidant activities were determined for the antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that chopping released the least nutraceutical components and antioxidant compounds. Microwaving had no effect on the I3C release from kale, but resulted in an elevated (more than 2-fold) release of I3C from broccoli. In addition, the choice of a blender affected the availability of the anti-proliferative compounds from the vegetables, while it had no effect on the availability of their anti-inflammatory compounds. In summary, different food preparation methods could strongly impact the availability of bioactive factors in the selected vegetables. These findings suggest that choosing an appropriate food processing method for each vegetable might be critical to obtain desirable health-beneficial effects.

  8. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...] Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability AGENCY... guidance for industry entitled ``What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods,'' which... administrative detention order, what food may be subject to administrative detention, who receives a copy of an...

  9. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  10. Review on Suitability of Available LCIA Methodologies for Assessing Environmental Impact of the Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Production, processing, distribution, and consumption of a wide variety of products in the food sector have different ranges of environmental impacts. Methodologies used in environmental impact assessment differ in which set of impact categories is covered and which models are used to assess them. In the food sector, life cycle assessment results are mostly presented without any clear distinction of the principles applied to selecting the relevant methodology. In this paper, the most relevant life cycle impact assessment methodologies are determined from the list of recommended methodologies published recently in the international reference life cycle data system (ILCD handbook. The range of the relevant impacts covered is considered as the main indicator decisive in selecting a methodology. The selection of the relevant set of impact categories is performed through an overview of more than 50 recent LCA case studies of different products in the sector. The result of the research is a short list of three LCIA methodologies recommended to be used for environmental impact assessment of products in the food sector.

  11. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Aljaibachi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (MPs in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris, with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics.

  12. Effects of Food Availability, Snow and Predation on Breeding Performance of Waders at Zackenberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meltofte, Hans; Høye, Toke Thomas; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2008-01-01

    it increases the chances for re-laying in case of nest failure, optimises timing of hatching of the chicks in relation to the peak period of arthropod food for the young, facilitates early departure of the adults and maximises the time available for the young to grow strong before winter begins in early...... climate change, the waders of high-arctic Greenland may face more unstable breeding conditions, and in the long term some of the wader species may be hampered by overgrowing of the high-arctic tundra with more lush low-arctic vegetation....

  13. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Association of neighbourhood food availability with the consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products by children in a city of Brazil: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; de Carvalho Cremm, Elena; de Abreu, Débora Silva Costa; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de; Budd, Nadine; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between neighbourhood food availability and the consumption of ready-to-consume products (RCP), either processed or ultra-processed, and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UF-MPF) by children. Cross-sectional. 24 h Dietary recalls were collected from children from January 2010 to June 2011. Neighbourhood food availability data were collected from 672 food stores located within 500 m of participants' homes, using an adapted and validated instrument. Neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) was obtained by calculating the mean years of household head's education level in each census tract covered by 500 m buffers. Foods that were consumed by children and/or available in the food stores were classified based on their degree of industrial processing. Multilevel random-effect models examined the association between neighbourhood food availability and children's diets. Santos, Brazil. Children (n 513) under 10 years old (292 aged food stores was associated with increased RCP consumption (Pfood policies and interventions that aim to reduce RCP consumption in Santos and similar settings should focus on reducing the availability in food stores. The results also suggest that interventions should not only increase the availability of UF-MPF in lower-SES neighbourhoods, but should strive to make UF-MPF accessible within these environments.

  15. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaibachi, Rana

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics (MPs) in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris), with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics. PMID:29686944

  16. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  17. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  18. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  19. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  20. Use of Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Diseases to Improve Food Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Melgarejo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of fungal plant pathogens can improve global food availability, one of the three pillars of food security, by reducing crop losses, particularly for low-income farmers. However, the interrelationships of many environmental variables can result in multiple interactions among the organisms and their environment, several of which might contribute to effective biological control. Here, we present an advanced survey of the nature and practice of biological control when it is used to control brown rot in stone fruit. Specifically, we describe the population dynamics of Penicillium frequentans and Epicoccum nigrum and their efficacy as biocontrol agents against brown rot disease under field conditions. The size of P. frequentans population after an application of a P. frequentans conidial formulation during the crop season is bigger than that of E. nigrum following the application of an E. nigrum conidial formulation. Moreover, applications of a P. frequentans conidial formulation during the crop season also caused a higher reduction in the number of Monilinia spp. conidia on the fruit surface than that found after applications of an E. nigrum formulation during the growing season.

  1. Interactive effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia) juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Janssen, R.; Van der Meer, J.; Witbaard, R.

    2018-01-01

    The interest in Arctica islandica growth biology has recently increased due to the widespread use of its shell as a bioarchive. Although temperature and food availability are considered key factors in its growth, their combined influence has not been studied so far under laboratory conditions. We tested the interactive effect of temperature and food availability on the shell and tissue growth of A. islandica juveniles (9–15 mm in height) in a multi-factorial experiment with four food levels (...

  2. Availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at a fast-food restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Margo G; Osborn, Melissa; Malloy, Claudia J

    2006-12-01

    Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, as well as asked cashiers or restaurant managers whether they had nutrition information available in the restaurant. In Washington, DC, 59% of McDonald's outlets provided in-store nutrition information for the majority of their standard menu items. In 62% of the restaurants, it was necessary to ask two or more employees in order to obtain a copy of that information. We found that even at the largest chain restaurant in the country, nutrition information at the point of decision-making is often difficult to find or completely absent.

  3. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  4. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, Van P.J.A.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy,

  5. Seasonal quantitative dynamics and ecology of pelagic rotifers in an acidified boreal lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Birger Wærvågen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Gjerstadvann is a dimictic, oligotrophic, slightly acidified boreal lake in southern Norway (northwest Europe. The planktonic rotifer community of this lake was studied quantitatively during one year in order to investigate the impacts of the local environment and biotic interactions on seasonal succession and habitat selection. Pure suspension feeders (mainly Keratella spp., Conochilus spp., and Kellicottia longispina together with raptorial graspers or specialised feeders (mainly Polyarthra spp. and Collotheca spp. dominated the rotifer community over prolonged periods, whereas carnivorous/omnivorous species (mainly Asplanchna priodonta were extremely uncommon. Low bicarbonate buffering capacity resulted in a distinctive seasonal oscillating pH between 5.0 and 5.6, defining a special acid-transition lake category. The pH values were highest in the productive period during summer, and lowest during ice break-up coinciding with the peak reactive aluminium concentrations of 250-300 mg L-1. As in typical Norwegian boreal perch lakes, the most abundant cladoceran was Bosmina longispina due to perch predation on the genus Daphnia. Rotifer community structure was significantly related to temperature and oxygen (P=0.001 and P=0.022, illustrating the important effects of the seasonal cycle and vertical density stratification. The most significant competition indicator species were B. longispina and Eudiaptomus gracilis (both with P=0.001. A variance partitioning indicated that 14% of the total community composition variance could only be explained by biotic interactions, while 19% of the variance could be attributed to environmental gradients. Of the variance, 23% could not be resolved between biotic interactions and environmental gradients, while a residual of 44% was not explainable by any of the variables. Acid conditions alone cannot account for all the observed changes in the rotifer community of this lake with low humic content, since

  6. Food Energy Availability from Agriculture at the Farm-Level in Southeastern Nigeria: Level, Composition and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the four pillars of ‘food security’ (i.e., ‘food availability’, ‘food accessibility’, ‘food stability’ and ‘food utilization’, ‘food availability (FA’ underpins the core concept because at the micro-level it is strongly related to the overall availability of food, which is determined by domestic food production, food imports and food aid. This paper examines the level of food energy availability (FEA at the farm level, relationships between farm size and FEA and the determinants of FEA based on a survey of 400 households from Ebonyi and Anambra States of Southeastern Nigeria. FEA in this study refers to Partial Food Energy Availability (PFEA because it excludes procurement of food from other sources, e.g., purchase from the market, borrow/exchange from others and/or receiving as food aid. Results show that the sample is dominated by small–scale farmers (81% of the total sample owning land <1.00 ha. The average farm size is small (1.27 ha. Farmers grow multiple food crops. Sixty-eight percent of the farmers produced at least two food crops. Average PFEA is estimated at 4492.78 kcals/capita/day produced from one ha of land area. Approximately 30.92% of the total food produced is set aside for home consumption. Among the food crops, 40.70% of cassava output is set aside for home consumption while most of yam and rice are mainly destined for the market. Inverse farm size–PFEA relationship exists amongst the sampled farmers. The regression results reveal that subsistence pressure, profit motive and share of yam in total output significantly reduces PFEA whereas an increase in the share of cassava in total output significantly increases PFEA. A one percent increase in the share of cassava output will increase PFEA by 0.14%. A one percent increase in subsistence pressure will reduce PFEA by 0.98%. Farmers identified a lack of agricultural extension agents, farm inputs and basic infrastructures as the main constraints

  7. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Enochs

    Full Text Available Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion. Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2-195.5 μm over the short duration of the study (3 mo. and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat.

  9. Prevalence of C. botulinum and C. perfringens spores in food products available on Polish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens in food samples purchased from Polish producers. Material and Methods: The analyses were performed on 260 food samples collected in Lublin and Subcarpathian regions: 56 of smoked meat, 21 of pork meat, 20 of dairy products, 26 of vegetable and fruit preserves, 40 of ready-to-eat meals, 27 of fish preserves, and 70 of honey collected directly from apiaries. Results: C. botulinum strains were isolated from 2.3% (6/260 of samples and the isolates were classified as toxin types A (4/260 and B (2/260. C. perfringens strains were isolated from 14% (37/260 of samples. All the isolates were classified as toxin type A, 28 of them were able also to produce α toxin and 9 - β2 toxin. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained results it could be suggested that risk assessment, especially regarding the entire honey harvesting process, should be provided in order to ensure the microbiological safety of the products to be consumed by infants and people with a weakened immune system.

  10. Evaluation of food storage racks available on the Polish market in the hygienic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesińska, Wiesława; Tomaszewska, Marzena; Bilska, Beata; Trafiałek, Joanna; Dziadek, Michał

    Providing safe food products to the consumer depends on the material and technology used and adherence to hygienic practices, throughout the production process. The degree of microbial contamination of a surface is an important indicator of equipment cleanliness and effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. Used material, construction solutions and quality of the applied devices also have an effect on hygienic status. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the design and construction material of selected food storage racks, available on the Polish market, on their hygienic status. The study was based on determination of the capability of microbial growth on the surface of the racks and the effectiveness of their cleaning. Microbiological cleanliness on the surface of the racks was monitored by the contact plates which are able to estimate the total number of icroorganisms. Examination of effectiveness of cleaning was conducted by the use of ATP bioluminescence method. This experiment has proven a significant influence of adopted construction solutions on the hygienic status of the examined racks. Presence of antibacterial layer and a choice of the appropriate construction material characterized by a low surface roughness impedes the microbial growth and increases the effectiveness of cleaning. Design solutions have significant impact on the hygienic status of shelves. Selection of a suitable material for the construction of racks can greatly reduce the possibility of the development of microorganism, despite the low efficiency of the cleaning. The application of antimicrobial coatings inhibits microbial growth.

  11. Effect of an acidifier as replacement for antibiotics on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of an acidifier as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and gut morphology of broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty (180) 7-day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments of 4 replicates each. Each replicate had 15 birds.

  12. PCR Based Detection of Genetically Modified Soy in Processed Foods Commercially Available in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Alaraidh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, PCR (polymerase chain reaction technique was applied to detect the presence of GMO sold in the Saudi Arabian market. This method was applied to detect genetically modified soy (GM-soy in particular the roundup ready soy (RRS. To confirm the presence of soy, samples were first tested for the existence of the soy specific lectin gene.  A total of eighty samples were tested out of which two samples tested positive as GM-soy. Not surprisingly, the findings showed the existence of GM-soy in food products in Saudi. This supports the necessity of developing precise quantitative and qualitative ways for routine analyses and detection of GMO products in the Saudi Arabian market. With the discovery of GM products in the Saudi Arabian market it would be of no surprise that other Middle Eastern nations also knowingly or unknowingly import GM crops.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  14. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Dynamics of Food Availability in sub-Saharan Africa: An Endogenous Perspective on Food Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity is a major challenge of our time: In 2015, 795 million people suffered from hunger worldwide. The eradication of hunger remains a target of high-level policy programs such as the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. To date, research has contributed extensively to our understanding of the food security problem, its causes, and possible solutions. Within this literature, many studies used an approach based on and restricted to one discipline (e....

  16. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Amo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS, designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS, designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet.

  17. Foods and Beverages Available at SNAP-Authorized Drugstores in Sections of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Kennedy, Ashley; Batada, Ameena; Story, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To assess healthy food availability in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-authorized drugstores by store chain and neighborhood income level in 3 regions of North Carolina. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Twenty-five counties in North Carolina. A total of 108 drugstores (36 CVS Health, 36 Rite Aid, and 36 Walgreens). Fifty foods and beverages offered at drugstores, categorized as healthier and less healthy. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to test differences in the availability of foods and beverages by chain and neighborhood income. Of the 50 foods/beverages observed, 11 were available at all drugstores. Three of the 36 (8%) healthier items were available at all stores (100% fruit juice, water, and high-fiber cereal) whereas 8 of the 14 less healthy items (57%) were available at all stores (chips, sports drinks, energy drinks, regular soda, diet soda, sugar-sweetened beverages, beer, and wine). Only 3% of drugstores offered fresh vegetables and 4% offered fresh fruits. Less than 20% offered frozen chicken or beef. For 36 healthier foods, 11 differed by chain (28%); for less healthy foods 2 of 14 differed by chain (7%). Foods and beverages offered did not vary by neighborhood income. Although drugstores offer some healthier items, few offer fresh produce. As the drugstore industry changes, it is important for the nutrition community to study the impact of these changes on food purchasing behavior and ultimately health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated Colonization of Microborers at a Volcanically Acidified Coral Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Tribollet, Aline; Valentino, Lauren; Kolodziej, Graham; Donham, Emily M; Fitchett, Mark D; Carlton, Renee; Price, Nichole N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) conditions projected to occur by the end of the century will slow the calcification of numerous coral species and accelerate the biological erosion of reef habitats (bioerosion). Microborers, which bore holes less than 100 μm diameter, are one of the most pervasive agents of bioerosion and are present throughout all calcium carbonate substrates within the reef environment. The response of diverse reef functional groups to OA is known from real-world ecosystems, but to date our understanding of the relationship between ocean pH and carbonate dissolution by microborers is limited to controlled laboratory experiments. Here we examine the settlement of microborers to pure mineral calcium carbonate substrates (calcite) along a natural pH gradient at a volcanically acidified reef at Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Colonization of pioneer microborers was higher in the lower pH waters near the vent field. Depth of microborer penetration was highly variable both among and within sites (4.2-195.5 μm) over the short duration of the study (3 mo.) and no clear relationship to increasing CO2 was observed. Calculated rates of biogenic dissolution, however, were highest at the two sites closer to the vent and were not significantly different from each other. These data represent the first evidence of OA-enhancement of microboring flora colonization in newly available substrates and provide further evidence that microborers, especially bioeroding chlorophytes, respond positively to low pH. The accelerated breakdown and dissolution of reef framework structures with OA will likely lead to declines in structural complexity and integrity, as well as possible loss of essential habitat.

  19. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  20. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Rachel B; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall ( p added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  1. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, E.; Escribano, F.; Garcia-Meseguer, M.J.; Pardo, I.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS), designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS), designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet. (Author)

  2. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters in adolescents and their relationship with eating habits and household food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Chaves, Otaviana; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Machado Rocha Ribeiro, Sônia; Ferreira Rocha Sant Ana, Luciana; Garçon de Faria, Carlos; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the per capita availability of energy and macronutrients in the home and frequency of food consumption by adolescents and to relate them with anthropometric and biochemical variables, as well as verify if the eating habits of parents are associated to the children. We evaluated the weight, height, body fat (%BF), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of 120 adolescents. We evaluated also the eating habits of adolescents and their parents. Adolescents with more than 35% of available lipids had 9.1-fold higher chances of presenting alterations in TC. Those who replaced the main meals for snacks had 3.66, 4.66 and 2.82 higher chances of presenting alterationsin %BF, insulin and triglycerides, respectively. The daily consumption of fruit was considered as a protective factor in relation to hyperinsulinemia. There was a similar feeding behavior among adolescents and their mothers. The results suggest the importance of specific attention to adolescent health, focused on family education. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-27

    To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study-EPIC-Norfolk. East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40-79 years). Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

  4. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Oaken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6 and non-GSP (10 schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%. The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food.

  5. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate) on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elala, Nermeen M.; Ragaa, Naela M.

    2014-01-01

    In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF) on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g) for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p fish groups fed on KDF and challenged orally with Aeromonas hydrophila was lower than that of the control group. The resistance against diseases increased with dietary KDF in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the use of acidifiers can be an efficient tool to achieve sustainable, economical and safe fish production. PMID:26199753

  6. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security; conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the

  7. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  8. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...://www.fas.usda.gov/excredits/FoodAid/FFP/FrameworkGuidance.asp . VI. Proposal Review Criteria A. Review... beneficiaries realistic for the proposed activities? (f) Are the beneficiaries and criteria for selection... Applications for the Food for Progress Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  9. The Effect of Fast-Food Availability on Obesity: An Analysis by Gender, Race, and Residential Location

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Dunn

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs an identification strategy based on county-level variation in the number of fast-food restaurants to investigate the effect of fast-food availability on weight outcomes by geographic location, gender, and race/ethnicity. The number of interstate exits in the county of residence is employed as an instrument for restaurant location. Using the 2004--2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and self-collected data on the number of fast-food restaurants, I find that avail...

  10. The impact of increased food availability on reproduction in a long-distance migratory songbird: implications for environmental change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Seward

    Full Text Available Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe, a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management.

  11. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...... that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...

  12. Influence of the availability of commercial infant foods on feeding practices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morales, A; Larkin, F A

    1972-03-01

    A study was conducted into infant feeding regimens among 150 Jamaican women. The target population was limited to women living in the Kingston-St. Andrews Corporate area and attending hospitals or clinics where nutrition education was offered. Subjects were questioned as to obstetric history, socio-economic status, sources of information, and infant feeding habits. Nearly all infants in the study were weaned by 1 year of age with a nearly equal number being weaned in the 1st 6 months and the 2nd 6 months. Mothers who never breast fed their infants or weaned early did so for unavoidable reasons, e.g., maternal illness, infant prematurity or hospitalization, or insufficient milk. Most weaning due to these reasons occurred within the 1st 6 months of life. More than 1/2 of the women did not have clearly defined physiological reasons for discontinuing breast feeding. Income and place of residence were not related to the decision to cease breast feeding. Women attending private clinics and receiving information on infant nutrition from health personnel tended to breast feed for a longer time. 18 commercial infant food products were available. 15 of these were a form of processed cow's milk requiring a measure of skill in preparing. The rest were goat's milk, cow's milk, or gruel. 40% of the women in the study used more than 1 of these commercial preparations, indicating a general preference for formulas rather than for a particular brand name. There is a question as to whether the wide availability of these products actually influenced women's decisions to discontinue breast feeding.

  13. Microbial quality of food available to populations of differing socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro, Marlen E; Anandan, Shivanthi; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2010-05-01

    Low SES has been shown to be linked to poorer-quality diets, decreased consumption of fresh produce, and an increased reliance on small retail stores. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a difference in the microbial quality and potential safety of food available to low-SES versus high-SES populations at the retail level. Aerobic plate count (APC); yeast and mold counts (Y & M); and total coliforms were determined in ready-to-eat (RTE) greens, pre-cut watermelon, broccoli, strawberries, cucumbers, milk, and orange juice and compared among products purchased in stores in low- versus those purchased in high-SES neighborhoods between June 2005 and September 2006. APC, fecal coliforms, and E. coli in ground beef and the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken were also compared. Results showed higher microbial loads on produce from markets in low-SES areas. Significant differences observed included (1) APC and Y&M in RTE greens, (2) APC and Y&M in strawberries, and (3) YMCs in cucumbers. No difference was detected in the level of pathogens in raw meat and poultry; however, the APC in ground beef available in high-SES markets was significantly higher compared with that found in low-SES markets. The results presented here indicate that populations of low SES may be more likely to experience produce of poorer microbial quality, which may have an impact on both the appeal and potential safety of the produce. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  15. Associations between childhood obesity and the availability of food outlets in the local environment: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura J; Joyce, Sarah; Carter, Shannon; Yun, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Examine whether individual-level childhood obesity is related to residential availability of fast food and healthy food outlets. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Perth, Western Australia. A total of 1850 children aged 5 to 15 years in 2005-2010 who participated in the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey. Geographical Information Systems were used to calculate a range of measures of fast food and healthy food outlet access and availability. For example, distance to nearest and access and density measures within 800 m and 3 km of each child's residence were all tested. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviors. An increasing number of healthy food outlets within 800 m of a child's home was associated with a significantly reduced risk of being overweight/obese in all models tested. After controlling for age, physical activity, time spent sedentary, weekly takeaway consumption, area disadvantage, and count of fast food outlets, each additional healthy food outlet within 800 m was associated with a 20% decrease in the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese (odds ratio: .800, 95% confidence intervals: .686-.933). The local food environment around children's homes has an independent effect on child weight status. These findings highlight the importance of the built environment as a potential contributor towards child health, which should be considered when developing community health promotion programs.

  16. Effects of fluctuating temperature and food availability on reproduction and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Pearson, Phillip; Dawson, John; Allison, David B; Gohlke, Julia M

    2016-12-15

    Experimental studies on energetics and aging often remove two major factors that in part regulate the energy budget in a normal healthy individual: reproduction and fluctuating environmental conditions that challenge homeostasis. Here we use the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex to evaluate the role of a fluctuating thermal environment on both reproduction and lifespan across six food concentrations. We test the hypotheses that (1) caloric restriction extends lifespan; (2) maximal reproduction will come with a cost of shortened lifespan; and (3) at a given food concentration, relative to a metabolically equivalent constant temperature environment a diel fluctuating thermal environment will alter the allocation of energy to reproduction and lifespan to maintain homeostasis. We did not identify a level of food concentration that extended lifespan in response to caloric restriction, and we found no cost of reproduction in terms of lifespan. Rather, the individuals at the highest food levels generally had the highest reproductive output and the longest lifespans, the individuals at the intermediate food level decreased reproduction and maintained lifespan, and the individuals at the three lower food concentrations had a decrease in reproduction and lifespan as would be predicted with increasing levels of starvation. Fluctuating temperature had no effect on lifespan at any food concentration, but delayed time to reproductive maturity and decreased early reproductive output at all food concentrations. This suggests that a fluctuating temperature regimen activates molecular pathways that alter energy allocation. The costs of fluctuating temperature on reproduction were not consistent across the lifespan. Statistical interactions for age of peak reproduction and lifetime fecundity suggest that senescence of the reproductive system may vary between temperature regimens at the different food concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of the effect of food irradiation on total dietary vitamin availability as compared with dietary allowances: study for Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research

  18. The impact of increased food availability on reproduction in a long-distance migratory songbird: implications for environmental change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Adam M; Beale, Colin M; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T Hefin; Thomas, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe), a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management.

  19. Highly accurate prediction of food challenge outcome using routinely available clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Daly, Deirdre; Cullinane, Claire; Stenke, Emily; Keeton, Diane; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Mich; Roberts, Graham C; Lucas, Jane; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-03-01

    Serum specific IgE or skin prick tests are less useful at levels below accepted decision points. We sought to develop and validate a model to predict food challenge outcome by using routinely collected data in a diverse sample of children considered suitable for food challenge. The proto-algorithm was generated by using a limited data set from 1 service (phase 1). We retrospectively applied, evaluated, and modified the initial model by using an extended data set in another center (phase 2). Finally, we prospectively validated the model in a blind study in a further group of children undergoing food challenge for peanut, milk, or egg in the second center (phase 3). Allergen-specific models were developed for peanut, egg, and milk. Phase 1 (N = 429) identified 5 clinical factors associated with diagnosis of food allergy by food challenge. In phase 2 (N = 289), we examined the predictive ability of 6 clinical factors: skin prick test, serum specific IgE, total IgE minus serum specific IgE, symptoms, sex, and age. In phase 3 (N = 70), 97% of cases were accurately predicted as positive and 94% as negative. Our model showed an advantage in clinical prediction compared with serum specific IgE only, skin prick test only, and serum specific IgE and skin prick test (92% accuracy vs 57%, and 81%, respectively). Our findings have implications for the improved delivery of food allergy-related health care, enhanced food allergy-related quality of life, and economized use of health service resources by decreasing the number of food challenges performed. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The relative price of healthy and less healthy foods available in Australian school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-04-12

    School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.

  1. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources.

  2. Determinants of seasonal changes in availability of food patches for elephants (Loxodonta africana in a semi-arid African savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Clegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna. Density of food patches changed seasonally because plant life-forms required different volumes of soil water to produce green forage; and woody plants and forbs responded to long-term changes in soil moisture, while grasses responded to short-term moisture pulses. Soil texture, structure of woody vegetation and fire added further complexity by altering the soil water thresholds required for production of green forage. Interpolating between regularly-timed, ground-based measurements of food density by using modelled soil water as the predictor in regression equations may be a feasible method of quantifying food available to elephants in complex savanna environments.

  3. Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Dowdy, Diane; Evans, Alexandra; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Wang, Suojin; Miao, Jingang

    2016-02-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was implemented to improve the health of pregnant women and children of low socioeconomic status. In 2009, the program was revised to provide a wider variety of healthy food choices (eg, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain items). The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the revised WIC Nutrition Program's food allocation package on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods in WIC-authorized grocery stores in Texas; and (2) how the impact of the policy change differed by store types and between rural and urban regions. WIC-approved stores (n=105) across Texas were assessed using a validated instrument (88 items). Pre- (June-September 2009) and post-new WIC package implementation (June-September 2012) audits were conducted. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare the differences between pre- and post-implementation audits on shelf width and number of varieties (ie, availability), visibility (ie, accessibility), and inflation-adjusted price (ie, affordability). Across the 105 stores, post-implementation audits showed increased availability in terms of shelf space for most key healthy food options, including fruit (PFood visibility increased for fresh juices (Pfoods such as fruits (Pbread (Pbread (Pfood availability and visibility were observed in stores of different types and in different locations, although smaller or fewer effects were noted in small stores and stores in rural regions. Implementation of the revised WIC food package has generally improved availability and accessibility, but not affordability, of healthy foods in WIC-authorized stores in Texas. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of the revised program on healthy food option purchases and consumption patterns among Texas WIC participants. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  5. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  6. Sharing, Trading, Stealing: Exploring the Role of Peers in Shaping Foods Available at Lunchtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major concern in the United States, warranting a comprehensive approach. However, the majority of research studies continue to neglect the influence of peers on dietary behaviors. The present descriptive study aimed to provide information about the ways peers directly shape dietary choices via food exchanges…

  7. Effects of Food Availability on Space and Refuge Use by a Neotropical Scatterhoarding Rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsens, W.J.; Suselbeek, L.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Winkelhagen, A.J.S.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animals that rely on refuges for safety can theoretically increase their foraging area without simultaneously increasing predation risk and travel costs by using more refuges. The key prediction of this theory, a negative correlation between food abundance, home range size and the number of refuges

  8. California scrub-jays reduce visual cues available to potential pilferers by matching food colour to caching substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura A; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-07-01

    Some animals hide food to consume later; however, these caches are susceptible to theft by conspecifics and heterospecifics. Caching animals can use protective strategies to minimize sensory cues available to potential pilferers, such as caching in shaded areas and in quiet substrate. Background matching (where object patterning matches the visual background) is commonly seen in prey animals to reduce conspicuousness, and caching animals may also use this tactic to hide caches, for example, by hiding coloured food in a similar coloured substrate. We tested whether California scrub-jays ( Aphelocoma californica ) camouflage their food in this way by offering them caching substrates that either matched or did not match the colour of food available for caching. We also determined whether this caching behaviour was sensitive to social context by allowing the birds to cache when a conspecific potential pilferer could be both heard and seen (acoustic and visual cues present), or unseen (acoustic cues only). When caching events could be both heard and seen by a potential pilferer, birds cached randomly in matching and non-matching substrates. However, they preferentially hid food in the substrate that matched the food colour when only acoustic cues were present. This is a novel cache protection strategy that also appears to be sensitive to social context. We conclude that studies of cache protection strategies should consider the perceptual capabilities of the cacher and potential pilferers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Can the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) persist in an acidified landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cheryl A; Beier, Colin M.; Ducey, Peter K; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Hardwood forests of eastern North America have experienced decades of acidic deposition, leading to soil acidification where base cation supply was insufficient to neutralize acid inputs. Negative impacts of soil acidity on amphibians include disrupted embryonic development, lower growth rates, and habitat loss. However, some amphibians exhibit intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, suggesting the potential for local adaptation in areas where soils are naturally acidic. The eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a highly abundant top predator of the northern hardwood forest floor. Early research found that P. cinereus was sensitive to acidic soils, avoiding substrates with pH habitats. However, recent studies have documented P. cinereus populations in lower pH conditions than previously observed, suggesting some populations may persist in acidic conditions. Here, we evaluated relationships between organic horizon soil pH and P. cinereus abundance, adult health (body size and condition), and microhabitat selection, based on surveys of 34 hardwood forests in northeastern United States that encompass a regional soil pH gradient. We found no associations between soil pH and P. cinereus abundance or health, and observed that this salamander used substrates with pH similar to that available, suggesting that pH does not mediate their fine-scale distributions. The strongest negative predictor of P. cinereus abundance was the presence of dusky salamanders (Desmognathus spp.), which were most abundant in the western Adirondacks. Our results indicate that P. cinereus occupies a wider range of soil pH than has been previously thought, which has implications for their functional role in forest food webs and nutrient cycles in acid-impaired ecosystems. Tolerance of P. cinereus for more acidic habitats, including anthropogenically acidified forests, may be due to local adaptation in reproductively isolated populations and/or generalist

  10. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Anguita

    Full Text Available The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs, our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05. Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics.

  11. Effects of fluctuating temperature and food availability on reproduction and lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Pearson, Phillip; Dawson, John; Allison, David B.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies on energetics and aging often remove two major factors that in part regulate the energy budget in a normal healthy individual: reproduction and fluctuating environmental conditions that challenge homeostasis. Here we use the cyclical parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex to evaluate the role of a fluctuating thermal environment on both reproduction and lifespan across six food concentrations. We test the hypotheses that (1) caloric restriction extends lifespan; (2) maximal reprod...

  12. A commercially available immunoglobulin E-based test for food allergy gives inconsistent results in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; De Spiegeleer, A; Liu, D J X; Lefère, L; van Doorn, D A; Hesta, M

    2016-01-01

    Commercial immunoglobulin E (IgE)-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in man and other species, but not critically evaluated in equids. Therefore, a commercially available IgE-based test for horses was evaluated. To evaluate the consistency of the results obtained with a commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy diagnosis in ponies (Phase I) and to subject ponies to a provocation trial with the presumed allergens (Phase II). Allergen screening followed by experimental food provocation trials in healthy ponies. Blood samples of 17 healthy Shetland ponies were taken at 2 different time points, sent blinded to a commercial laboratory for screening of common food allergens and the results were evaluated for consistency (Phase I). Ponies that were positive for food allergens were consecutively challenged orally with each allergen separately for 14 days (Phase II). A washout period of one week was applied in ponies with multiple positive results. Clinical parameters and serum amyloid A were monitored during the provocation trial. Only 7/17 ponies were negative on the IgE-based test at the 2 time points, 3 had positive results twice but only one tested positive twice for the same food allergen. No abnormalities were noted during the provocation trials. This study demonstrated that this IgE-based test is not a reliable screening tool for food allergy in healthy equids. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Cyanogenic glycosides in plant-based foods available in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Peter; Saunders, Darren; Goodman, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides occur in a wide range of plant species. The potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide, which may result in acute cyanide poisoning and has also been implicated in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. One hundred retail foods were sampled and analysed for the presence of total hydrocyanic acid using an acid hydrolysis-isonicotinic/barbituric acid colourimetric method. Food samples included cassava, bamboo shoots, almonds and almond products, pome fruit products, flaxseed/linseed, stone fruit products, lima beans, and various seeds and miscellaneous products, including taro leaves, passion fruit, spinach and canned stuffed vine leaves. The concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid (the hydrocyanic acid equivalents of all cyanogenic compounds) found were consistent with or lower than concentrations reported in the scientific literature. Linseed/flaxseed contained the highest concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid of any of the analysed foods (91-178 mg kg(-1)). Linseed-containing breads were found to contain total hydrocyanic acid at concentrations expected from their linseed content, indicating little impact of processing on the total hydrocyanic acid content. Simulation modelling was used to assess the risk due to the total hydrocyanic acid in fruit juice and linseed-containing bread. 

  14. Effects of exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient on Cd release in acidified contaminated brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Rong, Yong; Mao, Li; Gao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Dong, Zhicheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking acidified Cd contaminated brown soil in Yantai as the research object, based on different exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.5%, 2% and 5%), indoor simulation experiments of Cd release were carried out after field investigation. Results showed that there was a significantly positive relation (r>0.90) between Cd release concentration/amount/ratio and exogenous salt (NaCl). Besides, the more exogenous salt (NaCl) was added; maximum release concentration/amount of Cd appeared the earlier. It was found that exogenous salt (NaCl) addition could obviously promote Cd release from acidified Cd contaminated brown soil. It was believed that this could be mainly due to the cation exchange between Cd2+ and Na+, together with the dissociation and/or complexation between Cl- and Cd2+. In addition, available adsorption sites reduction by exchange base in soil causing Cd changed from solid state to soil solution was also a probable reason.

  15. Effects of acidified drinking water on the teeth of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of hydrochloric acid used as hygienic measure in drinking water (pH2) on teeth of conventional and germfree laboratory mice. Four groups of 10 animals each were used. Group 1 : Conventional animals (tap water) Group 2 : Conventional animals (tap water, acidified ) Group 3 : Germfree animals (tap water, sterilized ) Group 4 : Germfree animals (tap water , acidified, sterilized ) The application of acidified drinking ...

  16. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  17. Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food Made From Locally Available Food Ingredients Is Well Accepted by Children Having Severe Acute Malnutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Sarker, Shafiqul A; Zeilani, Mamane; Clemens, John David

    2018-03-01

    With a prevalence of 3.1%, approximately, 450 000 children in Bangladesh are having severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There is currently no national community-based program run by government to take care of these children, one of the reasons being lack of access to ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). To develop RUTF using locally available food ingredients and test its acceptability. A checklist was prepared for all food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for developing a RUTF. Linear programming was used to identify the combinations of nutrients that would result in an ideal RUTF. To test the acceptability of 2 local RUTFs compared to the prototype RUTF, Plumpy'Nut, a clinical trial with a crossover design was conducted among 30 children in the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The acceptability was determined by using the mean proportion of offered food consumed by the children themselves. Two RUTFs were developed, one based on chickpea and the other on rice-lentils. The total energy content of 100 g of chickpea and rice-lentil-based RUTF were 537.4 and 534.5 kcal, protein 12.9 and 13.5 g, and fat 31.8 and 31.1 g, respectively, without any significant difference among the group. On an average, 85.7% of the offered RUTF amount was consumed by the children in 3 different RUTF groups which implies that all types of RUTF were well accepted by the children. Ready-to-use therapeutic foods were developed using locally available food ingredients-rice, lentil, and chickpeas. Chickpea-based and rice-lentil-based RUTF were well accepted by children with SAM.

  18. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics.

  19. Diet and food availability: implications for foraging and dispersal of Prince of Wales northern flying squirrels across managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Flaherty; Merav Ben-David; Winston P. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Where dispersal is energetically expensive, feeding and food availability can influence dispersal success. The endemic Prince of Wales northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons) inhabits a landscape mosaic of old-growth, second-growth, and clearcut stands, with the latter two representing energetically expensive habitats. We...

  20. Effects of territory quality, food availability and sibling competition on the fledging success of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van der Velde, Marco

    We investigated the fledging probability of oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, chicks as a function of hatching order, brood size, territory quality and food availability. Sibling dominance was related to the hatching order in both low- ('leapfrogs') and high-quality ('residents') territories.

  1. A commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy gives inconsistent results in healthy ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, S; De Spiegeleer, A; Liu, D J X; Lefère, L; van Doorn, D A; Hesta, M

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Commercial IgE-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in humans and other species, but not critically evaluated in equines. Therefore, a

  2. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  3. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural intensification and the adequacy of intensification options given the rapid population growth. We quantify trade-offs between levels of yield gap closure, food availability and forest and woodland conservation under different scenarios. Each scenario is made up of a combination of variants of four parameters i.e. (1) climate change based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs); (2) population growth based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs); (3) cropland expansion with varying degrees of deforestation; and (4) different degrees of yield gap closure. We carry out these analyses for three major food crops, i.e. maize, cassava and yam, in Benin. Our analyses show that in most of the scenarios, the required levels of yield gap closures required to maintain the current levels of food availability can be achieved by 2050 by maintaining the average rate of yield increases recorded over the past two and half decades in addition to the current cropping intensity. However, yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to achieve the required levels of yield gap closures by 2100. Our analyses also show that without the stated levels of yield gap closure, the areas under maize, cassava and yam cultivation will have to increase by 95%, 102% and 250% respectively in order to maintain the current levels of per capita food availability. Our study shows that food security outcomes and forest and woodland conservation goals in Benin and likely the larger SSA region are inextricably linked together and require holistic management strategies that considers trade-offs and co-benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-08-25

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, phealthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. 

  5. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  6. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  7. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Individual and Neighborhood Factors with Home Food Availability: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weiwen; Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the important role of the home food environment in an individual's dietary intake. This study examined the associations of individual and neighborhood-level factors with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the home using a nationally representative sample from the 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). A cross-sectional study design was used with NHANES merged with the 2000 census data. Food availability was measured through self-report questionnaire regarding the frequency of foods or drinks available in the home. The analysis included 8,975 participants aged 19 to 65 years. Associations of individual and neighborhood factors with home food availability (always or most of the time available) were assessed using logistic regression modeling accounting for NHANES' complex survey design and weights. Individual-level and neighborhood-level factors were simultaneously included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was positively associated with the availability of dark green vegetables (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% CI=1.00 to 1.13), fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.16; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.25), and salty snacks (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.04 to 1.20) in the home. College graduates were more likely to have fruits (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.48 to 2.60), vegetables (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.16 to 1.88), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.55 to 2.12) and less likely to have salty snacks (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.63 to 0.95) and sugary drinks (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.57) available compared with non-college graduates. Tract socioeconomic status (SES) scores were positively associated with fruit (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.02 to 1.29), vegetable (OR=1.14; 95% CI=1.03 to 1.26), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.10 to 1.42) availability. Urban residents were associated with greater availability of fruits (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.05 to 2.08) and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.02 to 1

  10. Complex responses of intertidal molluscan embryos to a warming and acidifying ocean in the presence of UV radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Davis

    Full Text Available Climate change and ocean acidification will expose marine organisms to synchronous multiple stressors, with early life stages being potentially most vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. We simultaneously exposed encapsulated molluscan embryos to three abiotic stressors-acidified conditions, elevated temperate, and solar UV radiation in large outdoor water tables in a multifactorial design. Solar UV radiation was modified with plastic filters, while levels of the other factors reflected IPCC predictions for near-future change. We quantified mortality and the rate of embryonic development for a mid-shore littorinid, Bembicium nanum, and low-shore opisthobranch, Dolabrifera brazieri. Outcomes were consistent for these model species with embryos faring significantly better at 26°C than 22°C. Mortality sharply increased at the lowest temperature (22°C and lowest pH (7.6 examined, producing a significant interaction. Under these conditions mortality approached 100% for each species, representing a 2- to 4-fold increase in mortality relative to warm (26°C non-acidified conditions. Predictably, development was more rapid at the highest temperature but this again interacted with acidified conditions. Development was slowed under acidified conditions at the lowest temperature. The presence of UV radiation had minimal impact on the outcomes, only slowing development for the littorinid and not interacting with the other factors. Our findings suggest that a warming ocean, at least to a threshold, may compensate for the effects of decreasing pH for some species. It also appears that stressors will interact in complex and unpredictable ways in a changing climate.

  11. Movement ecology: size-specific behavioral response of an invasive snail to food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sunny B; Gilliam, James F

    2008-07-01

    Immigration, emigration, migration, and redistribution describe processes that involve movement of individuals. These movements are an essential part of contemporary ecological models, and understanding how movement is affected by biotic and abiotic factors is important for effectively modeling ecological processes that depend on movement. We asked how phenotypic heterogeneity (body size) and environmental heterogeneity (food resource level) affect the movement behavior of an aquatic snail (Tarebia granifera), and whether including these phenotypic and environmental effects improves advection-diffusion models of movement. We postulated various elaborations of the basic advection diffusion model as a priori working hypotheses. To test our hypotheses we measured individual snail movements in experimental streams at high- and low-food resource treatments. Using these experimental movement data, we examined the dependency of model selection on resource level and body size using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). At low resources, large individuals moved faster than small individuals, producing a platykurtic movement distribution; including size dependency in the model improved model performance. In stark contrast, at high resources, individuals moved upstream together as a wave, and body size differences largely disappeared. The model selection exercise indicated that population heterogeneity is best described by the advection component of movement for this species, because the top-ranked model included size dependency in advection, but not diffusion. Also, all probable models included resource dependency. Thus population and environmental heterogeneities both influence individual movement behaviors and the population-level distribution kernels, and their interaction may drive variation in movement behaviors in terms of both advection rates and diffusion rates. A behaviorally informed modeling framework will integrate the sentient response of individuals in terms of

  12. Effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of Calanus hyperboreus from Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Vestergaard; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus were investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland, from winter to spring 2009. The abundance of females in the near bottom layer and the egg production of C. hyperboreus prior...... reproduction, the females migrated to the surface layer to exploit the bloom and refill their lipid stores. In 2 laboratory experiments, initiated before and during the spring bloom, mature females were kept with and without food at 5 different temperatures ranging from 0 to 10°C and the fecal pellet and egg...... production were monitored. Food had a clear effect on fecal pellet production but no effect on egg production, while temperature did not have an effect on egg or fecal pellet production in any of the experiments. Analyses of carbon and lipid content of the females before and after the experiments did...

  13. Study on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk and meat/fish based baby food available in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Serena; Albrizio, Stefania; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Mercogliano, Raffaelina

    2017-10-01

    The study compared the profile of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, frequently occurred in food, in milk (N = 22) and meat/fish based (N = 18) baby foods available on the Italian market. PAH total levels, markers (Regulation EC/835/2011) and carcinogenic PAHs were determined by high- performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The average of total PAHs was 52.25 μg kg -1 in milk and 11.82 μg kg -1 in meat/fish based baby foods. The levels of PAH markers were higher than the permissible EU limits of 1 μg kg -1 in 18.2% and 77.7% milk, and 5.6% and 44.4% meat/fish based baby foods. Milk based samples showed significant higher values (P carcinogenic and possible carcinogenic hydrocarbons than meat/fish based products. The Margins of Exposure (MOE) value of milk based baby food samples indicated a potential concern for consumer health. Monitoring programs, and good agriculture and manufacture practices should be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmeyer, Joline R. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: joline_widmeyer@alumni.sfu.ca; Bendell-Young, Leah I. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with {sup 109}Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [{sup 109}Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in {sup 109}Cd AE by M. trossulus.

  15. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmeyer, Joline R.; Bendell-Young, Leah I.

    2007-01-01

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with 109 Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [ 109 Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in 109 Cd AE by M. trossulus

  16. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  17. Administration of acidified drinking water to finishing pigs in order to prevent Salmonella infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der P.J.; Schie, van F.W.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Engel, B.; Heijden, van der H.; Hunneman, W.A.; Tielen, M.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether acidified drinking water, with two millilitres of an acid mixture per litre, was able to reduce the number of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds. In each compartment, half of the pens were supplied with acidified water and the other pens served as

  18. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003?2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hosler, Akiko S.; Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137)....

  19. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  20. Optimizing Regional Food and Energy Production under Limited Water Availability through Integrated Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlian Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, human activity is approaching planetary boundaries. In northwest China, in particular, the coal industry and agriculture are competing for key limited inputs of land and water. In this situation, the traditional approach to planning the development of each sector independently fails to deliver sustainable solutions, as solutions made in sectorial ‘silos’ are often suboptimal for the entire economy. We propose a spatially detailed cost-minimizing model for coal and agricultural production in a region under constraints on land and water availability. We apply the model to the case study of Shanxi province, China. We show how such an integrated optimization, which takes maximum advantage of the spatial heterogeneity in resource abundance, could help resolve the conflicts around the water–food–energy (WFE nexus and assist in its management. We quantify the production-possibility frontiers under different water-availability scenarios and demonstrate that in water-scarce regions, like Shanxi, the production capacity and corresponding production solutions are highly sensitive to water constraints. The shadow prices estimated in the model could be the basis for intelligent differentiated water pricing, not only to enable the water-resource transfer between agriculture and the coal industry, and across regions, but also to achieve cost-effective WFE management.

  1. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  2. Predicting recovery of acidified freshwaters in Europe and Canada: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Ferrier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The RECOVER: 2010 project was designed to assess the current and future anthropogenic pressures on sensitive European freshwater ecosystems. This pan–European assessment utilised a standardised predictive modelling approach to evaluate the degree of compliance with respect to the restoration of acidified waters by 2016, as specified under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, and evaluated the environmental benefits of proposed UN-ECE protocols on emissions control. Between 1970 and 2000, observations and model simulations show a significant decline in acidic surface water in all regions of Europe. This demonstrated the success of policies aimed at reducing emission of acidifying compounds. The nature and extent of future regional recovery from acidification is, however, dependent upon the historical pattern of deposition, regional ecosystem characteristics and the role of confounding factors, which may delay the onset of recovery or the magnitude of response. Model predictions to 2010 and beyond emphasise the continued benefit of currently proposed reductions, as reflected by the degree of recovery of freshwater ecosystems. A key component was to link such hydrochemical recovery with ecological response, and the project aimed to evaluate this against current WFD criteria of “good status' and “reference conditions'. The RECOVER: 2010 project research has also played a major role in defining the dynamic modelling outputs which will be required to support the review of the Gothenburg Protocol within the work of the UN-ECE CLRTAP Working Group on Effects (WGE, and model outputs have been made available to a range of national agencies throughout Europe. Keyword: recovery, acidification, modelling, policy, good status, reference conditions

  3. Invasive Egg Predators and Food Availability Interactively Affect Maternal Investment in Egg Chemical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species commonly predate the offspring of native species and eggs are the life stage most vulnerable to this predation. In many species with no maternal care, females can alter the phenotype of eggs to protect them, for instance through chemical defense. In ladybirds egg alkaloids deter predators, including invasive predatory species of ladybirds, but conversely may attract cannibals who benefit from the consumption of eggs with higher alkaloid levels. Invasive predators tend to be more abundant where resources are also abundant, but in high resource environments the maternal fitness benefits of sibling cannibalism are low. Consequently this presents a conflict for female ladybirds between the different factors that influence egg alkaloid level, as protecting her eggs from predators might come with the cost of inadvertently encouraging within-clutch cannibalism under circumstances where it is not beneficial. We investigated how the ladybird Adalia bipunctata addresses this trade-off experimentally, by measuring the quantity of alkaloids in eggs laid by ladybirds in environments that differed in levels of resource availability and perceived predation risk from an invasive predator Harmonia axyridis. Females did lay eggs with higher egg alkaloid levels under poor resource conditions, but only when predator cues were absent. The resulting negative correlation between egg number and egg alkaloid level under poor resource conditions indicates a trade-off between these two attributes of maternal investment, mediated by female response to offspring predation risk. This implies that selection pressures on mothers to adaptively adjust the risk of siblicide may outweigh the need to protect offspring from interspecific predation. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects are an important aspect of species' responses to invasive predators, and highlight the value of studying maternal effects in the context of the multifaceted environments in

  4. A Buffer Stock Model to Ensure Price Stabilization and Availability of Seasonal Staple Food under Free Trade Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The price volatility and scarcity have been became a great problem in the distribution system of seasonal staple food produced by agro industry. It has salient supply disparity during the harvest and planting season. This condition could cause disadvantages to the stakeholders such as producer, wholesaler, consumer, and government. This paper proposes a buffer stock model under free trade considerations to substitute quantitative restrictions and tariffs by indirect market intervention instrument. The instrument was developed through buffer stock scheme in accordance with warehouse receipt system (WRS and collateral management system. The public service institution for staple food buffer stock (BLUPP is proposed as wholesaler’s competitor with main responsibility to ensure price stabilization and availability of staple food. Multi criteria decision making is formulated as single objective a mixed integer non linear programming (MINLP. The result shows that the proposed model can be applied to solve the distribution problem and can give more promising outcome than its counterpart, the direct market intervention instrument.

  5. Effects of 4-nonylphenol, fish predation and food availability on survival and life history traits of Daphnia magna straus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beklioglu, Meryem; Banu Akkas, S; Elif Ozcan, H; Bezirci, Gizem; Togan, Inci

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compound effect of environmentally relevant 4-nonylphenol (NP) concentrations and natural stressors-namely fish predation and food availability-on Daphnia magna, which were exposed to four NP concentrations (0, 1, 5 and 10 microg l(-1)) under optimum or low food concentrations (1.00 and 0.075 mg C l(-1), respectively) in water (un)conditioned by a fish predator (Alburnus alburnus). A(n) "environmentally relevant" and "no observable effect" concentration (NOEC) of NP (10 microg l(-1)) resulted in a significant reduction (P ecosystems. The deterioration of the life-history traits-namely, NP-induced delay in the age at first reproduction (P ecosystems. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking into account environmentally realistic conditions while investigating the effects of NOEC levels of toxicants on non-target aquatic species.

  6. Early nutrition transition in Haiti: linking food purchasing and availability to overweight status in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.

  7. Study of essential and non essential elements in cereal - based weaning foods for infants commercially available on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawol, S.

    2013-07-01

    Cereal-based weaning foods, which abound on the Ghanaian markets are nutritionally vital in the growth and developments of infants. Recent report in scientific literature however indicates that rice and other cereals used in the manufacturing of the weaning foods contribute significantly to the intake of arsenic (As) cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by infants. In view of this, frequent monitoring of the cereal -based weaning foods has become imperative. The study assessed the beneficial health effects and risks posed by consumption of cereal - based weaning foods commercially available on the Ghanaian market with respect to the essential elements (Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, V and Zn) and, non-essential, potentially toxic elements (As, Br, Hg, Pb,and Sn). Twenty (20) different brands of weaning foods were purchased from various retail outlets in Accra and used for the study. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry [with flame atomisation (FAAS) and hydride generation (HGAAS)] were used in analysing the samples. Determination of Pb using FAAS was done following its extraction with dithizone. The analytical methods were validated using certified reference materials NIST 1568a (Rice flour) and NIST 1547 (Peach leaves). The levels (μg/g, in ranges) obtained for the elements were: As (<0.025), Br (<0.17-402), Ca (405-2002), Cl (158-5521), and Cr (<0.03-1.23). Others are Cu(0.83-55.80), Fe (1.07-11.78), Hg (<0.025), and K (49-3845) Mg (20-280) and Mn (0.84-38.94). The rest include: Na (13-1588), Pb (0.025-0.093), Se (0.145-0.317), Sn (35.8-91.8), V (<0.01-0.990) and Zn (0.50-7.17). The daily intakes of the essential elements were also estimated, and generally found to be lower than recommended values set either by the FAO/WHO, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the US Food and Nutrition Board, or the Joint Societies for Nutrition of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The estimated intake levels of the non

  8. Relationship of a Special Acidified Milk Protein Drink with Cognitive Performance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Saito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A previous in vivo study with rats suggested that a special milk protein drink manufactured using an acidification procedure to suppress the aggregation of milk proteins was absorbed quickly after feeding. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measure crossover study to investigate the short-term effects on cognitive performance in 29 healthy young adult men after they consumed this drink in the morning. After an overnight fast, subjects were tested for performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin serial arithmetic test and the Stroop test as well as for subjective feeling, body temperature, and heart rate variability before and after consumption of either the acidified milk protein drink or an isoenergetic placebo drink. Subjects showed a significant improvement in performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin test, the primary outcome measured, when they consumed the acidified milk protein drink compared with the placebo control condition. In addition, consumption of the acidified milk protein drink, compared with the placebo control, was associated with increases in vagally-mediated heart rate variability indices which, from recent theoretical perspectives, may reflect a higher ability to modulate cognitive and behavioral processes. There was no significant difference in subjective feelings and body temperature between the test drink conditions. These data suggest that consumption of the acidified milk protein drink may improve cognitive performance, with possible involvement of physiological systems that regulate cognition and behavior.

  9. Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcano population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of light, food availability and temperature stress on the function of photosystem II and photosystem I of coral symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O Hoogenboom

    Full Text Available Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to "bleach," lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate.This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress.Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host.

  11. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    2016-02-01

    To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket food and non-alcoholic beverages. Products were classified according to level of industrial processing (minimally, culinary and ultra-processed) and their NPSC. Packaged foods available in four major supermarkets in Auckland, New Zealand. Packaged supermarket food products for the years 2011 and 2013. The majority (84% in 2011 and 83% in 2013) of packaged foods were classified as ultra-processed. A significant positive association was found between the level of industrial processing and NPSC, i.e., ultra-processed foods had a worse nutrient profile (NPSC=11.63) than culinary processed foods (NPSC=7.95), which in turn had a worse nutrient profile than minimally processed foods (NPSC=3.27), Pprice measures and level of processing. The study observed many variations of virtually the same product. The ten largest food manufacturers produced 35% of all packaged foods available. In New Zealand supermarkets, ultra-processed foods comprise the largest proportion of packaged foods and are less healthy than less processed foods. The lack of significant price difference between ultra- and less processed foods suggests ultra-processed foods might provide time-poor consumers with more value for money. These findings highlight the need to improve the supermarket food supply by reducing numbers of ultra-processed foods and by reformulating products to improve their nutritional profile.

  12. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, Craig R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type... program promotes education, child development, and food security for poor [[Page 45224

  14. Climate, Agroecology and Socio-Economic Determinants of Food Availability from Agriculture in Bangladesh, (1948–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impacts of prices, resources, technology, education, public investments, climatic variables and agroecology on Food Availability (FA from domestic agriculture in Bangladesh using a panel data of 17 regions covering a 61-year period (1948–2008 by utilising a dynamic agricultural supply response framework and Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM estimator. Results revealed that FA has increased at the rate of 1.32% p.a. with significant regional variations. Significant regional differences exist with respect to climatic variables, resources, Green Revolution (GR technology and education. Among the output prices, rise in the prices of rice, vegetables and pulses significantly increase FA whereas an increase in spice price significantly reduces FA. Among the input prices, a rise in labour wage significantly increases FA. FA increases significantly with an increase in GR technology expansion, as expected. Among the resources, increases in average farm size and labour stock per farm significantly increase FA, as expected. Among the climatic factors, a rise in annual minimum temperature significantly increases FA. FA is also significantly influenced by agroecological characteristics. FA is significantly higher in Karatoa floodplain and Atrai Basin but significantly lower in Ganges Tidal floodplain. Major disasters/events (i.e., the Liberation War of 1971 and 1988 flood also significantly reduced FA, as expected. The key conclusion is that, over the past six decades, Food Availability in Bangladesh was significantly shaped by changes in climate, agrocology, output prices, resources and GR technology diffusion.

  15. Comparison between the availability of iron in the presence of vitamin a and β-carotene in foods and medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Camargo Martini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the availability of iron in the presence of vitamin A as components of foods and in combinations with medicines. The iron available was measured in the presence of vitamin A in foods - common bean (B, beef liver (Li and carrot (C - and medicines - Fer-In-Sol® (Fer (Mead Johnson, Arovit® (A (Roche and Neutrofer® (N (Sigma Pharma - as well as in combinations of both. β-carotene, vitamin A, total iron, heme and non heme iron, percentage of dialyzable iron and amount of dialyzable iron was determined. Vitamin A and β-carotene had a positive effect on the percentage of iron dialysis. Carrot and liver had a better percentage of dialyzable iron than their respective medicine at similar concentrations. Therefore, we can conclude that there has been an influence of vitamin A over the dialysis of iron, being the mixtures containing liver the ones which achieved the highest concentrations of dialyzable iron, and also that, according to the amounts needed to obtain the daily recommended intake of iron, they are good for consumption.

  16. Adaptation of Locally Available Portion Sizes for Food Frequency Questionnaires in Nutritional Epidemiological Studies: How Much Difference does it Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Verma, Sonika; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Nikhil; Puri, Seema; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site), Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml), medium (320 ml) and large (600 ml). The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local) portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique.

  17. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs

  18. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  19. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of Three Lactobacillus plantarum Food Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a widespread member of the Lactobacillus genus and frequently isolated from spoiled acidified food products. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three L. plantarum food isolates.

  20. Draft whole-genome sequences of three Lactobacillus plantarum food isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Ramirez, Monica; Boekhorst, Jos; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a widespread member of the Lactobacillus genus and frequently isolated from spoiled acidified food products. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three L. plantarum food isolates.

  1. Metabolic physiology of the invasive clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: the interactive role of temperature, salinity, and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan A; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations.

  2. Social organization and food resources availability in primates: a socio-bioenergetic analysis of diet and disease hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, A M; Bramblett, C A; Quick, L B

    1977-03-01

    Data obtained during a field study of two species of nonhuman primates (Alouatta villosa and Ateles geoffroyi) living in the Tikal National Park in Guatemala are used to suggest an answer to the question: To what extent is the existence of a particular form of social organization (group size, structure, and composition) an indication of the amount of energy in the form of food resources available to animals in a particular habitat? Seven researchers working in teams spent 2,318 hours in the field, 1,145 hours of which were in contact with the monkeys. Comparisons of dietary data, estimated energy expenditures, and habitat productivity provide indications of the degree to which a habitat is capable of supporting the energy and other nutritional requirements of howler and spider monkeys living within the study area. These data suggest that much larger populations and different forms of social organizations can be supported by resources available within the habitat.

  3. If we offer it, will children buy it? Sales of healthy foods mirrored their availability in a community sport, commercial setting in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2015-04-01

    Community sports settings are often sources of unhealthy foods for children. Many managers in these settings are reluctant to increase availability of healthy food options because they perceive that healthy foods are not profitable. This study assessed the independent contribution of increased availability of healthy foods to their sales in a community sport, commercial context. Change in revenues per patron was also examined. The availability of healthy items was increased from 9.1% at baseline (35 days) to 25.0% during the intervention period (40 days), returning to 9.1% postintervention (6 days). Purchases of all patrons who bought foods/beverages (n=17,262 items sold) from two concessions at an outdoor community pool were assessed from baseline to postintervention. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in the proportion of healthy and unhealthy items sold, as well as in the proportion of total revenues per patron across periods. A trained observer also recorded qualitative observations pertaining to a subset of patrons' (n=221) dietary behaviors and activities. Healthy items represented 7.7%, 22.7%, and 9.8% of sales during the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods, respectively (ppatron did not differ by period. Food availability was an important environmental determinant of food purchasing behaviors in this community commercial context, given that sales of healthy foods closely mirrored their availability. Increased availability of healthy foods in community and commercial settings is important because concurrent changes within multiple environments will be required to improve children's dietary behaviors.

  4. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  5. An exploration and comparison of food and drink availability in homes in a sample of families of White and Pakistani origin within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Santorelli, Gillian; Hill, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the types and quantities of foods and drinks available in family homes supports the development of targeted intervention programmes for obesity prevention or management, or for overall diet improvement. In the UK, contemporary data on foods that are available within family homes are lacking. The present study aimed to explore home food and drink availability in UK homes. An exploratory study using researcher-conducted home food availability inventories, measuring all foods and drinks within the categories of fruits, vegetables, snack foods and beverages. Bradford, a town in the north of the UK. Opportunistic sample of mixed ethnicity families with infants approximately 18 months old from the Born in Bradford birth cohort. All homes had at least one type of fruit, vegetable and snack available. Fresh fruits commonly available were oranges, bananas, apples, satsumas and grapes. Commonly available fresh vegetables included potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and carrots. The single greatest non-fresh fruit available in homes was raisins. Non-fresh vegetables contributing the most were frozen mixed vegetables, tinned tomatoes and tinned peas. Ethnic differences were found for the availability of fresh fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages, which were both found in higher amounts in Pakistani homes compared with White homes. These data contribute to international data on availability and provide an insight into food availability within family homes in the UK. They have also supported a needs assessment of the development of a culturally specific obesity prevention intervention in which fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages are targeted.

  6. Intake rates, stochasticity, or onset of spring – what aspects of food availability affect spring migration patterns in Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Madsen, J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance bird migration consists of several flight episodes interrupted by a series of resting and refuelling periods on stopover sites. We assessed the role of food availability as the determinant of staging decisions focusing on the following three aspects of food availability: intake rates,

  7. 21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... processing of red meat, red meat parts, and organs as a component of a spray or in the processing of red meat... rinse prior to consumption. (2) The additive is used as a single application in processing facilities as... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR...

  8. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Done, Douglas H; Michaels, Isaac H; Guarasi, Diana C; Kammer, Jamie R

    2016-05-12

    Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P advertising in pharmacies and in low (advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry's self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state's tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and advertising.

  9. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P advertising in pharmacies and in low (advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and advertising. PMID:27172257

  10. Ultrastructural biomarkers in symbiotic algae reflect the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate food to the reef coral holobiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eRosset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reef building corals associated with symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae can access environmental nutrients from different sources, most significantly via the uptake of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the algal symbiont and heterotrophic feeding of the coral host. Climate change is expected to alter the nutrient environment in coral reefs with the potential to benefit or disturb coral reef resilience. At present, the relative importance of the two major nutrient sources is not well understood, making predictions of the responses of corals to changes in their nutrient environment difficult. Therefore, we have examined the long-term effects of the availability of different concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and of nutrients in particulate organic form on the model coral Euphyllia paradivisa. Coral and algal biomass showed a significantly stronger increase in response to elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients as compared to the supply with particulate food. Also, changes in the zooxanthellae ultrastructure, determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, were mostly driven by the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients under the present experimental conditions. The larger size of symbiont cells, their increased accumulation of lipid bodies, a higher number of starch granules and the fragmentation of their accumulation body could be established as reliable biomarkers of low availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the coral holobiont.

  11. Mapping the availability and accessibility of healthy food in rural and urban New Zealand--Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Williams, Margaret; Rush, Elaine; Crook, Nic; Forouhi, Nita G; Simmons, David

    2010-07-01

    Uptake of advice for lifestyle change for obesity and diabetes prevention requires access to affordable 'healthy' foods (high in fibre/low in sugar and fat). The present study aimed to examine the availability and accessibility of 'healthy' foods in rural and urban New Zealand. We identified and visited ('mapped') 1230 food outlets (473 urban, 757 rural) across the Waikato/Lakes areas (162 census areas within twelve regions) in New Zealand, where the Te Wai O Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy was underway. At each site, we assessed the availability of 'healthy' foods (e.g. wholemeal bread) and compared their cost with those of comparable 'regular' foods (e.g. white bread). Healthy foods were generally more available in urban than rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, 'healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' foods after adjusting for the population and income level of each area. For instance, there was an increasing price difference across bread, meat, poultry, with the highest difference for sugar substitutes. The weekly family cost of a 'healthy' food basket (without sugar) was 29.1% more expensive than the 'regular' basket ($NZ 176.72 v. $NZ 136.84). The difference between the 'healthy' and 'regular' basket was greater in urban ($NZ 49.18) than rural areas ($NZ 36.27) in adjusted analysis. 'Healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' choices in both urban and rural areas. Although urban areas had higher availability of 'healthy' foods, the cost of changing to a healthy diet in urban areas was also greater. Improvement in the food environment is needed to support people in adopting healthy food choices.

  12. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  13. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J. Carroll

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual-level health outcomes are shaped by environmental risk conditions. Norms figure prominently in socio-behavioural theories yet spatial variations in health-related norms have rarely been investigated as environmental risk conditions. This study assessed: 1 the contributions of local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and dietary behaviour to 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, accounting for food resource availability; and 2 whether associations between local descriptive norms and HbA1c were moderated by food resource availability. Methods HbA1c, representing cardiometabolic risk, was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Residential environmental exposures were defined using 1600 m participant-centred road-network buffers. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (proportion of residents with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 [n = 1890] or fruit intake of <2 serves/day [n = 1945], respectively were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Fast-food and healthful food resource availability (counts were extracted from a retail database. Separate sets of multilevel models included different predictors, one local descriptive norm and either fast-food or healthful food resource availability, with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status. Interactions between local descriptive norms and food resource availability were tested. Results HbA1c concentration rose over time. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake predicted greater rates of increase in HbA1c. Neither fast-food nor healthful food resource availability were associated with change in HbA1c. Greater healthful food resource availability reduced the rate of increase in HbA1c

  14. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-09-17

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.

  15. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient... the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program... through FAS's McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program...

  16. Interrelationship between food security status, home availability of variety of fruits and vegetables and their dietary intake among low-income pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, Danielle L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Dharod, Jigna M

    2018-03-01

    To (i) determine differences in the availability of variety of fruits and vegetables (F&V) at home by food security status; and (ii) examine the inter-associations between food security status, availability of variety of F&V at home and frequency of F&V intake, among low-income pregnant women. Design/Setting Participants were interviewed to collect food security status, home availability of variety of F&V and frequency of F&V intake. Bivariate analyses, multivariate regression and exploratory mediation analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 and the PROCESS macro. Low-income pregnant women (n 198) were interviewed if they were ≥18 years of age, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and spoke English or Spanish. Low/very low food security was found among 43 % of participants. Compared with fully food-secure participants, very low food-secure participants reported a lower variety of fruits (P=0·028) and vegetables (P=0·058) available at home. Mediation analyses indicated that through home availability of variety of fresh F&V, food security status was associated with the daily intake of F&V (indirect effect (95 % CI): fresh fruits, -0·039 (-0·074, -0·013); fresh vegetables, -0·048 (-0·083, -0·023)). As food security worsened, the available variety of fresh F&V decreased, which was associated with lower intake. The study highlights the interlink between food security, home food environment and diet quality, and the importance of nutrition education intervention to promote a healthy home food environment and improved pregnancy outcomes among low-income women.

  17. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level community intervention. The B’more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3, corner store (n = 50, carryout (n = 30, recreation center (n = 28, household (n = 365 levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA, ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript. For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  18. Comparison of the Availability and Cost of Foods Compatible With a Renal Diet Versus an Unrestricted Diet Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine M; Pencak, Julie A; Freedman, Darcy A; Huml, Anne M; León, Janeen B; Nemcek, Jeanette; Theurer, Jacqueline; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2017-05-01

    Hemodialysis patients' ability to access food that is both compatible with a renal diet and affordable is affected by the local food environment. Comparisons of the availability and cost of food items suitable for the renal diet versus a typical unrestricted diet were completed using the standard Nutrition Environment Measures Survey and a renal diet-modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Cross-sectional study. Twelve grocery stores in Northeast Ohio. Availability and cost of food items in 12 categories. The mean total number of food items available differed significantly (P ≤ .001) between the unrestricted diet (38.9 ± 4.5) and renal diet (32.2 ± 4.7). The mean total cost per serving did not differ significantly (P = 0.48) between the unrestricted diet ($5.67 ± 2.50) and renal diet ($5.76 ± 2.74). The availability of renal diet food items is significantly less than that of unrestricted diet food items, but there is no difference in the cost of items that are available in grocery stores. Further work is needed to determine how to improve the food environment for patients with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of metal pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing on Rhabdosargus haffara stock (family: Sparidae) in Timsah lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Sahar F; Abd El-Azim, Hoda; Belal, Aisha A

    2016-08-01

    The lakes' fisheries play an important role in Egyptian economy. In 1980s, they provided more than 50 % of harvested fish in Egypt but now their contribution to the Egypt fish production decreased to only 12.5 % in 2012. Lake Timsah, one of the Suez Canal lakes, faced many challenges that lead to serious changes in its water and fish quality, fish production, as well as the catch composition. The present work investigated the impact of pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing mortality on the haffara production in lake Timsah. The distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe) was detected seasonally in water and in muscles, gills, and livers of Rhabdosargus haffara, during 2012 through 2013. Fe and Zn were presented by high values in liver, while Pb and Ni in gills. Generally, the lowest concentrations of all metals were found in muscles. The recorded crustacean organisms (the main food of haffara) decreased from 12 species and 32,079 organisms⁄m(2) in 2012 to only 7 species and 7290 organisms⁄m(2) in 2013 while the amphipods completely disappeared. This serious change was due to the severe pollution in the lake. A logistic surplus production model was fitted to the catch per unit effort indices, to estimate the maximum sustainable yield and the optimum level of fishing effort. The results revealed that haffara stock at lake Timsah is overfished, and the estimated precautionary target reference points advised the reduction of fishing effort by about 30-50 %.

  20. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities.

  1. The provision of ultra-processed foods and their contribution to sodium availability in Australian long day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Woods, Julie; Grimes, Carley A; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2018-01-01

    To categorize and assess all foods, beverages and ingredients provided over one week at Australian long day care (LDC) centres according to four levels of food processing and to assess the contribution of Na from each level of processing. Cross-sectional. Menus for lunch, morning and afternoon snacks were collected from LDC centres. The level of food processing of all foods, beverages and ingredients was assessed utilizing a four-level food processing classification system: minimally processed (MP), processed culinary ingredients (PCI), processed (P) and ultra-processed (ULP). A total of thirty-five menus (lunch, n 35; snacks, n 70) provided to 1-5-year-old children were collected from seven LDC centres. Proportions of foodstuffs classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 54, 10, 15 and 21 %, respectively. All lunches were classified as MP. ULP foods accounted for 6 % of morning snacks; 41 % of afternoon snacks. Mean daily amount of Na provided per child across all centres was 633 (sd 151) mg. ULP foods provided 40 % of Na, followed by P (35 %), MP (23 %) and PCI (2 %). Centres provided foods resulting in a mean total daily Na content that represented 63 % of the recommended Upper Level of Intake for Na in this age group. A significant proportion of ULP snack foods were included, which were the major contributor to total daily Na intake. Replacement of ULP snack foods with MP lower-Na alternatives is recommended.

  2. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O'Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-02-01

    Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one's home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants' neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Houston and Austin, TX, USA. African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25-60 years. Of the total sample (n 162), 48 % had 1-15 neighbourhood FFR and 29 % were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P = 0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P > 0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P = 0·005) and fat (P = 0·005) than non-binge eaters. Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet.

  3. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mialon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA, represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald’s; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. Results The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with ‘information and messaging’ and ‘constituency building’ strategies most prominent. Conclusions The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  4. Application of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept to structure the available in vivo and in vitro mechanistic data for allergic sensitization to food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Jolanda H M; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Willemsen, Linette E M; Antunes, Celia M; Molina, Elena; Smit, Joost J; Wróblewska, Barbara; Wichers, Harry J; Knol, Edward F; Ladics, Gregory S; Pieters, Raymond H H; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Vissers, Yvonne M; Bavaro, Simona L; Larré, Colette; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Roggen, Erwin L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The introduction of whole new foods in a population may lead to sensitization and food allergy. This constitutes a potential public health problem and a challenge to risk assessors and managers as the existing understanding of the pathophysiological processes and the currently available

  5. Impact of the Bolsa Família program on food availability of low-income Brazilian families: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-08-19

    The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil. Representative data from the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-2009 were studied, with probabilistic sample of 55,970 households. 11,282 households were eligible for this study and 48.5 % were beneficiaries of the BFP. Food availability indicators were compared among paired blocks of households (n = 100), beneficiaries or non-beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program, with monthly per capita income up to R$ 210.00. Blocks of households were created based on the propensity score of each household to have beneficiaries and were homogeneous regarding potential confounding variables. The food availability indicators were weekly per capita expenditure and daily energy consumption, both calculated considering all food items and four food groups based on the extent and purpose of the industrial food processing. The comparisons between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries blocks of households were conducted through paired 't' tests. Compared to non-beneficiaries, the beneficiaries households had 6 % higher food expenditure (p = 0.015) and 9.4 % higher total energy availability (p = 0.010). It was found a 7.3 % higher expenditure on in natura or minimally processed foods and 10.4 % higher expenditure on culinary ingredients among the Bolsa Família Program families. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the expenditure and the availability of processed and ultra-processed food and drink products. In the in

  6. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaken, Holly; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs) can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP) schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6) and non-GSP (10) schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%). The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food. PMID:28553361

  7. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaken, Holly; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; Ware, Robert S; Schubert, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs) can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP) schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6) and non-GSP (10) schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%). The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food.

  8. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on ...

  9. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela C; Poirier, Lisa; Ross, Alexandra; Ruggiero, Cara; Schwendler, Teresa; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth

    2017-11-10

    The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript). For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  10. Is production intensification likely to make farm households food-adequate? A simple food availability analysis across smallholder farming systems from East and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, R.S.; Frelat, R.; Douxchamps, S.; Silvestri, S.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Giller, K.E.; López-ridaura, S.; Teufel, N.; Paul, B.K.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable development investment, food insecurity remains prevalent throughout East and West Africa. The concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ of agricultural production has been promoted as a means to meet growing food needs in these regions. However, inadequate attention has been

  11. Food availability and predation risk drive the distributional patterns of two pulmonate gastropods in a mangrove-saltmarsh transitional habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yisheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Shing Yip

    2017-09-01

    The pulmonate gastropods, Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878) and Ophicardelus ornatus (Férussac, 1821), exhibit characteristic distributional patterns at the upper intertidal zones in estuarine mangrove and saltmarsh habitats on the eastern Australian coast. Past studies suggested inundation condition, soil salinity, and percent of vegetation cover were responsible for these patterns. In this study, the role of environmental parameters, food availability, physical stress, and predation pressure in determining the distributional patterns of these gastropods was evaluated along transects spanning saltmarsh, mangrove, and the ecotone habitats. For both species, the maximum population abundance occurred in the upper saltmarsh and the ecotone between mangrove and saltmarsh at 361.0 and 358.0 ind.m -2 , respectively, which was four times that of the lower saltmarsh. Mangroves were evaluated as the optimal habitat for the pulmonates in terms of the environmental parameters moisture content and food availability. However, due to its longer inundation duration within each tidal cycle, use of the mangrove habitat by the pulmonates was impeded because of difficulties in oxygen acquisition under submerged conditions. Laboratory experiments revealed the oxygen intake of the pulmonates dropped abruptly to 4.3-9.0% of aerial rates when submerged. This result indicated that mangroves were not the optimal habitat for the pulmonates. Furthermore, the visiting frequency of predators (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and toadfishes, Tetraodontidae) was 1.3 times higher in the mangrove compared to those in the ecotone and upper saltmarsh habitats. Underwater video recording also suggested high mortality of these gastropods at 31.7-88.9% in mangrove and 0.80-0.98 times higher than that in saltmarsh, resulting from the predators preying in the mangrove habitat during high tides. Despite the abiotic factors facilitating the distribution of the pulmonates in the mangrove, the

  12. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  13. Acidified nitrite inhibits proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes - Transcriptional analysis of a preservation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Herbst, Stefanie; Wüstner, Stefanie; Kabisch, Jan; Pichner, Rohtraud; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-06-02

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is added as a preservative during raw meat processing such as raw sausage production to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study it was shown in challenge assays that the addition of sodium nitrite indeed inhibited growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in short-ripened spreadable raw sausages. Furthermore, in vitro growth analyses were performed, which took into account combinations of various parameters of the raw sausage ripening process like temperature, oxygen availability, pH, NaCl concentration, and absence or presence of NaNO2. Data based on 300 growth conditions revealed that the inhibitory effect of nitrite was most prominent in combination with acidification, a combination that is also achieved during short-ripened spreadable raw sausage production. At pH6.0 and below, L. monocytogenes was unable to replicate in the presence of 200mg/l NaNO2. During the adaptation of L. monocytogenes to acidified nitrite stress (pH6.0, 200mg/l NaNO2) in comparison to acid exposure only (pH6.0, 0mg/l NaNO2), a massive transcriptional adaptation was observed using microarray analyses. In total, 202 genes were up-regulated and 204 genes were down-regulated. In accordance with growth inhibition, a down-regulation of genes encoding for proteins which are involved in central cellular processes, like cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, translation and ribosomal structure and biogenesis, transcription, and replication, recombination and repair, was observed. Among the up-regulated genes the most prominent group belonged to poorly characterized genes. A considerable fraction of the up-regulated genes has been shown previously to be up-regulated intracellularly in macrophages, after exposure to acid shock or to be part of the SigB regulon. These data indicate that the adaptation to acidified nitrite partly overlaps with the adaptation to stress conditions being present during host colonization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-03-22

    The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  15. Food availability drives plastic self-repair response in a basal metazoan-case study on the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bading, Katharina Tissy; Kaehlert, Sarah; Chi, Xupeng

    2017-01-01

    -animals instead. Yet, the driving factors of this phenomenon have not been addressed so far. This study sheds new light on how differences in food availability affect self-repair choice and regeneration success in cydippid larvae of M. leidyi. As expected, high food availability favored whole-body regeneration....... However, under low food conditions half-animals became the preferential self-repair mode. Remarkably, both regenerating and half-animals showed very similar survival chances under respective food quantities. As a consequence of impaired food uptake after injury, degeneration of the digestive system would...... often occur indicating limited energy storage capacities. Taken together, this indicates that half-animals may represent an alternative energy-saving trajectory which implies self-repair plasticity as an adaptive trade-off between high regeneration costs and low energy storage capacities. We conclude...

  16. Statistical modeling/optimization and process intensification of microwave-assisted acidified oil esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lingling; Lv, Enmin; Du, Lixiong; Lu, Jie; Ding, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation was employed for the esterification of acidified oil. • Optimization and modeling of the process was performed by RSM and ANN. • Both models have reliable prediction abilities but the ANN was superior over the RSM. • Membrane vapor permeation and in-situ dehydration were used to shift the equilibrium. • Two dehydration approaches improved the FFAs conversion rate by 20.0% approximately. - Abstract: The esterification of acidified oil with ethanol under microwave radiation was modeled and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The impacts of mass ratio of ethanol to acidified oil, catalyst loading, microwave power and reaction time are evaluated by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of RSM and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) of ANN. RSM combined with BBD shows the optimal conditions as catalyst loading of 5.85 g, mass ratio of ethanol to acidified oil of 0.35 (20.0 g acidified oil), microwave power of 328 W and reaction time of 98.0 min with the free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion of 78.57%. Both of the models are fitted well with the experimental data, however, ANN exhibits better prediction accuracy than RSM based on the statistical analyses. Furthermore, membrane vapor permeation and in-situ molecular sieve dehydration were investigated to enhance the esterification under the optimized conditions.

  17. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 2: Numerical addendum to emissions, dispersion and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering Body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It presents the numerical fields and budgets of the acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in the form of three appendices: annual average air concentrations of acidifying and eutrophying species, 1996; country-to-country deposition budgets for acidifying/eutrophying air pollutants, 1985-95; and grid square deposition of acidifying/eutrophying components allocated to emitting countries, mean 1985-95. 19 figs.

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Trichodesmium’s strategies to alleviate phosphorus limitation in the future acidified oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spungin, Dina; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Levitan, Orly

    2014-06-01

    Global warming may exacerbate inorganic nutrient limitation, including phosphorus (P), in the surface waters of tropical oceans that are home to extensive blooms of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium. We examined the combined effects of P limitation and pCO(2), forecast under ocean acidification scenarios, on Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 cultures. We measured nitrogen acquisition,glutamine synthetase activity, C uptake rates, intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) concentration and the pool sizes of related key proteins. Here, we present data supporting the idea that cellular energy re-allocation enables the higher growth and N(2) fixation rates detected in Trichodesmium cultured under high pCO(2). This is reflected in altered protein abundance and metabolic pools. Also modified are particulate organic carbon and nitrogen production rates,enzymatic activities, and cellular ATP concentrations. We suggest that adjusting these cellular pathways to changing environmental conditions enables Trichodesmium to compensate for low P availability and to thrive in acidified oceans. Moreover, elevated pCO(2) could provide Trichodesmium with a competitive dominance that would extend its niche, particularly in P-limited regions of the tropical and subtropical oceans.

  20. Recovery of acidified mountain lakes in Norway as predicted by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. COSBY

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the EU project EMERGE the biogeochemical model MAGIC was used to reconstruct acidification history and predict future recovery for mountain lakes in two regions of Norway. Central Norway (19 lakes receives low levels of acid deposition, most of the lakes have undergone only minor amounts of acidification, and all are predicted to recover in the future. Central Norway thus represents a reference area for more polluted regions in southern Norway and elsewhere in Europe. Southern Norway (23 lakes, on the other hand, receives higher levels of acid deposition, nearly all the studied lakes were acidified and had lost fish populations, and although some recovery has occurred during the period 1980-2000 and additional recovery is predicted for the next decades, the model simulations indicated that the majority of the lakes will not achieve water quality sufficient to support trout populations. Uncertainties in these predictions include possible future N saturation and the exacerbating effects of climate change. The mountain lakes of southern Norway are among the most sensitive in Europe. For southern Norway additional measures such as stricter controls of emissions of air pollutants will be required to obtain satisfactory water quality in the future.

  1. Relationship between home fruit and vegetable availability and infant and maternal dietary intake in African-American families: evidence from the exhaustive home food inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Stevens, June; Wang, Lily; Tabak, Rachel; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-10-01

    The availability of foods in the home is likely to be related to consumption. We know of no studies that have reported this association in African-American participants, and few studies have examined home food availability using objective methods. This study aimed to assess the association between objective measures of fruits and vegetables in the home with reported infant and maternal diet in low-income African Americans. A cross-sectional study design was used to compare food availability and dietary intake. The Exhaustive Home Food Availability Inventory used barcode scanning to measure food availability in the home. Maternal and infant diet was assessed by 24-hour recall. Eighty African-American first-time mother/infant dyads were recruited from Wake and Durham counties in North Carolina. Adjusted mean dietary intake of infants and mothers was calculated within tertiles of food and nutrient availability using analysis of variance. The bootstrap method was used to estimate P values and 95% confidence intervals. Models were adjusted for mother's age, household size, shopping and eating-out behavior. Infants and mothers living in homes in the highest tertile of availability of energy, nutrients, and fruits and vegetables tended to have the highest consumption, respectively; however, statistically significant associations were more likely to occur with infant diet than maternal diet. The relationship was strongest for infant consumption of fruit, with an average of 103.3 g consumed by infants who lived in homes in the highest tertile of availability, compared to 42.5 g in those living in homes in the lowest tertile (P<0.05). Availability of fruits and vegetables in the home was associated with intake of those foods in a sample of African-American mothers and infants. Results support making changes in the home environment as a method of promoting changes in fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Differences in diet and activity pattern between two groups of Alouatta palliata associated with the availability of big trees and fruit of top food taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jacob C; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Veà, Joaquím J

    2009-08-01

    The threat that forest fragmentation and habitat loss presents for several Alouatta taxa requires us to determine the key elements that may promote the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments and to evaluate how changes in the availability of these elements may affect their future conservation prospects. In this study we analyzed the relationship between the availability of both big trees of top food taxa (BTTFT) (diameter at breast height>60) and fruit of top food taxa (FrTFT) in the home ranges of two groups of Alouatta palliata mexicana occupying different forest fragments in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, and their diet and activity pattern. Both study groups preferred big trees for feeding and the group with lower availability of BTTFT in their home range fed from more, smaller food sources. Furthermore, both study groups also increased the number of food sources when their consumption of fruit decreased, and the group with lower availability of FrTFT in their home range fed from more food sources. The increase in the number of food sources used under such conditions, in turn, set up a process of higher foraging effort and lower rest. In summary, our results support other studies that suggest that the availability of big trees and fruit may be two important elements influencing the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments.

  3. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean

    2009-11-01

    While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Quasi-experimental study. Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community.

  4. If you stock it, will they buy it? Healthy food availability and customer purchasing behaviour within corner stores in Hartford, CT, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie S; Havens, Erin; Boyle, Katie E; Matthews, Gregory; Schilling, Elizabeth A; Harel, Ofer; Ferris, Ann M

    2012-10-01

    Literature on food environments has expanded rapidly, yet most research focuses on stores and community characteristics without integrating customer-level data. The present study combines customer shopping behaviour with store food inventory data. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with customers shopping in corner stores to measure food shopping behaviour, household food security and demographics. Store inventories were conducted to measure availability of healthy food in corner stores. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated the probability of customers purchasing a food item given the availability of that item in the store. Nineteen corner stores in Hartford, CT, USA, average size 669 ft(2) (62.15 m(2)). Sample of 372 customers. The majority of customers were Black or Hispanic (54 % and 40 %, respectively) and 61 % experienced food insecurity. For each additional type of fruits or vegetables available in the store, the estimated odds of a customer purchasing fruits increased by 12 % (P = 0.03) and the odds for purchasing vegetables increased by 15 % (P = 0.01). Customers receiving the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) were 1.7 times as likely to purchase fruit as those not receiving SNAP (P = 0.04). Greater availability of reduced-fat milk was not associated with increased likelihood of customers purchasing reduced-fat milk. There is a positive association between fruit and vegetable variety and the probability that a customer purchases fruits and vegetables. Increasing the selection of produce in corner stores may increase their consumption by food-insecure and low-income residents at risk for health disparities. These findings have implications for future store interventions and food policies.

  5. [Folic acid fortified foods available in Spain: types of products, level of fortification and target population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2009-01-01

    Folic acid is a potentially relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies (congenital abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and neurocognitive decline). This has led to the introduction of different strategies in order to increase folate intake: nutritional education, pharmacological supplementation and mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with folic acid. In Spain there is a growing number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis, but there is also a lack of reliable data to assess their impact on the population's dietary folate intakes. To gather a better knowledge of folic acid food fortification practices in Spain. A Food Composition Database was developed using data from a market study. Also, previously published data of unfortified staple foods from Food Composition Tables was reviewed. The Database included 260 folic acid fortified food items and it was periodically updated. Food groups included were primarily "Cereals and derivatives" (52%) followed by "Dairy products". Most of these foodstuffs lacked a target population for their consumption (37%) or were aimed at "Weight control" (28%) and "Children" (23%), but only 2% targeted women at a reproductive age. Number of unfortified foods included was 690. Fortification levels declared by manufacturers ranged between 15 and 430% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for folic acid per 100 g/ml, and simultaneous addition of B6 and B12 vitamins was observed in 75% of the products. Currently, Spain market offers a significant number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis and at a level > or = 15% of the RDA per 100 g/ml or serving declared by manufacturers.

  6. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  7. Stability of endoglucanases from mesophilic fungus and thermophilic bacterium in acidified polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Barrie Fong; Harrison, Mark D; O'Hara, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in chemical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass using polyols as co-solvents (e.g., glycerol and ethylene glycol) at temperatures less than 100°C may allow the effective use of thermostable and non-thermostable cellulases in situ during the saccharification process. The potential of biomass saccharifying enzymes, endoglucanases (EG) from a thermophilic bacterium (Thermotoga maritima) and a mesophilic fungus (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), to retain their activity in aqueous buffer, acidified glycerol, and acidified ethylene glycol used as co-solvents at pretreatment temperatures at or below 100°C were examined. The results show that despite its origin, T. longibrachiatum EG (Tl-EG) retained 75% of its activity after exposure to 100°C for 5 min in aqueous buffer while T. maritima EG (Tm-EG) retained only 5% activity. However, at 90°C both enzymes retained over 87% of their activity. In acidified (0.1% (w/w) H2SO4) glycerol, Tl-EG retained similar activity (80%) to that obtained in glycerol alone, while Tm-EG retained only 35%. With acidified ethylene glycol under these conditions, both Tl-EG and Tm-EG retained 36% of their activity. The results therefore show that Tl-EG is more stable in both acidified glycerol and ethylene glycol than Tm-EG. A preliminary kinetic study showed that pure glycerol improved the thermal stability of Tl-EG but destabilized Tm-EG, relative to the buffer solution. The half-lives of both Tl-EG and Tm-EG are 4.5 min in acidified glycerol, indicating that the effectiveness of these enzymes under typical pretreatment times of greater than 15 min will be considerably diminished. Attempts have been made to explain the differences in the results obtained between the two enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Home availability of fruit and vegetables and obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renée; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise

    2017-05-01

    The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand. A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls. Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively). Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

  9. Administration of acidified drinking water to finishing pigs in order to prevent Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wolf, P J; van Schie, F W; Elbers, A R; Engel, B; van der Heijden, H M; Hunneman, W A; Tielen, M J

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether acidified drinking water, with two millilitres of an acid mixture per litre, was able to reduce the number of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds. In each compartment, half of the pens were supplied with acidified water and the other pens served as negative control. In three herds the required dose was not applied to the pigs as a result of various practical problems. In another herd, all pigs remained seronegative throughout the study. Analysis of the remaining three herds showed a large and significant treatment effect in one herd (Pdrinking nipples as a result of fungal growth in the pipelines.

  10. An Intervention to Increase Availability of Healthy Foods and Beverages in New York City Hospitals: The Healthy Hospital Food Initiative, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Krepp, Erica M; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley

    2016-06-09

    Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments.

  11. An Intervention to Increase Availability of Healthy Foods and Beverages in New York City Hospitals: The Healthy Hospital Food Initiative, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepp, Erica M.; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. Community Context The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Methods Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Outcome Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Interpretation Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments. PMID:27281392

  12. The Serum Metabolite Response to Diet Intervention with Probiotic Acidified Milk in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients is Indistinguishable from that of Non-Probiotic Acidified Milk by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon M M; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Andersen, Henrik J

    2010-01-01

    of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum L-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained...

  13. Development of a community-sensitive strategy to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in Nashville's urban food deserts, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Celia; Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-07-25

    Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.

  14. [Effect of food availability in early ontogenesis on the rate of growth and numbers of bream Abramis brama L. (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, E N

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of studies of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the coastal zone of Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton production accessible for juveniles of bream Abramis brama L. at early stages of ontogenesis, degree of removal of food resources, and food availability of juveniles of the bream that was reflected in the rate of growth were calculated. It is concluded that the removal of more than 60% of production of food zooplankton by bream juveniles leads to an increase of their mortality at early stages and a decrease in the rate of increase in the body weight.

  15. Energy compensation in the real world. Good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Katherine; McKeown, P.P.; Woodside, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods with which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of ei...

  16. Adjusting energy expenditures to energy supply: food availability regulates torpor use and organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Muñoz, José L P; Naya, Daniel E; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P

    2007-05-01

    We studied how food abundance and consumption regulates torpor use and internal organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans (Dielphidae), a small nocturnal marsupial, endemic in southern South America. We predicted that exposure to food rations at or above the minimum energy levels necessary for maintenance would not lead to any signs of torpor, while reducing food supply to energy levels below maintenance would lead to marked increases in frequency, duration and depth of torpor bouts. We also analyzed the relationship between food availability and internal organ mass. We predicted a positive relationship between food availability and internal organ size once the effect of body size is removed. Animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups and fed either 70, 100 or 130% of their daily energy requirement (DER). We found a positive and significant correlation between %DER and body temperature, and also between %DER and minimum body temperature. In contrast, for torpor frequency, duration and depth, we found a significant negative correlation with %DER. Finally, we found a significant positive correlation between the %DER and small intestine and ceacum dry mass. We demonstrate that when food availability is limited, T. elegans has the capacity to reduce their maintenance cost by two different mechanisms, that is, increasing the use of torpor and reducing organ mass.

  17. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  18. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The spatial distribution of flocking foragers : disentangling the effects of food availability, interference and conspecific attraction by means of spatial autoregressive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Eelke O.; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis; Robinson, Rob

    Patch choice of foraging animals is typically assumed to depend positively on food availability and negatively on interference while benefits of the co-occurrence of conspecifics tend to be ignored. In this paper we integrate a classical functional response model based on resource availability and

  20. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  1. The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in five states post-menu labelling legislation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    1) Explore the availability and accessibility of fast food energy and nutrient information post-NSW menu labelling legislation in states with and without menu labelling legislation. 2) Determine whether availability and accessibility differed compared with pre-menu labelling legislation in NSW. We visited 210 outlets of the five largest fast food chains in five Australian states to observe the availability and accessibility of energy and nutrient information. Results were compared with 197 outlets surveyed pre-menu labelling. Most outlets (95%) provided energy values, half provided nutrient values and 3% provided information for all menu items. The total amount of information available increased post-NSW menu labelling implementation (473 versus 178 pre-implementation, pFast food chains surveyed had voluntarily introduced menu labelling nationally. However, more nutrient information was available in-store in 2010, showing that fast food chains are able to provide comprehensive nutrition information, yet they have stopped doing so. Menu labelling legislation should compel fast food chains to provide accessible nutrition information including nutrient values in addition to energy for all menu items in-store. Additionally, public education campaigns are needed to ensure customers can use menu labelling. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Effects of juvenile host density and food availability on adult immune response, parasite resistance and virulence in a Daphnia-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine N Schoebel

    Full Text Available Host density can increase infection rates and reduce host fitness as increasing population density enhances the risk of becoming infected either through increased encounter rate or because host condition may decline. Conceivably, potential hosts could take high host density as a cue to up-regulate their defence systems. However, as host density usually covaries with food availability, it is difficult to examine the importance of host density in isolation. Thus, we performed two full-factorial experiments that varied juvenile densities of Daphnia magna (a freshwater crustacean and food availability independently. We also included a simulated high-density treatment, where juvenile experimental animals were kept in filtered media that previously maintained Daphnia at high-density. Upon reaching adulthood, we exposed the Daphnia to their sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa, and examined how the juvenile treatments influenced the likelihood and severity of infection (Experiment I and host immune investment (Experiment II. Neither juvenile density nor food treatments affected the likelihood of infection; however, well-fed hosts that were well-fed as juveniles produced more offspring prior to sterilization than their less well-fed counterparts. By contrast, parasite growth was independent of host juvenile resources or host density. Parasite-exposed hosts had a greater number of circulating haemocytes than controls (i.e., there was a cellular immune response, but the magnitude of immune response was not mediated by food availability or host density. These results suggest that density dependent effects on disease arise primarily through correlated changes in food availability: low food could limit parasitism and potentially curtail epidemics by reducing both the host's and parasite's reproduction as both depend on the same food.

  3. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  4. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  5. Quantifying trade-offs between future yield levels, food availability and forest and woodland conservation in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, Confidence; Zwart, Sander J.; Bussel, van Lenny G.J.; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Meeting the dual objectives of food security and ecosystem protection is a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To this end agricultural intensification is considered desirable, yet, there remain uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change on opportunities for agricultural

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  7. 76 FR 55869 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program; Correction... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) program. The notice stated that eligible applicants could... highest-level result of this framework is ``Improved Literacy of School-aged Children.'' Proposals that do...

  8. Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum (III) solutions. I. Titration of acidified aluminum nitrate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.C.; Geus, John W.; Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    Acidified aluminum nitrate solutions were titrated with alkali (NaOH or KOH) over a temperature range of 24°C to 90°C. A homogeneous distribution of added base was achieved by: (i) in situ decomposition of urea (90°C); and (ii) a novel method involving injection through a capillary submerged in the

  9. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous

  10. The chemical behavior of acidified chromium (3) solutions. B.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A unique energy-storage system has been developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center called REDOX. This NASA-REDOX system is an electrochemical storage device that utilized the oxidation and reduction of two fully soluble redox couples for charging and discharging. The redox couples now being investigated are acidified chloride solutions of chromium (Cr(+2)/Cr(+3)) and iron (Fe(+2)/Fe(+3)).

  11. Spatially explicit characterization of acidifying and eutrophying air pollution in life-cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Verkuijlen, Evert; Heijungs, Reinout; Reijnders, Lucas

    2001-01-01

    Simple models are often used to assess the potential impact of acidifying and eutrophying substances released during the life cycle of products. As fate, background depositions, and ecosystem sensitivity are not included in these models, environmental life-cycle assessment of products (LCA) may

  12. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  13. Quality evaluation of packaged acidified vegetables subjected to continuous microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the use of 915 MHz continuous microwave processing with a rotation apparatus for pasteurization of acidified vegetable packages. Broccoli florets, and 1.2 cm cubes of broccoli stems, red bell pepper, and sweetpotato were pre-equilibrated to 1 g/100 g NaCl and 0.38 g/100 mL citric...

  14. Influence of acidified drinking water on growth performance and gastrointestinal function of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, H; Shi, H Q; Ma, G Y; Fan, Y; Li, W X; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ji, C; Ma, Q G

    2018-06-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotic feed additives as growth promoters compelled the researchers for exploring the future utility of other alternatives. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of acidified drinking water on growth performance, gastrointestinal pH, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology, and cecum microbial counting of the broiler chicken. A total of 540 one-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 18 chicks per replicate. Broilers received diets and water as follows: NC (negative control, basal diet, normal water), PC (positive control, basal diet + 8 ppm colistin sulfate + 8 ppm enduracidin, normal water), A1 (basal diet, continuous supply of acidified water during whole experiment period), A2 (basal diet, intermittent acidification of water during 0 to 14 d, 22 to 28 d, and 36 to 42 d), and A3 [basal diet, intermittent acidification of water (24 h/d from 0 to 14 d and from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm on d 15 to 42)]. During the entire period, the acidified groups (A1, A2, and A3) and PC group showed improve on weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio compared to NC group (P < 0.05). The pH in crop, proventriculus and ileum at 43 d declined by 0.04, 1.03, 1.23; 0.55, 0.69, 0.70; and 0.63, 0.74, 1.21 in A1, A2, and A3 group, respectively. There was a significant decline of lipase activity in the PC and acidified groups compared to NC group. The A2 group had higher villus height in jejunum than NC group. The PC and acidified groups reduced (P < 0.05) the total aerobic bacteria count of cecum when contrasted to NC group. Therefore, we conclude that acidified drinking water can improve growth performance, compensate for gastric acidity, and control pathogenic bacteria in broilers and may be considered as a potential alternative to improve production parameters. Discontinuous supply of acidified water had the same or even better influence on broilers compared to

  15. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Nishibori, M

    2017-05-01

    The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D 1 (control), D 2 (D 1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water), D 3 (D 1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water), D 4 (D 1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T 1 (control), T 2 (5% Azolla in the diet), T 3 (7% Azolla in the diet) and T 4 (T 1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D 4 (p0.05). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p0.05). However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D 2 followed by D 4 , D 1 , and D 3 , respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p0.05). In conclusion, Azolla and acidifier reduced lipid profiles of broiler chickens. Considering net profit and lipid profiles, 5% Azolla may be the suitable dietary group for producing safe and profitable broilers. However, more studies are needed to confirm this study prior to suggesting using Azolla in the poultry industry.

  16. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket

  18. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kyosuke; Kanda, Atsushi; Tagawa, Ryoichi; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  19. Associations between major chain fast-food outlet availability and change in body mass index: a longitudinal observational study of women from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Karen E; Thornton, Lukar E; Olstad, Dana Lee; Cerin, Ester; Ball, Kylie

    2017-10-16

    The residential neighbourhood fast-food environment has the potential to lead to increased levels of obesity by providing opportunities for residents to consume energy-dense products. This longitudinal study aimed to examine whether change in body mass index (BMI) differed dependent on major chain fast-food outlet availability among women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Eighty disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Sample of 882 women aged 18-46 years at baseline (wave I: 2007/2008) who remained at the same residential location at all three waves (wave II: 2010/2011; wave III: 2012/2013) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. BMI based on self-reported height and weight at each wave. There was no evidence of an interaction between time and the number of major chain fast-food outlets within 2 (p=0.88), 3 (p=0.66) or 5 km (p=0.24) in the multilevel models of BMI. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between time and change in availability at any distance and BMI. Change in BMI was not found to differ by residential major chain fast-food outlet availability among Victorian women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It may be that exposure to fast-food outlets around other locations regularly visited influence change in BMI. Future research needs to consider what environments are the key sources for accessing and consuming fast food and how these relate to BMI and obesity risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  1. Utilization and environmental availability of food outlets and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren in a city in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Rossi, Camila Elizandra; das Neves, Janaina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2018-03-01

    Among the causes of obesity, environmental factors have also been studied, in addition to genetic, social, psychological, and hormonal factors. The distribution of food outlets, facilitating or hindering food acquisition, can promote body weight control by encouraging healthier food habits. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental availability and utilization of food outlets and overweight/obesity in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Florianópolis, in the South of Brazil. A logistic regression analysis identified a positive association between overweight/obesity in 2195 schoolchildren and the presence of restaurants in the vicinity of their homes (buffer = 400 meters). Being a member of a family that utilizes public markets/greengrocers was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the sample investigated. Identifying the distribution of these establishments in the vicinity of the homes of schoolchildren in middle-income countries is an important element in understanding the role played by the food environment in weight gain in a variety of different settings.

  2. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  3. Diverse coral communities in naturally acidified waters of a Western Pacific reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.; Cohen, Anne L.; Golbuu, Yimnang; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Lentz, Steven J.; Barkley, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are acidifying the oceans, reducing the concentration of carbonate ions ([CO32-]) that calcifying organisms need to build and cement coral reefs. To date, studies of a handful of naturally acidified reef systems reveal depauperate communities, sometimes with reduced coral cover and calcification rates, consistent with results of laboratory-based studies. Here we report the existence of highly diverse, coral-dominated reef communities under chronically low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωar). Biological and hydrographic processes change the chemistry of the seawater moving across the barrier reefs and into Palau's Rock Island bays, where levels of acidification approach those projected for the western tropical Pacific open ocean by 2100. Nevertheless, coral diversity, cover, and calcification rates are maintained across this natural acidification gradient. Identifying the combination of biological and environmental factors that enable these communities to persist could provide important insights into the future of coral reefs under anthropogenic acidification.

  4. Optimization of acidified oil esterification catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lingling; Han, Ying; Sun, Kaian; Lu, Jie; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • As lipid source, acidified oil are from industrial wastes for renewable energy. • The predicted conversion rate of FFAs was 75.24% under the RSM optimized conditions. • The adsorption system was employed to remove the water produced to shift the equilibrium toward ethyl ester production. • Maximum conversion rate of 98.32% was obtained using adsorption system at optimum process parameters. • Compared with tradition methods, molecular sieve dehydration method improved the conversion rate by 23.08%. - Abstract: The esterification of acidified oil with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resins (SCER) was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of the molar ratio of ethanol to acidified oil, reaction time and catalyst loading on the conversion rate of free fatty acids (FFAs) were investigated at the temperature of the boiling point of ethanol. Results showed that the highest conversion rate of 75.24% was obtained at the molar ratio of ethanol to acidified oil of 23.2, reaction time of 8.0 h and catalyst loading of 35.0 wt.%. Moreover, the conversion rate of FFAs was increased to 98.32% by using a water adsorption apparatus under the RSM optimized conditions. Scanning electronic microscopic–energy dispersive spectrometric (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometric (XRD) and thermogravimetric–derivative thermogravimetric (TG–DTG) analyses confirmed that the morphology of catalysts did not change much and the mechanical and thermal stabilities were still good after the reaction. Furthermore, SCER exhibited a high catalytic activity and stability after being reused for five successive times. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were comparable to that of ASTM, EN and GB biodiesel standard

  5. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Shriner

    1976-01-01

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  6. Defining reference conditions for acidified waters using a modern analogue approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Gavin L.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Winterbottom, Julie M.; Keay, Janey

    2005-01-01

    Analogue matching is a palaeolimnological technique that aims to find matches for fossil sediment samples from a set of modern surface sediment samples. Modern analogues were identified that closely matched the pre-disturbance conditions of eight of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) lakes using diatom- and cladoceran-based analogue matching. These analogue sites were assessed in terms of hydrochemistry, aquatic macrophytes and macro-invertebrates as to their suitability for defining wider hydrochemical and biological reference conditions for acidified sites within the AWMN. The analogues identified for individual AWMN sites show a close degree of similarity in terms of their hydrochemical characteristics, aquatic macrophytes and, to a lesser extent, macro-invertebrate fauna. The reference conditions of acidified AWMN sites are inferred to be less acidic than today and to support a wider range of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte and macro-invertebrate taxa than that recorded in the AWMN lakes over the period of monitoring since 1988. - The use of a palaeolimnological technique to identify modern ecological reference analogues for acidified lakes is demonstrated

  7. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  8. Modelling impacts of temperature, and acidifying and eutrophying deposition on DOC trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Kasia; Rowe, Ed; Evans, Chris; Monteith, Don; Vanguelova, Elena; Wade, Andrew; Clark, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    Surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in large parts of the northern hemisphere have risen over the past three decades, raising concern about enhanced contributions of carbon to the atmosphere and seas and oceans. The effect of declining acid deposition has been identified as a key control on DOC trends in soil and surface waters, since pH and ionic strength affect sorption and desorption of DOC. However, since DOC is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists regarding the extent to the relative importance of different drivers that affect these upward trends. We ran the dynamic model MADOC (Model of Acidity and Soil Organic Carbon) for a range of UK soils (podzols, gleysols and peatland), for which the time-series were available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10-20 years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to elevate the DOC recovery trajectory significantly. The second most influential cause of rising DOC in the model simulations was N deposition in ecosystems that are N-limited and respond with stimulated plant growth. Although non-marine chloride deposition made some contribution to acidification and recovery, it was not amongst the main drivers of DOC change. Warming had almost no effect on modelled historic DOC trends, but may prove to be a significant driver of DOC in future via its influence

  9. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? Findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jennie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-income, ethnic/racial minorities and rural populations are at increased risk for obesity and related chronic health conditions when compared to white, urban and higher-socio-economic status (SES peers. Recent systematic reviews highlight the influence of the built environment on obesity, yet very few of these studies consider rural areas or populations. Utilizing a CBPR process, this study advances community-driven causal models to address obesity by exploring the difference in resources for physical activity and food outlets by block group race and income in a small regional city that anchors a rural health disparate region. To guide this inquiry we hypothesized that lower income and racially diverse block groups would have fewer food outlets, including fewer grocery stores and fewer physical activity outlets. We further hypothesized that walkability, as defined by a computed walkability index, would be lower in the lower income block groups. Methods Using census data and GIS, base maps of the region were created and block groups categorized by income and race. All food outlets and physical activity resources were enumerated and geocoded and a walkability index computed. Analyses included one-way MANOVA and spatial autocorrelation. Results In total, 49 stores, 160 restaurants and 79 physical activity outlets were enumerated. There were no differences in the number of outlets by block group income or race. Further, spatial analyses suggest that the distribution of outlets is dispersed across all block groups. Conclusions Under the larger CPBR process, this enumeration study advances the causal models set forth by the community members to address obesity by providing an overview of the food and physical activity environment in this region. This data reflects the food and physical activity resources available to residents in the region and will aid many of the community-academic partners as they pursue intervention

  11. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  12. Detection and Quantification of Genetically Modified Soybean in Some Food and Feed Products. A Case Study on Products Available on Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosculete

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace genetically modified soybean in food and feed products present on the Romanian market by using molecular extraction, identification and quantification methodologies. Nine samples (3 food samples, 5 soybean samples and 1 soybean meal were analysed using the classical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. DNA-genetically modified organism (GMO was not detected in two of the three analysed samples (food products. However, it could be found in four samples ranging below the limit of 0.9%, and in three samples, above the limit of 0.9%. The results obtained through real-time PCR quantification show that DNA-RRS was detectable in different amounts in different samples: ranging between 0.27% and 9.36% in soy beans, and reaching 50.98% in soybean meal. The current research focuses on how products containing GMO above the limit (it is common knowledge that it is necessary to label the products containing more than 0.9% Genetically Modified DNA are differentiated on the market with a view to labeling food and feed products in terms of the accidental presence of approved genetically modified plants. The benefits brought by genetic engineering in obtaining genetically modified organisms can be balanced with their public acceptance and with certain known or unknown risks that they can bring.

  13. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  14. Interactive Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Growth, Fitness and Survival of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa under Different Food Availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina V. Büscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals are important bioengineers that provide structural habitat for a diverse species community. About 70% of the presently known scleractinian cold-water corals are expected to be exposed to corrosive waters by the end of this century due to ocean acidification. At the same time, the corals will experience a steady warming of their environment. Studies on the sensitivity of cold-water corals to climate change mainly concentrated on single stressors in short-term incubation approaches, thus not accounting for possible long-term acclimatisation and the interactive effects of multiple stressors. Besides, preceding studies did not test for possible compensatory effects of a change in food availability. In this study a multifactorial long-term experiment (6 months was conducted with end-of-the-century scenarios of elevated pCO2 and temperature levels in order to examine the acclimatisation potential of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to future climate change related threats. For the first time multiple ocean change impacts including the role of the nutritional status were tested on L. pertusa with regard to growth, “fitness,” and survival. Our results show that while L. pertusa is capable of calcifying under elevated CO2 and temperature, its condition (fitness is more strongly influenced by food availability rather than changes in seawater chemistry. Whereas growth rates increased at elevated temperature (+4°C, they decreased under elevated CO2 concentrations (~800 μatm. No difference in net growth was detected when corals were exposed to the combination of increased CO2 and temperature compared to ambient conditions. A 10-fold higher food supply stimulated growth under elevated temperature, which was not observed in the combined treatment. This indicates that increased food supply does not compensate for adverse effects of ocean acidification and underlines the importance of considering the nutritional status

  15. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  16. Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? Findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie L; Chau, Clarice; Luebbering, Candice R; Kolivras, Korine K; Zoellner, Jamie

    2012-09-06

    Low-income, ethnic/racial minorities and rural populations are at increased risk for obesity and related chronic health conditions when compared to white, urban and higher-socio-economic status (SES) peers. Recent systematic reviews highlight the influence of the built environment on obesity, yet very few of these studies consider rural areas or populations. Utilizing a CBPR process, this study advances community-driven causal models to address obesity by exploring the difference in resources for physical activity and food outlets by block group race and income in a small regional city that anchors a rural health disparate region. To guide this inquiry we hypothesized that lower income and racially diverse block groups would have fewer food outlets, including fewer grocery stores and fewer physical activity outlets. We further hypothesized that walkability, as defined by a computed walkability index, would be lower in the lower income block groups. Using census data and GIS, base maps of the region were created and block groups categorized by income and race. All food outlets and physical activity resources were enumerated and geocoded and a walkability index computed. Analyses included one-way MANOVA and spatial autocorrelation. In total, 49 stores, 160 restaurants and 79 physical activity outlets were enumerated. There were no differences in the number of outlets by block group income or race. Further, spatial analyses suggest that the distribution of outlets is dispersed across all block groups. Under the larger CPBR process, this enumeration study advances the causal models set forth by the community members to address obesity by providing an overview of the food and physical activity environment in this region. This data reflects the food and physical activity resources available to residents in the region and will aid many of the community-academic partners as they pursue intervention strategies targeting obesity.

  17. The population condition and the food availability of cuscus in the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON SILAS SINERY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinery AS, Boer C, Farida WR. 2012. The population condition and availability of feed of cuscus in the Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 86-91. The cuscus is a pouched marsupial grouped in the Phalangeridae family, which is nocturnal, arboreal, herbivore, and in most cases the tail is prehensile. The animals are legally protected due to low reproduction, limited distribution area, and high rate of illegal hunting. The illegal hunting happened not only in the production forest areas but also in the reserve areas such as Nature Reserve of Arfak Mountain, directly or indirectly, affects the life quality of the ecosystem, mainly cuscuses population. Therefore, it is necessary to do efforts to have a better management of the region to ensure the sustenance of many components in it. This research is aimed to know the population density of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve and carried out for two months. The method used was descriptive by using direct and indirect observation. The result shows that cuscuses existing in the Arfak Mountain conservation area were northern common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis, ground cuscus (Phalanger gymnotis and common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus. The biggest individual number is of P. orientalis with 39 individuals consisting of 18 males and 21 females, the second is of P. gymnotis with 10 individuals consisting of 4 males and 6 females, and the smallest is of S. maculatus with 9 individuals consisting of 4 males and 5 females. From the total of 58 cuscuses, there are 38 adult and 20 young cuscuses. There are 20 forest plant species identified as feed resources of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve. The parts of forest plant consumed by cuscus are fruits and young leaves. P. gymnotis also consumes small insects such as grasshopper. The cuscuses spread from lowland forest to highland forest (2,900 m asl.

  18. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative and absolute availability of fast-food restaurants in relation to the development of diabetes: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Jane Y; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H; Dunn, James R; Booth, Gillian L

    2016-06-09

    To determine whether residents living in areas with a high proportion of fast-food restaurants (FFR) relative to all restaurants are more likely to develop diabetes and whether the risk varies according to the volume of FFR. The study cohort consisted of adult respondents (20-84 years) to the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 2005, 2007/2008, 2009/2010) who resided within walking distance (720 m) of at least one restaurant in Toronto, Brampton, Mississauga or Hamilton, ON. The development of diabetes was established by linking participants to the Ontario Diabetes Database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident diabetes associated with relative and absolute measures of restaurant availability. During a median follow-up of 5 years, 347 of 7,079 participants (4.6%) developed diabetes. Among younger adults (20-65 years, n = 5,806), a greater proportion of fast-food relative to all restaurants was significantly associated with incident diabetes after adjustment for a range of individual and area-level covariates, but only in areas with high volumes of fast-food retailers (3+ outlets) (HR = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.12, across the interquartile range). Adjusting for body mass index rendered this association non-significant. No significant associations were observed in areas with low volumes of FFR or among older adults (65-84 years, n = 1,273). Absolute availability (number) of fast-food and other restaurants was generally unrelated to incident diabetes. Areas with the double burden of a high volume of FFR and few dining alternatives may represent an adverse environment for the development of diabetes.

  20. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  1. Quo vadimus - future prospects for the earth's population. Comments on the worldwide situation concerning available energy and food sources, the consequences of climatic change, and available water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenscky, H.W. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Franzius Inst.

    2003-07-01

    The problems of our early future have already been critically examined in the years 1972 und 1974 in reports to the ''Club of Rome'' by D. Meadows in ''The Limits of Growth'' and by Eduard Pestel and M. Mesarovic in ''Mankind at the Turning Point'', and prognoses were given for the coming century. Nothing concerning those alarming results has changed substantially from then up to the present day. The frigthening increase in the population of our earth, our limited energy and food sources, the climatic changes with all their resultant symptoms, the limited availability of water and increasing environmental pollution still remain the problems and danger with which science and international politics must come to terms. This will be the case to an even greater extent in the future. (orig.)

  2. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  4. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  5. Validity and reliability of the semi-quantitative self-report Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist (HFAI-C) in White and South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; LeCroy, Madison; Sahota, Pinki; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2016-05-04

    Despite interest in the importance of the home food environment and its potential influence on children's diets and social norms, there remain few self-report checklist methods that have been validated against the gold standard of researcher-conducted inventories. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of the 'Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist' (HFAI-C), a 39-item checklist including categories of fruit, vegetables, snacks and drinks. The HFAI-C was completed by 97 participants of White and Pakistani origin in the UK. Validity was determined by comparing participant-reported HFAI-C responses to data from researcher observations of home food availability using PABAK and weighted kappa statistics. The validity of measuring the amount of items (in addition to presence/absence) available was also determined. Test-retest reliability compared repeated administrations of the HFAI-C using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity and reliability was fair to moderate overall. For validity, the average category-level PABAK ranged from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.37) for vegetables to 0.44 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) for fruits. Assessment of the presence/absence of items demonstrated higher validity compared to quantity measurements. Reliability was increased when the HFAI-C was repeated close to the time of the first administration. For example, ICCs for reliability of the measurement of fruits were 0.52 (95%CI: 0.47, 0.56) if re-administered within 5 months, 0.58 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.64) within 30 days and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00) if re-administered on the same day. Overall, the HFAI-C demonstrated fair to moderate validity and reliability in a population of White and South Asian participants. This evaluation is consistent with previous work on other checklists in less diverse, more affluent populations. Our research supports the use of the HFAI-C as a useful, albeit imperfect, representation of researcher-conducted inventories. The feasibility of

  6. Food availability and pCO2 impacts on planulation, juvenile survival, and calcification of the azooxanthellate scleractinian coral, Balanophyllia elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, E. D.; Cooper, H.; Potts, D. C.; Lambert, T.; Paytan, A.

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, the assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by the oceans that decreases the pH and CaCO3 saturation state (Ω) of seawater, is projected to have severe consequences for calcifying organisms. Strong evidence suggests that tropical reef-building corals containing algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) will experience dramatic declines in calcification over the next century. The responses of azooxanthellate corals to ocean acidification are less well understood, and because they cannot obtain extra photosynthetic energy from symbionts, they provide a system for studying the direct effects of acidification on the energy available for calcification. The orange cup coral Balanophyllia elegans is a solitary, azooxanthellate scleractinian species common on the California coast where it thrives in the low pH waters of an upwelling regime. During an 8 month study, we addressed the effects of three pCO2 treatments (410, 770, and 1230 μatm) and two feeding frequencies (High Food and Low Food) on adult Balanophyllia elegans planulation (larval release) rates, and on the survival, growth, and calcification of their juvenile offspring. Planulation rates were affected by food level but not pCO2, while juvenile survival was highest under 410 μatm and High Food conditions. Our results suggest that feeding rate has a greater impact on calcification of B. elegans than pCO2. Net calcification was positive even at 1230 μatm (~ 3 times current atmospheric pCO2), although the increase from 410 to 1230 μatm reduced overall calcification by ~ 25-45%, and reduced skeletal density by ~ 35-45%. Higher pCO2 also altered aragonite crystal morphology significantly. We discuss how feeding frequency affects azooxanthellate coral calcification, and how B. elegans may respond to ocean acidification in coastal upwelling waters.

  7. Impacts of food availability and pCO2 on planulation, juvenile survival, and calcification of the azooxanthellate scleractinian coral Balanophyllia elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, E. D.; Cooper, H.; Potts, D. C.; Lambert, T.; Paytan, A.

    2013-11-01

    Ocean acidification, the assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by the oceans that decreases the pH and CaCO3 saturation state (Ω) of seawater, is projected to have severe adverse consequences for calcifying organisms. While strong evidence suggests calcification by tropical reef-building corals containing algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) will decline over the next century, likely responses of azooxanthellate corals to ocean acidification are less well understood. Because azooxanthellate corals do not obtain photosynthetic energy from symbionts, they provide a system for studying the direct effects of acidification on energy available for calcification. The solitary azooxanthellate orange cup coral Balanophyllia elegans often lives in low-pH, upwelled waters along the California coast. In an 8-month factorial experiment, we measured the effects of three pCO2 treatments (410, 770, and 1220 μatm) and two feeding frequencies (3-day and 21-day intervals) on "planulation" (larval release) by adult B. elegans, and on the survival, skeletal growth, and calcification of newly settled juveniles. Planulation rates were affected by food level but not pCO2. Juvenile mortality was highest under high pCO2 (1220 μatm) and low food (21-day intervals). Feeding rate had a greater impact on calcification of B. elegans than pCO2. While net calcification was positive even at 1220 μatm (~3 times current atmospheric pCO2), overall calcification declined by ~25-45%, and skeletal density declined by ~35-45% as pCO2 increased from 410 to 1220 μatm. Aragonite crystal morphology changed at high pCO2, becoming significantly shorter but not wider at 1220 μatm. We conclude that food abundance is critical for azooxanthellate coral calcification, and that B. elegans may be partially protected from adverse consequences of ocean acidification in habitats with abundant heterotrophic food.

  8. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg -1 . The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg -1 respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg -1 ), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg -1 ), a tarragon (3300 µg kg -1 ) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg -1 ). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  9. Cell specific primary production and phagotrophy of phytoplankton in acidified lakes of Bohemian Forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znachor, Petr; Hrubý, P.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2000), s. 223-232 ISSN 1211-7420. [Acidified Lakes in the Bohemian/Bavarian Forest - History, Present and Future. České Budějovice, 21.03.2000-23.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0072; GA ČR GA206/98/0727; GA MŠk FRV:140/1999; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  10. Evidence for responses in water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in a strongly acidified mountain stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, F.; Horecký, J.; Senoo, T.; Kamasová, L.; Lamačová, Anna; Tátosová, J.; Hardekopf, D. W.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 9 (2017), s. 1049-1058 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidified mountain stream * macroinvertebrates * logging * hydrological patterns * recovery Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  11. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  12. Influence of food availability on the diet and activity budget of two western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups of differing size in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neba, Terence Fuh; Donati, Giuseppe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    Variation in food availability, body size and group size are known to influence primate diet and activity budgets. Here we report how seasonal food availability shapes the diet and activity patterns of two habituated western lowland gorilla (WLG) groups of differing size. WLGs are ripe fruit opportunists, showing dietary flexibility when preferred foods are scarce. However, as fruit can be rare/ patchily distributed, as intra-group feeding competition increases with group size, access to indi...

  13. Effect of four acidifying materials added to a calcareous soil on the availability of phosphorus to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen Gupta, M B; Cornfield, A H

    1964-12-01

    Ryegrass was grown in a pot test using a calcareous soil (0.36% calcium carbonate) treated with sulfur, ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate at 0.1% sulfur-equivalent, with potassium nitrate added where necessary, including the control, to equalize nitrogen supply. The sulfur treatment was the only one which significantly increased dry matter yields, total phosphorus uptake and top/root ratios in dry matter yields and total phosphorus. The ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate treatments significantly reduced top/root ratios in dry-matter yields and total phosphorus. 6 references, 1 table.

  14. Predicting long-term recovery of a strongly acidified stream using MAGIC and climate models (Litavka, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Hardekopf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two branches forming the headwaters of a stream in the Czech Republic were studied. Both streams have similar catchment characteristics and historical deposition; however one is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring-fed and only moderately acidified. The MAGIC model was used to reconstruct past stream water and soil chemistry of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels. A future increase in air temperature calculated by a regional climate model was then used to derive climate-related scenarios to test possible factors affecting chemical recovery up to 2100. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from both branches, and differences in stream chemistry were reflected in the community structures. According to modelled forecasts, recovery of the rain-fed branch will be gradual and limited, and continued high levels of sulphate release from the soils will continue to dominate stream water chemistry, while scenarios related to a predicted increase in temperature will have little impact. The likelihood of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch was evaluated considering the predicted extent of chemical recovery. The results suggest that the possibility of colonization of species from the spring-fed branch to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stonefly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa in the modelled period.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of sulfate-acidified cattle slurry: One-stage vs. two-stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2016-05-15

    Two strategies to include acidified cattle manure (AcCM) in co-digestion with normal cattle manure (CM) are presented in this work. The strategies are a single thermophilic (50 °C) continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digestion and a two-step (65 °C + 50 °C) CSTR process. In both strategies, two different inclusion levels of H2SO4-acidified CM (10% and 20%) in co-digestion with normal CM were tested and compared with a control CSTR fed only CM. Important enhancement of methane (CH4) yield and solid reductions were observed in the thermophilic one-step CSTR working with 10% AcCM. However, a higher inclusion level of AcCM (20%) caused volatile fatty acid accumulation in the reactor and a more than 30% reduction in CH4 production. In terms of CH4 production, when 10% of AcCM was co-digested with 90% of CM, the two-step anaerobic co-digestion yielded less than the single step. During the first step of the two-step CSTR process, acidogenesis and a partial sulfate reduction were achieved. However, sulfide stripping between the first and the second step must be promoted in order to advance this technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efeito da utilização de oligossacarídeo manose e acidificantes sobre o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento Effect of the utilization of oligosaccharide mannose and acidifiers on growing rabbits performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Scapinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de se determinar os efeitos da adição às rações de ácido fumárico, Oligossacarídeo manose (BIO-MOS®, acidificante (ACID-ALL® e a combinação de oligossacarídeo com acidificantes sobre o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento. Foram utilizados 100 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 50 machos e 50 fêmeas, de 39 a 75 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e 10 repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Considerando-se os períodos analisados 39-50 dias de idade e 39-75 dias, nenhuma das características de desempenho estudada foi afetada pela adição de oligossacarídeo, acidificantes ou a combinação de ambos.A trial was carried out to verify the effects of the addition of fumaric acid, oligosaccharide mannose (BIO-MOS®, acidifiers (ACID-ALL® and oligosaccharide + acidifiers in diets growing rabbits on performance. One hundred NZW rabbits, 50 males and 50 females from 39 to 75 days old, distributed in a randomized experimental design with five treatments, 10 replications and two animals by experimental unit. In the period from 39-50 and 39-75 days of experiment none of these performance characteristics was affected by inclusion of oligosaccharide mannose, acidifiers and oligosaccharide +acidifiers did not influence the performance of growing rabbits.

  17. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  18. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Martin S.; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Routti, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ 13 C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ 13 C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ 13 C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  19. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  20. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury speciation, fluxes, and fate in the volcanically acidified fluids of Copahue volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, T.; Varekamp, J. C.; Andersson, M.; Balcom, P.; Mason, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    The behavior of mercury in volcanic acid springs and acidified rivers is poorly known, despite the potential impact this vector of contamination has on local surface and ground water quality. Mercury was measured in a volcanically acidified river system (pHvolcano, determined from river water flux measurements and Hg concentrations, was modest and varied between the 3/2008 and 3/2009 sampling campaigns resp. from 0.7 to 1.1 moles/year. The Hg:S ratio of the acid fluids was ~10-8, several orders of magnitude lower than that typically found in volcanic plumes and fumaroles. The small Hg flux and low Hg:S values suggest that the system is either inherently Hg-poor or has lost Hg through vapor loss deeper in the hydrothermal system. Support for the latter comes from high Hg concentrations in geothermal vents and mudpots on the flank of the mountain (24 - 55 ppm Hg). Mercury concentrations decreased conservatively downstream in the river as based on Hg/Cl and Hg/SO4. Non-conservative depletion occurs in the less acidic Lake Caviahue, suggesting that mercury is removed from the water column by sorption to organic matter or other phases. Mercury analyses of a short lake sediment core confirm this (Hg = 0.01 to 0.70 ppm). No evidence was found for preferential uptake of mercury by jarosite, schwertmannite, or goethite, although the latter two phases precipitate in the most distal and Hg-depleted section of the fluvial system.

  2. Does road salting confound the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified lake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thomas Correll; Meland, Sondre; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Walseng, Bjørn

    2014-04-15

    Numerous boreal lakes across the Northern Hemisphere recovering from acidification are experiencing a simultaneous increase in chloride (Cl) concentrations from road salting. Increasing Cl may have profound effects on the lake ecosystem. We examine if an increase in Cl from road salting has modified the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified boreal lake undergoing chemical recovery (study lake). Results from the study lake were compared with an acidified "reference lake". The community changed during the study period in the study lake mainly driven by the reduction in acidification pressure. Despite the community changes and an increase in species richness, the absence of several acid sensitive species, previously occurring in the lake, indicates a delayed biological recovery relative to the chemical recovery. Moreover, changes in occurrence of acid sensitive and acid tolerant species indicated that the biological recovery was slower in the study lake compared to the "reference". Although recurrent episodes of high aluminum and low pH and decreasing Ca are likely important factors for the delay, these do not explain, for instance, the shift from Cyclops scutifer to Bosmina longispina in the study lake. Although the contribution of Cl was not significant, the correlation between Cl and the variation in microcrustacean community was twice as high in the study lake compared to the "reference". We argue that small, sheltered forest lakes may be especially sensitive to increased Cl levels, through changes in pattern of stratification, thus providing a mechanism for the shift from C. scutifer to B. longispina. The reduction of the acidification pressure seems to override the Cl effects on microcrustaceans at low Cl levels in salt-affected lakes recovering from acidification. However, prognoses for growing traffic and increasing road salting raise concern for many recovering lakes located in proximity to roads and urbanized areas. Copyright © 2014

  3. Terrestrial liming benefits birds in an acidified forest in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sarah E; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2007-12-01

    Studies in Europe have reported negative effects of acid deposition on forest birds, and research in North America has identified links between forest bird abundance and rates of acid deposition. We examined the bird community in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania (USA) and evaluated the effects of terrestrial lime application on birds. We used a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design, with one year of observation before (2003) and three years after lime application (2004, 2005, and 2006). Between the 2003 and 2004 field seasons, 4500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime were applied to two of four 100-ha watersheds. Each year, we monitored bird abundance and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) eggshell thickness and territory size. Soil and snail abundance data were also collected. The bird community and territory size results indicated that the study area may be providing low-quality habitat for forest birds, perhaps as a result of acid deposition. We found lower forest bird abundances than have been found in less acidified areas of Pennsylvania, and larger Ovenbird territory sizes than have been found in other studies. We found a significant positive relationship between soil calcium and bird abundance, indicating that soil calcium may affect bird abundance. Liming increased soil calcium and pH and led to increased snail and bird abundances. After liming, bird abundance was positively related to snail abundance. No significant changes occurred in Ovenbird territory size or eggshell thickness. Our results suggest that acid deposition could be responsible for reduced bird abundance, and that liming is a potential mitigation technique.

  4. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  5. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2012-02-01

    To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80 % of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. South San Diego County. Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P = 0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture's recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products.

  6. Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Impact of food-consumption, dietary-macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Fatima; Munir, Rimsha; Usman, Hina; Rashid, Rida; Shahjahan, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; Zaidi, Nousheen

    2017-04-01

    Lipid-load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has recently gained attention of the researchers working on nutritional regulation of metabolic health. Previous works have indicated that the metabolic circuitries in the circulating PBMCs are influenced by dietary-intake and macronutrient composition of diet. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of diet and dietary macronutrients on PBMCs' lipid-load. The overall analyses revealed that dietary carbohydrates and fats combinatorially induce triglyceride accumulation in PBMCs. On the other hand, dietary fats were shown to induce significant decrease in PBMCs' cholesterol-load. The effects of various demographic factors -including age, gender and body-weight- on PBMCs' lipid-load were also examined. Body-weight and age were both shown to affect PBMC's lipid-load. Our study fails to provide any direct association between extracellular lipid availability and cholesterol-load in both, freshly isolated and cultured PBMCs. The presented work significantly contributes to the current understanding of the impact of food-consumption, dietary macronutrients, extracellular lipid availability and demographic factors on lipid-load in PBMCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (Pyogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adjyogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  8. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  9. Trends in Surface Water Chemistry in Acidified Areas in Europe and North America from 1990 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidification of lakes and rivers is still an environmental concern despite reduced emissions of acidifying compounds. We analyzed trends in surface water chemistry of 173 acid-sensitive sites from 12 regions in Europe and North America. In 11 of 12 regions, non-marine sulphate (...

  10. [Evaluation of the adjusted amino acid score by digestibility for estimating the protein quality and protein available in food and diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility to estimate protein quality and utilizable protein in foods and diets, considering net protein utilization (NPU) as a biological reference method. Ten foods of vegetable origin and ten of animal origin, as well as eight mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin were studied. When all the foods were considered, a positive (r = 0.83) and highly significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between NPU and the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility was found. When the foods were separated according to their origin, this correlation was positive only for the foods of vegetable origin (r = 0.93) and statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Also, only in those foods were similar values found between NPU and amino acid score adjusted by digestibility, as well as in utilizable protein estimated considering both methods. Caution is required to interpret protein quality and utilizable protein values of foods of animal origin and mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin when the amino acid score method adjusted by digestibility, or NPU, are utilized.

  11. Synthesis of available information in Japan about the contamination of food products by radionuclides remaining in the environment after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the general status of contamination of the land environment in Japan after the Fukushima accident (maps indicate level of Caesium 134 and 137). It outlines and comments that these radioactive caesium deposits are generally the reason of a persistent contamination of some food products. It describes the measures and arrangements implemented in Japan to control the contamination of food products and to restrict their marketing, comments the assessment of the contamination of food products according to results published in Japan since the accident for the different types of food products: agriculture, fishing, meat and milk, mushrooms, other land vegetal products

  12. Food and fuel : a hidden dimension in human nutrition : a study on the relationship between nutrition security and fuelwood availability in Ntcheu District, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.D.

    1994-01-01

    Fuelwood is the main source of energy for rural households in developing countries and is predominantly used for food preparation and processing. Due to rapid deforestation, the supply of fuelwood is threatened. Many factors influence household food and nutrition security, but so far the

  13. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  14. Interactions between acidified dispersions of milk proteins and dextran or dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides are often used to stabilize cultured milk products, although the nature of these interactions is not entirely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate phase behavior of milk protein dispersions with added dextran (DX; molecular weight = 2 × 10(6) Da) or dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight = 1.4 × 10(6) Da) as examples of uncharged and charged polysaccharides, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk (5-20% milk solids, wt/wt) was acidified to pH 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9 at approximately 0°C (to inhibit gelation) by addition of 3 N HCl. Dextran or DS was added to acidified milk samples to give concentrations of 0 to 2% (wt/wt) and 0 to 1% (wt/wt) polysaccharide, respectively. Milk samples were observed for possible phase separation after storage at 0°C for 1 and 24h. Possible gelation of these systems was determined by using dynamic oscillatory rheology. The type of interactions between caseins and DX or DS was probed by determining the total carbohydrate analysis of supernatants from phase-separated samples. At 5.0 to 7.5% milk solids, phase separation of milk samples occurred after 24h even without DX or DS addition, due to destabilization of caseins in these acidic conditions, and a stabilizing effect was observed when 0.7 or 1.0% DS was added. At higher milk solids content, phase separation was not observed without DX or DS addition. Similar results were observed at all pH levels. Gelation occurred in samples containing high milk solids (≥10%) with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0% DX or 0.4 to 1.0% DS. Based on carbohydrate analysis of supernatants, we believe that DX interacted with milk proteins through a type of depletion flocculation mechanism, whereas DS appeared to interact via electrostatic-type interactions with milk proteins. This study helps to explain how uncharged and charged stabilizers influence the texture of cultured dairy products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  16. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  17. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    1995-12-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Rapid restoration of methanogenesis in an acidified UASB reactor treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Báez, María Consuelo; Valderrama-Rincon, Juan Daniel

    2017-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants. Here we establish a quick recovery strategy for neutralization of an acidified UASB reactor after failure by intoxication with an excess of TCP in the influent. Once the reactor returned to pH values compatible with methanogenesis, biogas production was re-started after one day and the system was re-acclimated to TCP. Successful removal of TCP from synthetic wastewater was shown for concentrations up to 70mg/L after restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of wood liquefaction in acidified ethylene glycol using experimental design methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzoug, S.A. [Universite de La Rochelle, Lab. de Maitrise des Technologies Agro-Industrielles, La Rochelle, 17 (France); Capart, R. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Dept. de Genie Chimique, Compiegne, 60 (France)

    2003-03-01

    The liquefaction of milled wood (Pinus pinaster) was effected in ethylene glycol acidified with small quantities of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence upon the liquefaction yield of the three operating variables, the maximal temperature (150-280 deg C), the reaction time at maximal temperature (20-60 min) and the amount of added H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0-1.5% on dry wood). The individual effects, as well as the interactions between operating variables, are investigated by using an experimental design methodology. From a Pareto chart, it appears that the most significant effects are clearly those of the maximum temperature and the interaction between acidity and temperature. Such effects can be graphically verified through response surfaces and contour line plots. From a regression analysis, the conversion rate of wood into liquid is simply expressed as a function of the operating variables by a polynomial containing quadratic terms. A statistical model seems particularly appropriate in the case of complex and multi-components, as wood, a kinetic model is nevertheless proposed for the liquefaction of micro-crystalline cellulose. This model accounts for the formation of a carbonaceous solid residue from the liquid product. Such an unwanted phenomenon obviously results in a lower yield in liquid product. (Author)

  20. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2--N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  2. Increased microsporidian parasitism of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in an experimentally acidified lake. [Thelohania contejeani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, R.L.; Graham, L.

    1985-10-01

    Orconectes virilis has been identified as a host of the microsporidian Thelohania contejeani in four lakes in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario. Prevalence of parasitism increased from 1.7% in autumn 1979, to 6.5% and 7.7% in autumns 1980 and 1981 concomitant with experimental acidification of Lake 223 to pH 5.1. By comparison, mean infection rates observed within three reference lakes were between 0.3 to 0.6%. Enhanced microsporidosis is believed to have contributed to a reduction in annual crayfish survival rates for the Lake 223 population of 8% in 1979 and 18% in 1980 compared to averages calculated for the non-acidified lakes. Hypotheses to explain the ten-fold increase in Thelohania parasitism in Lake 223 over background levels for the ELA region include a) increased probagative ability due to elevated rate of crayfish cannibalism or low pH-favored parasite life cycle, and b) decreased host resistance when under sublethal stress.

  3. Corrosion of Alloys 600 ampersand 900 in acidified sulfate and chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.H.; Partridge, M.J.; Paine, J.P.N.

    1993-01-01

    A program is being performed currently: (1) to better quantify the susceptibility of Alloy 600 and 690 steam generator (SG) tubing materials to intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in acid solutions of the types that could concentrate in steam generator crevices, and (2) to establish the effectiveness of various remedial measures achieved through chemical additions to the secondary side coolant. The main test method is the exposure of stressed C-rings and expanded capsules of SG tubing to acid chloride and sulfate environments of various pH levels, temperatures, and applied potentials. Following these exposures, crack lengths are measured on metallographic cross-sections of the C-rings, and wastage rates calculated from weight loss, surface area and time. Test solutions are based on varying concentrations of sulfate and chloride species, with other contaminants added to some tests. The temperature dependence of the pH of the acidified solutions is calculated using the EPRI-developed MULTEQ computer program. High-temperature pH levels range from values of 2.5 to 7.6 at 315 degrees C, which is the nominal test temperature. Various accelerating and inhibiting factors (pH, temperature, solution composition and concentration, and applied electrochemical potential) are being evaluated

  4. Complex Responses of Intertidal Molluscan Embryos to a Warming and Acidifying Ocean in the Presence of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew R.; Coleman, Daniel; Broad, Allison; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification will expose marine organisms to synchronous multiple stressors, with early life stages being potentially most vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. We simultaneously exposed encapsulated molluscan embryos to three abiotic stressors—acidified conditions, elevated temperate, and solar UV radiation in large outdoor water tables in a multifactorial design. Solar UV radiation was modified with plastic filters, while levels of the other factors reflected IPCC predictions for near-future change. We quantified mortality and the rate of embryonic development for a mid-shore littorinid, Bembicium nanum, and low-shore opisthobranch, Dolabrifera brazieri. Outcomes were consistent for these model species with embryos faring significantly better at 26°C than 22°C. Mortality sharply increased at the lowest temperature (22°C) and lowest pH (7.6) examined, producing a significant interaction. Under these conditions mortality approached 100% for each species, representing a 2- to 4-fold increase in mortality relative to warm (26°C) non-acidified conditions. Predictably, development was more rapid at the highest temperature but this again interacted with acidified conditions. Development was slowed under acidified conditions at the lowest temperature. The presence of UV radiation had minimal impact on the outcomes, only slowing development for the littorinid and not interacting with the other factors. Our findings suggest that a warming ocean, at least to a threshold, may compensate for the effects of decreasing pH for some species. It also appears that stressors will interact in complex and unpredictable ways in a changing climate. PMID:23405238

  5. Technology for a Social Cause: Formulated Emergency Relief Foods for Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia V. Azanza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study details how ready-to-eat (RTE rice and rice-cornstarch noodle (bihon product formulations of the College of Home Economics (CHE of the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD were used to produce emergency relief foods for the survivors of super typhoon Yolanda (international name: Haiyan in the Philippines. The RTE products were developed using established pasteurization technologies covered with commercial sterility test certifications from the Pilot Food Plant (PFP of UPD-CHE and published food safety considerations for acidified foods. They do not require any cooking or reheating before consumption. They were prescribed with a one-month shelflife at ambient storage temperature (28±2°C during deployment as relief foods. About 5,000 and 3,000 production units of the RTE cooked rice (200 g/pack and bihon (150 g/pack, respectively, were produced at the PFP. Around 300 volunteers composed of faculty, staff, alumni, students, and acquaintances of UPD-CHE’s departments and organizations manned the two-week staggered production, scheduled from late November to the f irst week of December 2013. In cooperation with organizations and private entities, the RTE products were deployed without cost from UPD to the stricken areas of Aklan, Iloilo, and Leyte. Feedback from the recipients of the products was favorable, indicating that the RTE foods are useful as emergency relief ration.

  6. Salmonella enterica suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum population and soft rot progression by acidifying the microaerophilic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O; Barak, Jeri D

    2013-02-12

    and human hosts. Their populations are higher on plants cocolonized with the common bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, turning edible plants into a risk factor for human disease. We inoculated leaves with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and S. enterica or E. coli O157:H7 to study the interactions between these bacteria. While P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7, these human pathogens affected P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum fundamentally differently. S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth and acidified the environment, leading to less soft rot on leaves; E. coli O157:H7 had no such effects. As soft rot signals a food safety risk, the reduction of soft rot symptoms in the presence of S. enterica may lead consumers to eat healthy-looking but S. enterica-contaminated produce.

  7. Use of a new availability index to evaluate the effect of policy changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the food environment in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian G; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) occurred in 2009 when supplemental foods offered through the programme were updated to align with current dietary recommendations. The present study reports on a new index developed to monitor the retail environment's adoption of these new food supply requirements in New Orleans. A 100-point WIC Availability Index (WIC-AI) was derived from new minimum state stocking requirements for WIC vendors. A sample of supermarkets, medium and small food stores was assessed in 2009 before changes were implemented and in 2010 after revisions had gone into effect. WIC-AI scores were utilized to compare differences in meeting requirements by store type, WIC vendor status and year of measurement. Supermarkets, medium and small WIC and non-WIC food stores in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. At baseline supermarkets had the highest median WIC-AI score (93·3) followed by medium (69·8) and small food stores (48·0). Small WIC stores had a higher median WIC-AI score at baseline than small non-WIC stores (66·9 v. 38·0). Both medium and small WIC stores significantly increased their median WIC-AI scores between 2009 and 2010 (P<0·01). The increased median WIC-AI score in small food stores was largely attributed to increased availability of cereals and grains, juices and fruit, and infant fruit and vegetables. The WIC-AI is a simple tool useful in summarizing complex food store environment data and may be adapted for use in other states or a national level to inform food policy decisions and direction.

  8. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D. G.; Tsai, N. Y.; Akimoto, H.; Oka, K.

    2000-01-01

    Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO 2 and NO x that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO 2 in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO 2 emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NO x , on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO 2 remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NO x , will become more and more important in the future

  10. Experimental Assessment of the Effects of Temperature and Food Availability on Particle Mixing by the Bivalve Abra alba Using New Image Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Lecroart, Pascal; Maire, Olivier; Ciutat, Aurélie; Deflandre, Bruno; Grémare, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food addition on particle mixing in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba were assessed using an experimental approach allowing for the tracking of individual fluorescent particle (luminophore) displacements. This allowed for the computations of vertical profiles of a set of parameters describing particle mixing. The frequency of luminophore displacements (jumps) was assessed through the measurement of both waiting times (i.e., the time lapses between two consecutive jumps of the same luminophore) and normalized numbers of jumps (i.e., the numbers of jumps detected in a given area divided by the number of luminophores in this area). Jump characteristics included the direction, duration and length of each jump. Particle tracking biodiffusion coefficients (Db) were also computed. Data originated from 32 experiments carried out under 4 combinations of 2 temperature (Te) and 2 food addition (Fo) levels. For each of these treatments, parameters were computed for 5 experimental durations (Ed). The effects of Se, Fo and Ed were assessed using PERmutational Multivariate ANalyses Of VAriance (PERMANOVAs) carried out on vertical depth profiles of each particle mixing parameter. Inversed waiting times significantly decreased with Ed whereas the normalized number of jumps did not, thereby suggesting that it constitutes a better proxy of jump frequency when assessing particle mixing based on the measure of individual particle displacements. Particle mixing was low during autumn temperature experiments and not affected by Fo, which was attributed to the dominant effect of low temperature. Conversely, particle mixing was high during summer temperature experiments and transitory inhibited by food addition. This last result is coherent with the functional responses (both in terms of activity and particle mixing) already measured for individual of the closely related clam A. ovata originating from temperate populations. It also partly resulted from a

  11. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  12. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  13. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  14. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO 2 -Acidified Brine Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-15

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel

  15. Characterisation of lignins isolated from sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene glycol and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Zhang, Zhanying; Wellard, R. Mark; Bartley, John P.; O'Hara, Ian M.; Doherty, William O.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment processes using acidified aqueous ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquids (ILs) have been reported recently. In this study, recovery of lignins from these processes was conducted, as well as determination of their physico-chemical properties. The amount of lignins recovered from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) with HCl as a catalyst and [bmim][CH 3 SO 3 ] was ∼42%, and ∼35%–36% by EG with HCl or H 2 SO 4 as a catalyst, respectively. The isolated lignins were characterised using wet chemistry, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and the results compared to soda lignin from NaOH pretreatment of bagasse. The IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates, slightly lower hydrogen content but slightly higher oxygen contents than soda lignin. The IL and EG lignins contained more C-3 and C-5 reactive sites for Mannich reaction and had more p-hydroxypheny propane unit structures than soda lignin. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (2D HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified the major substructural units in the lignins, and allowed differences among them to be studied. As EG lignins were extracted in very reactive environment, intermediate enol ethers were formed and led to cleavage reactions which were not apparent in the other lignins. 31 P NMR and infra-red spectroscopy results showed that IL and EG lignins had lower total hydroxyl content than soda lignin, probably indicating that a higher degree of self-polymerisation occurred during bagasse pretreatment, despite the use of lower temperature and shorter reaction time. On the basis of the salient features of these lignins, potential applications were proposed. - Highlights: • Lignins were recovered from ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquid (IL) processes. • IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates. • IL and EG lignin had more C-3 and C-5 sites for Mannich reaction than soda

  16. Acidified seawater increases accumulation of cobalt but not cesium in manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Narin; Kocaoğlan, Hasan Oğuz; Kılıç, Önder; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Belivermiş, Murat

    2018-04-01

    The pH of seawater around the world is expected to continue its decline in the near future in response to ocean acidification that is driven by heightened atmospheric CO 2 emissions. Concomitantly, economically-important molluscs that live in coastal waters including estuaries and embayments, may be exposed to a wide assortment of contaminants, including trace metals and radionuclides. Seawater acidification may alter both the chemical speciation of select elements as well as the physiology of organisms, and may thus pose at risk to many shellfish species, including the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The bioconcentration efficiency of two common radionuclides associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, 134 Cs and 57 Co, were investigated by exposing live clams to dissolved 134 Cs and 57 Co at control (pH = 8.1) and two lowered pH (pH = 7.8 and 7.5) levels using controlled aquaria. The uptake and depuration kinetics of the two radionuclides in the whole-body clam were followed for 21 and 35 days, respectively. At steady-state equilibrium, the concentration factor (CF ss ) for 57 Co increased as the pH decreased (i.e. 130 ± 5, 194 ± 6, and 258 ± 10 at pH levels 8.1, 7.8 and 7.5, respectively), whereas the 134 Cs uptake was not influenced by a change in pH conditions. During depuration, the lowest depuration rate constant of 57 Co by the manila clam was observed at the intermediate pH of 7.8. An increase in the accumulation of 57 Co at the intermediate pH value was thought to be caused mainly by the aragonitic shell of the clam, as well as the low salinity and alkalinity of seawater used in the experiment. Considering that accumulation consists of uptake and depuration, among the three pH conditions moderately acidified seawater enhanced most the accumulation of 57 Co. Accumulation of 134 Cs was not strongly influenced by a reduced pH condition, as represented by an analogous uptake constant rate and CF ss in each treatment. Such results suggest that

  17. Increased fitness of a key appendicularian zooplankton species under warmer, acidified seawater conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Bouquet

    Full Text Available Ocean warming and acidification (OA may alter the fitness of species in marine pelagic ecosystems through community effects or direct physiological impacts. We used the zooplanktonic appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, to assess temperature and pH effects at mesocosm and microcosm scales. In mesocosms, both OA and warming positively impacted O. dioica abundance over successive generations. In microcosms, the positive impact of OA, was observed to result from increased fecundity. In contrast, increased pH, observed for example during phytoplankton blooms, reduced fecundity. Oocyte fertility and juvenile development were equivalent under all pH conditions, indicating that the positive effect of lower pH on O. dioica abundance was principally due to increased egg number. This effect was influenced by food quantity and quality, supporting possible improved digestion and assimilation at lowered pH. Higher temperature resulted in more rapid growth, faster maturation and earlier reproduction. Thus, increased temperature and reduced pH had significant positive impacts on O. dioica fitness through increased fecundity and shortened generation time, suggesting that predicted future ocean conditions may favour this zooplankton species.

  18. Effects of Feeding Acidified Milk Replacer on the Growth, Health and Behavioural Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Mete; GÜLER, Olcay; BAYRAM, Bahri; METİN, Jale

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) or sweet (regular) milk replacer (SMR) at 8% of birth weight. Twenty-one calves (10 males, 11 females) were offered replacers reconstituted to 12% of dry matter over 5 weeks. In the group fed AMR, daily body weight gains of calves at the different stages of growth were comparable to those for calves fed SMR. In the preweaning period, calves offered AMR had similar dry matter intakes from st...

  19. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany); Holzhauser, Thomas, E-mail: holth@pei.de [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany)

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg{sup -1}. We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a

  20. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman(®) real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg(-1) almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg(-1). We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman(®) probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg(-1). Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman(®) real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n=5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  1. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg -1 almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg -1 . We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg -1 almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg -1 . Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg -1 spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  2. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  3. European transboundary acidifying air pollution. Ten years calculated fields and budgets to the end of the first Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.; Seland, Oe.; Foss, A.; Mylona, S.; Sandnes, H.; Styve, H.; Tarrason, L.

    1995-07-01

    The Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission and Air Pollutants in Europe, EMEP, plays an integral part in data collection and scientific cooperation for implementation of the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Within EMEP, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (MSC-W) is an international technical centre. The purpose of the MSC-W, focusing in part on acidifying substances, is to estimate the concentrations of relevant sulphur and nitrogen pollutants across Europe on the basis of emission information and meteorological data, and to estimate the transboundary fluxes of these substances. Responding to these specific obligations, the report presents calculations of sulphur and nitrogen concentrations and depositions and of their transboundary fluxes. The calculations are performed by the receptor oriented one layer trajectory (Lagrangian) acid deposition model, which during 1995 has been used to estimate acidifying pollutant fluxes for the ten year period 1985-1994. This corresponds to the period between initial signing and conclusion of the first Sulphur Protocol, signed in Helsinki in 1985. 90 refs., 42 figs., 43 tabs.

  4. Modelling Water Level Influence on Habitat Choice and Food Availability for Zostera Feeding Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Non-Tidal Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.

    2000-01-01

    of water level fluctuations on the habitat use. A second model was developed to estimate the impact of water level on Zostera availability. The first model was successful in demonstrating that fluctuations in water levels had considerable influence on habitat use by the brent geese, i.e. they fed...... on Zostera at low water levels and on saltmarshes during high water levels, particularly so in early spring, and that the switch between habitats occurred within a narrow water level span of ca 30 cm. The second model demonstrated that the switch between habitats could be explained by lowered availability...... of Zostera as water levels increased. By combining the output from the two models, differences between years could partly be explained by differences in Zostera availability in the early spring period (21 March - 25 April), whereas a more complicated situation was detected later in spring (26 April - 31 May...

  5. Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, V.M.; de Vries, B.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2016-01-01

    In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences

  6. Phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Courcy Williams, Michael E; Kravar-Garde, Lidija; Fenlon, John S; Sunderland, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. The shape of the response differed for Phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. Fitted response curves showed that I. degenerans, N. cucumeris, N. californicus and P. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of persimilis egg duration was significantly longer at 60 and 70% than for either 82 or 90% RH. No effect of relative humidity was found on the mean life span of adult females when food was available continuously to the mites. N. californicus lived significantly longer (58 days after the first egg was laid) than the other species. No significant difference was observed in mean life span between adult females of I. degenerans and N. cucumeris (25 and 28 days respectively). The mean life span of adult female P. persimilis (19 days) was significantly shorter than the other species. In the absence of both food and water, the survival of adult female mites was reduced to 2-4 days. Survival time was at least doubled when free water was available in the absence of food. Mean survival of adult female mites with water but without food was 10 days for N. cucumeris, 18 days for N. californicus, 6 days for P. persimilis and 4 days for I. degenerans. Survival of adult female N. cucumeris and N. californicus was increased significantly, to 20 and 22 days respectively, when fungal hyphae were present along with water but in the absence of other food.

  7. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function During the Acidified Anaerobic Digestion of Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Joyce

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values (e.g., carboxylates. In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed. The bioreactors leachates were not buffered and acidic pH (between 5.5 and 6.3 prevailed at the time of sampling as a result of microbial activities. Community composition and transcriptionally active taxa were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial functions were investigated using metaproteomics. Bioreactor fraction, i.e., grass or leachate, was found to be the main discriminator of community analysis across the three molecular level of investigation (DNA, RNA, and proteins. Six taxa, namely Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Methanomicrobia, and Negativicutes accounted for the large majority of the three datasets. The initial stages of grass hydrolysis were carried out by Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Negativicutes in the grass biofilms, in addition to

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Klop-Toker

    Full Text Available Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds. We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations

  10. Contribution to the Identification of a Local and Available Food Source for Sustainable Production of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshinyama, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in parallel with work in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with the objective to evaluate the growth performance and production costs of Nile tilapia fed diets formulated using local plant protein sources, and to compare them to those obtained with an optimized commercial fish feed. Ninety monosex male tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus; mean weight 17.3 ± 0.2 g; mean length 9.6 ± 0.1 cm were reared in 9 acrylic aquaria supplied by closed water recirculation system. Three diets were tested in triplicate: 1 Rcongo, the test diet formulated by using local feed ingredients collected in the DR-Congo; 2 Rcanada, the diet formulated with the same ingredient composition as the first one, but sourced in Canada; and 3 Rcommercial, a fishmeal-based commercial control diet. In vivo feed digestibility and biochemical analysis of samples were carried out. The effects of diet and rearing time were measured on fish performance, including fish biomass, K coefficient, weight gain (WG, feed efficiency (FE, feed conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC and on nutrient budget and fish biochemical composition. After four weeks, the fish achieved weight gains of 52% for Rcongo diet (17.2 ± 0.4 to 26.2 ± 2.6 g, 59% for Rcanada diet (17.4 ± 0.1 to 27.6 ± 3.2 g and 153% for the commercial diet (17.3 ± 0.2 to 43.8 ± 2.0 g. The cost-benefit analysis has indicated that the Rcongo diet was economically advantageous, reducing fish production cost up to 36% compared to commercial feed.

  11. Use of acidifier and solubilizer in tadalafil solid dispersion to enhance the in vitro dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Jang, Woo Suk; Byeon, Jong Chan; Jeong, Hyeong Mo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to improve the solubility, in vitro dissolution, and oral bioavailability in rats of tadalafil (TDF) by using SD technique with a weak acid and a copolymer. TDF-SD was prepared via solvent evaporation, coupled with the incorporation of an acidifier and solubilizer. Tartaric acid enhanced the solubility of TDF over 5-fold in DW, and Soluplus ® enhanced the solubility of TDF over 8.7-fold and 19.2-fold compared to that of TDF (pure) in DW and pH 1.2 for 1h, respectively. The optimal formulation of TDF-SD3 was composed of TDF vs Tartaric acid vs Soluplus ® vs Aerosil=1:1:3:3. The in vitro dissolution rate of TDF-SD3 in DW, pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 buffer (51.5%, 53.3%, and 33.2%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the commercial product (Cialis ® ) powder (16.5%, 15.2%, and 14.8%, respectively). TDF was completely transformed to an amorphous form as shown in SEM, DSC and PXRD data. The stability of TDF-SD3 included drug contents and in vitro dissolution for 1 month were similar to those of Cialis ® , and the amorphous form of TDF-SD3 was well maintained for 6 months. The TDF-SD3 formulation improved the relative bioavailability (BA) and peak plasma concentration (C max ) compared to that of Cialis ® powder after oral administration in rats as 117.3% and 135.7%, respectively. From the results, we found that the acidifier increased the wettability of TDF, and the solubilizer improved solubility through hydrogen bonding with TDF, thereby increasing the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of TDF in TDF-SD3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of a new Fenton-like catalyst from red mud using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangtao; Shao, Luhua; Mo, Jihua; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Linye

    2017-06-01

    Using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent, a new Fenton-like catalyst (ACRM sm ) was prepared through a simple process of acidification and calcination using red mud as main material. With molasses wastewater, both the free alkali and the chemically bonded alkali in red mud were effectively removed under the action of H 2 SO 4 and molasses wastewater, and the prepared ACRM sm was a near-neutral catalyst. The ACRM sm preparation conditions were as follows: for 3 g of red mud, 9 mL of 0.7 mol/L H 2 SO 4 plus 2 g of molasses wastewater as the acidifying agent, calcination temperature 573 K, and calcination time 1 h. Iron phase of ACRM sm was mainly α-Fe 2 O 3 and trace amount of carbon existed in ACRM sm . The addition of molasses wastewater not only effectively reduced the consumption of H 2 SO 4 in acidification of red mud but also resulted in the generation of carbon and significantly improved the distribution of macropore in prepared ACRM sm . It was found that near-neutral pH of catalyst, generated carbon, and wide distribution of macropore were the main reasons for the high catalytic activity of ACRM sm . The generated carbon and wide distribution of macropore were entirely due to the molasses wastewater added. In degradation of orange II, ACRM sm retained most of its catalytic stability and activity after five recycling times, indicating ACRM sm had an excellent long-term stability in the Fenton-like process. Furthermore, the performance test of settling showed ACRM sm had an excellent settleability. ACRM sm was a safe and green catalytic material used in Fenton-like oxidation for wastewater treatment.

  13. Intracellular pH homeostasis plays a role in the tolerance ofDebaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides to acidified nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koch, Anette Granly

    2008-01-01

    . hansenii at an external pH (pHex) value of 4.5 butdid not at pHex 5.5. These results indicate that nitrous acid as such plays an important role in the antifungal effect of acidified nitrite. Furthermore, both yeast species experienced severe growth inhibition and a pHi decrease at pHex 4.5, suggesting...... that at least some of the antifungal effects of acidified nitrite may be due to intracellular acidification. For C. zeylanoides, this phenomenon could be explained in part by the uncoupling effect of energy generation from growth. Debaryomyces hansenii was more tolerant to acidified nitrite at pHex 5.5 than C....... zeylanoides, as determined by the rate of growth initiation. In combination with the fact that D. hansenii was able to maintain pHi homeostasis at pHex 5.5 but C. zeylanoides was not, our results suggest that the ability to maintain pHi homeostasis plays a role in the acidified-nitrite tolerance of D...

  14. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  15. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 17 – 21.11.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium – niveau 2 : 18 – 21.11.03 (4 jours) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition – Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & ...

  16. Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Places available The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction ...

  17. Distributions of 14 elements on 63 absorbers from three simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge, acidified supernate, and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 63 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste (HLW). These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with three solutions prepared to simulate acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6), acidified supernate (pH 3.5), and alkaline supernate (pH 13.9) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. To these simulants we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of more than 2500 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate those elements most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of greater interest. On the basis of nearly 7500 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of these absorbers appear suitable for processing HLW. This study supersedes the previous version of LA-12654, in which results attributed to a solution identified as an alkaline supernate simulant were misleading because that solution contained insufficient hydroxide

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    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) : 2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & 12.12.03 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language - l...

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    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) :2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & ...

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    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) The EDMS-MTF in practice (free of charge) :  28 -  30.10.03 (6 half-day sessions) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) LabVIEW TestStand ver. 3 : 4 & 5.11.03 (2 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11.03 p.m. (half-day) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programm...

  5. Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas características biológicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae Efect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Características biológicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 foram avaliadas em laboratório onde esses parasitóides foram criados com ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, com ou sem mel, e expostos a ovos do hospedeiro após 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 e 84 horas da emergência. As taxas de parasitismo e de viabilidade mostraram-se elevadas para indivíduos que receberam alimento. A razão sexual não foi influenciada pelo alimento. O número de indivíduos por ovo somente mostrou diferença para aqueles adultos que não receberam alimento e permaneceram 6 horas sem ovos do hospedeiro. Conferindo o efeito da disponibilidade de ovos, somente a razão sexual, com ou sem mel, não mostrou diferenças. Os resultados mostram que T. galloi necessita de um suprimento de carboidratos e que o tempo pode influenciar a capacidade reprodutiva.Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity.

  6. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  7. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  8. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Cevallos, Vanesa; Pina Ordúñez, Diana; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: existen alteraciones frecuentes en la alimentación de la población infantil femenina, y especialmente en atletas de deportes estéticos por la presión ejercida para mantener un cuerpo.Objetivos: evaluar los aspectos nutricionales, antropométricos y la percepción del peso de niñas que realizan gimnasia rítmica frente a un grupo control.Métodos: estudio descriptivo comparativo. Se compararon 25 niñas gimnastas con 25 niñas no gimnastas (control). Se realizó una valoración antropométrica, mediante protocolo ISAK, y nutricional, mediante un registro dietético de siete días; así como una valoración cuantitativa y cualitativa de la ingesta alimentaria, mediante el software DIAL. Se rellenó un cuestionario de hábitos y sobre la percepción de su peso corporal.Resultados: los datos antropométricos no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos, excepto en los pliegues cutáneos y el porcentaje de grasa, el cual era estadísticamente inferior en gimnastas. La ingesta energética (1.413 ± 283 Kcal/día) de las gimnastas era inferior a la recomendada por la Food and Nutrition Board de acuerdo a su edad. La distribución de los macronutrientes cumplía con los valores normales establecidos (10-30% proteínas, 45-65% hidratos, 20-35% grasas). El 32% de las gimnastas y el 36,4% de las niñas control consideraron que les gustaría pesar menos.Conclusión: teniendo en cuenta la intensa actividad de las gimnastas, sus requerimientos energéticos deberían ajustarse a ello, ya que esto contribuirá a su desarrollo y crecimiento y a una mejor ejecución del ejercicio. En la muestra estudiada, el consumo de alimentos de las gimnastas se aleja de una alimentación equilibrada. No se observaron comportamientos diferentes en la percepción del peso entre ambos grupos.

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    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) The JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

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    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Perl 5 : 2 - 3.7.01 (2 days) Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

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    Places are available in the following courses: C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps & Pitfalls:  16 - 19.7.02 (4 days) Frontpage 2000 - level 1 :  22 - 23.7.02  (2 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 24.7.02 (après-midi) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (cours gratuit) : 13.08.2002 (matin) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

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    Places are available in the following courses: December 2002   PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) Introduction à la CAO Cadence (cours gratuit) :  10 & 11.12.02  (2 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

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    Places available Places are available in the following courses:   LabView hands-on 13.11.00 4 hours LabView Basics 1 14 - 16.11.00 3 days Nouveautés de WORD 19 et 20.10.00 2 jours ACCESS 1er niveau 30 - 31.10.00 2 jours Advanced aspects of the C language 2 - 3.11.00 2 days Introduction to Oracle SQL and PL/SQL 13 - 17.11.00 5 days C++ for Particle Physicists 20 - 24.11.00 6 lectures Develop PL/SQL Program Units 20 - 22.11.00 3 days Oracle Application Server Develop Web-Based Applications with PL/SQL 27 - 28.11.00 2 days Programmation TSX Premium 1 28.11 - 1.12.00 4 jours Programmation TSX Premium 2 12 - 15.12.00 4 jours If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an “application for training” form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Offi...

  16. Disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil: distribuição e evolução (1974-2003 Household food availability in Brazil: distribution and trends (1974-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a distribuição da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil em 2002-2003 e avaliar sua evolução nas áreas metropolitanas do País no período 1974-2003. MÉTODOS: A principal base de dados do estudo é a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar de 2002-2003 realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística em 48.470 domicílios brasileiros. Em cada domicílio, num período de sete dias consecutivos, foram registradas todas as aquisições, monetárias ou não monetárias, de alimentos e bebidas para consumo familiar. As quantidades de alimentos adquiridas foram transformadas em calorias e macronutrientes, usando tabelas de composição alimentar. RESULTADOS: Características positivas do padrão alimentar, encontradas em todas as regiões e em todas as classes de rendimento, foram a adequação do teor protéico das dietas e o elevado aporte relativo de proteínas de alto valor biológico. Características negativas, também disseminadas no País, foram excesso de açúcar e presença insuficiente de frutas e hortaliças na dieta. Nas regiões economicamente mais desenvolvidas, no meio urbano e entre famílias com maior rendimento houve também excesso de gorduras em geral e de gorduras saturadas. A evolução nas áreas metropolitanas do País evidenciou declínio no consumo de alimentos básicos, como arroz e feijão, aumentos de até 400% no consumo de produtos industrializados, como biscoitos e refrigerantes, persistência do consumo excessivo de açúcar e insuficiente de frutas e hortaliças e aumento no teor da dieta em gorduras em geral e gorduras saturadas. CONCLUSÕES: Padrões e tendências da disponibilidade domiciliar de alimentos no Brasil são consistentes com a importância crescente de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis no perfil de morbi-mortalidade e com o aumento contínuo da prevalência da obesidade no País.OBJECTIVE: Data from household food budget surveys were examined in order

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  18. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

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    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (a.m.) LabView DAQ Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 19, 20, 26, 27.9.02 (4 jours) LabView Base 1 : 23 - 25.9.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 26 - 27.9.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 30.9, 1, 2, 9, 10, 11.10.02 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 10.10.02 (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 14 - 15.10.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 17, 18, 24, 25.10.02 (4 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Of...

  2. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel 74924

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) MS-Project 2000 : 24 & 25.01.02 (2 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 7 & 8.02.02 (2 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java : 11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists : 11 - 15.3.2002 (6 * 3 hour lectures) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD : AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO ...

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    TECHNICAL TRAINING; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 1er niveau : 20 - 23.2.01 (4 matins) Architecture d'automatisme : 20 - 21.2.01 (2 jours) Introduction à PowerPoint : 26.2.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 (Schneider) : 26.2 - 2.3.01 (5 jours) Premiers pas avec votre PC : 27.2 - 2.3.01 (4 matins) C++ for Particle Physicists : 5 - 9.3.01 (6*3 hour lectures) EXCEL : 6, 7 et 13, 14.3.01 (4 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2 :  12 - 14.3.01 (3 days) Nouveautés de FileMaker :  20 - 23.03.01 (4 matins) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Habilitation électrique : recyclage HT/BT : 11 - 15.3.2002  (2 * 2 heures) PVSS Basics :  8 - 12.4.02  (5 days) ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02