Sample records for acidic mining lakes

  1. Lake morphometry and wind exposure may shape the plankton community structure in acidic mining lakes. (United States)

    Weithoff, Guntram; Moser, Michael; Kamjunke, Norbert; Gaedke, Ursula; Weisse, Thomas


    Acidic mining lakes (pH web in such lakes. The plankton community structure of mining lakes of different morphometry and mixing type but similar chemical characteristics (Lake 130, Germany and Lake Langau, Austria) was investigated. The focus was laid on the species composition, the trophic relationship between the phago-mixotrophic flagellate Ochromonas sp. and bacteria and the formation of a deep chlorophyll maximum along a vertical pH-gradient. The shallow wind-exposed Lake 130 exhibited a higher species richness than Lake Langau. This increase in species richness was made up mainly by mero-planktic species, suggesting a strong benthic/littoral - pelagic coupling. Based on the field data from both lakes, a nonlinear, negative relation between bacteria and Ochromonas biomass was found, suggesting that at an Ochromonas biomass below 50 μg C L(-1), the grazing pressure on bacteria is low and with increasing Ochromonas biomass bacteria decline. Furthermore, in Lake Langau, a prominent deep chlorophyll maximum was found with chlorophyll concentrations ca. 50 times higher than in the epilimnion which was build up by the euglenophyte Lepocinclis sp. We conclude that lake morphometry, and specific abiotic characteristics such as mixing behaviour influence the community structure in these mining lakes.

  2. Microbial Sulfur Cycling in an Acid Mine Lake (United States)

    Bernier, L.; Warren, L. A.


    Geochemical dynamics of a tailings impacted lake in Northern Ontario were investigated over a three-year period, in which active pyrrhotite slurry disposal was initiated in year two. A strong seasonal trend of decreasing epilimnetic pH with significant diurnal acid production, pre-, during and post slurry deposition was observed with high rates observed compared to pre-slurry. Slurry deposition occurred at the surface of the lake and acted as a reaction stimulant for acid generation. Over the diurnal timescale investigated, the highest rates of acid production occurred not at the lake surface but within the metaliminetic region of the lake. This region was exemplified by strong decreasing oxygen gradients, and thus observed high rates of acid generation are more consistent with microbial pathways of sulfur oxidation than with abiotic, oxygen catalyzed pathways. Consistent with microbial catalysis, metalimnetic rates of acid generation were highest during June and July when microbial populations and metabolic rates were maximal. These results indicate that microbial oxidation of sulfur species play a major role in acid generation in this system. Further, observed rates of acid generation exceed those predicted by published abiotic rates of pyrrhotite oxidation, but are consistent with literature estimates of acid generation catalyzed by microbial activity. Acidithiobacilli accounted for up to 50% of the microbial community pre slurry, but were absent post slurry deposition. These results are the first to demonstrate quantitatively that microbial sulfur oxidation can play a predominant role in acid generation within mine tailings impacted systems. They further highlight the need to evaluate the more complex pathways by which microorganisms process sulfur as the conditions, controls and process rates differ from those observed for abiotic reactions.

  3. The evolution of a mining lake - From acidity to natural neutralization

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    Sienkiewicz, Elwira, E-mail:; Gąsiorowski, Michał, E-mail:


    Along the border of Poland and Germany (central Europe), many of the post-mining lakes have formed “an anthropogenic lake district”. This study presents the evolution of a mining lake ecosystem (TR-33) based on subfossil phyto- and zooplankton, isotopic data (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N), elemental analyses of organic carbon and nitrogen (C/N ratio and TOC) and sedimentological analyses. Recently, lake TR-33 became completely neutralized from acidification and an increase in eutrophication began a few years ago. However, the lake has never been neutralized by humans; only natural processes have influenced the present water quality. From the beginning of the existence of the lake (1920s) to the present, we can distinguish four stages of lake development: 1) very shallow reservoir without typical lake sediments but with a sand layer containing fine lignite particles and very poor diatom and cladoceran communities; 2) very acidic, deeper water body with increasing frequencies of phyto- and zooplankton; 3) transitional period (rebuilding communities of diatoms and Cladocera), meaning a deep lake with benthic and planktonic fauna and flora with wide ecological tolerances; and 4) a shift to circumneutral conditions with an essential increase in planktonic taxa that prefer more fertile waters (eutrophication). In the case of lake TR-33, this process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. - Highlights: • Originally acid water lake had poor phyto- and zooplankton populations. • Process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. • Presently, lake's ecosystem is similar to other shallow lakes in the region. • Changes in the lake are representative for other mine lakes.

  4. Characterization of three acid strip mine lakes in Grundy County, Illinois

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    Master, W. A.


    Three small lakes with acid water and one with circumneutral water at an abandoned strip mine site were characterized to identify factors limiting biological productivity. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature profiles were determined. Water samples were analyzed for 23 parameters, and the lakes were examined for the presence of aquatic vascular plants and benthic inhabitants. The acid lakes ranged from 0.9 ha to 2.7 ha in surface area and from 3.1 m to 6.7 m in maximum depth. The mean pH of the acid lakes ranged from 3.1 to 3.9. Chemicals found at concentrations higher than Illinois surface water standards or federal criteria for the protection of aquatic life included Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, SO/sub 4/=, and Zn. A number of these chemicals were at sufficiently high concentrations to limit the survival and productivity of most aquatic fauna. The lake with the poorest water quality had the least diversity of aquatic vascular plants and benthic invertebrates, while the circumneutral lake had the greatest diversity of species.

  5. Geochemistry of highly acidic mine water following disposal into a natural lake with carbonate bedrock

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    Wisskirchen, Christian, E-mail: [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dold, Bernhard [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Instituto de Geologia Economica Aplicada, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Friese, Kurt [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Lake Research, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Spangenberg, Jorge E. [Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Morgenstern, Peter [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Glaesser, Walter [Institute of Geophysics and Geology, University of Leipzig, D-04211 Leipzig (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} Mean lake water element composition did not differ greatly from discharged AMD. {yields} Most elements showed increasing concentrations from the surface to lake bottom. {yields} Jarosite formed in the upper part, settled, and dissolved in the deeper part of the lake. {yields} Elements migrated into the underlying carbonates in the sequence As< Pb {approx} Cu < Cd < Zn = Mn. {yields} Gypsum and hydroxide precipitation had not resulted in complete clogging of the lake bedrocks. - Abstract: Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the Zn-Pb(-Ag-Bi-Cu) deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Central Peru) and waste water from a Cu-extraction plant has been discharged since 1981 into Lake Yanamate, a natural lake with carbonate bedrock. The lake has developed a highly acidic pH of {approx}1. Mean lake water chemistry was characterized by 16,775 mg/L acidity as CaCO{sub 3}, 4330 mg/L Fe and 29,250 mg/L SO{sub 4}. Mean trace element concentrations were 86.8 mg/L Cu, 493 mg/L Zn, 2.9 mg/L Pb and 48 mg/L As, which did not differ greatly from the discharged AMD. Most elements showed increasing concentrations from the surface to the lake bottom at a maximal depth of 41 m (e.g. from 3581 to 5433 mg/L Fe and 25,609 to 35,959 mg/L SO{sub 4}). The variations in the H and O isotope compositions and the element concentrations within the upper 10 m of the water column suggest mixing with recently discharged AMD, shallow groundwater and precipitation waters. Below 15 m a stagnant zone had developed. Gypsum (saturation index, SI {approx} 0.25) and anglesite (SI {approx} 0.1) were in equilibrium with lake water. Jarosite was oversaturated (SI {approx} 1.7) in the upper part of the water column, resulting in downward settling and re-dissolution in the lower part of the water column (SI {approx} -0.7). Accordingly, jarosite was only found in sediments from less than 7 m water depth. At the lake bottom, a layer of gel-like material ({approx}90 wt.% water) of pH {approx}1 with a

  6. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of littoral sediments of an acidic post-mining pit lake

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    S. Lagauzère


    Full Text Available In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (Eastern Germany but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3. The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the diffusive oxygen uptake by sediment, indicating a stimulation of the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  7. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of the sediment in the littoral zone of an acidic mine pit lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lagauzère


    Full Text Available In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (South-eastern Germany but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3. The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the oxygen consumption by sediment, and stimulated the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  8. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of littoral sediments of an acidic post-mining pit lake (United States)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.


    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (Eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the diffusive oxygen uptake by sediment, indicating a stimulation of the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  9. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of the sediment in the littoral zone of an acidic mine pit lake (United States)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.


    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (South-eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the oxygen consumption by sediment, and stimulated the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  10. A combined CaO/electrochemical treatment of the acid mine drainage from the "Robule" Lake. (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert


    The purpose of this work was development and application of the purification system suitable for the treatment of the acid mine drainage (AMD) accumulated in the "Robule" Lake, which represents the part of the Bor copper mining and smelting complex, Serbia. The study was undertaken in order to minimize adverse effect on the environment caused by the discharge of untreated AMD, which was characterized with low pH value (2.63) and high concentration of heavy metals (up to 610 mg/L) and sulfates (up to 12,000 mg/L). The treatment of the effluent included pretreatment/pH adjustment with CaO followed by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrode sets. Following the final treatment, the decrease in the concentration of heavy metals ranged from 40 up to 61000 times depending on the metal and its initial concentration. The parameters, color and turbidity were removed completely in the pretreatment step, while the removal efficiencies for other considered parameters were as follows: EC = 55.48%, SO(4) (2-) = 70.83%, Hg = 98.36%, Pb = 97.50%, V = 98.43%, Cr = 99.86%, Mn = 97.96%, Fe = 100.00%, Co = 99.96%, Ni = 99.78%, Cu = 99.99% and Zn = 99.94%. Because the concentrations of heavy metals in the electrochemically treated AMD (ranging from 0.001 to 0.336 mg/L) are very low, the negative impact of this effluent on the aquatic life and humans is not expected. The sludge generated during the treatment of AMD is suitable for reuse for at least two purposes (pretreatment of AMD and covering of the flotation waste heap). From the presented results, it could be concluded that electrochemical treatment is a suitable approach for the treatment of AMD.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the zooplankton community in uranium mining lakes with acid mine drainage

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    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nulcear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Institute (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil)


    Several mining lakes are characterized by the inorganic pollution of its waters, known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The current study was developed in order to evaluate the effect of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the richness and density of the zoo-planktonic community species. A seasonal study was conducted in a uranium mining lake affected by AMD. In environmental conditions of extremely high hardness water values (960.3 to 1284,9 mg/l), zoo-planktonic species have indicated resistance to the combined effect of elevated average concentrations of chemical pollutants such as Al (81.9 mg/l), Zn (15.5 mg/l), Mn (102.8 mg/l), U (2.9 mg/l) and low pH values (average = 3.8). Thus, in environments of extreme chemical conditions, such as a uranium mining lake affected by AMD, the hardness showed to be the best predictor of the zoo-planktonic community richness, indicating a protective effect of ions Ca{sup +2} over in special to Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., Keratella americana and K. cochlearis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. An overview of a uranium acidic mining lake (Caldas, Brazil): composition of the zooplankton community and limno-chemical aspects

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    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Roque, C.V.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Laboratory (Brazil)


    This research represents an attempt to fill a gap in the information on the zooplankton composition and limno-chemical aspects of the uranium pit lake (Osamu Utsumi Pit, Brazil), affected by acid mine drainage. In the present study water samples were collected three-monthly, for a period of one year (2008-2009). The water samples from the uranium pit lake showed moderately acidic pH values (3.6 to 4.1), high values of the electrical conductivity, sulfate, uranium, fluoride, zinc, manganese and aluminum concentrations. The Rotifera cephalodella sp., Keratella americana, K. cochlearis, Bdelloidea order and the Cladocera Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., were registered in the samples from the uranium pit lake with ADM. Of the species registered the Bdelloidea order was the most important in terms of density (17,500 - 77,778 ind m{sup -3}), since it occurred throughout the whole sampling period. In this study, probably the combined effect of moderately acid pH values and other potentially co-stressors factors, for example the high concentrations of stable and radioactive chemical species, could have influenced this richness and also the composition of the zooplankton species in the water samples from the uranium pit lake. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

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    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer [GBF, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Department Environmental Microbiology (Germany)], E-mail:


    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup -1} rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications.

  14. Factors determining growth and vertical distribution of planktonic algae in extremely acidic mining lakes (pH 2.7) (United States)

    Bissinger, Vera


    In this thesis, I investigated the factors influencing the growth and vertical distribution of planktonic algae in extremely acidic mining lakes (pH 2-3). In the focal study site, Lake 111 (pH 2.7; Lusatia, Germany), the chrysophyte, Ochromonas sp., dominates in the upper water strata and the chlorophyte, Chlamydomonas sp., in the deeper strata, forming a pronounced deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Inorganic carbon (IC) limitation influenced the phototrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. in the upper water strata. Conversely, in deeper strata, light limited its phototrophic growth. When compared with published data for algae from neutral lakes, Chlamydomonas sp. from Lake 111 exhibited a lower maximum growth rate, an enhanced compensation point and higher dark respiration rates, suggesting higher metabolic costs due to the extreme physico-chemical conditions. The photosynthetic performance of Chlamydomonas sp. decreased in high-light-adapted cells when IC limited. In addition, the minimal phosphorus (P) cell quota was suggestive of a higher P requirement under IC limitation. Subsequently, it was shown that Chlamydomonas sp. was a mixotroph, able to enhance its growth rate by taking up dissolved organic carbon (DOC) via osmotrophy. Therefore, it could survive in deeper water strata where DOC concentrations were higher and light limited. However, neither IC limitation, P availability nor in situ DOC concentrations (bottom-up control) could fully explain the vertical distribution of Chlamydomonas sp. in Lake 111. Conversely, when a novel approach was adopted, the grazing influence of the phagotrophic phototroph, Ochromonas sp., was found to exert top-down control on its prey (Chlamydomonas sp.) reducing prey abundance in the upper water strata. This, coupled with the fact that Chlamydomonas sp. uses DOC for growth, leads to a pronounced accumulation of Chlamydomonas sp. cells at depth; an apparent DCM. Therefore, grazing appears to be the main factor influencing the

  15. Iron mineralogy across the oxycline of a lignite mine lake


    Miot, Jennyfer; Lu, Shipeng; Morin, Guillaume; Adra, Areej,; Benzerara, Karim; Küsel, Kirsten


    International audience; Iron-rich pelagic aggregates of microbial origin named “iron snow” are formed in the water column of some acidic lignite mine lakes. We investigated the evolution of Fe mineralogy across the oxycline of the Lusatian lake 77, Germany at two sampling sites differing by their pH and mixing profiles. The central basin (CB) of this lake shows a dimictic water regime with a non-permanent anoxic deep layer and a homogeneous acidic pH all over the water column (pH 3). In contr...

  16. Acid mine drainage (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  17. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  18. The most acidified Austrian lake in comparison to a neutralized mining lake. (United States)

    Moser, Michael; Weisse, Thomas


    This study investigated two mining lakes located in the north of Lower Austria. These lakes arose 45 years ago when open cast lignite mining ceased. The lakes are separated by a 7-m wide dam. Due to the oxidation of pyrite, both lakes have been acidified and exhibit iron, sulphate, and heavy metal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in circumneutral lakes. The water column of both lakes is divided into two layers by a pronounced chemocline. The smaller mining lake (AML), with pH close to of 2.6, is the most acidic lake in Austria, whereas flooding with stream water and by drainage from the surrounding fields neutralized the adjacent larger pit lake. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of flooding on its physical, chemical and biological properties, in comparison to the pristine AML. Even relative to other extremely acidic lakes, the flora and fauna in the AML was reduced and composed of only two flagellate, one ciliate, and one rotifer species. The simplified pelagic food web in the mixolimnion consisted of heterotrophic bacteria, the mixotrophic flagellates Chlamydomonas acidophila and Ochromonas sp., the ciliate Oxytricha sp., and the rotifer Cephalodella sp. The latter two are as yet undescribed new species. The heliozoan Actinophrys sp. that may act as top predator occurred only in low abundance. The euglenid Lepocinclis buetschlii formed a stable deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) at 7 m depth. Highest cell numbers of L. buetschlii in the DCM exceeded 10(8) L(-1). The neutralized mining lake harboured higher plankton diversity similar to that of natural circumneutral lakes. A peak of at least 16 different phytoplankton taxa was observed during summer. The zooplankton consisted of several copepod species, daphnids and other cladocerans, and at least six different rotifer species. Several fish species occurred in the neutralized lake. Although the effect of non-permanent flooding was largely sustainable, interannual fluctuations

  19. Perchlorate in Lake Water from an Operating Diamond Mine. (United States)

    Smith, Lianna J D; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Groza, Laura G; Moncur, Michael C


    Mining-related perchlorate [ClO4(-)] in the receiving environment was investigated at the operating open-pit and underground Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples were collected over four years and ClO4(-) was measured in various mine waters, the 560 km(2) ultraoligotrophic receiving lake, background lake water and snow distal from the mine. Groundwaters from the underground mine had variable ClO4(-) concentrations, up to 157 μg L(-1), and were typically an order of magnitude higher than concentrations in combined mine waters prior to treatment and discharge to the lake. Snow core samples had a mean ClO4(-) concentration of 0.021 μg L(-1) (n=16). Snow and lake water Cl(-)/ClO4(-) ratios suggest evapoconcentration was not an important process affecting lake ClO4(-) concentrations. The multiyear mean ClO4(-) concentrations in the lake were 0.30 μg L(-1) (n = 114) in open water and 0.24 μg L(-1) (n = 107) under ice, much below the Canadian drinking water guideline of 6 μg L(-1). Receiving lake concentrations of ClO4(-) generally decreased year over year and ClO4(-) was not likely [biogeo]chemically attenuated within the receiving lake. The discharge of treated mine water was shown to contribute mining-related ClO4(-) to the lake and the low concentrations after 12 years of mining were attributed to the large volume of the receiving lake.

  20. Mining lakes in Germany; Tagebauseen in Deutschland. Gegenwaertiger Kenntnisstand ueber wasserwirtschaftliche Belange von Braunkohlentagebaurestloechern - ein Ueberblick

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    Nixdorf, B.; Hemm, M.; Schlundt, A.; Kapfer, M.; Krumbeck, H. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Gewaesserschutz]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)


    More than 500 mining lakes of different age and maturity have formed in the lignite mining areas in Germany during the last hundred years. Compared to natural lakes mining lakes have a complex and diverse morphometry. They will be among the largest and deepest lakes in Germany (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and have good chance of avoiding eutrophication. About 100 mining lakes will be greater than 50 ha. 230 lakes are documented in this report concerning morphometry, flooding and mixis regime, hydrochemistry, limnology, colonization, use and development of water quality. They are among the largest (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and most acidic lakes in Germany. The extremely high acidity is from both iron and hydrogen ions due to pyrit oxidation. It influences trophic situation and food webs in mining lakes and reduces a diverse use of these lakes. (orig.) [German] Die Seelandschaft Deutschlands wird durch den Braunkohlenbergbau um ueber 500 Seen reicher. Technologiebedingt herrscht dabei eine grosse morphologische Vielfalt innerhalb der Tagebauseen vor, welche die groessten und tiefsten Seen Deutschlands hervorbringen wird (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal), aber auch zahlreiche kleine, meist flachere Gewaesser miteinschliesst. Etwa 100 Taugebauseen sind groesser als 50 ha. Kleinere Tagebauseen wie z.B. die der Ville in Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden ebenfalls ausfuehrlich dokumentiert. In dieser Dokumentation wurden ueber 490 Seen erfasst, 230 davon wurden in der Dokumentation nach folgenden Kriterien beschrieben: Entstehung, Flutungsregime, Morphometrie und Mixis, Chemismus und Gewaesserentwicklung, Besiedlung und Nutzung. Dem Problem der Versauerung durch die Verwitterung sulfidischer Mineralien (Pyrit, Markasit) wurde besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet, weil sich biologische Komponenten und Gewaesserzustaende (Trophie, Nahrungsketten) abweichend zu den normalen Hartwasserseen Deutschlands verhalten und

  1. Investigations on the "Extreme" Microbial Arsenic Cycle within the Sediments of an Acidic Impoundment of the Former Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California. (United States)

    Blum, J. S.; Hoeft McCann, S. E.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Stoneburner, B.; Saltikov, C.; Oremland, R. S.


    The involvement of prokaryotes in the redox reactions of arsenic occurring between this element's +5 [arsenate; As(V)] and + 3 [arsenite; As(III)] oxidation states has been well established. Most research has focused upon circum-neutral pH environments, such as freshwater lake and aquifer sediments, and extreme environments like hot springs and hypersaline soda lakes have also been well investigated. In contrast, little work has been conducted on acidic environments. The azure-hued, clear waters of the Herman Pit are acidic (pH 2-4), and overlie oxidized sediments that have a distinctive red/orange coloration indicative of the presence of ferrihydrites and other Fe(III) minerals. There is extensive ebullitive release of geothermal gases from the lake bottom in the form of numerous continuous-flow seeps which are composed primarily of mixtures of CO2, CH4, and H2S. We collected near-shore surface sediments with an Eckman grab, and stored the "soupy" material in filled mason jars kept at 4˚C. Initial experiments were conducted using 3:1 mixtures of lake water: sediment so as to generate dilute slurries which were amended with mM levels of electron acceptors (arsenate, nitrate, oxygen), electron donors (arsenite, acetate, lactate, hydrogen), and incubated under N2, air, or H2. Owing to the large adsorptive capacity of the Fe(III)-rich slurries, we were unable to detect As(V) or As(III) in the aqueous phase of either live or autoclaved controls, although the former consumed lactate, acetate, nitrate, or hydrogen, while the latter did not. This prompted us to conduct a series of further diluted slurry experiments using the live materials from the first as a 10 % addition to lakewater. In these experiments we observed reduction of As(V) to As(III) in anoxic slurries and that rates were enhanced by addition of electron donors (H2, acetate, or lactate). We also observed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in oxic slurries and in anoxic slurries amended with nitrate. These

  2. In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmichen, R.


    The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

  3. A Mass balance mercury budget for a mine-dominated lake: Clear Lake, California (United States)

    Suchanek, T.H.; Cooke, J.; Keller, K.; Jorgensen, S.; Richerson, P.J.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Harner, E.J.; Adam, D.P.


    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM), active intermittently from 1873-1957 and now a USEPA Superfund site, was previously estimated to have contributed at least 100 metric tons (105 kg) of mercury (Hg) into the Clear Lake aquatic ecosystem. We have confirmed this minimum estimate. To better quantify the contribution of the mine in relation to other sources of Hg loading into Clear Lake and provide data that might help reduce that loading, we analyzed Inputs and Outputs of Hg to Clear Lake and Storage of Hg in lakebed sediments using a mass balance approach. We evaluated Inputs from (1) wet and dry atmospheric deposition from both global/regional and local sources, (2) watershed tributaries, (3) groundwater inflows, (4) lakebed springs and (5) the mine. Outputs were quantified from (1) efflux (volatilization) of Hg from the lake surface to the atmosphere, (2) municipal and agricultural water diversions, (3) losses from out-flowing drainage of Cache Creek that feeds into the California Central Valley and (4) biotic Hg removal by humans and wildlife. Storage estimates include (1) sediment burial from historic and prehistoric periods (over the past 150-3,000 years) from sediment cores to ca. 2.5m depth dated using dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), 210Pb and 14C and (2) recent Hg deposition in surficial sediments. Surficial sediments collected in October 2003 (11 years after mine site remediation) indicate no reduction (but a possible increase) in sediment Hg concentrations over that time and suggest that remediation has not significantly reduced overall Hg loading to the lake. Currently, the mine is believed to contribute ca. 322-331 kg of Hg annually to Clear Lake, which represents ca. 86-99% of the total Hg loading to the lake. We estimate that natural sedimentation would cover the existing contaminated sediments within ca. 150-300 years. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Characteristics of the eukaryotic community structure in acid mine drainage lake in Anhui Province, China%安徽某铁矿酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 郝春博; 王丽华; 李思远; 冯传平


    [目的]研究酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构特征以及群落结构与环境因子之间的关系.[方法]利用分子生物学方法,通过构建18S rRNA基因克隆文库进行系统发育分析;利用典范对应分析(CCA)方法解析环境因子对真核生物群落结构的影响.[结果]系统发育分析表明:子囊菌门(Ascomycota)普遍存在于4个样品中,并在样品1和样品3中占统治地位,而绿藻门(Chlorophyta)和担子菌门(Basidiomycota)分别为样品2和样品4的优势类群.该酸性矿山废水中的克隆与许多已知的耐酸耐重金属真核生物亲缘关系较近,如Sarcinomyces petricola、Penicillium janthinellum、Coniochaeta velutina、Trichoderma viride、Chlorella protothecoides var.acidicola、Ochromonas sp.等.此外,样品中还存在大量的已知人类病原菌,如Lecythophora hoffmannii、Cryptococcus neoformans.CCA分析表明:TN、SO24-、Fe2+、Eh是影响真核生物群落空间分布的主要因素.[结论]所研究的酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构在时间和空间上均有较大差异,这可能与水体的理化性质有关;高含量人类致病菌的存在是之前研究所未发现的;酸性环境中真核生物的生态学研究有助于开发高效处理酸性矿山废水的方法.%[Objective] We characterized eukaryotic community structure and the relationship between the community structure and environmental factors in acidic mine drainage (AMD) lake of a sulfide mine in Anhui Province, China. [Methods] The 18S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed by using molecular biology techniques to analyze the eukaryotic phylogenetic relationships, and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the relationship between the community structure and environmental factors. [Results] The phylogenetic analysis shows that Ascomycota is widespread in the four samples and dominated in the AMD-1 and AMD-3 clone libraries, whereas Chlorophyta and

  5. Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake. (United States)

    Adeleke, Solomon Babatunde; Svensson, Bo H; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Adeleye, Michael Mayowa


    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of Åtvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5 μmol/g to 16 μmol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (∑mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the ∑mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution > 1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals.

  6. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage (United States)

    Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Weisener, C. G.


    Mine wastes are the largest volume of materials handled in the world (ICOLD, 1996). The generation of acidic drainage and the release of water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from these wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. Acidic drainage is caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Although acid drainage is commonly associated with the extraction and processing of sulfide-bearing metalliferous ore deposits and sulfide-rich coal, acidic drainage can occur wherever sulfide minerals are excavated and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Engineering projects, including road construction, airport development, and foundation excavation are examples of civil projects that have resulted in the generation of acidic drainage. On United States Forest Service Lands there are (2-5)×104 mines releasing acidic drainage (USDA, 1993). Kleinmann et al. (1991) estimated that more than 6,400 km of rivers and streams in the eastern United States have been adversely affected by mine-drainage water. About (0.8-1.6)×104 km of streams have been affected by metal mining in the western United States. The annual worldwide production of mine wastes exceeded 4.5 Gt in 1982 (ICOLD, 1996). Estimated costs for remediating mine wastes internationally total in the tens of billions of dollars ( Feasby et al.,1991).

  7. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD. The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1 During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reducing (water-saturated. Associated environmental problems include the presence of high sulphate concentrations due to dissolution of gypsum-anhydrite, and/or effluents enriched in elements such as Mo and As, which desorbed from primary ferric hydroxides during the alkaline flotation process. (2 Once mining-related operations of the tailings impoundment has ceased, sulphide oxidation starts, resulting in the formation of an acidic oxidation zone and a ferrous iron-rich plume below the oxidation front, that re-oxidises once it surfaces, producing the first visible sign of AMD, i.e., the precipitation of ferrihydrite and concomitant acidification. (3 Consumption of the (reactive neutralization potential of the gangue minerals and subsequent outflow of acidic, heavy metal-rich leachates from the tailings is the final step in the evolution of an AMD system. The formation of multi-colour efflorescent salts can be a visible sign of this stage.

  8. Do mining lakes in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Eastern Germany) affect regional precipitation patterns? (United States)

    Brück, Yasemine; Pohle, Ina; Keuler, Klaus; Schaller, Eberhard; Hinz, Christoph


    Due to the flooding of former open-pit mines, Europe's largest artificial lake district is created in Eastern Germany. Between 1990 and 2006 more than 80 km² of new lakes have already been formed. These large-scale land cover changes may impact regional meteorological characteristics, therefore it is of interest, whether effects of the mining lakes can already be observed. We especially focus on whether the evaporation from the mining pit lakes leads to a higher precipitation on their lee side. To detect changes in the precipitation patterns, we analysed daily precipitation data (1980-2014) of 25 stations in an area of 10 000 km² widely around the lake district. Under the assumption that the influences of the lakes should be detectable either directly as trends in the observed data or as a deviation from a general measure for precipitation we combined statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA). We applied pre-whitening Mann-Kendall tests to detect precipitation trends and Mann-Whitney tests to detect differences between split samples (before and after the flooding of most of the lakes). The PCA was applied based on the correlation matrix of daily precipitation at the different stations. As the daily precipitation can sufficiently be explained by the first five principal components, the recombination of these five principal components was used as a general measure of precipitation in the region. By regression trees (random forests) a relationship between the eigenvectors of the first five principal components and physiogeographic characteristics of the stations (e.g. altitude) was shown. Both the observed data and the deviations between the measurements and the recombination of the first five principal components showed divergent trends with high spatial variability and also interannual variability, but a pattern consistent with the lee side of the lake could not be detected. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the emerging lakes had no

  9. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region. (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A


    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  10. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water. (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay


    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  11. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine (United States)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.


    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  12. Artificial Post mining lakes - a challenge for the integration in natural hydrography and river basin management (United States)

    Fleischhammel, Petra; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe


    In terms of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), post mining lakes are artificial water bodies (AWB). The sustainable integration of post mining lakes in the groundwater and surface water landscape and their consideration in river basin management plans have to be linked with various (geo)hydrological, hydro(geo)chemical, technological and socioeconomic issues. The Lower Lusatian lignite mining district in eastern Germany is part of the major river basins of river Elbe and river Oder. Regionally, the mining area is situated in the sub-basins of river Spree and Schwarze Elster. After the cessation of mining activities and thereby of the artificially created groundwater drawdown in numerous mining pits, a large number of post mining lakes are evolving as consequence of natural groundwater table recovery. The lakes' designated uses vary from water reservoirs to landscape, recreation or fish farming lakes. Groundwater raise is not only substantial for the lake filling, but also for the area rehabilitation and a largely self regulated water balance in post mining landscapes. Since the groundwater flow through soil and dump sites being affected by the former mining activities, groundwater experiences various changes in its hydrochemical properties as e.g. mineralization and acidification. Consequently, downstream located groundwater fed running and standing water bodies will be affected too. Respective the European Water Framework Directive, artificial post mining lakes are not allowed to cause significant adverse impacts on the good ecological status/potential of downstream groundwater and surface water bodies. The high sulphate concentrations of groundwater fed mining lakes which reach partly more than 1,000 mg/l are e.g. damaging concrete constructures in downstream water bodies thereby representing threats for hydraulic facilities and drinking water supply. Due to small amounts of nutrients, the lakes are characterised by oligo¬trophic to slightly

  13. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian Hamilton


    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  14. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species. (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.


    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  15. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species. (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B


    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  16. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea


    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi


    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  17. Water quality variation of mining-subsidence lake during the initial stage: cases study of Zhangji and Guqiao Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Tina-yu; YAN Jia-ping; WANG Shun; ZHANG Bing; RUAN Shu-xian; ZHANG Mei-li; LI Shou-qin; CHEN Yong-chun; LIU Jin


    Four quarters' water collecting and monitoring samples were done in the mining subsidence lakes of different water storing periods (2 to 7 years),considering the water storing time and pollution sources state of the subsidence lakes.The following indexes were discussed such as organic indexes (TOC,CODMn,BOD,COD),nutrient salts (TN,NH4+,NO3-,NO2-,Kjeldahl Nitrogen,TP,PO43-),etc.It is shown that water quality of the mining subsidence lake during the initial stage (2 years to 7 years) can stay relatively stable with a fluctuation during different quarters in a year,which can reach class Ⅲ or Ⅳ of the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard.

  18. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.


    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHdental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  19. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.


    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  20. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge. (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md


    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage.

  1. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.


    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  2. Benthic fauna of extremely acidic lakes (pH 2-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G.G.


    The structure of the benthic invertebrate communities were investigated in terms of composition, abundance, and biomass from extremely acidic lakes with pH values from 2 to 3 in areas where coal was intensively mined in the Lusatian region in the eastern region of Germany. Benthic invertebrates colonisation on leaves and the breakdown rate processing of the three deciduous leaf: Betula pendula (birch), Fraxinus excelsior (ash), and Juglans regia (walnut) were investigated. Also, the main key-species of these acidic environments were investigated, in terms of description of pupal exuviae of Chironomus crassimanus and the feeding habit of this acid-resistant species through analysis of their gut content. The benthic food web in extremely acidic mining Lusatian lakes is very short in terms of species richness, trophic relationship, guilds and functional feeding groups. Collector-filters and scraper-grazers were absent in extremely acidic mining lakes (AML 107, AML 111 and AML 117). Shredders as Limnophyes minimus (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) and Hydrozetes lacustris (Acari, Hydrozetidae) occurred in low abundance in AML 107 and AML 111, and it may be in response to slow leaf breakdown process in these ecosystems, except in AML 117 where the H. lacustris contributed most to ecosystems functioning via the processing of litter. Aquatic insects as Sialis lutaria (Megaloptera, Sialidae), Orectochilus villosus (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae), Coenagrion mercuriale (Odonata, Coenagrionidae), and Phryganeidae (Trichoptera) are the top-predators of these ecosystems. They did not depend on the level of pH in the lakes, but on the availability of food resources. (orig.)

  3. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage (United States)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  4. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.


    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  5. Impacts of Pb-Zn mining on Lake Kalimanci and Human Health in Eastern Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrhovnik P.


    Full Text Available Mining is very important economic activity. However, mining and related industries presents the main threat for environment. Pollution with heavy metals is a significant problem in Eastern Republic of Macedonia. In year 2003 great environmental disaster happened near small town Makedonska Kamenica, when the Sasa tailings dam collapsed and caused an intensive flow of mining waste material through Kamenica River valley and was discharged into Lake Klaimanci. Water from lake is used for irrigation, thus, the pollution assessment of the Lake Kalimanci sediments was made. The major, trace and rare earth element contamination in surficial lake sediments was studied to assess the effects of metalliferous mining activities. The mean concentrations of major elements [wt %] Si 23.5, Al 7.9, Fe 6.6, Mg 1.3, Ca 3.8, Na 1.1, K 2.3, Ti 0.4, P 0.2, Mn 0.6 and trace elements ranged within: Mo 1.0-4.6 mg kg-1, Cu 144.4-1162 mg kg-1, Pb 1874-16300 mg kg-1, Zn 2944-20900 mg kg-1, Ni 21.7-79.3 mg kg-1, Cd 16.5-136 mg kg-1, Sb 0.6-3.6 mg kg-1, Bi 3.0-24,3 mg kg-1 and Ag 1.4-17.3 mg kg-1. Results of rare earth elements (REE in surficial lake sediments indicated that are tightly related to the catchment geology. The results of the sequential extraction procedure revealed the majority (Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd of investigated toxic metals and all REEs to be strongly bonded to the exchangeable fraction and the rest (As and Mo to the oxidizable fraction. Regarding to results is evident that heavy metals and REEs are highly bioavailable for living organisms and can seriously affect human health.

  6. Current Performance of an Aerobic Passive Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage Flow From Underground Mine Seals at Moraine State Park, Butler County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.


    Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require

  7. Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metal Pollution from Solid Waste in the Tongling Mines, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaochun; XIE Qiaoqin; CHEN Fang; WANG Jun; WU Wentao


    Based on investigation of the characteristics of solid waste of two different mines, the Fenghuangshan copper mine and the Xinqiao pyrite mine in Tongling, Anhui province in central-east China, the possibility and the differences of acid mine drainage (AMD) of the tailings and the waste rocks are discussed, and the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the mine solid waste are also studied. The Fenghuangshan copper mine hardly produces AMD, whereas the Xinqiao pyrite mine does and there are also differences in the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the tailings. For the former, toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg exist mostly in the slag mode, as compared to the latter, where the dcoxidization mode has a much higher content, indicating that large amounts minerals in the waste rocks have begun to oxidize at the earth surface. AMD is proved to promote the migration and spread of the heavy metals in mining waste rocks and lead to environmental pollution of the surroundings of the mine area.

  8. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance. (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam


    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  9. Wildlife habitats provided by aquatic plant communities of surface mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coss, R.D.; Nawrot, J.R.; Klimstra, W.D.


    Over 6000 ha of water impoundments have resulted from surface mining for coal in Illinois. A study was conducted to characterize aquatic plant communities in selected bodies of water, to evaluate these communities as wildlife habitat, and to determine utilization of vegetation by vertebrates. Study areas included between spoilbank impoundments and final cuts/haulroad incline lakes. All lakes had water quality sufficient to support aquatic plants dominated by Chara and Potamogeton. Littoral zone cover was good throughout the growing season; and remained relatively stable. Emergent plant communities were well-developed at only one lake; cattle grazing and steep shorelines restricted growth at other sites. A total of 89 vertebrate species was identified in and near the lakes studied. Utilization was most probably affected by development of emergent and watershed vegetation, accessibility of aquatic plants, and morphological features of the lakes. Management recommendations for enhancing wildlife habitat included grading to develop topographic variation and extensive littoral areas, and partial exclusion of cattle. Such waters can contribute significantly to available wildlife habitat in certain areas in Illinois, and may, in many instances, be a more desirable post-mining land use than row-crop production. 41 references, 4 figure, 3 table.

  10. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song


    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  11. Detecting acid precipitation impacts on lake water quality (United States)

    Loftis, Jim C.; Taylor, Charles H.


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is planning to expand its long-term monitoring of lakes that are sensitive to acid deposition effects. Effective use of resources will require a careful definition of the statistical objectives of monitoring, a network design which balances spatial and temporal coverage, and a sound approach to data analysis. This study examines the monitoring objective of detecting trends in water quality for individual lakes and small groups of lakes. Appropriate methods of trend analysis are suggested, and the power of trend detection under seasonal (quarterly) sampling is compared to that of annual sampling. The effects of both temporal and spatial correlation on trend detection ability are described.

  12. Lake Michigan faces exotic species, dune sand mining, other challenges (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    As Steve Pothoven scooped out his bottom trawl catch on the deck of a U.S. government research vessel in June, he expected the regular monitoring exercise to land alewives and a mound of zebra mussels. These two now-ubiquitous exotic aquatic species are among more than 130 that have entered the Great Lakes ecosystem over the past century. They have invaded by various means: hiding in ballast water, navigating through connecting channels such as the Welland Canal that was completed in 1829 as a route around Niagara Falls, or introduced on purpose.

  13. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.


    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  14. Influence of copper recovery on the water quality of the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, U.S.A. (United States)

    Tucci, Nicholas J; Gammons, Christopher H


    The Berkeley Pit lake in Butte, Montana, formed by flooding of an open-pit copper mine, is one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic, metal-rich water. Between 2003 and 2012, approximately 2 × 10(11) L of pit water, representing 1.3 lake volumes, were pumped from the bottom of the lake to a copper recovery plant, where dissolved Cu(2+) was precipitated on scrap iron, releasing Fe(2+) back to solution and thence back to the pit. Artificial mixing caused by this continuous pumping changed the lake from a meromictic to holomictic state, induced oxidation of dissolved Fe(2+), and caused subsequent precipitation of more than 2 × 10(8) kg of secondary ferric compounds, mainly schwertmannite and jarosite, which settled to the bottom of the lake. A large mass of As, P, and sulfate was also lost from solution. These unforeseen changes in chemistry resulted in a roughly 25-30% reduction in the lake's calculated and measured total acidity, which represents a significant potential savings in the cost of lime treatment, which is not expected to commence until 2023. Future monitoring is needed to verify that schwertmannite and jarosite in the pit sediment do not convert to goethite, a process which would release stored acidity back to the water column.

  15. Characterization of Geochemical Disposal on Indicate and Mitigation Acid Mine Drainage at Coal Mining South Sumatera Indonesia


    Aida Syarif; M. Said M. Said; A. Halim PKS; Endang Wiwik DH


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a term U.S. used to describe command infiltration of acid surface water in the mining areas.The study of process for formation acid mine drainage can't be approached by two methods, the static and kinetic test. In the static test can't determinate acid formation with characterization of rock, can't be approach by Acid base accounting (ABA) method. In the methods of rock is analysis contents of sulfur, pH, Acid Neutralizing capacity and Net Acid Generation (ANG).  T...

  16. Leaching of heavy metals in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saria, L.; Shimaoka, T.; Miyawaki, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems that the coal and metal mining industry is currently facing. The generation of low pH drainage enhances the dissolution of heavy metals in water. The samples used in this research originated from three pits at mine dumps. In a study reported in this paper, three types of tests; namely static test, kinetic test and column test were conducted to estimate acid generation and acid neutralization reaction rates, and to predict the solubility of metals and their release rates. Static test showed that all samples had a pH of net acid generation (NAG pH) <4, a net acid producing potential (NAPP) >10 kg H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}tonne{sup -1}, and a S-content >3%, which can be classified as a high acid-forming capacity. Simulated runoff in the column tests was equivalent to 5-year average rainfall in Indonesia, the resultant leachates showed acidic behaviour (pH <3.5). Based on the results, it was found that high mobilization of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) takes place under strong acidic conditions (pH congruent to 2).

  17. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed (United States)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  18. Toxic effects of mining effluents on fish gills in a subarctic lake system in NW Russia. (United States)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Kukkonen, Jussi; Ryzhkov, Leonid P; Holopainen, Ismo J


    The mining company Karelian Pellet in northwestern Russia extracts iron ore and processes it locally into pellets. The production operations affect the environment in the form of air pollution and wastewater emissions to lakes downstream from the factory. The toxic effects of the mining effluents on gills of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied. In lakes close to the factory, heavy metal concentrations in gills were not high, even though the metal content in sediment was elevated. In fish gills the relative proportion of phosphatidylcholine was elevated and cholesterol reduced, while the histological structure of the gills was changed. The number of mucus cells, as well as the sizes and the lengths of open areas in the chloride cells, had increased in spring and summer. The hypertrophy of chloride cells is possibly caused by the increased ambient concentrations of K+ and Li+. Changes in gill cholesterol and phospholipid proportions increase the fluidity of membranes and possibly strengthen their protective qualities, counterbalancing the adverse changes in chloride cell structure. The bioavailability and toxic effects of metals on fish are reduced by the hardness and high pH of water discharged by the mining plant.

  19. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.


    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, b

  20. Bioavailability of jarosite for stimulating acid mine drainage attenuation (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew; Becerra, Caryl Ann; Nüsslein, Klaus; Miller, Karen; Yuretich, Richard; Ergas, Sarina J.


    Biological reduction of iron-sulfate minerals, such as jarosite, has the potential to contribute to the natural attenuation of acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Previous studies of AMD attenuation at Davis Mine, an abandoned pyrite mine in Rowe Massachusetts, provided evidence of iron and sulfate reduction by indigenous bacteria. Jarosite is a large component of the sediment at Davis Mine and may play a role in AMD attenuation. In this study, microcosms were constructed with groundwater and sediment from Davis Mine and amended with glycerol, nitrogen and phosphorus (GNP) and naturally formed natrojarosite. Over time, higher total iron, sulfate, pH and sodium concentrations and lower oxidation-reduction potentials were observed in microcosms amended with GNP and jarosite, compared with unamended microcosms and killed controls. Geochemical modeling predicted jarosite precipitation under microcosm conditions, suggesting that abiotic processes were unlikely contributors to jarosite dissolution. SEM imaging at the jarosite surface showed microbial attachment. Microbial community composition analysis revealed a shift to higher populations of Clostridia, which are known to reduce both iron and sulfate. The results show that jarosite may be utilized as an electron acceptor by iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria at Davis Mine and its presence may aid in the attenuation of AMD.

  1. Geochemical Processes Controlling the Generation and Environmental Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage in Semi Arid Conditions


    Magombedze, Chris


    This study evaluates the geochemical processes that control the geochemistry of acid mine drainage in semi arid conditions. The central objective is to characterise and understand the evolution of acid mine drainage and its potential environmental impacts on the Mazowe River sub-catchment, in north east Zimbabwe. The work is based on a case study at three neighbouring metal sulphide mines, namely Trojan Nickel Mine, Mazowe Gold Mine and Iron Duke Pyrites.The methodology used in this research ...

  2. Microbial aspects of acid mine drainage and its bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The role of chemolithotrophs such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans which were isolated from some abandoned mines and processed waste tailings in the generation of acid mine drainage and toxic metal dissolution was discussed.Mechanisms of acid formation and dissolution of copper,zinc,iron and arsenic from copper,lead-zinc and arsenopyrite-bearing sulfide ores and tailings were established in the presence of Acidithiobacillus group of bacteria.Sulphate Reducing Bacteria(SRB) isolated from the above mine sites could be used to precipitate dissolved metals such as copper,zinc,iron and arsenic.Arsenic bioremediation was demonstrated through the use of native microorganisms such Thiomonas spp.which could oxidize arsenite to arsenate.Bioremoval of arsenic through the use of jarosite precipitates generated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was also found to be very effective.Biotechnological processes hold great promise in the remediation of acid mine drainage and efficient removal of toxic metal ions such as copper,zinc and arsenic.

  3. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)


    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  4. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.


    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  5. Remediation of acid mine drainage from the Santa Fe tin mine, Bolivia (United States)

    Calvo, Daniel; Zamora Echenique, Gerardo; Alfonso, Pura; Casado, Jordi; Trujillo, Elvys; Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Garcia-Valles, Maite


    The Santa Fe mine, department of Oruro, is located in the Andean Tin belt, is exploited for tin, zinc, lead and silver. This in an underground mine mined up to the -108 level. Today it is only mined up to the -50 level. Under this level the table water covers the mine. Water reaches the surface with a very acidic composition, with a high content in potentially toxic elements. This water drains directly to the Santa Fe River and contribute to the pollution present in this river that directly affect to the aquatic communities. In addition, population of this area have problems in the supply of drinking water, so remediation by obtaining cleaning water is a priority for this area. This study presents a neutralization-precipitation treatment with lime to the acid water inside the mine. The ore mineralogy of the Santa Fe mined deposit consists mainly in cassiterite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite argentite and sulphosalts. The host mineral is mainly quartz, with a minor content in feldspars and tourmaline. Alteration minerals as alunite, goethite and pumbojarosite are abundant and indicate the occurrence of reactions that lead to the formation of acid mine drainage. The mean pH of water drained from the Santa Fe mine is 2.2 and chemical analyses show high contents in potentially toxic elements: 27-295 ppm Zn, 0.05-0.2 ppm Pb, 0.06-0.09 ppm Cd, 04-0.12 ppm Cu, 113-165 ppm Fe, 4 ppm Mn and 564-664 ppm S. As and Sb were under 0.5 ppm. A settler tank inside the mine was designed by means of seal a selected gallery to clean the mine water. The function of this gallery is to sediment the sludge resulting from the neutralization - precipitation treatment process to obtain a clear water overflow continuously to the outside. The neutralization tests indicate that 0.65g/L of lime and 2ml of flocculant should be added to neutralize water up to pH 6-7. A flow rate of 80 L /s was considered. After a geotechnical study, a chamber located in the mine was selected to locate

  6. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola


    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Botany


    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approximately} 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment.

  8. Spatial and spectral characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth J.; Tanis, Frederick J.


    Results from this study demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis was that seasonal and multiyear changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present. DOC is a strong absorbing, nonscattering material which has the greatest impact at short visible wavelengths, including Thematic Mapper band 1. Acid-sensitive lakes have high concentrations of aluminum which have been mobilized by acidic components contained in the runoff. Aluminum complexing with DOC is considered to be the primary mechanism to account for observed increases in lake transparency in acid-sensitive lakes. Thus seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes should provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  9. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Eva [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Greger, Maria [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:


    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approx}3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. - Wetland plant establishment on acidic mine tailings may contribute to a reduced metal release and a stabilisation of pH.

  10. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes (United States)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.


    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  11. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site. (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José


    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts.

  12. Erosion characteristic of slope sandstone soaking in acid mine drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-chun; CHEN Jia-sheng; WU Ai-xiang


    Acid mine drainage(AMD) is one of the main reasons of slope instability in chemical mines with high sulfide. The pH values of the solution inside the mining pit decrease with the increasing of distance from ore body and vary from 1.2 to 4.6,according to the results of the water environmental investigation and the composition test of the slope sandstone in Xinqiao Pyrite Mine. Comparative experiments between original sandstone and AMD eroded sandstone samples show that after AMD erosion the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus decrease by 30%-50% and 25%-45%, respectively, the cohesion and internal friction angle decrease obviously, and the Poisson ratio fluctuates between 0.20-0.29. The greater joints development, the higher residual stress after peak value, and the longer time to damage. Besides above, the reaction mechanism analysis of AMD eroded sandstone shows that the fillings in joints and fissures of sandstone are frequently decomposed and polyreacted, resulting in changes of interior molecule structure and framework composition, and decreases of cohesion and angle of internal friction between rock structure interfaces.

  13. Potential hydrologic effects of peat mining in the Red Lake Peatlands, north-central Minnesota: A project plan (United States)

    Siegel, Donald I.


    Peat is being considered for fuel in Minnesota. This study will investigate the potential effects of large-scale surface mining of peat on the hydrology and water quality of Upper Red Lake and the Tamarac River. The major aspects of the study are the characterization of the surface-water and groundwater hydrology and water quality, including the trace-metal content of the peat. Data will be collected to construct two- and three-dimensional digital models to simulate the movement of ground water and its relation to surface water in the peatlands, streams, and lakes. After the model is calibrated with field data, it will be used to evaluate the effect of mining peat on the hydrology and water quality of the Upper Red Lake and Tamarac River.

  14. Advances in the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    The last decade has witnessed a plethora of research related to the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters and associated tailings and waste-rock waters. Numerous books, reviews, technical papers, and proceedings have been published that examine the complex bio-geochemical process of sulfide mineral oxidation, develop and apply geochemical models to site characterization, and characterize the microbial ecology of these environments. This review summarizes many of these recent works, and provides references for those investigating this field. Comparisons of measured versus calculated Eh and measured versus calculated pH for water samples from several field sites demonstrate the reliability of some current geochemical models for aqueous speciation and mass balances. Geochemical models are not, however, used to predict accurately time-dependent processes but to improve our understanding of these systems and to constrain possible processes that contribute to actual or potential water quality issues. Microbiological studies are demonstrating that there is much we have yet to learn about the types of different microorganisms and their function and ecology in mine-waste environments. A broad diversity of green algae, bacteria, archaea, yeasts, and fungi are encountered in acid mine waters, and a better understanding of their ecology and function may potentially enhance remediation possibilities as well as our understanding of the evolution of life.

  15. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy. (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas


    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  16. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania) — Acid mine drainage and climatological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzatu, Andrei, E-mail: [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Dill, Harald G. [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University, Welfengarten 1 D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Buzgar, Nicolae [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Damian, Gheorghe [Technical University Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, 62A Dr. Victor Babeş Street, 430083 Baia Mare (Romania); Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania)


    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30–90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. - Highlights: • Efflorescent salts from mining areas have a great impact on the environment. • Secondary minerals are influenced by geology, hydrology, biology and climate. • AMD-precipitates samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman and NIR spectrometry. • The dehydration temperatures

  17. Temporal and spatial variability of acid rock drainage in a rehabilitated coal mine, Wangaloa, South Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begbie, M.; Craw, D.; Rufaut, C.; Martin, C. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology


    The Wangaloa open cast coal mine ceased operations in 1989, with no restoration of the 252 ha site, and moderate acid rock drainage developed. A major rehabilitation programme was initiated in 2002 with removal of exotic vegetation, and extensive planting ({gt}60,000) of native seedlings was begun in 2003. In 2003, substrates had moderate acidity (pH = 4.5 {+-} 0.9) with distinctly acid patches (pH down to {lt}2). By 2006, the average substrate pH was essentially unchanged. Some distinctly acid patches had higher pH, and one patch had apparently become more acid. Water compositions ({gt}100 samples frorn 15 sites) were also highly variable spatially and temporally. Incoming stream and rainwater (pH 5-6) chemically interacted with acid substrates, especially waste rock piles that contain pyrite-bearing material, and evolved to lower pH (pH down to 3.4), sulfate-rich waters. A pit take on the site receives most surface and groundwater runoff, and this lake, with a water residence time of 1-2 yr, controls the site discharge water quality. The lake pH varies on a monthly time-scale from 4.5 to 6.5, synchronised with pH variations in groundwater boreholes in waste rock. In addition, there has been a general increase in pH of the take during rehabilitation from consistent pH 4.6-4.8 before rehabilitation to near pH 6 during rehabilitation. The sulfate/chloride ratio of lake water has decreased from 20 to {lt}10 during rehabilitation as well. These changes in lake water composition from year to year may be a result of increased input of rainwater that has had less interaction with substrate than runoff water had before rehabilitation began.

  18. Clustering chlorine reactivity of haloacetic acid precursors in inland lakes. (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the major pool of organic precursors for harmful disinfection byproducts, such as haloacetic acids (HAAs), formed during drinking water chlorination, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Knowledge of model precursors is thus a prerequisite for understanding the more complex whole water DOM. The utility of HAA formation potential data from model DOM precursors, however, is limited due to the lack of comparability to water samples. In this study, the formation kinetics of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), the two predominant HAA species, were delineated upon chlorination of seventeen model DOM precursors and sixty-eight inland lake water samples collected from the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Of particular interest was the finding that the DCAA and TCAA formation rate constants could be grouped into four statistically distinct clusters reflecting the core structural features of model DOM precursors (i.e., non-β-diketone aliphatics, β-diketone aliphatics, non-β-diketone phenolics, and β-diketone phenolics). A comparative approach built upon hierarchical cluster analysis was developed to gain further insight into the chlorine reactivity patterns of HAA precursors in inland lake waters as defined by the relative proximity to four model precursor clusters. This work highlights the potential for implementing an integrated kinetic-clustering approach to constrain the chlorine reactivity of DOM in source waters.

  19. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar


    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  20. Assessment of two kinetic tests to predict the acid mine drainage in waste rock samples of a uranium mine


    Abreu, Adriana Trópia de; Faria, Efigênia Miranda de; Chaves, Carla Thamilis Fonseca; Leite,Adilson do Lago; Lena,Jorge Carvalho de


    Acid mine drainage is the result of the oxidation process of sulfide bearing rocks. This process occurs when the sulfide material is exposed to atmospheric conditions. Under these conditions, successive oxidation reactions yield sulfuric acid generating acidic waters. This problem becomes more serious when the surrounding rocks are not able to neutralize the acid. The low pH condition of the drained water accelerates the solubility process of solid materials (rocks, soils and sediments) and f...

  1. A multi-isotope approach to characterize acid mine drainage in a hardrock alpine mine, Chaffe Co,Colorado. (United States)

    Cordalis, D.; Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Michel, R. L.; Manning, A.


    Here we present information from an innovative suite of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes to better understand groundwater flowpaths and groundwater-surface water interactions in an applied acid mine drainage system. Stable water isotopes, tritium, helium-tritium, sulfur-35, and uranium 234/238 ratios were analyzed from precipitation, groundwater wells, interior mine drainages, and surface waters at the Mary Murphy Mine in Colorado to determine hydrologic transport mechanisms responsible for contaminated zinc releases. Hydrometric measurements suggested a snowmelt-driven pulse of elevated zinc in adit outflow. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes showed a regional groundwater signal in the adit outflow. Tritium values of 11 to 13 TU showed a slight enrichment of bomb spike water compared to snow values of about 9 TU, suggesting an older water source as well. Helium/tritium ratios on a subset of groundwater wells suggested that average residence times of alluvial wells ranged from 2.5 to 8 years. The combination of stable water isotopes and sulfur-35 (half-life of 87 days), showed that zinc-rich waters within the mine derived from infiltrating snowmelt more than a year old. However, measurement of sulfur-35 using low-level scintillation counts was compromised at times by the presence of uranium. We were able to remove the uranium through wet chemistry procedures, improving the accuracy of S-35 measurements. The U234/U238 ratio shows promise in discriminating between acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage. Acid rock drainage shows an unaltered ratio of 1:1, while acid mine drainage is enriched relative to the 1:1 equilibrium ratio. The combination of cosmogenic and stable isotopes within and near the Mary Murphy Mine may provide a useful tool for studying interactions between groundwater and surfacewater in a fractured rock setting. Remediation techniques can be directed more appropriately, and cost effectively, by the characterization of

  2. Effects of acidic deposition on in-lake phosphorus availability: a lesson from lakes recovering from acidification. (United States)

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Kaňa, Jiří; Norton, Stephen A; Stuchlík, Evžen


    Lake water concentrations of phosphorus (P) recently increased in some mountain areas due to elevated atmospheric input of P rich dust. We show that increasing P concentrations also occur during stable atmospheric P inputs in central European alpine lakes recovering from atmospheric acidification. The elevated P availability in the lakes results from (1) increasing terrestrial export of P accompanying elevated leaching of dissolved organic carbon and decreasing phosphate-adsorption ability of soils due to their increasing pH, and (2) decreasing in-lake P immobilization by aluminum (Al) hydroxide due to decreasing leaching of ionic Al from the recovering soils. The P availability in the recovering lakes is modified by the extent of soil acidification, soil composition, and proportion of till and meadow soils in the catchment. These mechanisms explain several conflicting observations of the acid rain effects on surface water P concentrations.

  3. Acid mine drainage biogeochemistry at Iron Mountain, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihring Thomas M


    Full Text Available The Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, USA provides an excellent opportunity to study the chemical and biological controls on acid mine drainage (AMD generation in situ, and to identify key factors controlling solution chemistry. Here we integrate four years of field-based geochemical data with 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and rRNA probe-based studies of microbial population structure, cultivation-based metabolic experiments, arsenopyrite surface colonization experiments, and results of intermediate sulfur species kinetics experiments to describe the Richmond Mine AMD system. Extremely acidic effluent (pH between 0.5 and 0.9 resulting from oxidation of approximately 1 × 105 to 2 × 105 moles pyrite/day contains up to 24 g/1 Fe, several g/1 Zn and hundreds of mg/l Cu. Geochemical conditions change markedly over time, and are reflected in changes in microbial populations. Molecular analyses of 232 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA gene sequences from six sites during a sampling time when lower temperature (0.8 conditions predominated show the dominance of Fe-oxidizing prokaryotes such as Ferroplasma and Leptospirillum in the primary drainage communities. Leptospirillum group III accounts for the majority of Leptospirillum sequences, which we attribute to anomalous physical and geochemical regimes at that time. A couple of sites peripheral to the main drainage, "Red Pool" and a pyrite "Slump," were even higher in pH (>1 and the community compositions reflected this change in geochemical conditions. Several novel lineages were identified within the archaeal Thermoplasmatales order associated with the pyrite slump, and the Red Pool (pH 1.4 contained the only population of Acidithiobacillus. Relatively small populations of Sulfobacillus spp. and Acidithiobacillus caldus may metabolize elemental sulfur as an intermediate species in the oxidation of pyritic sulfide to sulfate. Experiments show that elemental sulfur which

  4. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines (United States)

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.


    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  5. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study. (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael


    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  6. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.


    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  7. Microbial diversity and metabolic networks in acid mine drainage habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia eMendez-Garcia


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD emplacements are low-complexity natural systems. Low-pH conditions appear to be the main factor underlying the limited diversity of the microbial populations thriving in these environments, although temperature, ionic composition, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen are also considered to significantly influence their microbial life. This natural reduction in diversity driven by extreme conditions was reflected in several studies on the microbial populations inhabiting the various micro-environments present in such ecosystems. Early studies based on the physiology of the autochthonous microbiota and the growing success of omics technologies have enabled a better understanding of microbial ecology and function in low-pH mine outflows; however, complementary omics-derived data should be included to completely describe their microbial ecology. Furthermore, recent updates on the distribution of eukaryotes and ultra-micro-archaea demand their inclusion in the microbial characterisation of AMD systems. In this review, we present a complete overview of the bacterial, archaeal (including ultra-micro-archaeal and eukaryotic diversity in these ecosystems and include a thorough depiction of the metabolism and element cycling in AMD habitats. We also review different metabolic network structures at the organismal level, which is necessary to disentangle the role of each member of the AMD communities described thus far.

  8. Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan, Khokiat Kengskool


    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation, reduction of metals, etc. in each process, thus, the chemical requirements (i.e., CaCO3 and NaOH for the system and the system’s treatment efficiency can be determined. The selected treatment system showed that the final effluent meet the discharge standard. The utilization of geochemical model to investigate AMD treatment processes can assist in the process design.

  9. Modelling of acid mine drainage (AMD in columns

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    C. M. Bernardes de Souza


    Full Text Available A model is proposed in this paper to describe the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD in leaching columns. The model considers: (i Water flow through the column, which is calculated using the 1 - D analytic solution of the Richards' equation assuming the existence of a similarity relationship between the water retention function and the water content profiles at a given time; and (ii Pyrite oxidation weighted by microbiological effects occurring in spherical particles according to the shrinking core model. Mass balances of oxygen and pyrite were derived in order to evaluate the intrinsic oxidation rate and the pyrite fraction reacted with time and column position. The model was used to simulate a six month operation of a leaching column, which comprised successive weekly cycles of dry and wet periods. Simulation results demonstrated that AMD generation is strongly affected by the presence of microorganisms. A relative deviation of 5% between simulation and experimental data was obtained.

  10. Perfluorinated acids in air, rain, snow, surface runoff, and lakes: relative importance of pathways to contamination of urban lakes. (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam


    Concentrations of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, rain, snow, surface runoff water, and lake water) in an urban area, to enable identification of sources and pathways of PFAs to urban water bodies. Total PFA concentrations ranged from 8.28 to 16.0 pg/ m3 (mean 11.3) in bulk air (sum of vapor and particulate phases), 0.91 to 13.2 ng/L (6.19) in rainwater, 0.91 to 23.9 ng/L (7.98) in snow, 1.11-81.8 ng/L (15.1 ng/L) in surface runoff water (SRW), and 9.49 to 35.9 ng/L (21.8) in lake water. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound, accounting for > 35% of the total PFA concentrations, in all environmental matrices analyzed. Concentrations and relative compositions of PFAs in SRW were similar to those found for urban lakes. SRW contributes to contamination by PFOA in urban lakes. The measured concentration ratios of FTOH to PFOA in air were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios calculated based on an assumption of exclusive atmospheric oxidation of FTOHs. Nevertheless, the mass balance analysis suggested the presence of an unknown input pathway that could contribute to a significant amount of total PFOA loadings to the lake. Flux estimates of PFOA at the air-water interface in the urban lake suggest net volatilization from water.

  11. Acid mine pollution: effects on survival, reproduction and aging of stream bottom microinvertebrates. Completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, W.D.


    Warbug manometry was used to assess the effect of acid mine water on respiratory processes in three species of aquatic insect larvae. Field collections and laboratory toxicity tests indicated short longevity under strong acid mine conditions. Mixed results were found with respect to weight-dependent respiratory rates. Sequential respiration determinations, under control-control or control-treatment fluids, indicated that acid mine water did not consistently alter rates. Animals maintained in mine water until death showed gradual decreases in respiratory rates over time, rather than stepwise drops that would accompany ionic interference. For these species the toxic mode of action of acid mine water does not appear to operate through mechanisms that are detectable by respirometry.

  12. Investigation of the acid mine drainage potential of the Kopanang rock dump, Vaal Reefs / Charl Labuschagne


    Labuschagne, Charl


    The Kopanang rock dump is one of several rock dumps in the Vaal Reefs gold mining area that may have an impact on the surface and groundwater quality. Few Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) studies exist on rock dumps in the South African gold industry due to the overwhelming acid generation from slime dams. Due to the existence of sulfide minerals in the Kopanang rock dump, there is a possibility that acid generation can occur, depending on the mineralogical composition of the ...

  13. The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireşu area

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    Gavril Pandi


    Full Text Available The substrate of Aghireşu area contains several resources, which in time it was exploited and processed in locality. Among them is the brown coal, the gypsum, the kaolin. The exploitations began in galleries, and then passed to phase of surface quarries. After mining was formed several lakes trough the collapse of the galleries; to them was added the artificial lakes too. The Blue Lagoon Lake is a hydrological unit, the most representative of mixed origin. The water characteristics of the lake are under the influence of mineral composition of the substrate, the activity of mining, the erosion processes, the characteristics of lakes depressions, the climate elements, etc. The water physical and chemical properties are analyzed in space and time scale variation. Sampling and analysis made afford to compare the values in horizontally and vertically plain. The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  14. Geochemistry, mineralogy, and chemical modeling of the acid crater lake of Kawah Ijen Volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Bernard, Alain


    The Kawah Ijen volcano—with a record of phreatic eruptions—has its 1000 m wide crater filled with a lake that has existed for at least one century. At present, the lake waters are hot ( T ≈ 37° C), strongly mineralized (TDS = 105 g/L) and extremely acidic ( pH ≈ 0.4). By its volume, the Javanese lake is probably the largest accumulation in the world of such acidic waters. Mineralogy of the suspended solids within the lake waters suggests that concentrations of Si, Ca, Ti, and Ba are controlled by precipitation of silica, gypsum, anatase, and barite. Lake sediment is composed of chemical precipitates with composition similar to the suspended solids. Thermodynamic calculations predict that the lake waters have reached equilibrium with respect to α-cristobalite, barite, gypsum, anglesite, celestite, and amorphous silica, in agreement with the analytical observations. Significant concentrations of ferric iron suggest that the current lake waters are fairly oxidized. Sulfides are absent in the water column but are always present in the native S spherules that form porous aggregates which float on the lake. The presence of native S provides direct evidence of more reduced conditions at the lake floor where H 2S is probably being injected into the lake. With progressive addition of H 2S to the acid waters, native S, pyrite, and enargite are theoretically predicted to be saturated. Reactions between upward streaming H 2S-bearing gases discharged by subaqueous fumaroles, and metals dissolved in the acidic waters could initiate precipitation of these sulfides. A model of direct absorption of hot magmatic gases into cool water accounts for the extreme acidity of the crater lake. Results show that strongly acidic, sulfate-rich solutions are formed under oxidizing conditions at high gas/water ratios. Reactions between the acidic fluids and the Ijen andesite were modeled to account for elevated cation concentrations in lake water. Current concentrations of conservative

  15. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  16. The Movement, the Mine and the Lake: New Forms of Maya Activism in Neoliberal Guatemala

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    J. T. Way


    Full Text Available This article explores the social, economic, cultural and political issues bound up in two matters relating to the environment in the Sololá and Lake Atitlán region of the Guatemalan Mayan highlands in 2004–2005: the violent breakup of an anti-mine protest and the various reactions to a tropical storm that threatened the lake ecosystem. It views these events as part of a historical conjuncture and centers them in a larger discussion of Maya political activism, environmentalism and neoliberal development in Guatemala from the 1990s–mid-2010s. It begins with the transition from war to peace in the 1990s, charting how Maya participation in municipal politics soared even as the official Mayan movement waned as the state turned to neoliberalism. Zooming in on municipal development and politics in Sololá in the early 2000s, it then traces at the ground level how a decentralizing, “multicultural” state promoted political participation while at the same time undermining the possibility for that participation to bring about substantive change. The center of the article delves deeper into the conjuncture of the first decade of the new millennium. By mapping events in Sololá against development, agrarian transformation and rural urbanization, it argues that resilient Maya community structures, although unable to stop the exploitative tide, continued to provide local cohesion and advocacy. Activists and everyday citizens became more globally attuned in the 2000s. The article’s final section analyzes municipal plans made between 2007 and 2012, arguing that creating and controlling community structures became increasingly important to the state in a time when Guatemala’s “outward” global turn was accompanied by an “inward” turn as people confronted spiraling violence in their communities. Critics called young people apolitical, but in 2015, massive demonstrations led to the imprisonment of the nation’s president and vice

  17. Study of Inorganic Pollutants Removal from Acid Mine Drainage by Hemp Hurds (United States)

    Demcak, Stefan; Balintova, Magdalena


    Sulphates in wastewaters have an origin as the by-products of a variety of industrial operations. A specific and major producer of such effluents, which contained sulphates and heavy metals, is the mining industry. These contaminants should be removed from wastewater using an adequate process of treatment. The paper deals with selected heavy metals (iron, cooper, and manganese) and sulphate removal from acid mine drainage outflowing from an abandoned mine in Smolnik (Slovakia) using the modified biosorbent - Holland hemp hurds. Pre-treatment of acid mine drainage was based on oxidation of ferrous cations from acid mine drainage by hydrogen peroxide and subsequent precipitation. The precipitate were analysed by infrared spectrometry which found the precipitate containing hydroxide and sulphate functional groups. During this process the concentration of sulphate decreased by 43.8 %. Hemp hurds modified by NaOH decreased concentration of Cu2+ in solution by about 70 %

  18. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada Region.

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    Adam James Houben

    Full Text Available Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3 dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L, ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  19. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada) Region. (United States)

    Houben, Adam James; D'Onofrio, Rebecca; Kokelj, Steven V; Blais, Jules M


    Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3) dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As) concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L) and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L), ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.


    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) emanating from inactive or active mine sites contains elevated levels of toxic heavy metals, which can have an adverse impact to the surrounding environment. The major pathway involved in generation of AMD is weathering of pyritic mineral ores, where in s...


    Two-page article describing three SITE demonstration projects underway on the Leviathan mine site in California. BiPhasic lime treatment, lime treatment lagoons and compost free BioReactors are being evaluated as innovative technologies for treating acid mine drainage.

  2. A Tribal Story Written in Silica: Using Phytoliths to Research the Effects of Mining on Past Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) Abundance in Sandy Lake, Minnesota (United States)

    Clarke, I. R.; Jones, M. A.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.


    Wild rice (Zizania palustris, manoomin) is an emergent aquatic plant that grows annually in the northern Great Lakes region of North America. This region is also rich in iron ore deposits and correspondingly has an extensive history of mining activities. Wild rice no longer grows in some areas where it was previously abundant. Sandy Lake, located in St. Louis County on federally protected lands that are ceded territory of the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in Minnesota and downstream of the nearby U.S. Steel Minntac mine, was selected as a test site. This lake has a history of ricing activities by the Ojibwe (Chippewa) People, for whom manoomin has cultural importance. Lake cores were taken on June 17, 2014 by LacCore and FDLRM staff and samples were obtained. This project used phytolith analysis to answer the question of past wild rice presence and abundance in Sandy Lake. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica deposits produced in some plants. Zizania palustris produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic of this species in this region. Microscopic slides were prepared and analyzed for wild rice phytoliths. Concentration values ranged from 25 to 4379 phytoliths per cm3/year, and wild rice accumulation figures ranged from 7 to 789 phytoliths/cm2/year, the maximum values of which occurred in the 1920s and generally declined to the current lowest levels observed. Mining has likely impacted wild rice populations by causing increased sulfate levels and possibly contributing to higher lake levels.

  3. The impact of a catastrophic mine tailings impoundment spill into one of North America's largest fjord lakes: Quesnel Lake, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen L.; Albers, Sam J.; Baldwin, Susan A.; Carmack, Eddy C.; Déry, Stephen J.; Gantner, Nikolaus; Graves, Kelly E.; Laval, Bernard; Morrison, John; Owens, Philip N.; Selbie, Daniel T.; Vagle, Svein


    On 4 August 2014, a catastrophic breach of the Mount Polley mine tailings impoundment released ~25 M m3 of tailings and water and scoured an unknown quantity of overburden into the West Basin of Quesnel Lake. We document Quesnel Lake and Quesnel River observations for 2 months postspill. Breach inflows raised Quesnel Lake by 7.7 cm, equivalent to ~21 M m3. The West Basin hypolimnion was modified immediately, exhibiting increased temperature (~5°C to 6-7.5°C), conductivity (110 to 160 μS/cm), and turbidity (<1 to 200-1000 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)). Cooscillating seiches moved West Basin hypolimnetic water both westward and eastward contaminating the Main Basin. Postspill, high-turbidity water propagated eastward (~1 cm/s), introducing a persistent ~20 m thick layer below the thermocline and an ~30 m thick layer at the bottom. The contaminant introduction, mobilization, and bioaccumulation may pose risks to resident and anadromous fish stocks, which support recreational, commercial, and First Nations fisheries.

  4. Techniques to correct and prevent acid mine drainage: A review

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    Santiago Pozo-Antonio


    Full Text Available En la actualidad uno de los problemas medioambientales con mayor necesidad de actuación es la contaminación por la formación de drenajes ácidos de mina (AMD: “Acid Mine Drainage” procedentes de estériles de mina. Este es el término utilizado para describir el drenaje generado por la oxidación natural de sulfuros minerales que son expuestos a la acción combinada de agua y oxígeno atmosférico. Los minerales responsables de la generación de AMD son los sulfuros de hierro (pirita, FeS2 y en menor medida la pirrotita, Fe1-XS, los cuales son estables e insolubles mientras no se encuentren en contacto con agua y oxígeno atmosférico. Sin embargo, como consecuencia de la actividad minera, estos dos sulfuros son expuestos a condiciones ambientales oxidantes. La necesidad de prevenir la formación de AMD ha desarrollado numerosas investigaciones sobre los mecanismos de oxidación y su prevención. En el presente trabajo además de realizar una explicación y valoración teórica del proceso de oxidación de la pirita también se realiza un compendio de las medidas preventivas y correctoras más empleadas.

  5. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.


    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; Sutherland, D.J.


    A study was conducted to measure the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake in Alberta, Canada. The lake is near the operating Echo Bay silver mine and the abandoned Eldorado uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues was also collected. Concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in sediments were highest near the tailings deposit, and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, radium 226, lead 210, and thorium 230 varied inconsistently throughout the study area. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits. Mercury levels in the flesh of lake trout averaged 0.03 mg/kg.

  7. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

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    Isaac WONG


    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  8. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash. (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Mugera W; Petrik, Leslie F; Etchebers, Olivier; Ellendt, Annabelle


    Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable mine backfill material by means of strength testing. Moreover, SR was used to synthesise zeolite-P using a two-step synthesis procedure. Furthermore, the zeolite-P was investigated to polish process water from the primary FA-AMD reaction. The main objective of this series of investigations is to achieve zero waste and to propose an integrated AMD management using FA. Fly Ash was mixed with AMD at various predetermined FA-AMD ratios until the mixtures achieved circumneutral pH or higher. The supernatants were then analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC) for cations and anions respectively. The physical strength testing of SR was carried out by mixing it with 3% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and curing for 410 days. Synthesis of zeolite-P using SR was carried out by two step synthesis procedure: ageing for 24 hours followed by a mild hydrothermal synthesis at 100°C for 4 days. The polishing of process water from primary AMD treatment using FA was ascertained by mixing the process water with zeolite at a liquid to solid ratio of 100:1 for 1 hour. The results indicated that FA can be successfully used to ameliorate AMD. High removal of major AMD contaminants Fe, Al, Mg, Mn and sulphate was achieved with the ash treatment and trace elements such as Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb were also removed by the FA. Strength testing over 410 days indicated that the material gained strength over the testing period. The maximum unconfined compressive strength and elastic modulus was observed to be approximately 0.3 MPa and 150 Mpa respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the synthesized product indicated that SR was successfully converted into zeolite-P with some mullite phase

  9. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA


    Rory Cowie; Mark W. Williams; Mike Wireman; Robert L. Runkel


    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. ...

  10. Biogeochemical redox cycling of arsenic in mine-impacted lake sediments and co-existing pore waters near Giant Mine, Yellowknife Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.F. [Queen' s University, Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jamieson, H.E., E-mail: [Queen' s University, Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kyser, T.K. [Queen' s University, Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Praharaj, T.; Fortin, D. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Ottawa, K1A 3N5 (Canada)


    Lacustrine sediments, submerged tailings, and their pore waters have been collected at several sites in Yellowknife Bay, Great Slave Lake, Canada, in order to investigate the biogeochemical controls on the remobilization of As from mining-impacted materials under different depositional conditions. Radiometric dating confirms that a mid-core enrichment of Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb corresponds to the opening of a large Au mine 60 a ago. This was evident even in a relatively remote site. Arsenic was enriched at mid-core, coincident with mining activity, but clearly exhibited post-depositional mobility, migrating upwards towards the sediment water interface (SWI) as well as down-core. Deep-water (15 m) Yellowknife Bay sediments that contain buried mine waste are suboxic, relatively organic-rich and abundant in microbes with As in pore waters and sediments reaching 585 {mu}g/L and 1310 mg/kg, respectively. Late summer pore waters show equal proportions of As(III) and As(V) (16-415 {mu}g/L) whereas late winter pore waters are dominated by As(III) (284-947 {mu}g/L). This can be explained by As(III) desorption mechanisms associated with the conversion of FeS to FeS{sub 2} and the reduction of As(V) to As(III) through the oxidation of dissolved sulfide, both microbially-mediated processes. Processes affecting As cycling involve the attenuating efficiency of the oxic zone at the SWI, sediment redox heterogeneity and the reductive dissolution of Fe(hydr)oxides by labile organic matter, temporarily and spatially variable.

  11. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George


    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  12. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail:; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn


    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  13. Comparative Data Mining Analysis for Information Retrieval of MODIS Images: Monitoring Lake Turbidity Changes at Lake Okeechobee, Florida (United States)

    In the remote sensing field, a frequently recurring question is: Which computational intelligence or data mining algorithms are most suitable for the retrieval of essential information given that most natural systems exhibit very high non-linearity. Among potential candidates mig...

  14. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes. (United States)

    Moore, J W; Sutherland, D J


    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake. The concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in the sediments were highest near the tailings deposit and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Although there were also significant positive correlations between these metals and the organic content of the sediments, water depth and slope of the bottom had no impact on metal distribution. Since the concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, 226radium, 210lead and 230thorium varied inconsistently throughout the study area, the distribution of these substances could not be related to any of the environmental factors that were measured. There were, however, significant negative correlations between the concentrations of 232thorium and 228thorium and distance from the mine and organic content of the sediments. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits, reflecting the strong chemical bonding characteristics of the sediments. The low concentrations of mercury in the tissues of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were probably related to low uptake rates and the ability of this species to move into uncontaminated areas of the lake.

  15. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.; Sutherland, D.J.


    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake. The concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in the sediments were highest near the tailings deposit and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Although there were also significant positive correlations between these metals and the organic content of the sediments, water depth and slope of the bottom had no impact on metal distribution. Since the concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, 226radium, 210lead and 230thorium varied inconsistently throughout the study area, the distribution of these substances could not be related to any of the environmental factors that were measured. There were, however, significant negative correlations between the concentrations of 232thorium and 228thorium and distance from the mine and organic content of the sediments. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits, reflecting the strong chemical bonding characteristics of the sediments. The low concentrations of mercury in the tissues of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were probably related to low uptake rates and the ability of this species to move into uncontaminated areas of the lake.

  16. Fieldtrip stop #2-6 Twin Lakes glacial geology and mining history (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Shorba, R.R.; Edited by Simmons, Beth


    The area of Twin Lakes has been of interest to geologists going back to the days of the Hayden Survey (1874) and continues to be studied for its spectacular glacial geology. Twin Lakes (2747 m; 9015 ft) was settled in 1879 (Scott, 2003) as the Leadville silver rush began, when prospectors found the first traces and outcrops of the Gordon, Tiger, Little Joe, and other rich lodes west of Twin Lakes. Between 1860 and 1950, the Twin Lakes area produced at least 2.5 million dollars in placer gold, much of which was produced when the official U.S. Government price of gold was $20.67 per troy once.

  17. Acid mine drainage risks - A modeling approach to siting mine facilities in Northern Minnesota USA (United States)

    Myers, Tom


    Most watershed-scale planning for mine-caused contamination concerns remediation of past problems while future planning relies heavily on engineering controls. As an alternative, a watershed scale groundwater fate and transport model for the Rainy Headwaters, a northeastern Minnesota watershed, has been developed to examine the risks of leaks or spills to a pristine downstream watershed. The model shows that the risk depends on the location and whether the source of the leak is on the surface or from deeper underground facilities. Underground sources cause loads that last longer but arrive at rivers after a longer travel time and have lower concentrations due to dilution and attenuation. Surface contaminant sources could cause much more short-term damage to the resource. Because groundwater dominates baseflow, mine contaminant seepage would cause the most damage during low flow periods. Groundwater flow and transport modeling is a useful tool for decreasing the risk to downgradient sources by aiding in the placement of mine facilities. Although mines are located based on the minerals, advance planning and analysis could avoid siting mine facilities where failure or leaks would cause too much natural resource damage. Watershed scale transport modeling could help locate the facilities or decide in advance that the mine should not be constructed due to the risk to downstream resources.

  18. Geophysical delineation of acidity and salinity in the Central Manitoba gold mine tailings pile, Manitoba, Canada (United States)

    Tycholiz, C.; Ferguson, I. J.; Sherriff, B. L.; Cordeiro, M.; Sri Ranjan, R.; Pérez-Flores, M. A.


    Surface electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can map enhanced electrical conductivity caused by acid mine drainage in mine tailings piles. In this case study, we investigate quantitative relationships between geophysical responses and the electrical conductivity, acidity and salinity of tailing samples at the Central Manitoba Mine tailings in Manitoba, Canada. Previous electromagnetic surveys at the site identified zones of enhanced conductivity that were hypothesized to be caused by acid mine drainage. In the present study, high-resolution EM31 and DC-resistivity measurements were made on a profile through a zone of enhanced conductivity and laboratory measurements of salinity and pH were made on saturation paste extracts from an array of tailing samples collected from the upper 2 m of tailings along the profile. Observed spatial correlation of pH and pore-fluid salinity in the tailings samples confirms that the enhanced conductivity in the Central Manitoba Mine tailings is due to acid mine drainage. Contoured cross-sections of the data indicate that the acid mine drainage is concentrated near the base of the oxidized zone in the thicker parts of the tailings pile. The zone of increased acidity extends to the surface on sloping margins causing an increase in apparent conductivity in shallow penetrating geophysical responses. The quantitative relationship between measured pH and salinity shows that the conductivity increase associated with the acid mine drainage is due only in part to conduction by ions produced from dissociation of sulfuric acid. Comparison of the observations with fluid conductivity estimates based on statistical relationships of pH and ion concentrations in water samples from across the tailings pile shows that Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions also make significant contributions to the conductivity at all values of pH and Cu2 +, Al3 + and Fe3 + ions make additional contributions at low pH. Variability in the measured conductivity at constant

  19. Patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes recovering from acid deposition. (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M


    With decreases in acid deposition, nitrogen : phosphorus (N:P) ratios in lakes are anticipated to decline, decreasing P limitation of phytoplankton and potentially changing current food web dynamics. This effect could be particularly pronounced in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a historic hotspot for effects of acid deposition. In this study, we evaluate spatial patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes and use these to infer potential future temporal trends. We calculated Mann-Kendall tau correlations among total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentrations in 52 Adirondack Long Term Monitoring (ALTM) program lakes using samples collected monthly during 2008-2012. We evaluated the hypothesis that decreased atmospheric N and S deposition will decrease P limitation in freshwater ecosystems historically impacted by acidification. We also compared these patterns among lake watershed characteristics (i.e., seepage or lacking a surface outlet, chain drainage, headwater drainage, thin glacial till, medium glacial till). We found that correlations (P lakes. Differentiations among watershed till depth were also important in determining correlations due to water interaction with surficial geology. Additionally, we found low NO3(-) :TP (N:P mass) values in seepage lakes (2.0 in winter, 1.9 in summer) compared to chain drainage lakes (169.4 in winter, 49.5 in summer) and headwater drainage lakes (97.0 in winter, 10.9 in summer), implying a high likelihood of future shifts in limitation patterns for seepage lakes. With increasing DOC and decreasing NO3(-) concentrations coinciding with decreases in acid deposition, there is reason to expect changes in nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes. Seepage lakes may become N-limited, while drainage lakes may become less P-limited, both resulting in increased productivity. Long-term measurements of TP and chlorophyll a from

  20. Altered energetics and parasitism in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting metal-mining contaminated lakes. (United States)

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors that could be contributing to altered bioenergetics of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) living in lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Although glycogen and triglycerides stores in liver and muscle were significantly greater in pike from exposure lakes compared to the reference, triglycerides stores of aquatic insects and spottail shiners that are prey items of juvenile pike showed no overall differences among lakes. Measures of parasitism, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with pike bioenergetics thereby reflecting a possible energetic cost of parasitism on reference lake fishes. The degree of infection, as measured by the abundance and biomass of intestinal parasites and the abundance of monogeneans on pike gills, was greatest in reference fishes and intermediate in low-exposure pike, whereas high-exposure fishes harbored no parasites.

  1. Use of steel slag to neutralize acid mine drainage (AMD in sulfidic material from a uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marcon de Carvalho Leite


    Full Text Available Acid Mine Drainage (AMD is one of the main environmental impacts caused by mining. Thus, innovative mitigation strategies should be exploited, to neutralize acidity and prevent mobilization of trace elements in AMD. The use of industrial byproducts has been considered an economically and environmentally effective alternative to remediate acid mine drainage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of steel slag to mitigate acid mine drainage in a sulfidic material from a uranium mine, as an alternative to the use of limestone. Thus, increasing doses of two neutralizing agents were applied to a sulfidic material from the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi in Caldas, Minas Gerais State. A steel slag from the company ArcelorMittal Tubarão and a commercial limestone were used as neutralizing agents. The experiment was conducted in leaching columns, arranged in a completely randomized, [(2 x 3 + 1] factorial design, consisting of two neutralizing agents, three doses and one control, in three replications, totaling 21 experimental units. Electrical conductivity (EC, pH and the concentrations of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, Se, and Zn were evaluated in the leached solutions. The trace element concentration was evaluated by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the CO2 emission was measured at the top of the leaching columns by capturing in NaOH solution and titration with HCl, in the presence of BaCl2. An increase in the pH of the leachate was observed for both neutralizing agents, with slightly higher values for steel slag. The EC was lower at the higher lime dose at an early stage of the experiment, and CO2 emission was greater with the use of limestone compared to steel slag. A decrease in trace element mobilization in the presence of both neutralizing agents was also observed. Therefore, the results showed that the use of steel slag is a suitable alternative to mitigate AMD, with the advantage of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere

  2. Unusual nonterrestrial L-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Hilts, Robert W.; Herd, Christopher D. K.


    The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Large L-enantiomeric excesses (Lee ˜ 43-59%) of the α-hydrogen aspartic and glutamic amino acids were measured in Tagish Lake, whereas alanine, another α-hydrogen protein amino acid, was found to be nearly racemic (D ≈ L) using both techniques. Carbon isotope measurements of D- and L-aspartic acid and D- and L-alanine in Tagish Lake fall well outside of the terrestrial range and indicate that the measured aspartic acid enantioenrichment is indigenous to the meteorite. Alternate explanations for the L-excesses of aspartic acid such as interference from other compounds present in the sample, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination were investigated and rejected. These results can be explained by differences in the solid-solution phase behavior of aspartic acid, which can form conglomerate enantiopure solids during crystallization, and alanine, which can only form racemic crystals. Amplification of a small initial L-enantiomer excess during aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body could have led to the large L-enrichments observed for aspartic acid and other conglomerate amino acids in Tagish Lake. The detection of nonterrestrial L-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite provides support for the hypothesis that significant enantiomeric enrichments for some amino acids could form by abiotic processes prior to the emergence of life.

  3. Unusual Nonterrestrial L-proteinogenic Amino Acid excesses in the Tagish Lake Meteorite (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Hilts, Robert W.; Herd, D. K.


    The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Large L-enantiomeric excesses (L(sub ee) approximately 43-59%) of the alpha-hydrogen aspartic and glutamic amino acids were measured in Tagish Lake, whereas alanine, another alpha hydrogen protein amino acid, was found to be nearly racemic (D much approximately L) using both techniques. Carbon isotope measurements of D- and L-aspartic acid and 1)- and L-alanine in Tagish Lake fall well outside of the terrestrial range and indicate that the measured aspartic acid enantioenrichment is indigenous to the meteorite. Alternate explanations for the L-excesses of aspartic acid such as interference from other compounds present in the sample, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination were investigated and rejected. These results can be explained by differences in the solid-solution phase behavior of aspartic acid, which can form conglomerate enantiopure solids during crystallization, and alanine, which can only form racemic crystals. Amplification of a small initial L-enantiomer excess during aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body could have led to the large L-enrichments observed for aspartic acid and other conglomerate amino acids in Tagish Lake. The detection of non terrestrial L-proteinogenic amino acid excesses in the Tagish Lake meteorite provides support for the hypothesis that significant enantiomeric enrichments for some amino acids could form by abiotic processes prior to the emergence of life.

  4. In situ proteo-metabolomics reveals metabolite secretion by the acid mine drainage bio-indicator, Euglena mutabilis. (United States)

    Halter, David; Goulhen-Chollet, Florence; Gallien, Sébastien; Casiot, Corinne; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gilard, Françoise; Heintz, Dimitri; Schaeffer, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Bertin, Philippe N


    Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protist found in acidic aquatic environments such as peat bogs, volcanic lakes and acid mine drainages (AMDs). Through its photosynthetic metabolism, this protist is supposed to have an important role in primary production in such oligotrophic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of E. mutabilis in organic matter synthesis remains unclear and no evidence of metabolite secretion by this protist has been established so far. Here we combined in situ proteo-metabolomic approaches to determine the nature of the metabolites accumulated by this protist or potentially secreted into an AMD. Our results revealed that the secreted metabolites are represented by a large number of amino acids, polyamine compounds, urea and some sugars but no fatty acids, suggesting a selective organic matter contribution in this ecosystem. Such a production may have a crucial impact on the bacterial community present on the study site, as it has been suggested previously that prokaryotes transport and recycle in situ most of the metabolites secreted by E. mutabilis. Consequently, this protist may have an indirect but important role in AMD ecosystems but also in other ecological niches often described as nitrogen-limited.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Acidimicrobiaceae Members from an Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Metagenome (United States)

    Pinto, Ameet J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Yoder, Michael J.


    Bacteria belonging to the family Acidimicrobiaceae are frequently encountered in heavy metal-contaminated acidic environments. However, their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is poorly resolved. We present draft genome sequences of two novel and phylogenetically distinct Acidimicrobiaceae members assembled from an acid mine drainage biofilm metagenome. PMID:26769942


    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific infomation on current approaches for assessing the characterization, monitoring, treatment and/or remediation of impacts on aquatic ecosystems including pit lakes from mining-related contamination i...

  7. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan


    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  8. Modeling aluminum-silicon chemistries and application to Australian acidic playa lakes as analogues for Mars (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Crowley, J. K.; Thomson, B. J.; Kargel, J. S.; Bridges, N. T.; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A.; Brown, A. J.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza Filho, C. R.


    Recent Mars missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major relevant findings are the presence in Meridiani Planum sediments of the mineral jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt) and related minerals that require formation from an acid-salt brine and oxidizing environment. Similar mineralogies have been observed in acidic saline lake sediments in Western Australia (WA), and these lakes have been proposed as analogues for acidic sedimentary environments on Mars. The prior version of the equilibrium chemical thermodynamic FREZCHEM model lacked Al and Si chemistries that are needed to appropriately model acidic aqueous geochemistries on Earth and Mars. The objectives of this work were to (1) add Al and Si chemistries to the FREZCHEM model, (2) extend these chemistries to low temperatures (lateral salt patterns in WA lakes. The WA playa lakes display significant lateral variations in mineralogy and water chemistry over short distances, reflecting the interaction of acid ground waters with neutral to alkaline lake waters derived from ponded surface runoff. Meridiani Planum observations indicate that such lateral variations are much less pronounced, pointing to the dominant influence of ground water chemistry, vertical ground water movements, and aeolian processes on the Martian surface mineralogy.

  9. Distribution and Variation of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) and Protein and Its Hydrolysis Products in Lake Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小兵; 万国江; 黄荣贵


    Protein and RNA in lake sediments tend to be decomposed progressively with time and sedimentation depth. Their concentrations tend to decrease starting from the sedimentation depth of 17 cm and that of 19 cm, respectively. However, the products of their decomposition-amino acids and nucleotides show different rules of variation. At the depth from 27 cm to 30 cm the amino acids are most abundant in the pore waters of lake sediments. Such variation tendency seems to be related to the extent to which microbes utilize amino acids and nucleotides. Due to polymerization in the geological processes and the adsorption of protein on minerals and organic polymers, below the sedimentation depth of 17 cm there is still a certain amount of protein in the sediments. With the time passing by, protein has been well preserved in various sediment layers, indicating that its decomposition is relatively limited. The peak values of protein content in the sediments of the two lakes are produced in the surface layers at the depth of 10 cm, implicating that the surface sediments are favorable to the release of protein.The contents of amino acids in the pore waters of lake sediments are closely related to the activities of microbes. Below the depth of 27 cm, the amino acids are significantly accumulated in Lake Aha sediments, probably indicating the weakening of microbial activities.

  10. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.


    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  11. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage. (United States)

    Silva, Luis F O; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; de Leão, Felipe B; Taffarel, Silvio R; Madariaga, Juan M


    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River.

  12. Fate of Fe, As in Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was created Disused Metal Mine (United States)

    Yu, H.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; So, Y.


    This study is a natural reduction of Fe and As in AMD. AMD is produced by oxidation of pyrite, the iron, the sulfate mineral dissolution action. It is generated by the sulfide minerals, water, oxygen, the reaction of microorganisms in the underground. AMD is low pH due to dissolved minerals in the mine are different kinds of heavy metals will leach. If the flow out of mines and react with dissolved oxygen (DO) is increased, due to oxidation and microbiological activity of the Fe it is precipitated biomat is produced. This study area is Ilgwng disused mines in the Republic of Korea Busan Gijanggun. March to September 2010 taken by the AMD and biomat analyze Fe and As. The main mineral is Chalcopyrite (Cu2Fe2S4), Arsenopyrite (FeAsS), Pyrite (FeS2), Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS), Sphalerite (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Scheelite (CaWO4), Wolframite ((Fe, Mn)WO4) and the like. Analysis of the AMD of underground pH 2.4~2.8, DO 1.3~4.8mg/L, Fe 474.3~178.8mg/L, As 0~3.2mg/L. Analysis AMD of the flow out of mine pH 2.3~2.9, DO 6.7~9.5mg/L, Fe 81.9~438.7L, As 0~2.8mg/L. The content of Fe in the biomat is 244.242mg/kg, the content of As is 5647mg/kg in the adsorption reaction of the Fe. AMD of disused metal mine mineral leaching occur in a reducing environment, in an oxidizing environment it caused precipitation and adsorption reactions.

  13. Variation in Lake Michigan alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) thiaminase and fatty acids composition (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Brown, S.B.


    Thiaminase activity of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is variable across Lake Michigan, yet factors that contribute to the variability in alewife thiaminase activity are unknown. The fatty acid content of Lake Michigan alewife has not been previously reported. Analysis of 53 Lake Michigan alewives found a positive correlation between thiaminase activity and the following fatty acid: C22:ln9, sum of omega-6 fatty acids (Sw6), and sum of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thiaminase activity was negatively correlated with C15:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0, C18:ln9t, C20:3n3, C22:2, and the sum of all saturated fatty acids (SAFA). Multi-variant regression analysis resulted in three variables (C18:ln9t, Sw6, SAFA) that explained 71% (R2=0.71, P<0.0001) of the variation in thiaminase activity. Because the fatty acid content of an organism is related is food source, diet may be an important factor modulating alewife thiaminase activity. These data suggest there is an association between fatty acids and thiaminase activity in Lake Michigan alewife.

  14. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (PAllium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  15. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  16. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  17. Response of fish assemblages to declining acidic deposition in Adirondack Mountain lakes, 1984-2012 (United States)

    Baldigo, B. P.; Roy, K. M.; Driscoll, C. T.


    Adverse effects of acidic deposition on the chemistry and fish communities were evident in Adirondack Mountain lakes during the 1980s and 1990s. Fish assemblages and water chemistry in 43 Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) lakes were sampled by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation during three periods (1984-87, 1994-2005, and 2008-12) to document regional impacts and potential biological recovery associated with the 1990 amendments to the 1963 Clean Air Act (CAA). We assessed standardized data from 43 lakes sampled during the three periods to quantify the response of fish-community richness, total fish abundance, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) abundance to declining acidity that resulted from changes in U.S. air-quality management between 1984 and 2012. During the 28-year period, mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased significantly from 3 to 30 μeq/L and mean inorganic monomeric Al concentrations decreased significantly from 2.22 to 0.66 μmol/L, yet mean species richness, all species or total catch per net night (CPNN), and brook trout CPNN did not change significantly in the 43 lakes. Regression analyses indicate that fishery metrics were not directly related to the degree of chemical recovery and that brook trout CPNN may actually have declined with increasing ANC. While the richness of fish communities increased with increasing ANC as anticipated in several Adirondack lakes, observed improvements in water quality associated with the CAA have generally failed to produce detectable shifts in fish assemblages within a large number of ALTM lakes. Additional time may simply be needed for biological recovery to progress, or else more proactive efforts may be necessary to restore natural fish assemblages in Adirondack lakes in which water chemistry is steadily recovering from acidification.

  18. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study. (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper


    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD.

  19. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.


    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  20. Sedimentary records of δ(13)C, δ(15)N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. (United States)

    Widerlund, Anders; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn


    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in (210)Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15-20% and 20-35%, respectively, since ~1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ(15)N~+9‰ to +19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ(15)N-NO3=+3.4±0.3‰; δ(15)N-NH4=-8.0±0.3‰) and NaCN (δ(15)N=+1.1±0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters.

  1. Characterization of microorganisms in the acidic mine water of the former uranium mine Koenigstein; Charakterisierung der Mikroorganismen im sauren Grubenwasser des ehemaligen Uranbergwerks Koenigstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, Isabel


    The thesis on the characterization of microorganisms in the acidic mine water of the former uranium mine Koenigstein covers the following issues: Introduction: (1) Environmental rehabilitation of the uranium mine by the Wismut GmbH, microorganisms in the acidic mine waters, influence of microorganisms on the mobility of metals and radionuclides, biofilms and their influence on the mobility of metals and radionuclides, biodiversity of the mine Koenigstein before flooding; (2) Scope of the work. (3) Materials and methods: Site characterization, biofilm systems, sampling of water and biofilms, sample transport and storage, chemical analysis, speciation diagrams, catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in-situ hybridization, quantitative microbiological methods, classical microbiological cultivation methods, molecular biological methods, bioinformatics - sequence analysis, statistics, optical microscopy, biofilms. (4) Results and discussion: chemo-physical parameters before and after flooding, quantification of microorganisms, characterization of prokaryotes, characterization of eukaryotes, biofilms.

  2. Modeling aluminum-silicon chemistries and application to Australian acidic playa lakes as analogues for Mars (United States)

    Marion, G.M.; Crowley, J.K.; Thomson, B.J.; Kargel, J.S.; Bridges, N.T.; Hook, S.J.; Baldridge, A.; Brown, A.J.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza, Filho C.R.


    Recent Mars missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major relevant findings are the presence in Meridiani Planum sediments of the mineral jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt) and related minerals that require formation from an acid-salt brine and oxidizing environment. Similar mineralogies have been observed in acidic saline lake sediments in Western Australia (WA), and these lakes have been proposed as analogues for acidic sedimentary environments on Mars. The prior version of the equilibrium chemical thermodynamic FREZCHEM model lacked Al and Si chemistries that are needed to appropriately model acidic aqueous geochemistries on Earth and Mars. The objectives of this work were to (1) add Al and Si chemistries to the FREZCHEM model, (2) extend these chemistries to low temperatures (silicon mineral parameterizations were based on Gibbs free energy and enthalpy data. New aluminum and silicon parameterizations added 12 new aluminum/silicon minerals to this Na-K-Mg-Ca-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Al-H-Cl-Br-SO4-NO3-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system that now contain 95 solid phases. There were similarities, differences, and uncertainties between Australian acidic, saline playa lakes and waters that likely led to the Burns formation salt accumulations on Mars. Both systems are similar in that they are dominated by (1) acidic, saline ground waters and sediments, (2) Ca and/or Mg sulfates, and (3) iron precipitates such as jarosite and hematite. Differences include: (1) the dominance of NaCl in many WA lakes, versus the dominance of Fe-Mg-Ca-SO4 in Meridiani Planum, (2) excessively low K+ concentrations in Meridiani Planum due to jarosite precipitation, (3) higher acid production in the presence of high iron concentrations in Meridiani Planum, and probably lower rates of acid neutralization and hence, higher acidities on Mars owing to colder temperatures, and (4) lateral salt patterns in WA lakes. The WA playa lakes

  3. Filamentous hydrous ferric oxide biosignatures in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Campbell, Kate M.


    A pipeline carrying acidic mine effluent at Iron Mountain, CA, developed Fe(III)-rich precipitate caused by oxidation of Fe(II)aq. The native microbial community in the pipe included filamentous microbes. The pipe scale consisted of microbial filaments, and schwertmannite (ferric oxyhydroxysulfate, FOHS) mineral spheres and filaments. FOHS filaments contained central lumina with diameters similar to those of microbial filaments. FOHS filament geometry, the geochemical environment, and the presence of filamentous microbes suggest that FOHS filaments are mineralized microbial filaments. This formation of textural biosignatures provides the basis for a conceptual model for the development and preservation of biosignatures in other environments.

  4. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage (United States)

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  5. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)


    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ► Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ► Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ► The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  6. Manganese minerals and associated fine particulates in the streambed of Pinal Creek, Arizona, U.S.A.: a mining-related acid drainage problem (United States)

    Lind, Carol J.; Hem, J.D.


    The Pinal creek drainage basin in Arizona is a good example of the principal non-coal source of mining-related acid drainage in the U.S.A., namely copper mining. Infiltration of drainage waters from mining and ore refining has created an acid groundwater plume that has reacted with calcite during passage through the alluvium, thereby becoming less acid. Where O2 is present and the water is partially neutralized, iron oxides have precipitated and, farther downstream where the pH of the stream water is near neutral, high-Mn crusts have developed. Trace metal composition of several phases in the Pinal Creek drainage basin illustrates the changes caused by mining activities and the significant control Mn-crusts and iron oxide deposits exert on the distribution and concentration of trace metals. The phases and locales considered are the dissolved phase of Webster Lake, a former acid waste disposal pond; selected sections of cores drilled in the alluvium within the intermittent reach of Pinal Creek; and the dissolved phase, suspended sediments, and streambed deposits at specified locales along the perennial reach of Pinal creek. In the perennial reach of Pinal Creek, manganese oxides precipitate from the streamflow as non-cemented particulates and coatings of streambed material and as cemented black crusts. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the non-cemented manganese oxides precipitate in the reaction sequence observed in previous laboratory experiments using simpler solution composition, Mn3O4 to MnOOH to an oxide of higher oxidation number usually silicates. ?? 1992.

  7. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of acid mine drainage waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Edna T.R.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Carvalho, Leonel M. de; Pedro Junior, Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Queiroz, Vanessa B.C. de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This study investigated the separation of uranium and other elements in high concentrations from acid mine waters at Caldas Uranium Mining, in the southeast of Brazil, using nanofiltration membranes. Nanofiltrarion is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to removed dissolved species like uranium from acid mine water drainage was measured. Two composite aromatic polyamide commercially membranes of FilmTec/Dow were tested and it found that uranium rejections of greater than 90% and also showed potential for the separation of aluminum and manganese. (author)

  8. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed (United States)

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.


    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  9. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids. (United States)

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana


    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils.

  10. Utilization of Atikokan coal fly ash in acid rock drainage control from Musselwhite Mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kovac, V. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). By-products, Fuel Division; Ho, K.S. [Trow Consulting Engineers, Brampton, ON (Canada)


    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is the greatest environmental liability facing the mining industry. Mines produce acidic effluents that are generated from the chemical reaction of sulphide containing minerals and atmospheric oxygen. The effluents have a pH value as low as 2 to 4 and their movement is accompanied by heavy metals which damage the ecosystem. This paper described some of the ARD-preventing technologies that are under investigation. In particular, it examined the feasibility of using Atikokan coal fly ash (AFA) as a buffering material to control and mitigate the generation of ARD from reactive Musselwhite Mine gold mine tailings. Coal fly ash is the residue resulting from the combustion of coal at electric generating plants. It consists of organic and inorganic matter, including silica, alumina, iron and calcium oxide with various amounts of carbon. More than 40,000 tons of fly ash is generated each year from the Atikokan Generating Station located 190 km west of the mine, of which 80 per cent is used for concrete manufacturing. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of both the fly ash residue and mine tailings. Six kinetic column permeation tests were then performed to monitor the leaching properties of the fly ash and the coal fly ash-mine tailings mixtures to determine the hydraulic conductivities resulting from pozzolanic reactions. The potential impacts of the disposal of AFA and mine tailings were also assessed. The study showed that the hydraulic conductivities of high-calcium AFA and the ash-tailings mixtures were greatly reduced upon contact with ARD. The pH of the pore fluid increased from acidic to alkaline. The concentration of regulated elements in the leachate from the ash-tailings mixtures were also below the limits set by the Ontario Ministry of Environment. The results indicate that AFA could mitigate the generation of ARD from reactive Musselwhite Mine gold mine tailings. 1

  11. Epilithic algae as indicators of biological recovery in acid-stresed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.


    The responsiveness of benthic algae to lake acidification and chemical recovery prompted a survey of epilithic algae along an acid-stressed lake gradient. A primary acid-stress recovery gradient, best defined by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, was characterized by increasing epilithic algal production, and a shift from an Actinotaenium cucurbita/Fragilaria acidobiontica/Homoeothrix juliana/Zygogonium ericetorum to an Achnanthes minutissima/Cymbella spp./Gomphonema spp. indicator assemblage. Increased total, filamentous green, and desmid production, and a shift towards a placoderm desmid-dominated community, typified a secondary recovery gradient defined by increasing water colour. A reciprocal transplant experiment indicated that physiological tolerance of acid-stress was the primary ecological mechanism regulating epilithic algal production and community structure. Macrograzing was of secondary importance, affecting community architecture and species composition only in low acid-stressed habitats. Tadpoles reduced the growth of metaphyton-forming epilithic algae by selective removal of loosely attached filaments of zygnematacean genera. Metaphytic algae from two lakes of different acid-stress levels had contrasting acidity and aluminium tolerance ranges. Z. ericetorum had both a low pH optimum and relative growth rate, along with high aluminium resistance, while a less acidophilic Z. tunetanum exhibited faster growth over a broader range of acidities, but also sensitivity to aluminium concentrations in excess of naturally occurring background levels. 172 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas


    to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social networks in the wild. It is recommended that thorough performance tests are conducted in any study utilizing APTs...... system accuracy (acc) and precision (prec) were Lake1: acc = 3.1 m, prec = 1.1 m; Lake2: acc = 1.0 m, prec = 0.2 m. System performance was negatively affected by structural complexity, i.e., open water habitats yielded far better performance than structurally complex vegetated habitats. Post...

  13. 7th international conference on acid rock drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhisel, R.I. (ed.)


    This meeting also serves as the 23rd annual meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation. The papers discussed various aspects of acid mine drainage including its impact, sustainability issues, case studies, lessons learned, characterization, closure/land use issues, emerging technologies, forestry/ecology, abandoned mine lands, modelling, pit lakes/backfill, soils and overburden, and treatment.


    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...


    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  16. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field analyses of acid mine drainage. Topics include site investigations and characterization, remediation and monitoring programs, contaminant treatment research, and control and abatement studies. Chemical analyses of affected areas, and evaluation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to acid drainage are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Remediation and selective recovery of metals from acidic mine waters using novel modular bioreactors. (United States)

    Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie


    Mine waters are widely regarded as environmental pollutants, but are also potential sources of valuable metals. Water draining the Maurliden mine (Sweden) is highly acidic (pH 2.3) and rich in zinc (∼ 460 mg L(-1)) and iron (∼ 400 mg L(-1)), and contains smaller concentrations (0.3-49 mg L(-1)) of other transition metals and arsenic. We have developed novel techniques that promote the concurrent amelioration of acidic waste waters and selective recovery of metals, and have used these systems to treat synthetic Maurliden mine water in the laboratory. The two major metals present were removed via controlled biomineralization: zinc as ZnS in a sulfidogenic bioreactor, and iron as schwertmannite by microbial iron oxidation and precipitation of ferric iron. A small proportion (∼ 11%) of the schwertmannite produced was used to remove arsenic as the initial step in the process, and other chalcophilic metals (copper, cadmium and cobalt) were removed (as sulfides) in the stage 1 metal sulfide precipitation reactor. Results from this work have demonstrated that modular biomineralization units can be effective at processing complex mine waters and generating metal products that may be recycled. The economic and environmental benefits of using an integrated biological approach for treating metal-rich mine waters is discussed.

  18. Tracking acid mine-drainage in Southeast Arizona using GIS and sediment delivery models (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Gray, F.; Guertin, D.P.; Wissler, C.; Bliss, J.D.


    This study investigates the application of models traditionally used to estimate erosion and sediment deposition to assess the potential risk of water quality impairment resulting from metal-bearing materials related to mining and mineralization. An integrated watershed analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based tools was undertaken to examine erosion and sediment transport characteristics within the watersheds. Estimates of stream deposits of sediment from mine tailings were related to the chemistry of surface water to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to assess the risk of acid mine-drainage being dispersed downstream of abandoned tailings and waste rock piles. A watershed analysis was preformed in the Patagonia Mountains in southeastern Arizona which has seen substantial mining and where recent water quality samples have reported acidic surface waters. This research demonstrates an improvement of the ability to predict streams that are likely to have severely degraded water quality as a result of past mining activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  19. Interim policy for acid rock drainage at mine sites: Issued for comment and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Reclamation Advisory Committee (RAC) has developed a series of working policies and technical initiatives to deal with acid rock drainage (ARD) from previous project reviews and research. This document is an attempt to present those rules and guidelines as a comprehensive working policy. As better ARD control methods are developed the RAC will endeavor to incorporate them into the ARD policy. This interim policy reflects the RAC's current philosophy of preventing ARD generation through prediction and design, avoiding long term treatment where possible. It deals with proposed mine developments, prediction, prevention, collection and treatment, permitting, bonding, monitoring, historic sites, existing mines, comercial leaching, and exploration.

  20. [Study on heavy metals in soils contaminated by acid mine drainage from Dabaoshan mine, Guangdong]. (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Ming; Zhou, Yong-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Yan; Zeng, Feng; Gao, Quan-Zhou; Peng, Xian-Zhi; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Cheng-Bo; Yang, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Dou, Lei; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Ding, Jian


    Mining activities in the Dabaoshan area in the upper reach of the Hengshihe River have caused severe environmental changes, the waste water of milling and refining drained directly into the Hengshihe River, which contaminated the soils along the river severely. It is shown that Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu have contaminated the soil, the Cd contamination was more severe, and the contaminated level of Pb, Zn reached moderately to strongly polluted. The pH value of river and soil affected directly the heavy metals concentration of total and exchangeable ions, and presented negative pertinences. The levels of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the surface soil of Shangbacun village in the lower reach of the river were found as high as 257.762, 350.235, 5.083 and 186.901 mg x kg(-1) respectively, which were relatively higher than those of the background values of soil 1.03, 1.75, 16.9 and 3.7 times respectively, and the result on the soil profiles showed that the contaminations have infiltrated into lower layer soil, ecological environment was harmed severely.

  1. Mercury in Some Lakes of Gold Mining Area of the Southern Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsy Y. G.


    Full Text Available The mercury content in bottom sediments of Kalkan Lake, of the Uchala district, the Southern Ural. It was assumed that high concentrations of mercury in fish due to pollution of bottom sediments as a result of amalgamation at developing of gold placers. Detailed study of distribution of different elements in sediments show close association Hg with the chalcophylic elements, whose anomalies do not have technogenic nature. Association of mercury with the elements-companions of gold placers is evidence of basic contribution of natural mercury to its anomalous accumulation in sediments and fish. This is result of steady long-term natural mercury pollution.

  2. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yongtao [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becquer, Thierry [UMR 137 Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Sols, IRD/Universites Paris VI and XII, SupAgro - Bat. 12, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 2 (France); Dai Jun [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Quantin, Cecile [UMR 8148 IDES, Universite Paris Sud XI - CNRS, Bat. 504, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benedetti, Marc F. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)], E-mail:


    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems.

  3. The effects of phosphorus additions on the sedimentation of contaminants in a uranium mine pit-lake. (United States)

    Dessouki, Tarik C E; Hudson, Jeff J; Neal, Brian R; Bogard, Matthew J


    We investigated the usefulness of phytoplankton for the removal of surface water contaminants. Nine large mesocosms (92.2m(3)) were suspended in the flooded DJX uranium pit at Cluff Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada), and filled with highly contaminated mine water. Each mesocosm was fertilized with a different amount of phosphorus throughout the 35 day experiment to stimulate phytoplankton growth, and to create a range in phosphorus load (g) to examine how contaminants may be affected by different nutrient regimes. Algal growth was rapid in fertilized mesocosms (as demonstrated by chlorophyll a profiles). As phosphorus loads increased there were significant declines (pRa-226, Mo, and Se showed no relationship to phosphorus load. Contaminant concentrations in sediment traps suspended at the bottom of each mesocosm generally showed the opposite trend to that observed in the surface water, with most contaminants (As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ra-226, U, and Zn) exhibiting a significant positive relationship (p<0.05) with phosphorus load. Selenium and Mo did not respond to nutrient treatments. Our results suggest that phytoremediation has the potential to lower many surface water contaminants through the sedimentation of phytoplankton. Based on our results, we estimate that the Saskatchewan Surface Water Quality Objectives (SSWQO) for DJX pit would be met in approximately 45 weeks for Co, 65 weeks for Ni, 15 weeks for U, and 5 weeks for Zn.

  4. National Underground Mines Inventory (United States)


    08 019 726 LONG PARK 15 0502379 08 095 2904 GEO a1 MINE 0502383 08 085 2904 BESSIE 0 MINE 0502387 08 667 2904 PAYSTREAK 0502397 08 113 2904 BUENO MILL...35 061QUESTA MINE 2901267 35 055 43560 ’ RUDY NO, I S 2 2901364 35 031 MT, TAYLOR 2901375 35 061 0 MARQUEZ SHAFT 2901597 35 031 6534 MARIANO LAKE MINE

  5. Use of coal mining waste for the removal of acidity and metal ions Al(III), Fe(III) and Mn(II) in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geremias, R.; Laus, R.; Macan, J.M.; Pedrosa, R.C.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Silvan, J.; Favere, F.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)


    The coal industry may generate acid mine drainage (AMD) and mining wastes, which may adversely affect the quality of the environment. In this study we propose the use of this waste in the removal of acidity and metal ions, as well as in the reduction of the toxicity of AMD. A physico-chemical analysis of the waste shows the presence of mainly SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a superficial area of 4.316 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The treatment of AMD with the waste resulted in an increase in pH from 2.6 to 7.8 and removed 100% of the Al(III), 100% of the Fe(III) and 89% of the Mn (II). We also observed that the high toxicity of the AMD towards Daphnia magna (LC50 = 3.68%) and Artemia sp. (LC50 = 4.97%) was completely eliminated after treatment with the waste. The data obtained allow us to propose that the waste can be used in the treatment of AMD, providing an economic use for the waste.

  6. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt). (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi


    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area.

  7. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling


    Petrilakova Aneta; Balintova Magdalena; Holub Marian


    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results o...

  8. Anthropogenically driven changes in chloride complicate interpretation of base cation trends in lakes recovering from acidic deposition. (United States)

    Rosfjord, Catherine H; Webster, Katherine E; Kahl, Jeffrey S; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Herlihy, Alan T


    Declines in Ca and Mg in low ANC lakes recovering from acidic deposition are widespread across the northern hemisphere. We report overall increases between 1984 and 2004 in the concentrations of Ca + Mg and Cl in lakes representing the statistical population of nearly 4000 low ANC lakes in the northeast U.S. Increases in Cl occurred in nearly all lakes in urbanized southern New England, but only 18% of lakes in more remote Maine had Cl increases. This spatial pattern implicates road salt application as the major source of the increased Cl salts. Among the 48% of the lake population classified as salt-affected, the median changes in Cl (+133 microeq/L) and Ca + Mg (+47 microeq/ L) were large and positive in direction over the 20 years. However, in the unaffected lakes, Cl remained stable and Ca + Mg decreased (-3 microeq/L), consistent with reported long-term trends in base cations of acid-sensitive lakes. This discrepancy between the Cl groups suggests that changes in ion exchange processes in salt-affected watersheds have altered the geochemical cycling of Ca and Mg. One policy-relevant implication is that waters influenced by Cl salts complicate regional assessments of surface water recovery from "acid rain" related to the passage of the Clean Air Act.

  9. Colloid investigations of acid rock drainage solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-Ag mine by ultrafiltration and PCS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.; Zaenker, H.


    Acid rock drainage (ARD) solution from an abandoned ore mine was investigated by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ICP-MS. A colloid concentration of about 1 g/L was found. The prevailing particle size was < 5 nm. (orig.)

  10. Microbial stratification in low pH oxic and suboxic macroscopic growths along an acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez-García, Celia; Mesa, Victoria; Sprenger, Richard Remko


    Macroscopic growths at geographically separated acid mine drainages (AMDs) exhibit distinct populations. Yet, local heterogeneities are poorly understood. To gain novel mechanistic insights into this, we used OMICs tools to profile microbial populations coexisting in a single pyrite gallery AMD (...

  11. Reflectance and Emittance Properties of Spring-formed Ferricretes and Acid Mine Drainage Materials: Relevance to Remote Sensing of Mars (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Lane, M. D.


    The reflectance and emittance properties of minerals associated with spring formed ferricretes and acid mine drainage materials is described. It is suggested that they may be appropriate analog materials for certain regions on Mars.

  12. Impact of acid mine drainage on haematological, histopathological and genotoxic effects in golden mahaseer, Tor putitora. (United States)

    Shahi, Neetu; Sarma, Debaji; Pandey, Jyoti; Das, Partha; Sarma, Dandadhar; Mallik, Sumanta Kumar


    The present study was carried out to evaluate sub-lethal mechanism of acid mine drainage toxicity in fingerlings (9.5 ± 2.4 cm) of golden mahseer, Tor putitora. Exposed fingerlings showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in blood erythrocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and leukocytes in contrast to increase in number of immature circulating cells. Hyperplasia, degeneration of glomeruli, presence of inflammatory cells and increased number of melanomacrophage aggregates, vacuolization of cell cytoplasm, hepatocyte swelling were marked in kidney and liver of fish. Ladder in, an increment of 180-200 bp of hepatic and kidney DNA, by electrophoresis were consistent with DNA damage. 10 day exposure to acid mine drainage resulted in reduction of double stranded DNA to 46.0 and 48.0 in hepatocytes and kidney cells respectively. Significant increase (P < 0.01) in tail length and percent tail DNA was evident by comet assay. The results suggest that exposure to acid mine drainage might cause irreversible damage to immune cells, tissue and DNA of fish, and this model of DNA damage may contribute in identifying novel molecular mechanism of interest for bioremediation application.

  13. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian


    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  14. Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Cowie


    Full Text Available Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  15. Macroinvertebrate and algal communities in an extremely acidic river and the Kawah Ijen crater lake (pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, A.J.; Sluik, R.; Olaveson, M.M.; Ivorra, N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.


    Acidic aquatic ecosystems are mainly characterized by low pH and high concentrations of metals and other elements with evident effects on local community structure. Acidity effects on benthic communities in one of the world's largest extremely acidic crater lakes, the Kawah Ijen (East Java, Indonesi

  16. Selective recovery of Cu, Zn, and Ni from acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae


    In Korea, the heavy metal pollution from about 1,000 abandoned mines has been a serious environmental issue. Especially, the surface waters, groundwaters, and soils around mines have been contaminated by heavy metals originating from acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailings. So far, AMD was considered as a waste stream to be treated to prevent environmental pollutions; however, the stream contains mainly Fe and Al and valuable metals such as Ni, Zn, and Cu. In this study, Visual MINTEQ simulation was carried out to investigate the speciation of heavy metals as functions of pH and neutralizing agents. Based on the simulation, selective pH values were determined to form hydroxide or carbonate precipitates of Cu, Zn, and Ni. Experiments based on the simulation results show that the recovery yield of Zn and Cu were 91 and 94 %, respectively, in a binary mixture of Cu and Zn, while 95 % of Cu and 94 % of Ni were recovered in a binary mixture of Cu and Ni. However, the recovery yield and purity of Zn and Ni were very low because of similar characteristics of Zn and Ni. Therefore, the mixture of Cu and Zn or Cu and Ni could be recovered by selective precipitation via pH adjustment; however, it is impossible to recover selectively Zn and Ni in the mixture of them.

  17. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.


    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  18. Control of geochemical mobility of arsenic by liming in materials subjected to acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, R.P. de; Figueiredo, B.R. [Geoscience Inst., UNICAMP, SP (Brazil); Mello, J.W.V. de; Santos, J.C.Z.; Zandonadi, L.U. [Soil Dept., Federal Univ. of Vicosa, MG (Brazil)


    Background. Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the exposure of sulfide materials to atmospheric water and oxygen. In addition to AMD, oxidation of arsenopyrite and other As-bearing sulfides can release arsenic (As) into the environment. In view of the risk to living organisms due to contamination of ground and surface water sources with As, this work was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of lime (CaCO{sub 3}) in controlling the dispersion of this metalloid in the environment. Methods. Partially oxidized samples of sulfide bearing materials from gold mines in Brazil were used to evaluate the arsenic mobilization by leaching tests. Columns containing ground samples, with and without liming treatments, were leached with distilled water every two weeks over a 156-day period. Results and discussion. The acid-base accounting (ABA) static tests classified the samples as potential acid forming materials. In the treatments without liming, As, Fe and S concentrations in the leachates were higher than after treatment with carbonate. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of liming and As mobilization were lower in the sample containing goethite. A high correlation between Fe and As concentrations in the leachates (r=0.749) suggests that iron (hydr)oxides retained arsenic in the solid phase. Oxidation rates of As bearing sulfides were increased at low pH (2.0-3.9), probably due to the enhanced activity of bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) and decreased rate of Fe precipitation, thus reinforcing generation of acid water, and consequently releasing As. Conclusions and perspectives. Our results corroborate the use of lime to control the dispersion of As in AMD-affected environments. However, the effectiveness of the liming treatment seems to be dependent on the presence of iron (hydr)oxides in the sample. These findings can be useful to remediate areas affected by acid mine drainage and arsenic mobilization in partially oxidized sulfide materials. (orig.)

  19. Implications for global climate change from microbially-produced acid mine drainage (United States)

    Norlund, K. L.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Warren, L. A.


    Microbial catalysis of sulphur cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments is well known but the reaction pathways are poorly characterised. These reaction pathways involve both acid-consuming and acid- generating steps, with important consequences for overall AMD production as well as sulphur and carbon global biogeochemical cycles. Mining-associated sulphuric acid has been implicated in climate change through the weathering of carbonate minerals resulting in the release of 29 Tg C/year as carbon dioxide. Understanding of microbial AMD generation is based predominantly on studies of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans despite the knowledge that other environmentally common strains of bacteria are also active sulphur oxidizers and that microbial consortia are likely very important in environmental processes. Using an integrated experimental approach including geochemical experimentation, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we document a novel syntrophic sulphur metabolism involving two common mine bacteria: autotrophic sulphur oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and heterotrophic Acidiphilium spp. The proposed sulphur geochemistry associated with this bacterial consortium produces 40-90% less acid than expected based on abiotic AMD models, with significant implications for both AMD mitigation and AMD carbon flux modelling. The two bacterial strains are specifically spatially segregated within a macrostructure of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that provides the necessary microgeochemical conditions for coupled sulphur oxidation and reduction reactions. STXM results identify multiple sulphur oxidation states associated with the pods, indicating that they are the sites of active sulphur disproportionation and recycling. Recent laboratory experimentation using type culture strains of the bacteria involved in pod-formation suggesting that this phenomenon is likely to be widespread in environments

  20. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment. (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N


    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  1. Policy for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at mine sites in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the major environmental issues facing the provincial government of British Columbia is the prevention of environmental impacts from metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The government`s major challenge in regulating ML/ARD is to ensure that all mines are planned and operated in a manner that allows for effective problem detection and mitigation, and that the mines emphasize problem prevention at the outset. This paper reviews the legislated requirements regarding ML/ARD prevention and lists guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. Some of the measures to predict and to mitigate ML/ARD include underwater storage of problematic materials, engineered covers, blending of wastes and drainage collection and treatment. Requirements applicable to construction materials, backfill, geotechnical and hydrological considerations, and security of funds for ML/ARD measures are also discussed.

  2. Enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and resulting mineral formation in media mimicking pore water metal ion concentrations and pH conditions of acidic pit lakes. (United States)

    Meier, Jutta; Piva, Angela; Fortin, Danielle


    Acid mine drainage sites are extreme environments with high acidity and metal ion concentrations. Under anoxic conditions, microbial sulfate reduction may trigger the formation of secondary minerals as a result of H2S production and pH increase. This process was studied in batch experiments with enrichment cultures from acidic sediments of a pit lake using growth media set at different pH values and containing elevated concentrations of Fe²⁺ and Al³⁺. At initial pH values of 5 and 6, sulfate reduction occurred shortly after inoculation. Sulfate- reducing bacteria affiliated to the genus Desulfosporosinus predominated the microbial communities as shown by 16S rRNA gene analysis performed at the end of the incubation. At initial pH values of 3 and 4, sulfate reduction and cell growth occurred only after an extended lag phase, however, at a higher rate than in the less acidic assays. At the end of the growth phase, enrichments were dominated by Thermodesulfobium spp. suggesting that these sulfate reducers were better adapted to acidic conditions. Iron sulfides in the bulk phase were common in all assays, but specific aluminum precipitates formed in close association with cell surfaces and may function as a detoxification mechanism of dissolved Al species at low pH.

  3. Assessment of the microbial community in a constructed wetland that receives acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Constructed wetlands are used to treat acid drainage from surface or underground coal mines. However, little is known about the microbial communities in the receiving wetland cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the microbial population present in a wetland that was receiving acid coal mine drainage (AMD). Samples were collected from the oxic sediment zone of a constructed wetland cell in southeastern Ohio that was treating acid drainage from an underground coal mine seep. Samples comprised Fe(Ill) precipitates and were pretreated with ammonium oxalate to remove interfering iron, and the DNA was extracted and purified by agarose gel electrophoresis prior to amplification of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Amplified products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA from seven distinct bands was excised from the gel and sequenced. The sequences were matched to sequences in the GenBank bacterial 16S rDNA database. The DNA in two of the bands yielded matches with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and the DNA in each of the remaining five bands was consistent with one of the following microorganisms: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, strain TRA3-20 (a eubacterium), strain BEN-4 (an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium), an Alcaligenes sp., and a Bordetella sp. Low bacterial diversity in these samples reflects the highly inorganic nature of the oxic sediment layer where high abundance of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria would be expected. The results we obtained by molecular methods supported our findings, obtained using culture methods, that the dominant microbial species in an acid receiving, oxic wetland are A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans.

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of the Muscle Lipids of Five Fish Species in Işıklı and Karacaören Dam Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris Citil


    Full Text Available Total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids in some fish species (Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake, Tinca tinca (Işıklı Dam Lake, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Işıklı Dam Lake, Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören Dam Lake, and Carassius carassius (Karacaören Dam Lake was determined by gas chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake were found higher than PUFA of other species. Palmitic acid was the highest saturated fatty acid (SFA in Tinca tinca (24.64%. Oleic acid was the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake (19.25%. The most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in Scardinius erythrophthalmus was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (17.94%. Total ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the total ω6 fatty acids of Cyprinus carpio in both dam lakes. ω3/ω6 rates in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake, Tinca tinca, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören, and Carassius carassius were 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively.

  5. Using Australian Acidic Playa Lakes as Analogs for Phyllosilicate and Sulfate Depositional Environments on Mars (United States)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Michalski, J.; Kargel, J.; Hook, S.; Marion, G.; Crowley, J.; Bridges, N.; Brown, A.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza Filho, C. R.; Thomson, B.


    Recent work on the origin of martian sulfates and their relationship to phyllosilicate deposits suggest that these deposits formed in different eras of Mars' history, under distinct environmental conditions. In southwestern Meridiani Planum phyllosilicates exist in close proximity to sulfate deposits. One possible explanation for this relationship is that it is an unconformable stratigraphic sequence, representing a significant change in aqueous geochemical conditions over time. Specifically, it may be interpreted to record a change in environment from neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to the Hesperian. On Earth, two different geochemical systems need not be evoked to explain such chemical variation. Acidic playa lakes in Western Australia have large pH differences separated by only a few tens of meters and demonstrate how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. Playa lakes on Earth tend to be dominated by lateral flow of water and salts leading to lateral chemical variation. Heterogeneity of playa mineralogy in Australia is due to the varied source rocks of brines and the mixing of dilute oxidizing brines and freshwater with the saturated evaporitic brines. This is evidenced by the ferricretes in the near-shore environment and more soluble phases in basin interiors. Playa lakes on Mars would be much larger than their terrestrial counterparts, leading to the prevalence of large-scale surface and crustal advection of water and salt rather than short-distance lateral flow, except at lake boundaries. Little or no influx of freshwater would preclude the formation of playa rim (e.g., crater rim) ferricretes and silcretes. Instead, we expect to see mainly vertical facies changes, and any diachronous lateral facies changes are expected to occur on very large spatial scales. Comparison of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral airborne data for Australian playa

  6. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER


    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  7. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.


    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Chemical, crystallographic and stable isotopic properties of alunite and jarosite from acid-Hypersaline Australian lakes (United States)

    Alpers, C.N.; Rye, R.O.; Nordstrom, D.K.; White, L.D.; King, B.-S.


    Chemical, crystallographic and isotopic analyses were made on samples containing alunite and jarosite from the sediments of four acid, hypersaline lakes in southeastern and southwestern Australia. The alunite and jarosite are K-rich with relatively low Na contents based on chemical analysis and determination of unit cell dimensions by powder X-ray diffraction. Correcting the chemical analyses of fine-grained mineral concentrates from Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, for the presence of halite, silica and poorly crystalline aluminosilicates, the following formulas indicate best estimates for solid-solution compositions: for alunite, K0.87Na0.04(H3O)0.09(Al 0.92Fe0.08)3(SO4)2(OH) 6 and for jarosite, K0.89Na0.07(H3O)0.04(Fe 0.80Al0.20)3(SO4)2(OH) 6. The ??D-values of alunite are notably larger than those for jarosite from Lake Tyrrell and it appears that the minerals have closely approached hydrogen isotope equilibrium with the acidic regional groundwaters. The ??D results are consistent with a fractionation ???60-70??? between alunite and jarosite observed in other areas. However, interpretation of ??D results is complicated by large variability in fluid ??DH2O from evaporation, mixing and possible ion hydration effects in the brine. ??D-values of water derived from jarosite by step-wise heating tend to be smaller at 250??C, at which temperature hydronium and other non-hydroxyl water is liberated, than at 550??C, where water is derived from the hydroxyl site, but the differences are not sufficiently different to invalidate measurements of total ??D obtained by conventional, single-step heating methods. ??34S-values for alunite and jarosite from the four lakes (+19.7 to +21.2??? CDT) and for aqueous sulfate from Lake Tyrrell (+18.3 to +19.8???) are close to the values for modern evaporites (+21.5 ??0.3???) and seawater (+20??0.5???) and are probably typical of seawater-derived aerosols in arid coastal environments. ??34-S-values slightly smaller than that for seawater may

  9. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M. Kauppila


    Full Text Available In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 % and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 % into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of these rocks were partly due to additional acid produced in silicate weathering, upon the hydrolyzation of Fe and Al during the tests. In contrast to the modified ABA, the contribution of slowly reactive carbonate minerals to the neutralisation potential was seen in the NAG test and in the carbonate NP calculation, as they classified the rock samples containing these minerals into the category of ‘non-acid generating’. This supports the use of the carbonate neutralizing potential (NP and/or the NAG test in mine waste screening. In the NAG test, acid generation and neutralization reactions either raising or decreasing the pH significantly influenced the solubility of trace metals and Al. This suggests that the extract contents could be useful in assessing contaminant mobility during long-term acid generating reactions.

  10. New method for the direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) concentration in acid mine waters (United States)

    To, T.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.; McCleskey, R.B.


    A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II) >> Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes in Fe reduction-oxidation distribution. Complexed Fe(II) is cleanly removed using a silica-based, reversed-phase adsorbent, yielding excellent isolation of the Fe(III) complex. Iron(III) concentration is measured colorimetrically or by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The method requires inexpensive commercial reagents and simple procedures that can be used in the field. Calcium(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), AI(III), Zn(II), and Cd(II) cause insignificant colorimetric interferences for most acid mine waters. Waters containing >20 mg of Cu/L could cause a colorimetric interference and should be measured by GFAAS. Cobalt(II) and Cr(III) interfere if their molar ratios to Fe(III) exceed 24 and 5, respectively. Iron(II) interferes when its concentration exceeds the capacity of the complexing ligand (14 mg/L). Because of the GFAAS elemental specificity, only Fe(II) is a potential interferent in the GFAAS technique. The method detection limit is 2 ??g/L (40 nM) using GFAAS and 20 ??g/L (0.4 ??M) by colorimetry.A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II)???Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes

  11. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork (United States)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.


    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  12. Analysis of the microbial community in moderately acidic drainage from the Yanahara pyrite mine in Japan. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yasuda, Takashi; Sharmin, Sultana; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo


    Acid rock drainage (ARD) originating from the Yasumi-ishi tunnel near the main tunnel of the Yanahara mine in Japan was characterized to be moderately acidic (pH 4.1) and contained iron at a low concentration (51 mg/L). The composition of the microbial community was determined by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The analysis of the obtained sequences showed their similarity to clones recently detected in other moderately acidic mine drainages. Uncultured bacteria related to Ferrovum- and Gallionella-like clones were dominant in the microbial community. Analyses using specific primers for acidophilic iron- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus caldus, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Sulfobacillus spp. revealed the absence of these bacteria in the microbial community in ARD from the Yasumi-ishi tunnel. Clones affiliated with a member of the order Thermoplasmatales were detected as the dominant archaea in the ARD microbial population.

  13. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene, E-mail: [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sanz, Jose Luis [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bijmans, Martijn F.M. [Wetsus, Centre of Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)


    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed.

  14. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process. (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves


    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work.

  15. Periphyton communities in New Zealand streams impacted by acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, J.P.; Broady, P.A.; Niyogi, D.K.; Harding, J.S. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). School for Biological Science


    Discharges from historic and current coal mines frequently generate waters low in pH (< 3), high in heavy metals ( e. g. Fe, Al) and cover streambeds in metal precipitates. The present study investigated periphyton communities at 52 stream sites on the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand, representing a range of impacts from acid mine drainage (AMD). Taxonomic richness was negatively related to acidity and metal oxides and biomass was negatively correlated with metal oxides, but positively related to acidity. Streams with low pH (< 3.5) had low periphyton richness (14 taxa across all sites) and were dominated by Klebsormidium acidophilum, Navicula cincta and Euglena mutabilis. As pH increased, so did taxonomic richness while community dominance decreased and community composition became more variable. Canonical correspondence analyses of algal assemblages revealed patterns influenced by pH. These findings indicate that streams affected by AMD possess a predictable assemblage composition of algal species that can tolerate the extreme water chemistry and substrate conditions. The predictability of algal communities declines with decreasing stress, as other abiotic and biotic factors become increasingly more important.

  16. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity in a constructed wetland system treating acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicorarat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Dopson, M.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA)


    Microorganisms in acid mine drainage are typically acidophiles that mediate the oxidation of reduced compounds of iron and sulfur. However, microbial populations in wetland systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage are not well characterized. This study was to analyze bacterial diversity, using cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, in a constructed wetland that received acid drainage from an abandoned underground coal mine. DNA was purified from Fe(III)-precipitates from the oxidized surface zone of wetland sediments and 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and cloned. A total of 200 clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 77 unique RFLP patterns were obtained with four restriction enzymes. Of these patterns, 30 most dominant unique clones were selected for sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Half of these 30 clones could be matched with autotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiohacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans). Several clones also formed a clade with heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (TRA2-10, TRA3-20, and TRA5-3) and heterotrophic bacteria (Stenotrophomas maltophilia, Bordetella spp., Alcalgenes sp., Alcaligenesfaecalis, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans). Approximately 40% and 35% of the analyzed RFLP restriction patterns were consistent with A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, respectively. The relatively high frequency of acidithiobacilli is consistent with the chemical and physical characteristics of this site i.e., continuous, abundant supply of reduced iron and sulfur compounds, pH 3-4, ambient temperature, and limited organics originating from the coal seam and from vegetation or soil surrounding the inlet channel to the wetland.

  17. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.


    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  18. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition (United States)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen


    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in

  19. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling (United States)

    Petrilakova, Aneta; Balintova, Magdalena; Holub, Marian


    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia) with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  20. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrilakova Aneta


    Full Text Available Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  1. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils. (United States)

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F


    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  2. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  3. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine. The Gantt Chart on the following page details progress by task.

  4. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion -- FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  5. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.


    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  6. Novel and Unexpected Microbial Diversity in Acid Mine Drainage in Svalbard (78° N), Revealed by Culture-Independent Approaches


    Antonio García-Moyano; Andreas Erling Austnes; Anders Lanzén; Elena González-Toril; Ángeles Aguilera; Lise Øvreås


    Svalbard, situated in the high Arctic, is an important past and present coal mining area. Dozens of abandoned waste rock piles can be found in the proximity of Longyearbyen. This environment offers a unique opportunity for studying the biological control over the weathering of sulphide rocks at low temperatures. Although the extension and impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in this area is known, the native microbial communities involved in this process are still scarcely studied and uncharact...

  7. Hydrogeochemical and mineralogical characteristics related to heavy metal attenuation in a stream polluted by acid mine drainage:A case study in Dabaoshan Mine, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huarong Zhao; Beicheng Xia; Jianqiao Qin; Jiaying Zhang


    Dabaoshan Mine,the largest mine in south China,has been developed since the 1970s.Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from the mine has caused severe environmental pollution and human health problems.In this article,chemical characteristics,mineralogy of ocher precipitations and heavy metal attenuation in the AMD are discussed based on physicochemical analysis,mineral analysis,sequential extraction experiments and hydrogeochemistry.The AMD chemical characteristics were determined from the initial water composition,water-rock interactions and dissolved sulfide minerals in the mine tailings.The waters,affected and unaffected by AMD,were Ca-SO4 and Ca-HCO3 types,respectively.The affected water had a low pH,high SO42- and high heavy metal content and oxidation as determined by the Fe2+/Fe3+ couple.Heavy metal and SO42- contents of Hengshi River water decreased,while pH increased,downstream.Schwertmannite was the major mineral at the waste dump,while goethite and quartz were dominant at the tailings dam and streambed.Schwertmannite was transformed into goethite at the tailings dam and streambed.The sulfate ions of the secondary minerals changed from bidentate- to monodentate-complexes downstream.Fe-Mn oxide phases of Zn,Cd and Pb in sediments increased downstream.However,organic matter complexes of Cu in sediments increased further away from the tailings.Fe3+ mineral precipitates and transformations controlled the AMD water chemistry.

  8. Acid precipitation and other possible sources for acidification of rivers and lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H.M.; Tollan, A.


    The trends in the recent acidification of rivers and lakes in South Norway are reviewed, and the evidence for a causal relationship between acid precipitation and acidification of surface water is critically examined. Results from regional surveys, studies in small catchment areas and from percolation experiments are presented. Several sources may contribute to the acidification. However, changes in the composition of the precipitation during the recent decades, mainly because of increased combustion of fossil fuels, seem to be a dominant cause at least in some of the most affected areas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett


    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  10. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study. (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria


    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents, in particular 18:1n-9. Conversely, carnivorous fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the lowest MUFA contents. Omnivorous fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  11. Critical loads of acidity for 90,000 lakes in northern Saskatchewan: A novel approach for mapping regional sensitivity to acidic deposition (United States)

    Cathcart, H.; Aherne, J.; Jeffries, D. S.; Scott, K. A.


    Atmospheric emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from large point sources are the primary concern for acidic deposition in western Canada, particularly in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) where prevailing winds may potentially carry SO2 over acid-sensitive lakes in northern Saskatchewan. A novel catchment-scale regression kriging approach was used to assess regional sensitivity and critical loads of acidity for the total lake population of northern Saskatchewan (89,947 lakes). Lake catchments were delineated using Thiessen polygons, and surface water chemistry was predicted for sensitivity indicators (calcium, pH, alkalinity, and acid neutralizing capacity). Critical loads were calculated with the steady state water chemistry model using regression-kriged base cations, sulphate, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations modelled from surface water observations (n > 800) and digital landscape-scale characteristics, e.g., climate, soil, vegetation, landcover, and geology maps. A large region (>13,726 km2) of two or more indicators of acid sensitivity (pH acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, calcium acidic deposition in excess of their critical loads and many of them may be at risk of ecosystem damage owing to their sensitivity.

  12. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide. (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F


    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  13. Source of Ni in coal mine acid rock drainage, West Coast, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.A. [Rock and Earth Ltd., Castle Hill Village, RMB 55037, Christchurch (New Zealand); Skinner, W.M. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Hughes, J.B.; Lindsay, P.; Moore, T.A. [Solid Energy New Zealand Ltd., P.O. Box 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)


    Previous attempts to identify the source of Ni in acid rock drainage associated with coal mining operations within the Buller coalfield, West Coast, New Zealand, have identified the source rock as mudstones and coals, but not the source mineral. This work using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) investigated the Ni content of pyrite contained within the Eocene Kaiata mudstone, the dominant mudstone conformably overlying and laterally interfingering with the coal bearing Brunner Coal Measures. Results conclusively demonstrate that the predominant source of Ni within this lithological unit is pyrite, which agrees with previous results that indicated that the pyrite rich mudstones and coals are the source for Ni rather than the low pyrite sandstone units. If pyrite oxidation and hence acid rock drainage can be controlled by appropriate management methods then by association Ni is also controlled. (author)

  14. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.;


    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  15. A novel acidophile community populating waste ore deposits at an acid mine drainage site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Chun-bo; ZHANG Hong-xun; BAI Zhi-hui; HU Qing; ZHANG Bao-guo


    Waste ore samples (pH 3.0) were collected at an acid mine drainage site in Anhui, China. The present acidophilic microbial community in the waste ore was studied with 16S rRNA gene clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Eighteen different clones were identified and affiliated with Actinobacteria, low G + C Gram-positives, Thermomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Candidate division TM7, and Planctomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diversity of acidophiles in the samples that were mostly novel. It is unexpected that the moderately thermophilic acidophiles were abundant in the acidic ecosystem and may play a great role in the generation of AMD. The result of DGGE was consistent with that of clone library analysis. These findings help in the better understanding of the generation mechanism of AMD and in developing a more efficient method to control AMD.

  16. Effect of loess for preventing contamination of acid mine drainage from coal waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bao-guo; WANG Hui-yong; GAO Ran; LI Shu-li


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) that releases highly acidic,sulfate and metals-rich drainage is a serious environmental problem in coal mining areas in China.In order to study the effect of using loess for preventing AMD and controlling heavy metals contamination from coal waste,the column leaching tests were conducted.The results come from experiment data analyses show that the loess can effectively immobilize cadmium,copper,iron,lead and zinc in AMD from coal waste,increase pH value,and decrease Eh,EC,and SO42-concentrations of AMD from coal waste.The oxidation of sulfide in coal waste is prevented by addition of the loess,which favors the generation and adsorption of the alkalinity,the decrease of the population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans,the heavy metals immobilization by precipitation of sulfide and carbonate through biological sulfate reduction inside the column,and the halt of the oxidation process of sulfide through iron coating on the surface of sulfide in coal waste.The loess can effectively prevent AMD and heavy metals contamination from coal waste in in-situ treatment systems.

  17. Gas flushing through hyper-acidic crater lakes: the next steps within a reframed monitoring time window (United States)

    Rouwet, Dmitri


    Tracking variations in the chemical composition, water temperature and pH of brines from peak-activity crater lakes is the most obvious way to forecast phreatic activity. Volcano monitoring intrinsically implies a time window of observation that should be synchronised with the kinetics of magmatic processes, such as degassing and magma intrusion. To decipher "how much time ago" a variation in degassing regime actually occurred before eventually being detected in a crater lake is key, and depends on the lake water residence time. The above reasoning assumes that gas is preserved as anions in the lake water (SO4, Cl, F anions), in other words, that scrubbing of acid gases is complete and irreversible. Less is true. Recent work has confirmed, by direct MultiGas measurement from evaporative plumes, that even the strongest acid in liquid medium (i.e. SO2) degasses from hyper-acidic crater lakes. The less strong acid HCl has long been recognised as being more volatile than hydrophyle in extremely acidic solutions (pH near 0), through a long-term steady increase in SO4/Cl ratios in the vigorously evaporating crater lake of Poás volcano. We now know that acidic gases flush through hyper-acidic crater lake brines, but we don't know to which extend (completely or partially?), and with which speed. The chemical composition hence only reflects a transient phase of the gas flushing through the lake. In terms of volcanic surveillance this brings the advantage that the monitoring time window is definitely shorter than defined by the water chemistry, but yet, we do not know how much shorter. Empirical experiments by Capaccioni et al. (in press) have tried to tackle this kinetic problem for HCl degassing from a "lab-lake" on the short-term (2 days). With this state of the art in mind, two new monitoring strategies can be proposed to seek for precursory signals of phreatic eruptions from crater lakes: (1) Tracking variations in gas compositions, fluxes and ratios between species in

  18. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautama, R.S.; Kusuma, G.J.; Lestari, I.; Anggana, R.P. [Bandung Inst. Teknologi (Indonesia). Dept. of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering


    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, K.; Tuempling, W. von (eds.)


    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  20. Discovery of phosphonic acid natural products by mining the genomes of 10,000 actinomycetes. (United States)

    Ju, Kou-San; Gao, Jiangtao; Doroghazi, James R; Wang, Kwo-Kwang A; Thibodeaux, Christopher J; Li, Steven; Metzger, Emily; Fudala, John; Su, Joleen; Zhang, Jun Kai; Lee, Jaeheon; Cioni, Joel P; Evans, Bradley S; Hirota, Ryuichi; Labeda, David P; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Metcalf, William W


    Although natural products have been a particularly rich source of human medicines, activity-based screening results in a very high rate of rediscovery of known molecules. Based on the large number of natural product biosynthetic genes in microbial genomes, many have proposed "genome mining" as an alternative approach for discovery efforts; however, this idea has yet to be performed experimentally on a large scale. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale, high-throughput genome mining by screening a collection of over 10,000 actinomycetes for the genetic potential to make phosphonic acids, a class of natural products with diverse and useful bioactivities. Genome sequencing identified a diverse collection of phosphonate biosynthetic gene clusters within 278 strains. These clusters were classified into 64 distinct groups, of which 55 are likely to direct the synthesis of unknown compounds. Characterization of strains within five of these groups resulted in the discovery of a new archetypical pathway for phosphonate biosynthesis, the first (to our knowledge) dedicated pathway for H-phosphinates, and 11 previously undescribed phosphonic acid natural products. Among these compounds are argolaphos, a broad-spectrum antibacterial phosphonopeptide composed of aminomethylphosphonate in peptide linkage to a rare amino acid N(5)-hydroxyarginine; valinophos, an N-acetyl l-Val ester of 2,3-dihydroxypropylphosphonate; and phosphonocystoximate, an unusual thiohydroximate-containing molecule representing a new chemotype of sulfur-containing phosphonate natural products. Analysis of the genome sequences from the remaining strains suggests that the majority of the phosphonate biosynthetic repertoire of Actinobacteria has been captured at the gene level. This dereplicated strain collection now provides a reservoir of numerous, as yet undiscovered, phosphonate natural products.

  1. Enrichment of Non-Terrestrial L-Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Aqueous Alteration on the Tagish Lake Meteorite Parent Body (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Herd, Christopher D. K.


    The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquid chromatography fluorescence detection time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Large L-enantiomeric excesses (L(sub ee) approx. 43 to 59%) of the a-hydrogen aspartic and glutamic amino acids were measured in Tagish Lake, whereas alanine, another alpha-hydrogen protein amino acid, was found to be nearly racemic (D approx. L) using both techniques. Carbon isotope measurements of D- and L-aspartic acid and D- and L-alanine in Tagish Lake fall well outside of the terrestrial range and indicate that the measured aspartic acid enantioenrichment is indigenous to the meteorite. Alternate explanations for the Lexcesses of aspartic acid such as interference from other compounds present in the sample, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination were investigated and rejected. These results can be explained by differences in the solid-solution phase behavior of aspartic acid, which can form conglomerate enantiopure solids during crystallization, and alanine, which can only form racemic crystals.

  2. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems (United States)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim


    In this paper the adsorption activity of perlite nanoparticles for removal of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions at Iran Sarcheshmeh copper acid mine drainage was discussed. Thus, raw perlite that provided from internal resource was modified and prepared via particles size reduction to nano scale and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared and BET specific surface area analysis. The results of acid mine drainage show that pH of acid mine drainage is 5.1 and Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions are 10.5, 4.1 and 8.3 ppm, respectively. Firstly in the batch system the influence of adsorbent dose and temperature parameters were considered and then isothermal and kinetic models were investigated. According to the results the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model showed better correlation with the experimental data than other isotherm and kinetic models. Obtained thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° show that the Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption from acid mine drainage is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, perlite nanoparticles adsorbent was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of heavy metals in 1, 3, 5 ml/min acid mine drainage flow rates, the breakthrough curves show that the column was saturated at 180, 240 and 315 min for different flow rates, respectively. According to the obtained results, this abundant, locally available and cheap silicate mineral showed a great efficiency for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from acid mine drainage and can be utilized for much volume of acid mine drainage or industrial scale. W pracy omówiono zdolności adsorpcyjne nano-cząsteczek perlitu wykorzystywanych o usuwania jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2+ z kwaśnych wód kopalniach w kopalni miedzi w Sarcheshmeh w Iranie. Surowy perlit pozyskiwany ze źródeł własnych został zmodyfikowany i odpowiednio spreparowany poprzez zre-dukowanie cz

  3. Effects of some components of acid-mine drainage and acid deposition on the spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B.J.


    The effects of low pH and the metals aluminum, zinc, and cadmium, components of acid-mine effluents and acid deposition, on spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, were investigated. Sperm were exposed to solutions of 400 ppm aluminum chloride, 50 ppm zinc chloride, 2 ppm cadmium chloride, separately and in combination, at pH values of 6.9, 4.8, and 3.8. Sperm were additionally exposed to test solutions in which the metal salt concentration was reduced by one-half and observed for changes in motility and in the ability to exclude stain. All test solutions at a low pH were deleterious, the greatest damage occurring in solutions of a combination of all 3 metal chlorides and of aluminum chloride separately. Motility tests showed that both full and reduced metal concentrations had significant effects on motility. Staining tests were supportive of motility test results and indicated that in most cases shorter exposure times did not significantly improve survival rates. It was generally found that a decrease in pH increased the effects of each metal separately and when combined. Aluminum, zinc, and cadmium chlorides appeared to act antagonistically when tested in combination. It was concluded that the components of acid waters which were tested have deleterious effects on longer spermatozoa, reducing their viability and thereby reducing reproductive success of the species.

  4. A comparison of acid rock drainage treatment scenarios at the former Britannia Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hearn, T. [British Columbia Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Klein, B. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Pilot scale tests of three acid rock draining (ARD) treatment processes were conducted on the Anaconda Britannia Mine effluent for comparative evaluation. The three processes tested included: (1) the high density sludge (HDS) process, (2) a modified version of the HDS that uses pulp mill ash wastes instead of lime, and (3) the Bio-sulfide process. The technical aspects relating to effluent quality and sludge disposal were assessed for each process. A comparison was also made on capital and operating costs. It was concluded that all three process showed promise as a potential remediation treatment for Britannia ARD. HDS and modified HDS treatments yielded effluent specifications that are within the federal discharge limits. In this test, the Bio-sulfide process produced effluents which meet federal criteria for metals concentration, but failed to raise pH levels enough. HDS and Bio-sulfide/HDS treatment scenarios were the most effective of the three alternatives examined. Despite the high risk associated with new technologies, it was recommended that new technologies should be considered as potential remediation methods for mine effluent. HDS was considered to be the most suitable process option to treat the Britannia effluent. 6 refs., 9 tabs.

  5. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis. (United States)

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew


    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law.

  6. Preservation procedures for arsenic speciation in a stream affected by acid mine drainage in southwestern Spain. (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; Oliveira, Vanesa; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Nieto, José Miguel


    A preservation study has been performed for arsenic speciation in surface freshwaters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), a pollution source characterized by low pH and high metallic content. Two sample preservation procedures described in the literature were attempted using opaque glass containers and refrigeration: i) addition of 0.25 mol L(-1) EDTA to the samples, which maintained the stability of the arsenic species for 3 h; and ii) in situ sample clean-up with a cationic exchange resin, in order to reduce the metallic load, which resulted in a partial co-adsorption of arsenic onto Fe precipitates. A new proposed method was also tried: sample acidification with 6 mol L(-1) HCl followed by in situ clean-up with a cationic exchange resin, which allowed a longer preservation time of at least 48 h. The proposed method was successfully applied to water samples with high arsenic content, taken from the Aguas Agrias Stream (Odiel River Basin, SW Spain), which is severely affected by AMD that originates at the nearby polymetallic sulfide mine of Tharsis. The speciation results obtained by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) indicated that during the summer the main arsenic species was As(V) at the hundred microg L(-1) level, followed by DMA (dimethyl arsenic) and As(III) below the ten microg L(-1) level. In winter, As(V) and As(III) increased at least fivefold, whereas the DMA was not detected.

  7. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Dai

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  8. Oxidative Precipitation of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage by Potassium Permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regeane M. Freitas


    Full Text Available Although oxidative precipitation by potassium permanganate is a widely recognised process for manganese removal, research dealing with highly contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD has yet to be performed. The present study investigated the efficiency of KMnO4 in removing manganese from AMD effluents. Samples of AMD that originated from inactive uranium mine in Brazil were chemically characterised and treated by KMnO4 at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. Analyses by Raman spectroscopy and geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code were employed to assess solid phases. Results indicated that the manganese was rapidly oxidised by KMnO4 in a process enhanced at higher pH. The greatest removal, that is, 99%, occurred at pH 7.0, when treated waters presented manganese levels as low as 1.0 mg/L, the limit established by the Brazilian legislation. Birnessite (MnO2, hausmannite (Mn3O4, and manganite (MnOOH were detected by Raman spectroscopy. These phases were consistently identified by the geochemical model, which also predicted phases containing iron, uranium, manganese, and aluminium during the correction of the pH as well as bixbyite (Mn2O3, nsutite (MnO2, pyrolusite (MnO2, and fluorite (CaF2 following the KMnO4 addition.

  9. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Dai, Zhimin; Guo, Xue; Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan


    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  10. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results (United States)

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.


    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater

  11. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles


    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  12. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation. (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge


    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD.

  13. Field validation of specific ecotoxicological tools for aquatic systems impacted with acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, I.; Goncalves, F.; Nogueira, A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Coimbra (Portugal). Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is characterised by very low pH and high heavy metal concentrations. Serious ecotoxicological effects, often leading to the complete disruption of the ecosystem, can be observed at the regions suffering this kind of contamination. Those effects can be caused either by low pH itself or by other contaminants that emerge with water acidification (mobilisation and increased solubility of heavy metals). The discrimination between the toxicity due to each of these two factors is not possible with the existing toxicity tests; the addition of chelating agents or serial dilution methods seriously alter the chemical and physical properties of the effluent. A toxicity test, based on the survival time of Ceriodaphnia dubia (Crustacea, Cladocera) neonates exposed to the unchanged effluent was developed and field validated, on an AMD contaminated site. 28 refs.

  14. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system. (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok


    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD.

  15. Stress-Survival Gene Identification From an Acid Mine Drainage Algal Mat Community (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Fujishima, K.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Rothschild-Mancinelli, B.; Rothschild, L. J.


    Microbial communities from acid mine drainage environments are exposed to multiple stressors to include low pH, high dissolved metal loads, seasonal freezing, and desiccation. The microbial and algal communities that inhabit these niche environments have evolved strategies that allow for their ecological success. Metagenomic analyses are useful in identifying species diversity, however they do not elucidate the mechanisms that allow for the resilience of a community under these extreme conditions. Many known or predicted genes encode for protein products that are unknown, or similarly, many proteins cannot be traced to their gene of origin. This investigation seeks to identify genes that are active in an algal consortium during stress from living in an acid mine drainage environment. Our approach involves using the entire community transcriptome for a functional screen in an Escherichia coli host. This approach directly targets the genes involved in survival, without need for characterizing the members of the consortium.The consortium was harvested and stressed with conditions similar to the native environment it was collected from. Exposure to low pH (DNA (cDNA) libraries in E. coli. The transformed E. coli were exposed to the same stressors as the original algal consortium to select for surviving cells. Successful cells incorporated the transcripts that encode survival mechanisms, thus allowing for selection and identification of the gene(s) involved. Initial selection screens for freeze and desiccation tolerance have yielded E. coli that are 1 order of magnitude more resistant to freezing (0.01% survival of control with no transcript, 0.2% survival of E. coli with transcript) and 3 orders of magnitude more resistant to desiccation (0.005% survival of control cells with no transcripts, 5% survival of cells with transcript).This work is transformative because genetic functions can be selected without having prior knowledge of the genes or of the organisms involved

  16. Solubilization of manganese and trace metals in soils affected by acid mine runoff. (United States)

    Green, C H; Heil, D M; Cardon, G E; Butters, G L; Kelly, E F


    Manganese solubility has become a primary concern in the soils and water supplies in the Alamosa River basin, Colorado due to both crop toxicity problems and concentrations that exceed water quality standards. Some of the land in this region has received inputs of acid and trace metals as a result of irrigation with water affected by acid mine drainage and naturally occurring acid mineral seeps. The release of Mn, Zn, Ni, and Cu following saturation with water was studied in four soils from the Alamosa River basin. Redox potentials decreased to values adequate for dissolution of Mn oxides within 24 h following saturation. Soluble Mn concentrations were increased to levels exceeding water quality standards within 84 h. Soluble concentrations of Zn and Ni correlated positively with Mn following reduction for all four soils studied. The correlation between Cu and Mn was significant for only one of the soils studied. The soluble concentrations of Zn and Ni were greater than predicted based on the content of each of these metals in the Mn oxide fraction only. Increases in total electrolyte concentration during reduction indicate that this may be the result of displacement of exchangeable metals by Mn following reductive dissolution of Mn oxides.

  17. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application (United States)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia


    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  18. Bio-availability of tungsten in the vicinity of an abandoned mine in the English Lake District and some potential health implications. (United States)

    Wilson, Bob; Pyatt, F Brian


    This research addresses the occurrence, detection and possible fate of tungsten in the vicinity of an abandoned mine in the English Lake District. Aqua regia extraction and subsequent analysis of spoil and vegetation confirmed the presence of tungsten and other heavy metals. Spoil samples examined were last worked almost 100 years ago and the concentrations of copper, zinc, tungsten and arsenic detected demonstrate the environmental persistence of these metals in an area of relatively high rainfall. The bioaccumulation of tungsten by two species of plants is indicated and partitioning within different tissues of Calluna vulgaris is demonstrated. Mechanisms relating to mobility and speciation of the metals present were explored using sequential and single stage extraction systems. Tungsten appears to be relatively immobile when subjected to sequential extraction but increased bioavailability is indicated when single stage extraction using EDTA is employed.

  19. MiniSipper: A new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas P.; Todd, Andrew S.


    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7–8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R2 > 0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed.

  20. Decomposition of Alternative Chirality Amino Acids by Alkaliphilic Anaerobe from Owens Lake, California (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Hoover, Richard B.


    The study of alkaliphilic microbial communities from anaerobic sediments of Owens and Mono Lakes in California led to the isolation of a bacterial strain capable of metabolizing amino acids with alternative chirality. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the anaerobic strain BK1 belongs to the genus Tindallia; however, despite the characteristics of other described species of this genus, the strain BK1 was able to grow on D-arginine and Dlysine. Cell morphology of this strain showed straight, motile, non-spore-forming rods with sizes 0.45 x 1.2-3 microns. Physiological characteristics of the strain showed that it is catalase negative, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, and obligately alkaliphilic. This isolate is unable to grow at pH 7 and requires CO3 (2-) ions for growth. The strain has chemo-heterotrophic metabolism and is able to ferment various proteolysis products and some sugars. It plays the role of a primary anaerobe within the trophic chain of an anaerobic microbial community by the degradation of complex protein molecules to smaller and less energetic molecules. The new isolate requires NaCl for growth, and can grow within the range of 0.5-13 %, with the optimum at 1 % NaCl (w/v). The temperature range for the growth of the new isolate is 12-40 C with optimum at 35 C. The pH range for the growth of strain BK1 occurs between 7.8 and 11.0 with optimum at 9.5. This paper presents detailed physiological characteristics of the novel isolate from Owens Lake, a unique relic ecosystem of Astrobiological significance, and makes an accent on the ability of this strain to utilize L-amino acids.

  1. Molecular analysis of benthic biofilms from acidic coal mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA (United States)

    Mills, D. B.; Jones, D. S.; Burgos, W. D.; Macalady, J. L.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common environmental problem in Pennsylvania that results from the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed at abandoned coal mines. In these systems, acidophilic microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which precipitates as iron-hydroxide minerals. To develop and improve low-pH bioremediation strategies, characterization of the microbiology of AMD systems is essential. An acidic (pH 2-4) AMD spring known as ‘Lower Red Eyes’ in Gallitzan State Forest, PA, is fed by anoxic groundwater with ferrous iron concentrations above 550 mg/L. More than half of the total iron is removed after the springwater flows downstream over 80 m of stagnant pools and iron-oxide terraces. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA cloning to characterize the microbial communities from orange sediments and green benthic biofilms. 16S rDNA sequences were extracted from a green biofilm found in a pH 3.5 pool 10 m downstream of the emergence. Based on chloroplast 16S rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we found that Euglena mutabilis was the dominant eukaryotic organism from this location. Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protozoan common in acidic and heavy metal affected environments, and likely contributes to the precipitation of iron oxides through the production of molecular oxygen. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from iron-oxide sediments with orange cauliflower morphology 27 m downstream from the spring emergence. More than 60% of bacterial sequences retrieved from the orange sediment sample are related to the iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacterium Ferrovum myxofaciens. Other bacterial sequences include relatives of iron-oxidizing genera in the Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. FISH analyses show that Betaproteobacteria-dominated communities are associated with Euglena in multiple upstream locations where pH is above 3.0. Using light microscopy

  2. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California; first-year summary (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Alpers, C.N.


    Acid drainage from the Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, has caused contamination of ground water between Mine Run Dam and Camanche Reservoir. The Penn Mine was first developed in the 1860's primarily for copper and later produced lesser amounts of zinc, lead, silver, and gold from steeply dipping massive sulfide lenses in metamorphic rocks. Surface disposal of sulfidic waste rock and tailings from mine operations has produced acidic drainage with pH values between 2.3 and 2.7 and elevated concentrations of sulfate and metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and aluminum. During the mine's operation and after its subsequent abandonment in the late 1950's, acid mine drainage flowed down Mine Run into the Mokelumne River. Construction of Camanche Dam in 1963 flooded part of the Mokelumne River adjacent to Penn Mine. Surface-water diversions and unlined impoundments were constructed at Penn Mine in 1979 to reduce runoff from the mine, collect contaminated surface water, and enhance evaporation. Some of the contaminated surface water infiltrates the ground water and flows toward Camanche Reservoir. Ground- water flow in the study area is controlled by the local hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic characteristics of two principal rock types, a Jurassic metavolcanic unit and the underlying Salt Spring slate. The hydraulic gradient is west from Mine Run impoundment toward Camanche Reservoir. The median hydraulic conductivity was about 10 to 50 times higher in the metavolcanic rock (0.1 foot per day) than in the slate (0.002 to 0.01 foot per day); most flow occurs in the metavolcanic rock where hydraulic conductivity is as high as 50 feet per day in two locations. The contact between the two rock units is a fault plane that strikes N20?W, dips 20?NE, and is a likely conduit for ground-water flow, based on down-hole measurements with a heatpulse flowmeter. Analyses of water samples collected during April 1992 provide a comprehensive characterization of

  3. Gasified grass and wood biochars facilitate plant establishment in acid mine soils (United States)

    Heavy metals in exposed mine tailings threaten ecosystems that surround thousands of abandoned mines in the U.S. Biochars derived from the pyrolysis or gasification of biomass may serve as a valuable soil amendment to revegetate mine sites. We evaluated the ability of two biochar...

  4. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils


    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  5. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.


    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei


    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  7. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain). (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi


    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution.

  8. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  9. Diatoms in acid mine drainage and their role in the formation of iron-rich stromatolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Dannelly, H.K. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)


    Adverse conditions in the acid mine drainage (AMD) system at the Green Valley mine, Indiana, limit diatom diversity to one species, Nitzschia tubicola. It is present in three distinct microbial consortia: Euglena mutabilis-dominated biofilm, diatom-dominated biofilm, and diatom-exclusive biofilm. E. mutabilis dominates the most extensive biofilm, with lesser numbers of N. tubicola, other eukaryotes, and bacteria. Diatom-dominated biofilm occurs as isolated patches containing N. tubicola with minor fungal hyphae, filamentous algae, E. mutabilis, and bacteria. Diatom-exclusive biofilm is rare, composed entirely of N. tubicola. Diatom distribution is influenced by seasonal and intraseasonal changes in water temperature and chemistry. Diatoms are absent in winter due to cool water temperatures. In summer, isolated patchy communities are present due to warmer water temperatures. In 2001, the diatom community expanded its distribution following a major rainfall that temporarily diluted the effluent, creating hospitable conditions for diatom growth. After several weeks when effluent returned to preexisting conditions, the diatom biofilm retreated to isolated patches, and E. mutabilis biofilm flourished. Iron-rich stromatolites underlie the biofilms and consist of distinct laminae, recording spatial and temporal oscillations in physicochemical conditions and microbial activity. The stromatolites are composed of thin, wavy laminae with partially decayed E. mutabilis biofilm, representing microbial activity and iron precipitation under normal AMD conditions. Alternating with the wavy layers are thicker, porous, spongelike laminae composed of iron precipitated on and incorporated into radiating colonies of diatoms. These layers indicate episodic changes in water chemistry, allowing diatoms to temporarily dominate the system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  11. Binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to natural humic acid fractions sequentially extracted from the lake sediments. (United States)

    He, En; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Wang, Jinghua; Zhang, Ruiqing; Ding, Tao


    Humic acids (HAs) determine the distribution, toxicity, bioavailability, and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment. In this work, ten HA fractions (F1-F10) were used as adsorbent, which were sequentially extracted from natural sediments of Lake Wuliangsuhai, to investigate the binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to HA. On the basis of the characterization results, differences were found between the ten extracted HA fractions responding to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups. The characterization results reveal that the responses of ten extracted HA fractions to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups were different. The O/C and (O + N)/C ratio of F1-F8 approximately ranged from 0.66 to 0.53 and from 0.72 to 0.61, respectively; the measured results showed that the contents of phenolic groups and carboxyl groups decreased from 4.46 to 2.60 mmol/g and 1.60 to 0.58 mmol/g, respectively. The binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to the ten HA fractions were well modeled by the bi-Langmuir model; the binding behavior of Cu(2+) to all the ten HA fractions were strongly impacted by pH and ionic strength. The FTIR and SEM-EDX image of HA fractions (pre- and post-adsorption) revealed that carboxyl and phenolic groups were responsible for the Cu(2+) sorption on the ten sequentially extracted HA fractions process, which is the same with the analysis of the ligand binding and bi-Langmuir models Accordingly, the adsorption capacity of the former HA fractions on Cu(2+) were higher than the latter ones, which may be attributed to the difference of carboxyl and phenolic group contents between the former and latter extracted HA fractions. Additionally, the functional groups with N and S should not be neglected. This work is hopeful to understand the environmental effect of humic substances, environmental geochemical behavior, and bioavailability of heavy metals in lakes.

  12. Colloidal precipitates related to Acid Mine Drainage: bacterial diversity and micro fungi-heavy metal interactions (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Carbone, C.; Consani, S.; Zotti, M.; Di Piazza, S.; Pozzolini, M.; Giovine, M.


    In Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) settings colloidal precipitates control the mobility of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs). Mineral-contaminant relationships (i.e. adsorption, ion-exchange, desorption) are rarely pure abiotic processes. Microbes, mainly bacteria and microfungi, can catalyze several reactions modifying the element speciation, as well as the bioavailability of inorganic pollutants. Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a potential reservoir of extremophile bacteria and fungi exploitable for biotechnological purposes. Two different AMD related colloids, an ochraceous precipitate (deposited in weakly acidic conditions, composed by nanocrystalline goethite) and a greenish-blue precipitate (deposited at near-neutral pH, composed by allophane + woodwardite) were sampled. The aims of this work were to a) characterize the mycobiota present in these colloidal minerals by evaluating the presence of alive fungal propagules and extracting bacteria DNA; b) verify the fungal strains tolerance, and bioaccumulation capability on greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media; c) evaluate potential impact of bacteria in the system geochemistry. The preliminary results show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains were isolated in pure culture. Among them, species belonging to Penicillium and Trichoderma genera were tested on both greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media. The results show a significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability to some PTEs. The same colloidal precipitates were processed to extract bacteria DNA by using a specific procedure developed for sediments. The results give a good yield of nucleic acids and a positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analyses.

  13. Sulfur and oxygen isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage--the polymetallic sulfide deposit "himmelfahrt fundgrube" in Freiberg (Germany). (United States)

    Haubrich, F; Tichomirowa, M


    We investigated physical, chemical and isotope (S, O) parameters of sulfate from acid mine drainage from the polymetallic sulfide ore deposit Freiberg (Gennany), which was mined for more than eight hundred years. Two main groups of water were distinguished: 1. Flowing mine water with sulfate concentrations of less than 9,000 mg/l and pH values higher than 3.2, 2. Pore water in weathered low grade ores and pools with sulfate concentrations higher than 9000mg/l and pH values below 3.2. The sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of sulfate from flowing mine waters reflects mixing of sulfate from two sulfur sources: a) atmospheric sulfur from precipitation and b) sulfate formed as a result of sulfide oxidation processes. Sulfur isotope values of mine water sulfate were used to estimate the contribution of sulfate derived through oxidation of sulfides. The sulfur isotope composition of pore water sulfate and precipitated sulfate (jarosite) from weathered low grade ore samples is identical to the sulfur isotope composition of primary sulfides. The oxygen isotope composition of pore water sulfate from low grade ore samples indicates that the oxidation process proceeds relatively slowly in 02-depleted waters, probably without significant microbial catalysis.

  14. Overall hydrochemical characterization of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Main acid mine drainage-generating sources (Huelva, SW Spain) (United States)

    Grande, J. A.; de la Torre, M. L.; Cerón, J. C.; Beltrán, R.; Gómez, T.


    SummaryAMD is an anthropogenic process caused by sulfide mineralization and the increase in the contact surface due to mining activity and grain-size reduction. In Spain, the contamination comes from the metal sulfide mines in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Spreading over an area 230 km long and approximately 50 km wide, it is one of the largest metallogenic regions in the world, with massive sulfide reserves of about 1700 Mt. In the present study we will characterize AMD contamination processes in the IPB, especially by As, by identifying the sources responsible for these processes (active mines and effluents from mines and slag heaps) in the basins of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. It is also the aim of this study to discover the mineral associations of the deposits. The study of the AMD process generating source is complemented with hydrochemical characterization of the effluents produced, which will be carried out by means of sample-taking and subsequent chemical analysis and statistical treatment (cluster analysis). Characteristics in common with samples taken in other AMD-affected watercourses are observed in the seven zones defined in the study area. With respect to the samples studied, obvious differences can also be found. These differences are inherent to the mineral associations, watershed and distance to the generating source and, ultimately, to the affected area, and the type, intensity and duration of the mine treatment process developed in the acid-producing area.

  15. Microbial Communities and a Novel Symbiotic Interaction in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage at Iron Mountain, California (United States)

    Baker, B. J.; Banfield, J. F.


    Culture-independent studies of microbial communities in the acid mine drainage (AMD) system associated with the Richmond ore body at Iron Mountain, CA, demonstrated that the total number of prokaryote lineages is small compared to other environments. Phylogenetic analyses of 232 small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from six clone libraries revealed some novel lines of descent. Many of the novel clones were from libraries constructed from subaerial biofilms associated with fine grained pyrite. The clones form several distinct groups within the order Thermoplasmatales and are most closely related to Ferroplasma spp. and Thermoplasma spp. Another novel group detected in a pH 1.4 pool and a pH 0.8 biofilm falls within the Rickettsiales (alpha-proteobacteria and related to mitochondria) and is most closely related to a-proteobacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. An oligonucleotide rRNA probe designed to target alpha-proteobacteria revealed that these are protist endosymbionts, and that they are associated with a small percentage (2%) of the total eukaryotes in samples from the Richmond mine. Measurements of the internal pH of these protists show that their cytosol is close to neutral. Thus, protists provide a habitat within the AMD system that is at least 5 pH units less acidic than the surroundings. The uncultured AMD endosymbionts have a conserved 273 nucleotide intervening sequence (IVS) in the variable V1 region of their 16S rRNA gene. The IVS does not match any sequence in current databases, but predicted secondary structure form well defined stem loops. The discovery of inserts within a highly conserved gene is extremely rare. At present we have not identified the protist host. However, it is interesting to note that protists previously shown to have a-proteobacterial endosymbionts possess 18S rRNA genes that contain both IVSs and group I introns. The possibility that the IVS in the AMD bacteria is a result of extensive genetic exchange between a

  16. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; de Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology


    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

  17. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan mine drainage basin, California/Nevada - October, 1981 to October, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.


    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Tl, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these acid waters are derived from pyrite oxidation and not from the oxidation of elemental sulfur. 16 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  19. Evaluation of contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota at Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge from historical phosphate mining and agricultural return flows (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) sits at the north end of a large lake called Bear Lake, and is located in southeast Idaho, seven miles southwest of the...

  20. Response of alpine lakes and soils to changes in acid deposition: the MAGIC model applied to the Tatra Mountain region, Slovakia-Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef VESELÝ


    Full Text Available A dynamic process-based model of surface water acidification, MAGIC, was applied to 31 representative alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (~50% of all alpine lakes >0.3 ha in the lake-district. The model was calibrated to observed lake chemistry for the period 1980-2002. Surface water and soil chemistry were reconstructed from 1860 to 2002, given estimates of historical acid deposition, and forecast to 2020 based on the reduction in sulphur and nitrogen emissions presupposed by the Gothenburg Protocol. In the 1860s, all lakes were buffered by the carbonate system and only ~6% of lakes had acid neutralising capacity (ANC 50% of the SAA change in sensitive lakes with intermediate weathering rates and little soils (low BC exchangeable capacity and elevated terrestrial export of nitrate and (3 by parallel changes in concentrations of protons and aluminium (each ~20% of the SAA change in extremely sensitive lakes, with the lowest weathering rates and soil base saturation. The full implementation of the Gothenburg Protocol will not be sufficient to allow recovery of the latter group of lakes, which will remain acidified after 2020.

  1. The impact of acid deposition and forest harvesting on lakes and their forested catchments in south central Ontario: a critical loads approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Watmough


    Full Text Available The impact of acid deposition and tree harvesting on three lakes and their representative sub-catchments in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of south-central Ontario was assessed using a critical loads approach. As nitrogen dynamics in forest soils are complex and poorly understood, for simplicity and to allow comparison among lakes and their catchments, CLs (A for both lakes and forest soils were calculated assuming that nitrate leaching from catchments will not change over time (i.e. a best case scenario. In addition, because soils in the region are shallow, base cation weathering rates for the representative sub-catchments were calculated for the entire soil profile and these estimates were also used to calculate critical loads for the lakes. These results were compared with critical loads obtained by the Steady State Water Chemistry (SSWC model. Using the SSWC model, critical loads for lakes were between 7 and 19 meq m-2yr-1 higher than those obtained from soil measurements. Lakes and forests are much more sensitive to acid deposition if forests are harvested, but two acid-sensitive lakes had much lower critical loads than their respective forested sub-catchments implying that acceptable acid deposition levels should be dictated by the most acid-sensitive lakes in the region. Under conditions that assume harvesting, the CL (A is exceeded at two of the three lakes and five of the six sub-catchments assessed in this study. However, sulphate export from catchments greatly exceeds input in bulk deposition and, to prevent lakes from falling below the critical chemical limit, sulphate inputs to lakes must be reduced by between 37% and 92% if forests are harvested. Similarly, sulphate leaching from forested catchments that are harvested must be reduced by between 16 and 79% to prevent the ANC of water draining the rooting zone from falling below 0 μeq l-1. These calculations assume that extremely low calcium leaching losses (9–27 μeq l-1 from

  2. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): emerging contaminants of increasing concern in fish from Lake Varese, Italy. (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Ciccotelli, V; Prearo, M; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Abete, M C


    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are highly fluorinated aliphatic compounds with high thermal and chemical stability, used in a range of industrial applications. Extensive screening analyses in biota samples from all over the world have shown the bioaccumulation of PFAS into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters. Ingestion of fish and other seafood is considered the main source of exposure of these contaminants. Here, we quantified PFOS and PFOA by LC-MS/MS in muscle samples of European perch from Lake Varese, Italy. PFOS was detected in all samples with concentrations of up to 17.2 ng g(-1). Although the reported values were lower than the recommended total daily intake (TDI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish from Lake Varese may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  3. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Alabama Cooperative of Fish & Wildlife Research Unit


    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  4. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Application of acid mine drainage for coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass. (United States)

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jung Rae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Wan; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Byong-Hun


    A novel application of acid mine drainage (AMD) for biomass recovery of two morphologically different microalgae species with respect to AMD dosage, microalgal cell density and pH of medium was investigated. Optimal flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris occurred with 10% dosage of AMD at an initial pH 9 for both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L cell density. The flocculation efficiency was 89% for S. obliquus and 93% for C. vulgaris. Zeta potential (ZP) was increased from -10.66 to 1.77 and -13.19 to 1.33 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray of the microalgae floc confirmed the sweeping floc formation mechanism upon the addition of AMD. Application of AMD for the recovery of microalgae biomass is a cost-effective method, which might further allow reuse of flocculated medium for algal cultivation, thereby contributing to the economic production of biofuel from microalgal biomass.

  6. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival (United States)

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.


    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  7. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: A model post audit (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Verplanck, Philip L.; Broshears, Robert E.


    A post audit for a reactive transport model used to evaluate acid mine drainage treatment systems is presented herein. The post audit is based on a paired synoptic approach in which hydrogeochemical data are collected at low (existing conditions) and elevated (following treatment) pH. Data obtained under existing, low-pH conditions are used for calibration, and the resultant model is used to predict metal concentrations observed following treatment. Predictions for Al, As, Fe, H+, and Pb accurately reproduce the observed reduction in dissolved concentrations afforded by the treatment system, and the information provided in regard to standard attainment is also accurate (predictions correctly indicate attainment or nonattainment of water quality standards for 19 of 25 cases). Errors associated with Cd, Cu, and Zn are attributed to misspecification of sorbent mass (precipitated Fe). In addition to these specific results, the post audit provides insight in regard to calibration and sensitivity analysis that is contrary to conventional wisdom. Steps taken during the calibration process to improve simulations of As sorption were ultimately detrimental to the predictive results, for example, and the sensitivity analysis failed to bracket observed metal concentrations.

  8. Water quality, fate of metals and predictive model validation of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Wise, K.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources


    The paper describes how 0.39 ha constructed wetland designed with 9 cells, including two anaerobic cells that were to stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction, was evaluated for its effect on water quality of a low-order acid mine drainage (AMD) stream in southeastern Ohio, USA. Emphasis was on the uptake and fate of selected metals and the accuracy of a simulation model that predicted this specific wetland`s behavior before it was built.

  9. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül


    This study investigated comparative leaching characteristics of acidophilic bacterial strains under shifting environmental conditions at proposed two stages as formation stage or post acidic mine drainage (AMD) generation. At the first stage, initial reactions associated with AMD generation was simulated in shaking flasks containing massive pyritic chalcopyrite ore by using a pure strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus sp. mostly dominated by A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans at 26oC. At the second stage, long term bioleaching experiments were carried out with the same strains at 26oC and 40oC to investigate the leaching characteristics of pyritic chalcopyrite ore under elevated heavy metal and temperature conditions. During the experiments, physicochemical characteristics (e.i. Eh, pH, EC) metal (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn) and sulfate concentration of the experimental solution were monitored during 180 days. Significant acid generation and sulfate release were determined during bioleaching of the ore by mixed acidophilic cultures containing both iron and sulfur oxidizers. In the early stage of the experiments, heavy metal release from the ore was caused by generation of acid due to accelerated bacterial oxidation of the ore. Generally high concentrations of Co and Cu were released into the solution from the experiments conducted by pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans whereas high Zn and Fe was released into the solution from the mixed culture experiments. In the later stage of AMD generation and post AMD, chemical oxidation is accelerated causing excessive amounts of contamination, even exceeding the amounts resulted from bacterial oxidation by mixed cultures. Acidithibacillus ferrooxidans was found to be more effective in leaching Cu, Fe and Co at higher temperatures in contrary to mixed acidophiles that are more prone to operate at optimal moderate conditions. Moreover, decreasing Fe values are noted in bioleaching

  10. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.


    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  11. Effect Of Imposed Anaerobic Conditions On Metals Release From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments (United States)

    Remediation of streams influenced by mine-drainage may require removal and burial of metal-containing bed sediments. Burial of aerobic sediments into an anaerobic environment may release metals, such as through reductive dissolution of metal oxyhydroxides. Mining-impacted aerob...

  12. Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves (United States)

    Ott, A.N.


    Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

  13. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis


    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  14. Ca and S K-edge XANES studies of calcite-acid mine water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myneni, S.C.B.; Perera, R.C.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Heavy metal-rich acidic waters (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}) and related ochreous coatings are common around abandoned sulfide and coal mine sites. This is mainly caused by the natural weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and other metal sulfide containing shales. Acid generation in the case of pyrite can be explained by a general reaction: FeS{sub 2} + 3.5 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {leftrightarrow} Fe{sup 2+} + SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} + 2H{sup +}. Also, these low pH waters interact with the soils, and mobilize their soluble elements. One of the common remediation strategies is to allow these acid waters to react with limestone (CaCO{sub 3}-rich rock) and neutralize the pH and precipitate out soluble metals. Yet, the associated problem is the precipitation of Fe and Al oxides and hydroxy sulfate coatings on limestone surfaces, which block calcite reactive sites, and make them ineffective a few hours after initiation of treatment. The main objectives of this research are to examine: (1) the chemistry of limestone surface coatings, and (2) their toxic metal uptake and the conditions that inhibit their formation. Previous molecular studies using X-ray diffraction, and vibrational spectroscopy on limestone surface coatings (sampled from Athens, OH) indicate that the surface-most layer (the layer in contact with water) is composed of schwertmannite (Fe(III)-hydroxy sulfate) like phases. However, white, X-ray amorphous; Al-, sulfate- and carbonate-rich; and Ca-poor phases appeared at the interface between the limestone and the iron oxide coatings. The structure, morphology, and coordination chemistry of component major and trace elements of these white precipitate phases have not previously been examined.

  15. Influence of water chemistry on the distribution of an acidophilic protozoan in an acid mine drainage system at the abandoned Green Valley coal mine, Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A.; Hasiotis, S.T. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography Geology & Anthropology


    Euglena mutabilis, a benthic photosynthetic protozoan that intracellularly sequesters Fe, is variably abundant in the main effluent channel that contains acid mine drainage (AMD) discharging from the Green Valley coal mine site in western Indiana. Samples of effluent (pH 3.0-4.6) taken from the main channel and samples of contaminated stream water (pH 3.3 to 8.0) collected from an adjacent stream were analyzed to evaluate the influence of water chemistry on E. mutabilis distribution. E. mutabilis communities were restricted to areas containing unmixed effluent with the thickest (up to 3 mm) benthic communities residing in effluent containing high concentrations of total Fe (up to 12110 mg/l), SO{sub 4}(up to 2940 mg/l), Al (up to 1846 mg/l), and Cl (up to 629 mg/l). Communities were also present, but much less abundant, in areas with effluent containing lower concentrations of these same constituents. In effluent where SO{sub 4} was most highly concentrated, E. mutabilis was largely absent, suggesting that extremely high concentrations of SO{sub 4} may have an adverse effect on this potentially beneficial Fe-mediating, acidophilic protozoan.

  16. Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent. (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyay, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D


    Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals.

  17. The Life Cycle of Mercury Within the Clear Lake Aquatic Ecosystem: From Ore to Organism (United States)

    Suchanek, T. H.; Suchanek, T. H.; Nelson, D. C.; Nelson, D. C.; Zierenberg, R. A.; King, P.; King, P.; McElroy, K.; McElroy, K.


    Clear Lake (Lake County) is located in the geologically active Clear Lake volcanics mercury (Hg) bearing Franciscan formation within the Coast Range of California, which includes over 300 abandoned Hg mines and prospects. Intermittent mining at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (from 1872-1957), now a USEPA SuperFund site, has resulted in approximately 100 metric tonnes of Hg being deposited into the aquatic ecosystem of Clear Lake, with sediment concentrations of total-Hg as high as 650 mg/kg (parts per million = ppm) near the mine, making Clear Lake one of the most Hg contaminated lakes in the world. As a result, largemouth bass and other top predatory fish species often exceed both the Federal USFDA recommended maximum recommended concentrations of 1.0 ppm and the State of California level of 0.5 ppm. Acid rock drainage leaches Hg and high concentrations of sulfate from the mine site through wasterock and subsurface conduits through subsediment advection and eventually upward diffusion into lake sediments and water. When mineral-laden pH 3 fluids from the mine mix with Clear Lake water (pH 8), an alumino-silicate precipitate (floc) is produced that promotes the localized production of toxic methyl Hg. Floc "hot spots" in sediments near the mine exhibit low pH, high sulfate, anoxia and high organic loading which create conditions that promote Hg methylation by microbial activity, especially in late summer and fall. Wind-driven currents transport methyl-Hg laden floc particles throughout Clear Lake, where they are consumed by plankton and benthic invertebrates and bioaccumulated throughout the food web. While Clear Lake biota have elevated concentrations of methyl-Hg, they are not as elevated as might be expected based on the total Hg loading into the lake. A science-based management approach, utilizing over 10 years of data collected on Hg cycling within the physical and biological compartments of Clear Lake, is necessary to affect a sensible remediation plan.

  18. Atmospheric oxalic acid and related secondary organic aerosols in Qinghai Lake, a continental background site in Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Gehui; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Cao, Junji


    Summertime PM2.5 aerosols collected from Qinghai Lake (3200 m a.s.l.), a remote continental site in the northeastern part of Tibetan Plateau, were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyals. Oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant dicarboxylic acid in the samples, followed by malonic, succinic and azelaic acids. Total dicarboxylic acids (231 ± 119 ng m-3), ketocarboxylic acids (8.4 ± 4.3 ng m-3), and α-dicarbonyls (2.7 ± 2.1 ng m-3) at the Tibetan background site are 2-5 times less than those detected in lowland areas such as 14 Chinese megacities. Compared to those in other urban and marine areas enhancements in relative abundances of C2/total diacids and diacids-C/WSOC of the PM2.5 samples suggest that organic aerosols in the region are more oxidized due to strong solar radiation. Molecular compositions and air mass trajectories demonstrate that the above secondary organic aerosols in the Qinghai Lake atmosphere are largely derived from long-range transport. Ratios of oxalic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal to levoglucosan in PM2.5 aerosols emitted from household burning of yak dung, a major energy source for Tibetan in the region, are 30-400 times lower than those in the ambient air, which further indicates that primary emission from biomass burning is a negligible source of atmospheric oxalic acid and α-dicarbonyls at this background site.

  19. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China. (United States)

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen


    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  20. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning;


    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs......) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both...... the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity...

  1. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)


    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Arsenic oxidation and bioaccumulation by the acidophilic protozoan, Euglena mutabilis, in acid mine drainage (Carnoules, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.; Personne, J.-C.; Leblanc, M.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F. [University of Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France)


    In the acid stream (pH 2.5-4.7) originating from the Camoules mine tailings, the acidophilic protozoan Euglena mutabilis grows with extremely high sulfate (1.9-4.9 g/l), iron (0.7-1.7 g/l) and arsenic concentrations (0.08-0.26 g/l). Strong variations in flow rate and high sulfate concentrations (up to 4.9 g/l) have been registered in early winter and might be the reason for the reduction in cell number of the protozoan from October to December 2001. No relation was established between arsenic concentration and/or speciation and abundance of the protozoan in the stream. Arsenite, which is the most toxic form, predominates in water. The oxidation of arsenite to arsenate occurred within a few days in laboratory experiments when E. mutabilis was present in Reigous Creek water and synthetic As(III)-rich culture medium. Methylated compounds (MMA, DMA) were not identified in the culture media. The protozoan bioaccumulated As in the cell (336{+-} 112 {mu}g As/g dry wt.) as inorganic arsenite (105 {+-} 52 {mu}g As/g dry wt.) and arsenate (231 {+-} 112 {mu}g As/g dry wt.). Adsorption of As at the cell surface reached 57 mg/g dry wt. in the As(V) form for E. mutabilis grown in 250 mg/l As(III) synthetic medium. Both intracellular accumulation and adsorption at the cell surface increased for increasing As(III) concentration in the medium but the concentration factor in the cell relative to soluble As decreased.

  3. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.


    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  4. Enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate respiration for in situ bioremediation of acid mine drainage sites: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, A.A.; Harrington, J.M.; Silverstein, J. [ARCADIS G& amp; M, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)


    The prevention of acid mine drainage (AMD) in situ is more attractive than down-gradient treatment alternatives that do not involve source control. AMD source control can be achieved by shifting the microbial activity in the sulfidic rock from pyrite oxidation to anaerobic heterotrophic activity. This is achieved by adding biodegradable organic carbon amendments to the sulfidic rock. This technique was applied to an abandoned coal mine pool in Pennsylvania. The pool had a pH of 3.0 to 3.5. Following treatment, near-neutral pH and decreased effluent heavy metal concentrations were achieved. In situ bioremediation by the enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate reduction is a promising technology for AMD prevention.

  5. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials. (United States)

    Villa, M; Manjón, G; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R


    After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including (234)U/(238)U and (230)Th/(232)Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  6. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Weiming


    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile–water (containing 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min for 12 min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00–5,000 ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2 ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2 ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  7. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer (United States)

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.


    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  8. Fatty acid composition and Ω3/Ω6 ratios of the muscle lipids of six fish species in Sugla Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak Selim Yavuz


    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids of Carassius gibelio, Pseudophoxinus anatolicus, Sander lucioperca, Tinca tinca, Vimba vimba tenella and Capoeta capoeta in Sugla Lake were determined. In all species, palmitic acid (13.25- 18.54% of total fatty acids and oleic acid (11.93-34.23% of total fatty acids were identified as major saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was found to be the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in T. tinca, C. capoeta, C. gibelio, P. anatolicus and S. lucioperca while the predominant PUFA of V. vimba tenella was eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. S. lucioperca contained more ω3 fatty acids than the other fish species. The percentages of total ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in all species. Since P. anatolicus is endemic and endangered, this species should be protected and produced for future marketing.

  9. Element mobility during pyrite weathering: implications for acid and heavy metal pollution at mining-impacted sites (United States)

    Lu, Long; Wang, Rucheng; Chen, Fanrong; Xue, Jiyue; Zhang, Peihua; Lu, Jianjun


    Based on back scattered electron images and electron micro-probe analysis results, four alteration layers, including a transition layer, a reticulated ferric oxide layer, a nubby ferric oxide layer and a cellular ferric oxide layer, were identified in the naturally weathering products of pyrite. These layers represent a progressive alteration sequence of pyrite under weathering conditions. The cellular ferric oxide layer correlates with the strongest weathering phase and results from the dissolution of nubby ferric oxide by acidic porewater. Leaching coefficient was introduced to better express the response of element mobility to the degree of pyrite weathering. Its variation shows that the mobility of S, Co and Bi is stronger than As, Cu and Zn. Sulfur in pyrite is oxidized to sulfuric acid and sulfate that are basically released into to porewater, and heavy metals Co and Bi are evidently released by acid dissolution. As, Cu and Zn are enriched in ferric oxide by adsorption and by co-precipitation, but they would re-release to the environment via desorption or dissolution when porewater pH becomes low enough. Consequently, Co, Bi, As, Cu and Zn may pose a substantial impact on water quality. Considering that metal mobility and its concentration in mine waste are two important factors influencing heavy metal pollution at mining-impacted sites, Bi and Co are more important pollutants in this case.

  10. Metal speciation of historic and new copper mine tailings from Repparfjorden, Northern Norway, before and after acid, base and electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;


    the new mine tailings. Electrodialysis, based on applying an electric field of low intensity to extract metals from polluted soils/sediments, was designed for acidic and alkaline extraction, and in both cases more Cu was extracted than in the pure acid/base extractions, while maintaining low mobilisation...

  11. Bacterial Formation of As(V) and As(III) Ferric Oxyhydroxides in Acid Mine Drainage. (United States)

    Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Lebrun, S.; Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Bruneel, O.; Personne, J.; Leblanc, M.; Ildefonse, P.; Calas, G.


    The oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) which is often promoted by acidophilic bacteria in acid mine drainage (AMD) and some hot springs, leads to the precipitation of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides which incorporate toxic elements within their structure or adsorb them at their surface, thus limiting their mobility. In such complex natural systems, synchrotron-based techniques as X-ray absorption spectroscopy offer the opportunity to monitor surface/solution interactions as well as redox changes affecting the mobility and toxicity of trace elements as arsenic. Spatial and seasonal variations of the (bio-) oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III), and the subsequent precipitation of As-Fe gels, were followed by XANES, XRD, and SEM along the CarnoulŠs AMD (Gard, France). Chemical and mineralogical data collected on sediments, stromatolite, and bioassay samples showed that some indigenous bacteria living in the As-rich CarnoulŠs water ([As] = up to 350 mg.l-1) play an important role in the nature and composition of the solid phases that sequester arsenic at the site. The formation of nano-crystalline and amorphous As(III) ferric oxy-hydroxides has been related to the presence of bacteria able to oxidize Fe(II) but not As(III), which are only present in winter in the upstream area. A rare ferric arsenite sulfate oxy-hydroxide mineral was discovered in this context. Other types of bacteria, occurring in the downstream area whatever the season, are able to catalyze As(III) to As(V) oxidation and, provided that enough Fe(II) oxidizes, promote the formation of amorphous As(V) rich ferric oxy-hydroxides. These bacterially mediated reactions significantly reduce the concentration of dissolved As(III), which is more toxic and mobile than As(V), and might thus be helpful for designing As-removal processes. This work was supported by the French PEVS and ACI Ecologie Quantitative Programs and the PIRAMID EC program. ?Deceased, 26 October 1999 Juillot F., Ildefonse Ph., Morin G., Calas G., De

  12. Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and fly ash-ordinary Portland cement (OPC) blends : column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitari, W.M. [Venda Univ., Thohoyandou (South Africa). Dept. of Ecology and Resources Management, School of Environmental Studies; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Environmental and Nanosciences Group, Dept. of Chemistry; Key, D.L. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Okujeni, C. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    The infiltration of acid mine drainage (AMD) material into mine voids is one of the environmental impacts of underground coal mining. In this study, the mitigation of AMD in a mine void was simulated in laboratory conditions. Various mixtures of fly ash, solid residues, and Portland cement were added to packed columns over a 6-month period. The fly ash additions generated near-neutral to alkaline pH levels, which in turn induced precipitation, co-precipitation, and adsorption contaminant attenuation mechanisms. A modelling study demonstrated that the precipitation of ferrihydrite, Al-hydroxides, Al-oxyhydroxysulphates, gypsum, ettringite, manganite, and rhodochrosite lowered contaminant levels. Results of the study indicated that the pH regime and acidity level of the AMD strongly influenced both the leaching of the toxic trace elements as well as the attenuation of the AMD. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Determining D/L Ratios of Amino Acids Found in Ice Above Lake Vostok Using ESI/CIT Mass Spectroscopy (United States)

    Tsapin, A.; Kanik, I.; Beegle, L. W.; Wu, L.; Cooks, R. G.


    Astrobiology is an area where longevity of (micro) organisms is of great interest. Cryospheres are common phenomena in the solar system, particularly on satellites, comets and asteroids, as well as at least some of the planets. Recent data from the Mars Global Surveyor mission suggest the possibility of permafrost or perhaps even liquid water under the Martian surface [2]. These environments may be the areas in which the probability of finding life is the highest. This issue is of concern due to the probable evolution of planetary environments such as that of Mars from more hospitable to less hospitable conditions over the history of the solar system. In addition, evaluation of the possible transfer of living organisms between planets via impact ejecta [3] is dependent on knowledge of the maximum time periods over which microorganisms can remain dormant and subsequently revive and reproduce.Amino acid racemization dating, or aminostratigraphy, has been used for many years to date biological systems, and has been examined as a possible biosignature detection technique for Mars. We have suggested using amino acid racemization as one of the most indicative biosignatures [4]. Only life systems produce preferential synthesis of L-amino acids versus D-amino acids. Almost all amino acids in terrestrial organisms can be found only in the L-enantiomeric form.We studied the level of amino acid racemization, specifically of aspartic acid, in permafrost samples from eastern Siberia. Also we analyzed samples of ice from borehole drilled to lake Vostok, Antarctica.

  14. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an Acid mine drainage-contaminated natural wetland. (United States)

    Moreau, John W; Fournelle, John H; Banfield, Jillian F


    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  15. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Moreau


    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  16. Occurrence and role of algae and fungi in acid mine drainage environment with special reference to metals and sulfate immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B.K.; Roy, A.; Koschorreck, M.; Mandal, S.M.; Wendt-Potthoff, K.; Bhattacharya, J. [Indian Institute for Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    Passive remediation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a popular technology under development in current research. Roles of algae and fungi, the natural residents of AMD and its attenuator are not emphasized adequately in the mine water research. Living symbiotically various species of algae and fungi effectively enrich the carbon sources that help to maintain the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) population in predominantly anaerobic environment. Algae produce anoxic zone for SRB action and help in biogenic alkalinity generation. While studies on algal population and actions are relatively available those on fungal population are limited. Fungi show capacity to absorb significant amount of metals in their cell wall, or by extracellular polysaccharide slime. This review tries to throw light on the roles of these two types of microorganisms and to document their activities in holistic form in the mine water environment. This work, inter alia, points out the potential and gap areas of likely future research before potential applications based on fungi and algae initiated AMD remediation can be made on sound understanding.

  17. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Svitok


    Full Text Available Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia. The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Electric conductivity correlated strongly with most of the investigated elements (weighted mean absolute correlation = 0.95 and, therefore, can be recommended as a good proxy indicator for rapid AMD pollution assessments. The diversity and composition of invertebrate assemblages was related to water chemistry. Taxa richness decreased significantly along an AMD-intensity gradient. While moderately affected sites supported relatively rich assemblages, the harshest environmental conditions (pH < 2.5 were typical for the presence of a limited number of very tolerant taxa, such as Oligochaeta and some Diptera (Limnophyes, Forcipomyiinae. The trophic guild structure correlated significantly with AMD chemistry, whereby predators completely disappeared under the most severe AMD conditions. We also provide a brief review of the AMD literature and outline the needs for future detailed studies involving functional descriptors of the impact of AMD on aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Interdisciplinary Ecological Center


    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

  19. The efficiency of combined CaO/electrochemical treatment in removal of acid mine drainage induced toxicity and genotoxicity. (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Vujčić, Valerija; Cvetković, Želimira; Cvjetko, Petra; Oreščanin, Višnja


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a by-product of the mining industry that has a detrimental effect on aquatic plant and animal life due to high load of heavy metals and sulfates. In the present study, the toxic and genotoxic potential of AMD prior to and following combination of neutralization/electrocoagulation processes was evaluated using several bioassays and selected parameters. Regardless of pH correction of AMD prior to Daphnia bioassay, high acute toxicity was observed in Daphnia magna. The mine leachate also induced strong phyto-, cyto- and genotoxicity to Allium cepa roots. Short term exposure to AMD inhibited duckweed growth and chlorophyll a content and simultaneously promoted lipid peroxidation and DNA damage despite duckweed capability to upregulate antioxidative defense mechanisms. The results show that observed (geno)toxicity could be related to oxidative stress most probably induced by toxic metal action. However, influence of low pH as a contributing factor in the phytotoxicity of AMD cannot be excluded. The application of combined treatment eliminated genotoxicity and was highly efficient in reducing toxicity of AMD. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for treatment of AMD waters enabling their safe discharge to an aquatic environment.

  20. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions. (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M


    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  1. Diet of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) in Arctic lakes during the nesting season inferred from fatty acid analysis (United States)

    Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Iverson, S J; Padula, V. M.; Rosenberger, A E


    Understanding the dietary habits of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) can give important insights into their ecology, however, studying the diet of loons is difficult when direct observation or specimen collection is impractical. We investigate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Tissue analysis from 26 yellow-billed loons and eleven prey groups (nine fish species and two invertebrate groups) from Arctic lakes suggests that yellow-billed loons are eating high proportions of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) during late spring and early summer. The prominence of blackfish in diets highlights the widespread availability of blackfish during the early stages of loon nesting, soon after spring thaw. The high proportions of broad whitefish and three-spined stickleback may reflect a residual signal from the coastal staging period prior to establishing nesting territories on lakes, when loons are more likely to encounter these species. Our analyses were sensitive to the choice of calibration coefficient based on data from three different species, indicating the need for development of loon-specific coefficients for future study and confirmation of our results. Regardless, fish that are coastally distributed and that successfully overwinter in lakes are likely key food items for yellow-billed loons early in the nesting season.

  2. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982 (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.


    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  3. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America. (United States)

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T


    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades.

  4. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim


    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  5. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 1. Metal precipitation for recovery and recycle. (United States)

    Tabak, Henry H; Scharp, Richard; Burckle, John; Kawahara, Fred K; Govind, Rakesh


    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater, poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post mining activities. The metals usually encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, zinc, copper and sulfate. The pollution generated by abandoned mining activities in the area of Butte, Montana has resulted in the designation of the Silver Bow Creek-Butte Area as the largest Superfund (National Priorities List) site in the U.S. This paper reports the results of bench-scale studies conducted to develop a resource recovery based remediation process for the clean up of the Berkeley Pit. The process utilizes selective, sequential precipitation (SSP) of metals as hydroxides and sulfides, such as copper, zinc, aluminum, iron and manganese, from the Berkeley Pit AMD for their removal from the water in a form suitable for additional processing into marketable precipitates and pigments. The metal biorecovery and recycle process is based on complete separation of the biological sulfate reduction step and the metal precipitation step. Hydrogen sulfide produced in the SRB bioreactor systems is used in the precipitation step to form insoluble metal sulfides. The average metal recoveries using the SSP process were as follows: aluminum (as hydroxide) 99.8%, cadmium (as sulfide) 99.7%, cobalt (as sulfide) 99.1% copper (as sulfide) 99.8%, ferrous iron (sulfide) 97.1%, manganese (as sulfide) 87.4%, nickel (as sulfide) 47.8%, and zinc (as sulfide) 100%. The average precipitate purity for metals, copper sulfide, ferric hydroxide, zinc sulfide, aluminum hydroxide and manganese sulfide were: 92.4, 81.5, 97.8, 95.6, 92.1 and 75.0%, respectively. The final produced water contained only calcium and magnesium and both sulfate and sulfide concentrations were below usable water limits. Water quality of this agriculturally usable water met the EPA's gold standard criterion.

  6. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage. (United States)

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina


    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations.

  7. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  9. Eukaryotic stromatolite builders in acid mine drainage: Implications for Precambrian iron formations and oxygenation of the atmosphere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography, Geology & Anthropology


    Biological activity of Euglena mutabilis, an acidophilic, photosynthetic protozoan, contributes to the formation of Fe-rich stromatolites in acid mine drainage systems. E. mutabilis is the dominant microbe in bright green benthic mats (biofilm), coating drainage channels at abandoned coal mine sites in Indiana. It builds biolaminates through phototactic and aerotactic behavior, similar to prokaryotes, by moving through precipitates that periodically cover the mats. E. mutabilis also contributes to formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by (1) intracellularly storing Fe compounds released after death, contributing to the solid material of stromatolites and acting as nucleation sites for precipitation of authigenic Fe minerals, and (2) generating 02 via photosynthesis that further facilitates precipitation of reduced Fe, any excess 02 not consumed by Fe precipitation being released to the atmosphere. Recognition of E. mutabilis-dominated biofilm in acidic systems raises a provocative hypothesis relating processes involved in formation of Fe-rich stromatolites by E. mutabilis to those responsible for development of Precambrian stromatolitic Fe formations and oxygenation of the early atmosphere.

  10. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olias, M. [Departamento de Geodinamica y Paleontologia, Universidad de Huelva, Avda. de las Fuerza Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain)]. E-mail:; Ceron, J.C. [Departamento de Geodinamica y Paleontologia, Universidad de Huelva, Avda. de las Fuerza Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Fernandez, I. [Departamento de Geodinamica y Paleontologia, Universidad de Huelva, Avda. de las Fuerza Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Rosa, J. de la [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Avda. de las Fuerza Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain)


    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe. - Pollution of the aquifer with rare earth elements is documented at a site of a major spill from a mining operation.

  11. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment. (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter


    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

  12. The fate of arsenic in sediments formed at a river confluence affected by acid mine drainage (United States)

    Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.; Simonson, K.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Gonzalez, C.; Bonilla, C.


    Fluvial confluences receiving acid mine drainage may play a critical role in a watershed as a suite of interactions between chemistry and hydrodynamics occur, determining the fate of toxic contaminants like arsenic. Solid reactive phases of iron and/or aluminum oxi-hydroxides may form or transform, ranging from iron oxide nanoparticles that aggregate and form floccules that are transported in the suspended load up to gravel and arsenic-rich rock coatings. In order to further understand the role of reactive fluvial confluences, we have studied the mixing between the Caracarani River (flow=170-640 L/s, pH 8, conductivity 1.5 mS/cm, total As 10 mS/cm, total As>2 mg/L, total Fe=35-125 mg/L), located in the Lluta watershed in northern Chile. This site is an excellent natural laboratory located in a water-scarce area, where the future construction of a dam has prompted the attention of decision makers and scientists interested in weighing the risks derived by the accumulation of arsenic-rich sediments. Suspended sediments (> 0.45 μm), riverbed sediments, and coated rocks were collected upstream and downstream from the confluence. Suspended sediments >0.45 μm and riverbed sediments were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence for metals, while coated river bed rocks were analyzed by chemical extractions and a semi-quantitative approach through portable x-ray fluorescence. Water from the Caracarani and Azufre rivers were mixed in the laboratory at different ratios and mixing velocities aiming to characterize the effect of the chemical-hydrodynamic environment where arsenic solids were formed at different locations in the confluence. Despite a wide range of iron and arsenic concentrations in the suspended sediments from the field (As=1037 ± 1372 mg/kg, Fe=21.0 ± 24.5 g/kg), we found a rather narrow As/Fe ratio, increasing from 36.5 to 55.2 mgAs/kgFe when the bulk water pH increased from 3 to 6. Sequential extraction analyses suggest that ~80% of As in the solid

  13. Long-term temporal trends and spatial patterns in the acid-base chemistry of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York in response to decreases in acidic deposition (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Driscoll, Kimberley M.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Civerolo, Kevin


    We examined the response of lake water chemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA to decreases in acid deposition. Striking declines in the concentrations and fluxes of sulfate and hydrogen ion in wet deposition have been observed since the late 1970s, while significant decreases in nitrate have been evident since the early 2000s. Decreases in estimated dry sulfur and nitrate deposition have also occurred in the Adirondacks, but with no change in dry to wet deposition ratios. These patterns follow long-term decreases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the U.S. over the same interval. All of the 48 lakes monitored through the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring program since 1992 have exhibited significant declines in sulfate concentrations, consistent with reductions in atmospheric deposition of sulfur. Nitrate concentrations have also significantly diminished at variable rates in many (33 of 48) lakes. Decreases in concentrations of sulfate plus nitrate (48 of 48) in lakes have driven widespread increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC; 42 of 48) and lab pH (33 of 48), and decreases in the toxic fraction, inorganic monomeric Al (45 of 48). Coincident with decreases in acid deposition, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have also increased in some (29 of 48) lakes. While recovery from elevated acid deposition is evident across Adirondack lakes, highly sensitive and impacted mounded seepages lakes and thin till drainage lakes are recovering most rapidly. Future research might focus on how much additional recovery could be achieved given the current deposition relative to future deposition anticipated under the Clean Power Plan, ecosystem effects of increased mobilization of dissolved organic matter, and the influence of changing climate on recovery from acidification.

  14. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry


    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  15. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Particle-facilitated lead and arsenic transport in abandoned mine sites soil influenced by simulated acid rain. (United States)

    Shaoping, Hu; Xincai, Chen; Jiyan, Shi; Yingxu, Chen; Qi, Lin


    The role of acid rain in affecting Pb and As transport from mine tailings was investigated by pumping simulated acid rain at a infiltration rate of 10.2 cm/h through soil columns. Simulated acid rain with pH of 3.0, 4.5 and 5.6 were used as leaching solutions. Results showed that 86.9-95.9% of Pb and 90-91.8% of As eluted from the columns were adsorbed by particles in the leachates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that particles released from the columns were mainly composed of flocculated aggregates and plate or rod shaped discrete grains. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that these particles were predominantly silicate minerals. Results from our experiments demonstrated that when rapid infiltration conditions or a rainstorm exist, particle-facilitated transport of contaminants is likely to the dominant metal transport pathway influenced by acid rain.

  17. Heavy metal exposure in large game from a lead mining area: Effects on oxidative stress and fatty acid composition in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Monsalve-Gonzalez, Lidia [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail:


    The Pb mining area of the valley of Alcudia and the Sierra Madrona mountains (S. Spain) has been exploited intermittently for over 2100 years, since Roman occupation and up until the late 1900s. Red deer (n = 168) and wild boar (n = 58) liver and bone (metacarpus) were analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Lipid peroxidation, total and oxidized glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH peroxidase (GPX) and fatty acid composition were studied in liver of red deer. The concentrations of Pb in liver and bone of red deer and wild boar were higher in the mining area than in the control area, and higher in the wild boar than red deer, but well below the level associated with clinical signs of Pb poisoning. Liver levels of Cu, Cd and Se were also higher in red deer from the mining area. Red deer from the mining area had 39% less total GSH than in the control area. The percentage of docosahexaenoic acid in liver of red deer from the mining area was 16% lower than in the control area. - Heavy metal exposure reduces the level of glutathione and the percentage of docosahexaenoic acid in liver of red deer.

  18. Novel and Unexpected Microbial Diversity in Acid Mine Drainage in Svalbard (78° N, Revealed by Culture-Independent Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Moyano


    Full Text Available Svalbard, situated in the high Arctic, is an important past and present coal mining area. Dozens of abandoned waste rock piles can be found in the proximity of Longyearbyen. This environment offers a unique opportunity for studying the biological control over the weathering of sulphide rocks at low temperatures. Although the extension and impact of acid mine drainage (AMD in this area is known, the native microbial communities involved in this process are still scarcely studied and uncharacterized. Several abandoned mining areas were explored in the search for active AMD and a culture-independent approach was applied with samples from two different runoffs for the identification and quantification of the native microbial communities. The results obtained revealed two distinct microbial communities. One of the runoffs was more extreme with regards to pH and higher concentration of soluble iron and heavy metals. These conditions favored the development of algal-dominated microbial mats. Typical AMD microorganisms related to known iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated the bacterial community although some unexpected populations related to Chloroflexi were also significant. No microbial mats were found in the second area. The geochemistry here showed less extreme drainage, most likely in direct contact with the ore under the waste pile. Large deposits of secondary minerals were found and the presence of iron stalks was revealed by microscopy analysis. Although typical AMD microorganisms were also detected here, the microbial community was dominated by other populations, some of them new to this type of system (Saccharibacteria, Gallionellaceae. These were absent or lowered in numbers the farther from the spring source and they could represent native populations involved in the oxidation of sulphide rocks within the waste rock pile. This environment appears thus as a highly interesting

  19. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.


    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  20. Impacts of changing food webs in Lake Ontario: Implications of dietary fatty acids on growth of alewives (United States)

    Snyder, R.J.; Demarche, C.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.


    Declines in the abundance and condition of Great Lakes Alewives have been reported periodically during the last two decades, and the reasons for these declines remain unclear. To better understand how food web changes may influence Alewife growth and Wisconsin growth model predictions, we fed Alewives isocaloric diets high in omega-6 fatty acids (corn oil) or high in omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil). Alewives were fed the experimental diets at either 1% ("low ration") or 3% ("high ration") of their wet body weight per day. After six weeks, Alewives maintained on the high ration diets were significantly larger than those fed the low ration diets. Moreover, Alewives given the high ration fish oil diet were significantly larger than those maintained on the high ration corn oil diet after six weeks of growth. Body lipid, energy density and total body energy of Alewives on the high ration diets were significantly higher than those fed the low ration diets, and total body energy was significantly higher in Alewives given the high ration fish oil diet compared to those on the high ration corn oil diet. The current Wisconsin bioenergetics model underestimated growth and overestimated food consumption by Alewives in our study. Alewife thiaminase activity was similar among treatment groups. Overall, our results suggest that future food web changes in Lake Ontario, particularly if they involve decreases in the abundance of lipid rich prey items such as Mysis, may reduce Alewife growth rates and total body energy due to reductions in the availability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids. ?? 2011 AEHMS.

  1. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence - phase II - small scale field demonstration. Topical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Head, W.J.; Gray, D.D.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Sack, W.A.


    It has been proposed that a mix made from fly and bottom ash from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combusters (FBC ash), water, and stabilizers be injected from the surface into abandoned room and pillar coal mines through boreholes. Besides ash disposal, this process would prevent subsidence and acid mine drainage. Such a mix (called `grout`) needs to be an adequately stable and flowable suspension for it to spread and cover large areas in the mine. This is necessary as the drilling of the boreholes will be an expensive operation and the number such holes should be minimized. Addition of bentonite was found to be needed for this purpose. A suitable grout mix was tested rheologically to determine its fluid flow properties. Finding little published information on such materials, tests were performed using a commercial rotational viscometer with a T-bar rotor and a stand which produced a helical rotor path. Existing mixer viscometer test methods were modified and adapted to convert the measurements of torque vs. angular speed to the material properties appearing in several non-Newtonian constitutive equations. Yield stress was measured by an independent test called the vane method. The rheological behavior was a close fit to the Bingham fluid model. Bleed tests were conducted to ascertain the stability of the mixtures. Spread tests were conducted to compare the flowability of various mixes. Using the flow parameters determined in the laboratory, numerical simulations of grout flow were performed and compared with the results of scale model and field tests. A field injection of this grout was performed at the Fairfax mines in Preston county, W.V.. The observations there proved that this FBC ash grout flows as desired, is a very economical way of disposing the environmentally menacing ash, while also preventing the subsidence and acid mine drainage of the mines.

  2. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent. (United States)

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  3. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico (United States)

    Green, M.W.


    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  4. Acid drainage at the inactive Santa Lucia mine, western Cuba: Natural attenuation of arsenic, barium and lead, and geochemical behavior of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Francisco Martin, E-mail: [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Prol-Ledesma, Rosa Maria; Canet, Carles [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alvares, Laura Nunez; Perez-Vazquez, Ramon [Facultad de Geologia y Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio (Cuba)


    A detailed geochemical study was conducted at the inactive Zn-Pb mine of Santa Lucia, in western Cuba. The studied mine-wastes are characterized by high total concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE), with average values of 17.4% Fe, 5.47% Ba, 2.27% Pb, 0.83% Zn, 1724 mg/kg As and 811 mg/kg Cu. Oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine-waste dumps and in the open pit produces acid mine effluents (pH = 2.5-2.6) enriched in dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (up to 6754 mg/L), Fe (up to 4620 mg/L) and Zn (up to 2090 mg/L). Low pH values (2.5-2.8) and high dissolved concentrations of the same PTE were found in surface waters, up to 1500 m downstream from the mine. Nevertheless, concentrations of As, Ba and Pb in acid mine effluents and impacted surface waters are relatively low: 0.01-0.3 mg/L As, 0.002-0.03 mg/L Ba and 0.3-4.3 mg/L Pb. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of lead-bearing barite and beudantite and the more common solid phases, reported elsewhere in similar environments including Fe-oxyhydroxides, jarosite, anglesite and plumbojarosite. Because the reported solubilities for barite and beudantite are very low under acidic conditions, these minerals may serve as the most important control in the mobility of As, Ba and Pb. In contrast, Fe-oxyhydroxides are relatively soluble under acidic conditions and, therefore, they may have a less significant role in PTE on-site immobilization. Mine-wastes and stream sediments show a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enrichment relative to heavy REE (HREE). In contrast, acid mine effluents and surface waters are enriched in HREE relative to LREE. These results suggest that the LREE released during the oxidation of sulfides are captured by secondary (weathering) minerals, while the MREE are removed from the altered rocks. The low concentrations of LREE in acid stream water suggest that these elements can be retained in the sediments more strongly than HREE and MREE. One

  5. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic); Impacto del drenaje acido de explotaciones mineras en la cuenca del Rio Margajita y Embalse de Hatillo (Republica Dominicana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.


    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Amino Acids and Stable Carbon Isotope Distributions in Taihu Lake, China, Over the Last 15,000 Years, and Their Paleoecological Implications (United States)

    Jinquan, Wang; Jinling, Liu


    Amino acid, organic nitrogen, and stable carbon isotope (13C/12C) profiles through a core from East Taihu Lake are interpreted in terms of paleoecology and paleoclimate over the last ca. 15,000 yr. Lower amino acid contents and higher δ13C values at the base of the core represent a cool and arid climate, and coincide with low organic productivity. A marked increase in total amino acids and organic nitrogen, with a decrease in δ13C values from 193 to 90 cm (ca. 6500-6000 yr B.P.), indicates a warmer and moist climate, and greater organic productivity. Amino acids then decrease in abundance, while δ13C values increase progressively, beginning at 73 cm (ca. 6000 yr B.P.), reflecting cooling and lower organic productivity. The average δ13C values from a core from West Taihu Lake are evidently higher than values from East Taihu Lake. The latter may reflect a stream environment, whereas the high δ13C values from West Taihu Lake likely reflect autotrophic carbon sources and a lacustrine environment since 11,000 yr B.P.

  7. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes. (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth


    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation.

  8. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulsen Tozsin


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sul-fide-bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neu-tralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment (t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sul-fate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  9. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste (United States)

    Tozsin, Gulsen


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  10. Use of man-made impoundment in mitigating acid mine drainage in the North Branch Potomac River (United States)

    Diamond, Jerome M.; Bower, William; Gruber, David


    The US Department of the Army, Baltimore District Corps of Engineers, oversees a long-term monitoring study to assess and evaluate effects of the Jennings-Randolph reservoir on biota in the North Branch Potomac River. The reservoir was intended, in part, to mitigate effects of acid mine drainage originating in upstream and headwater areas. The present study assessed recovery of benthos and fish in this system, six years after completion of the reservoir. Higher pH and lower iron and sulfate concentrations were observed upstream of the reservoir compared to preimpoundment conditions, suggesting better overall water quality in the upper North Branch. Water quality improved slightly directly downstream of the reservoir. However, the reservoir itself was poorly colonized by macrophytes and benthic organisms, and plankton composition suggested either metal toxicity and/or nutrient limitation. One large tributary to the North Branch and the reservoir (Stony River) was shown to have high (and possibly toxic) levels of manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum due to subsurface coal mine drainage. Macroinvertebrate diversity and number of taxa were higher in sites downstream of the reservoir in the present study. Compared with previous years, the present study suggested relatively rapid recovery in the lower North Branch due to colonization from two major unimpacted tributaries in this system: Savage River and South Branch Potomac. Abundance of certain mayfly species across sites provided the most clear evidence of longitudinal gradients in water quality parameters and geomorphology. Fish data were consistent with macroinvertebrate results, but site-to-site variation in species composition was greater. Data collected between 1982 and 1987 suggested that certain fish species have unsuccessfully attempted to colonize sites directly downstream of the reservoir despite the more neutral pH water there. Our results show that recovery of biota in the North Branch Potomac was attributed

  11. Laboratory experiments and analytical investigations on the transfer of organic substances from lignite into ground water and residue lakes during flooding of opencast lignite mines. Final report; Laborexperimente und analytische Untersuchungen ueber den Eintrag braunkohlebuertiger organischer Stoffe in Grundwaesser und Restseegewaesser bei der Flutung von Braunkohletagebauen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzschuh, R.; Frauendorf, H.; Herrmann, D.; Pietzsch, K.


    Lignite samples of diffrent lithotypes and composition from opencast mines of Lusatia and the region near Leipzig were submitted to weathering processes in laboratory scale experiments and the transfer of organic matter from lignite into the hydrosphere has been observed. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry used in combination with data from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry numerous lignite-derived aromatic and heteroaromatic (poly-)carboxylic acids as well as aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could be characterized in the aqueous extracts. Investigations on water samples from lignite mining residue lakes cofirm these results. Furthermore, formation of chlororganic compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), benzenes (PCBz) and phenols (PCPh) has been investigated on different lignite samples under natural weathering conditions and thermal treatment. (orig.) [German] Braunkohlen verschiedener Lithotypen und Zusammensetzung aus Tagebauen der Lausitz und der Region um Leipzig wurden in Laborexperimenten Verwitterungsprozessen unterzogen und der Uebergang organischer Materie aus der Braunkohle in die Hydrosphaere beobachtet. Mit Hilfe der HPLC-Elektrospray-MS-Untersuchungen in Kombination mit Daten aus GC-MS-Messungen konnten zahlreiche aus der Braunkohle stammende aromatische und heteroaromatische (Poly-)Carbonsaeuren sowie aliphatische Dicarbonsaeuren in den waessrigen Extrakten charakterisiert werden. Untersuchungen an Wasserproben aus bereits gefluteten Tagebaurestseen bestaetigen diese Ergebnisse. Weiterhin wurde die Bildung chlororganischer Verbindungen, wie polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und -furane (PCDD/F) sowie polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB), Benzole (PCBz) und Phenole (PCPh) an unterschiedlichen Braunkohleproben unter natuerlichen Bedingungen und nach thermsicher Behandlung untersucht. (orig.)

  12. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert


    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  13. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock


    Päivi M. Kauppila; Timo Myöhänen; Marja Liisa Räisänen


    In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA) test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG) test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 %) and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 %) into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of t...

  14. Acid rock drainage and metal leaching from mine waste material (tailings) of a Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit: environmental assessment through static and kinetic laboratory tests


    Blanca Adriana Méndez Ortiz; Alejandro Carrillo Chávez; Marcos Gustavo Monroy Fernández


    In this work, the processes and products involved in the generation of acid rock drainage – metal leaching (ARD-ML) from mine waste material (tailings) derived from the exploitation of an ore type Pb- Zn-Ag skarn were characterized. Laboratory tests (static and kinetic) of historic and recent tailings were conducted along with the mineralogical characterization of solids, and chemical analyses of solids and leachates. Pyrite (FeS2) is the most abundant sulfi de phase, and one of the main mine...

  15. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site (United States)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.


    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  16. Chemical dynamics of acidity and heavy metals in a mine water-polluted soil during decontamination using clean water. (United States)

    Chen, A; Lin, C; Lu, W; Ma, Y; Bai, Y; Chen, H; Li, J


    A column leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the percolating water and washed soil during decontamination of an acidic mine water-polluted soil. The results show that leaching of the contaminated soil with clean water rapidly reduced soluble acidity and ion concentrations in the soils. However, only water over a long period of time. During the column leaching, dissolved Cu and Pb were rapidly leached out, followed by mobilization of colloidal Cu and Pb from the exchangeable and the oxide-bound fractions as a result of reduced ionic strength in the soil solution. The soluble Fe contained in the soil was rare, probably because the soil pH was not sufficiently low; marked mobility of colloidal Fe took place after the ionic strength of the percolating water was weakened and the mobilized Fe was mainly derived from iron oxides. In contrast with Cu, Pb and Fe, the concentration of leachate Zn and Mn showed a continuously decreasing trend during the entire period of the experiment.

  17. pH dependence of iron photoreduction in a rocky mountain stream affected by acid mine drainage (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.


    The redox speciation of dissolved iron and the transport of iron in acidic, metal-enriched streams is controlled by precipitation and dissolution of iron hydroxides, by photoreduction of dissolved ferric iron and hydrous iron oxides, and by oxidation of the resulting dissolved ferrous iron. We examined the pH dependence of these processes in an acidic mine-drainage stream, St Kevin Gulch, Colorado, by experimentally increasing the pH of the stream from about 4.0 to 6.5 and following the downstream changes in iron species. We used a solute transport model with variable flow to evaluate biogeochemical processes controlling downstream transport. We found that at pH 6.4 there was a rapid and large initial loss of ferrous iron concurrent with the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. Below this reach, ferrous iron was conservative during the morning but there was a net downstream loss of ferrous iron around noon and in the afternoon. Calculation of net oxidation rates shows that the noontime loss rate was generally much faster than rates for the ferrous iron oxidation at pH 6 predicted by Singer and Stumm (1970. Science 167: 1121). The maintenance of ferrous iron concentrations in the morning is explained by the photoreduction of photoreactive ferric species, which are then depleted by noon. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Investigation of low-molecular weight organic acids and their spatiotemporal variation characteristics in Hongfeng Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Xiao; Fengchang Wu; Liying Wang; Xinqing Li; Rongsheng Huang


    The identities and concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were determined by ion chromatography throughout a 20-m water column in Hongfeng Lake,China.The spatiotemporal variations of LMWOAs and their contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a research period of 24 hr were also investigated.The results demonstrated that five LMWOAs (lactic,acetic,pyruvic,sorbic,oxalic acid) were detected,and their total concentration and proportion in DOC were 6.55 μmol/L and 7.47%.Their average levels were 2.50,0.65,2.35,0.96 and 0.09 μmol/L,respectively.LMWOAs were higher during daytime (10:00-18:00 on Jun 13,2008) than nighttime (21:00-6:00 the next morning),in particular 4.99 μmol/L high in the epilimnion (≤ 1rn water depth),reflecting the fact that direct import from terrigenous sources and photochemical production from humic materials were dominant during LMWOAs' origin and accumulation.The same factors caused LMWOAs to be 0.63 μmol/L in the epilimnion higher than in the hypolimnion.The rapid decrease of total organic acid (TOA) up until 18:00 mainly resulted from bio-uptake and mineralization in the hypolimnion (> 1 m water depth).Pyruvic acid increased with time in the epilimnion and decreased in the hypolimnion,largely related to the two contrary processes of continuous degradation and synthesis of macromolecular organic matter during life materials' cycle mediated by organisms.Simultaneously,plankton behavior and thermal stratification played a pivotal role in LMWOAs' behavior in the water column,causing decreasing and increasing profiles.The distribution of LMWOAs represents an interesting resource for biogeochemical research of DOM in aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water. (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  20. Carbon stabilization and microbial growth in acidic mine soils after addition of different amendments for soil reclamation (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose; Ángeles Muñoz, María; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland


    The extreme soil conditions in metalliferous mine soils have a negative influence on soil biological activity and therefore on soil carbon estabilization. Therefore, amendments are used to increase organic carbon content and activate microbial communities. In order to elucidate some of the factors controlling soil organic carbon stabilization in reclaimed acidic mine soils and its interrelationship with microbial growth and community structure, we performed an incubation experiment with four amendments: pig slurry (PS), pig manure (PM) and biochar (BC), applied with and without marble waste (MW; CaCO3). Results showed that PM and BC (alone or together with MW) contributed to an important increment in recalcitrant organic C, C/N ratio and aggregate stability. Bacterial and fungal growths were highly dependent on pH and labile organic C. PS supported the highest microbial growth; applied alone it stimulated fungal growth, and applied with MW it stimulated bacterial growth. BC promoted the lowest microbial growth, especially for fungi, with no significant increase in fungal biomass. MW+BC increased bacterial growth up to values similar to PM and MW+PM, suggesting that part of the biochar was degraded, at least in short-term mainly by bacteria rather than fungi. PM, MW+PS and MW+PM supported the highest microbial biomass and a similar community structure, related with the presence of high organic C and high pH, with immobilization of metals and increased soil quality. BC contributed to improved soil structure, increased recalcitrant organic C, and decreased metal mobility, with low stimulation of microbial growth.

  1. In situ speciation of uranium in treated acid mine drainage using the diffusion gradients in thin films technique (DGT). (United States)

    Pedrobom, Jorge Henrique; Eismann, Carlos Eduardo; Menegário, Amauri A; Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Luko, Karen Silva; Dourado, Thiago de Araujo; Kiang, Chang Hung


    The exchange membranes P81 and DE81 and Chelex-100 resin were used to perform in situ speciation of uranium in treated acid mine drainage at the Osamu Utsumi mining site, Poços de Caldas city, Southeast Brazil. To investigate possible chemical modifications in the samples during analysis, the three ligands were deployed in situ and in a laboratory (in lab). The results obtained in situ were also compared to a speciation performed using Visual MINTEQ software. Chelex-100 retained total labile U for a period of up to 48 h. The labile U fraction determined by Chelex 100 ranged from 107 ± 6% to 147 ± 44% in situ and from 115 ± 22% to 191 ± 5% in lab. DE81 retained anionic U species up to 8 h, with labile fractions ranging from 37 ± 2% to 76 ± 3% in situ and 34 ± 12% to 180 ± 17% in lab. P81 exhibited a lower efficiency in retaining U species, with concentrations ranging from 6± 2% to 19± 2% in situ and 3± 2% to 18± 2% in lab. The speciation obtained from MINTEQ suggests that the major U species were UO2OH(+), UO2(OH)(3-), UO2(OH)2(aq), Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), CaUO2(CO3)3(2-), UO2(CO3)2(2-), and UO2(CO3)3(4-). This result is in accordance with the results obtained in situ. Differences concerning speciation and the total and soluble U concentrations were observed between the deployments performed in situ and in the laboratory, indicating that U speciation must be performed in situ.

  2. REE behavior and effect factors in AMD-type acidic groundwater at sulfide tailings pond, BS nickel mine, W.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Liang-qi; SONG Ci-an; XIE Xiang-li; LI Yan-hong


    AMD(Acid Mine Drainage)-type acidic groundwater (pH<4) from oxidizing sulfide tailings in BS nickel mine (Western Australia) is of higher total rare earth element(REE) contents and Ce enrichment (PAAS normalization), different from setting groundwater (pH>6.5, with lower total REE contents, Ce depletion). While the AMD contaminated groundwater (pH=4.0-6.5) around tailings pond is characterized by transition from acidic to setting groundwater in total REE content, and associated with Ce depletion (like setting groundwater). The light REE in all type groundwater shows up depletion, but its depleted extent in acidic groundwater is more remarkable. This work indicates that REE behavior in AMD-type acidic groundwater is controlled mainly by pH value and metal (Al, Mn and Fe) contents. And the critical pH value that affects REE behavior in ground acidic water would be 4, lower than the previous value (pH=5) that has been believed prevalently in surface acidic waters. The pH could affect REE behavior in groundwater by controlling the solubility of metal (Al, Mn and Fe) hydroxides and the valence of cerium. Finally, light REE depletion in acidic groundwater may due to element affinity. High content Al (affinity with heavy REE) and low content Fe (affinity with light REE) may lead to heavy REE enrichment while light REE relative depletion in water.

  3. An empirical method for estimating instream pre-mining pH and dissolved Cu concentration in catchments with acidic drainage and ferricrete (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.; Gurrieri, J.T.; Furniss, G.


    Methods for assessing natural background water quality of streams affected by historical mining are vigorously debated. An empirical method is proposed in which stream-specific estimation equations are generated from relationships between either pH or dissolved Cu concentration in stream water and the Fe/Cu concentration ratio in Fe-precipitates presently forming in the stream. The equations and Fe/Cu ratios for pre-mining deposits of alluvial ferricrete then were used to reconstruct estimated pre-mining longitudinal profiles for pH and dissolved Cu in three acidic streams in Montana, USA. Primary assumptions underlying the proposed method are that alluvial ferricretes and modern Fe-precipitates share a common origin, that the Cu content of Fe-precipitates remains constant during and after conversion to ferricrete, and that geochemical factors other than pH and dissolved Cu concentration play a lesser role in determining Fe/Cu ratios in Fe-precipitates. The method was evaluated by applying it in a fourth, naturally acidic stream unaffected by mining, where estimated pre-mining pH and Cu concentrations were similar to present-day values, and by demonstrating that inflows, particularly from unmined areas, had consistent effects on both the pre-mining and measured profiles of pH and Cu concentration. Using this method, it was estimated that mining has affected about 480 m of Daisy Creek, 1.8 km of Fisher Creek, and at least 1 km of Swift Gulch. Mean values of pH decreased by about 0.6 pH units to about 3.2 in Daisy Creek and by 1-1.5 pH units to about 3.5 in Fisher Creek. In Swift Gulch, mining appears to have decreased pH from about 5.5 to as low as 3.6. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased due to mining almost 40% in Daisy Creek to a mean of 11.7 mg/L and as much as 230% in Fisher Creek to 0.690 mg/L. Uncertainty in the fate of Cu during the conversion of Fe-precipitates to ferricrete translates to potential errors in pre-mining estimates of as much as 0.25 units

  4. Connections between hyper-acid crater lakes and flank springs: new evidence from Rincón de la Vieja volcano (Costa Rica) (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Fernández, E.; Sáenz, W.; van Bergen, M. J.; Ayres, G.; Pacheco, J. F.; Brenes, J.; Avard, G.; Malavassi, E.


    Rincón de la Vieja, a complex andesitic stratovolcano in NW Costa Rica, shows various hydrothermal surface manifestations that comprise: (1) A hyper-acid crater lake and subaerial fumaroles receiving direct input of fluids of magmatic origin, (2) Acid thermal discharges along the northeastern slopes of the volcano that feed the headwaters of the Cucaracho river, and (3) Small lakes and a geothermal field with bubbling-boiling mud pools, acid-sulfate springs, steaming ground and fumarolic emissions in a region on the western flank. Here the streams are of relatively low flow rate and their chemical signatures correspond to that of deep fluids from an extensive geothermal reservoir mixed with shallow meteoric water. Physico-chemical properties of the sulfate-chloride hyper-acid lake (T=28-58 °C; pH between 1.2 and water body supplied by a significant input of chemical components derived from hydrolysis of magmatic volatiles and from intense rock leaching. The Cucaracho catchment receives input from warm acid brines with no free-gas phase but carrying a high load of hydrolyzed magmatic volatiles and rock-forming elements. One of these brines (Spring 4) is characterized by a sulfate-chloride chemical signature, medium temperatures of 27-38 °C, pH between 2 and 4 and TDS values between 780 and 1300 mg/L. Based on water and heat-balance considerations, chemical and stable-isotope signatures and groundwater transport modeling, it has been proposed that these acid springs represent brine water from the lake-hydrothermal system that is diluted by shallow groundwater permeating tephra layers (Kempter and Rowe, 2000). Since Rincóńs latest phreatomagmatic activity in 1983, episodes of phreatic eruptions from the crater lake have been registered in 1983-87, 1991, 1995, 1998 and 2011. Some of these eruptions (VEI 1) have expelled large quantities of lake water, triggering small to medium- sized fast-moving acidic lahars running along effluents of the Cucaracho River. They


    The paper focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that, if sup...

  6. Genome data mining of lactic acid bacteria: the impact of bioinformatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, R.J.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Kleerebezem, M.; Teusink, B.


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in food fermentations and, more recently, as probiotics in health-promoting food products. Genome sequencing and functional genomics studies of a variety of LAB are now rapidly providing insights into their diversity and evolution and revealing the mo

  7. 淮北采煤塌陷湖大型底栖动物群落结构季节动态研究%Community structure and seasonal variation of macrozoobenthos in collapse lakes of Huaibei mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 丁建华


    2013年9月、12月和2014年3月、6月对淮北采煤塌陷区刘桥湖和临涣湖的大型底栖动物群落结构进行了采样调查,共采集到底栖动物32种,隶属于3门6纲。统计数据表明,刘桥湖和临涣湖底栖动物年平均密度分别为210.95和181.65 ind/m2,年平均生物量分别为60.55和40.17 g/m2。两湖Shannon-Wiener多样性指数( H′)和Margalef 多样性指数( D)季节变化趋势较为一致,12月均为最低,而6、9月相对较高,其中,Margalef指数季节性变化更为明显(F (3,16)>3.95,P <0.05)。在空间尺度上,SIMPER与One-Way ANOSIM分析结果表明在刘桥湖与临涣湖之间,底栖动物群落结构不同季节间优势种类的组成存在差异。%Seasonal variations in community structure of macrozoobenthos were investigated in collapsed lakes of Huaibei mining areas Liuqiao Lake and Linhuan Lake in September (autumn) and December (winter) of 2013, and in March (spring) and June (summer) of 2014 .A total of 32 species belonging to 6 classes and 3 phylum were collected .The average densities were 210.956 ind/m2 in Li-uqiao Lake and 181.65 ind/m2 in Linhuan Lake .The average biomass of macrozoobenthos were 60.55 g/m2 in Liuqiao Lake and 40.17 g/m2 in Linhuan Lake, respectively.The seasonal changes of Shannon -Weiner index (H′) and Margalef index (D) were same.The two indexes were all lowest in December , and higher in June and September .The seasonal change of Margalef index was more obvious (F(3, 16) >3.95, P<0.05).The analyses of SIMPER and One-Way ANOSIM indicated that community structure of dominant species of macrozoobenthos was obviously different between Liuqiao Lake and Linhuan Lake .

  8. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,


    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were

  9. Jarosite versus Soluble Iron-Sulfate Formation and Their Role in Acid Mine Drainage Formation at the Pan de Azúcar Mine Tailings (Zn-Pb-Ag, NW Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Murray


    Full Text Available Secondary jarosite and water-soluble iron-sulfate minerals control the composition of acid mine waters formed by the oxidation of sulfide in tailings impoundments at the (Zn-Pb-Ag Pan de Azúcar mine located in the Pozuelos Lagoon Basin (semi-arid climate in Northwest (NW Argentina. In the primary zone of the tailings (9.5 wt % pyrite-marcasite precipitation of anglesite (PbSO4, wupatkite ((Co,Mg,NiAl2(SO44 and gypsum retain Pb, Co and Ca, while mainly Fe2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, As3+/5+ and Cd2+ migrate downwards, forming a sulfate and metal-rich plume. In the oxidation zone, jarosite (MFe3(TO42(OH6 is the main secondary Fe3+ phase; its most suitable composition is M = K+, Na+, and Pb2+and TO4 = SO42−; AsO42−. During the dry season, iron-sulfate salts precipitate by capillary transport on the tailings and at the foot of DC2 (tailings impoundment DC2 tailings dam where an acid, Fe2+ rich plume outcrops. The most abundant compounds in the acid mine drainage (AMD are SO42−, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, Cu2+, As3+/5+, Cd2+. These show peak concentrations at the beginning of the wet season, when the soluble salts and jarosite dissolve. The formation of soluble sulfate salts during the dry season and dilution during the wet season conform an annual cycle of rapid metals and acidity transference from the tailings to the downstream environment.

  10. Present and potential nitrogen outputs from Norwegian soft water lakes – an assessment made by applying the steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø. Kaste


    Full Text Available The steady-state First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model for calculating critical loads of sulphur (S and nitrogen (N is applied to 609 Norwegian soft-water lakes to assess the future nitrate (NO3‾ leaching potential under present (1992-96 S and N deposition. The lakes were separated into five groups receiving increasing levels of N deposition (-2yr-1. Using long-term sustainable N sink rates presently recommended for FAB model applications, N immobilisation, net N uptake in forests, denitrification and in-lake N retention were estimated for each group of lakes. Altogether, the long-term N sinks constituted 9.9 ± 3.2 to 40.5 ± 11.4 meq m-2yr-1 in the lowest and highest N deposition categories, respectively. At most sites, the current N deposition exceeds the amount of N retained by long-term sustainable N sinks plus the NO3‾ loss via the lake outlets. This excess N, which is currently retained within the catchments may, according to the FAB model, leach as acidifying NO3‾ in the future. If these predictions are fulfilled, NO3‾ leaching at sites in the various N deposition categories will increase dramatically from present (1995 mean levels of 1-20 meq m-2yr-1, to mean levels of 7-70 meq m-2yr-1 at future steady state. To illustrate the significance of such an increase in NO3‾ leaching, the mean Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC at sites in the highest N deposition category may decrease from -18 ± 15 μeq L-1 at present, to -40 ± 20 μeq L-1. Under present S and N deposition levels, the FAB model predicts that 46% of the Norwegian lakes may experience exceedances of critical loads for acidifying deposition. In comparison, the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC, which considers only the present N leaching level, estimates critical load exceedances in 37% of the lakes under the same deposition level. Thus far, there are great uncertainties regarding both the time scales and the extent of future N leaching, and it is largely unknown

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  12. Diversity of 16S ribosomal DNA-defined bacterial population in acid rock drainage from Japanese pyrite mine. (United States)

    Okabayashi, Ai; Wakai, Satoshi; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo


    Four acidophilic bacteria (YARDs1-4) were isolated from an acid rock drainage (ARD) from Yanahara mine, Okayama prefecture, Japan. The physiological and 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that YARD1 was closely affiliated with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, YARD2 was an Acidiphilium-like bacterium, and YARD3 and YARD4 were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with a relatively close relationship to A. ferrooxidans in the phylogenetic analysis. A molecular approach based on the construction of a 16S rDNA clone library was used to investigate the microbial population of the ARD. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified, subsequently cloned and screened for variation by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A total of 284 clones were grouped into 133 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by the RFLP analysis. Among them, an OTU showing the same RFLP pattern as those of the isolates from the ARD was not detected. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA sequences from 10 major OTUs and their close relatives revealed that 4 OTUs containing 32.1% of the total clones were loosely affiliated with Verrucomicrobia, 2 OTUs containing 6.6% of the total clones were loosely affiliated with Chloribi, and other OTUs were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and beta-Proteobacteria.

  13. Selectively leaching Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) from acid mine drainage sludge by using ethylenediamine-ammonium sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A method based on controlling the complexation-precipitation equilibrium of metal ions was proposed to selectively recover nickel and copper from hydroxide sludge formed by lime neutralization of acid mine drainage(AMD). Ethylenediamine(EDA) and ammonium sulfate were chosen as complex reagent and precipitating reagent, respectively, to dissolve target metal hydroxides from sludge and limit useless metal ions in the pregnant solution. Results from both synthetic and natural samples show the excellent selectivity for the target metals(copper and nickel) against Fe(Ⅲ), Ca(Ⅱ) and Mg(Ⅱ), 99% recovery of Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) and shorter leaching time can be reached by this process, and the resultant solution can be used for direct electrowinning. The optimum operating conditions are: pH=9~11, ρ(EDA)=40g/L, ammonium sulfate 50g/L, leaching time 5h(for natural sample) and 2.5h(for synthetic sludge), liquid to solid ratio being 4 with mechanical stirring at room temperature.

  14. Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States). Environmental Science Graduate Programme


    Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at < 0.01% of the total microbial community. The most numerous bacterial species in this wetland system was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, comprising up to 37% of the bacterial population. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was also abundant.

  15. Water quality changes in acid mine drainage streams in Gangneung, Korea, 10 years after treatment with limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Moo Joon; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Giehyeon; Hwang, Yun Ho; Yang, Jung-Seok; O' Loughlin, Edward J.; Kwon, Man Jae


    To determine the long-term effectiveness of the limestone treatment for acid mine drainage (AMD) in Gangneung, Korea, we investigated the elemental distribution in streams impacted by AMD and compared the results of previous studies before and approximately 10 years after the addition of limestone. Addition of limestone in 1999 leads to a pH increase in 2008, and with the exception of Ca, the elemental concentrations (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Ni, Zn, S) in the streams decreased. The pH was 2.5–3 before the addition of limestone and remained stable at around 4.5–5 from 2008 to 2011, suggesting the reactivity of the added limestone was diminished and that an alternative approach is needed to increase the pH up to circumneutral range and maintain effective long-term treatment. To identify the processes causing the decrease in the elemental concentrations, we also examined the spatial (approximately 7 km) distribution over three different types of streams affected by the AMD. The elemental distribution was mainly controlled by physicochemical processes including redox reactions, dilution on mixing, and co-precipitation/adsorption with Fe (hydr)oxides.

  16. Kinetics and microbial ecology of batch sulfidogenic bioreactors for co-treatment of municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Deng, Dongyang; Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Lin, Lian-Shin


    The kinetics and microbial ecology in sulfidogenic bioreactors used in a novel two-stage process for co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) were investigated. Michaelis-Menten modeling of COD oxidation by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) (Vmax=0.33mgL(-1)min(-1), Km=4.3mgL(-1)) suggested that the Vmax can be reasonably achieved given the typical COD values in MWW and anticipated mixing with AMD. Non-competitive inhibition modeling (Ki=6.55mgL(-1)) indicated that excessive iron level should be avoided to limit its effects on SRB. The COD oxidation rate was positively correlated to COD/sulfate ratio and SRB population, as evidenced by dsrA gene copies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed diverse microbial communities dominated by sulfate reducing delta-proteobacteria. Microbial community and relative quantities of SRB showed significant differences under different COD/sulfate ratios (0.2, 1 and 2), and the highest dsrA gene concentration and most complex microbial diversity were observed under COD/sulfate ratio 2. Major species were associated with Desulfovirga, Desulfobulbus, Desulfovibrio, and Syntrophus sp. The reported COD kinetics, SRB abundances and the phylogenetic profile provide insights into the co-treatment process and help identify the parameters of concerns for such technology development.

  17. Heavy metal removal in groundwater originating from acid mine drainage using dead Bacillus drentensis sp. immobilized in polysulfone polymer. (United States)

    Kim, Insu; Lee, Minhee; Wang, Sookyun


    Batch, column, and pilot scale feasibility experiments for a bio-sorption process using a bio-carrier (beads) with dead Bacillus drentensis sp. in polysulfone polymer were performed to remove heavy metals in groundwater originating from an acid mine drainage (AMD). For batch experiments, various amounts of bio-carrier each containing a different amount of dead biomass were added in artificial solution, of which the initial heavy metal concentration and pH were about 10 mg/L and 3, respectively. The heavy metal removal efficiencies of the bio-carrier under various conditions were calculated and more than 92% of initial Pb and Cu were found to have been removed from the solution when using 2 g of bio-carriers containing 5% biomass. For a continuous experiment with a column packed with bio-carriers (1 m in length and 0.02 m in diameter), more than 98% of Pb removal efficiency was maintained for 36 pore volumes and 1.553 g of Pb per g of bio-carrier was removed. For the pilot scale feasibility test, a total of 80 tons of groundwater (lower than pH of 4) were successfully treated for 40 working days and the removal efficiencies of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Fe were maintained above 93%, demonstrating that one kg of bio-carrier can clean up at least 1098 L of groundwater in the field.

  18. Trace metal partitioning over a tidal cycle in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (Tinto estuary, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A. [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olías, M., E-mail: [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Cánovas, C.R. [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martín, J.E.; Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain)


    The Tinto River estuary is highly polluted with the acid lixiviates from old sulphide mines. In this work the behaviour of dissolved and particulate trace metals under strong chemical gradients during a tidal cycle is studied. The pH values range from 4.4 with low tide to 6.9 with high tide. Precipitation of Fe and Al is intense during rising tides and As and Pb are almost exclusively found in the particulate matter (PM). Sorption processes are very important in controlling the mobility (and hence bioavailability) of some metals and particularly affect Cu below pH 6. Above pH ∼ 6 Cu is desorbed, probably by the formation of Cu(I)–chloride complexes. Although less pronounced than Cu, also Zn desorption above pH 6.5 seems to occur. Mn and Co are affected by sorption processes at pH higher than ca. 6. Cd behaves conservatively and Ni is slightly affected by sorption processes. - Highlights: • The Tinto estuary shows strong pH gradients and high trace elements concentrations. • PM has a hysteretic relationship with tides and high contents of Fe, Al, As and Pb. • Co and Mn are controlled by river and sea water mixing and sorption processes. • Sorption processes strongly affect Cu below pH 6, above this value Cu is desorpted. • Cadmium behaves conservatively along the pH range studied (4.4–6.9)

  19. Uranium recovery from acid rock drainage: an alternative strategy for the decommissioning of the uranium mining and milling facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Acid Rock Drainage is of great concern to environmental regulators and mine operators in many countries around the world. During the operational life of an installation, the collect and treat strategy is a commonly employed strategy to reduce pollutant emissions to the environment. Regarding the post-operational scenarios a suite of different strategies is available in the literature. Acid drainage is a crucial problem at the uranium mining and milling site of Pocos de Caldas. Two waste-rock piles (of about 60 ha each) resulted from mining activities. Presently acid waters are being collected and neutralized, the solid material being disposed in the tailings dam. The Institute of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has developed studies that concluded that a permanent solution to the problem should favor covering the dumps with a three layered cover system. However if the uranium average concentration in the drainage (about 10 mg/L) is taken into consideration, its economical recovery may be thought about. This strategy will imply in the recovery of 30 tons U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year - representing c.a. 30% of the mean annual production of the installation. The recovery would include the use of ion-exchange resins. The technical and economical viability of the strategy as well as technical and economical issues concerning the application of a dry cover to the waste rock piles will be presented and discussed in detail. (author)

  20. Mineralogy of evaporite deposits on Mars: Constraints from laboratory, field, and remote measurements of analog terrestrial acid saline lakes (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Núñez, J. I.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Thomson, B. J.


    Remote compositional data from imaging spectrometers such as CRISM, OMEGA, and TES, and high-resolution imagery from MOC, CTX, and HiRISE have provided invaluable information for improving our understanding of the composition and geologic history of the martian surface and identifying potential past and present habitable environments on Mars. Simulated CRISM spectra and summary parameter maps and HiRISE color images were generated using airborne hyperspectral data of two acid-saline lakes in Western Australia. These locations are applicable to Mars, as they contain a suite of clays, sulfates, and salts formed under variable pH and salinity - mineralogies similar to those observed in Noachian and Hesperian terrain. The remote datasets were used to make surface composition predictions which were then verified through field study and sample analysis. We find phyllosilicates intermixed with sulfates in sulfate-rich surfaces exhibit variable spectral responses, even for similar conditions and abundances seen in the field. Where sulfates, such as gypsum and alunite, are found, phyllosilicates are intermixed or reside beneath the surface yet are not always detected. This suggests that geologic complexities may mask phyllosilicate detection at or near the surface on Mars where only sulfates have so far been found.

  1. Biological properties of extremely acidic cyanide-laced mining waste. (United States)

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Hulejová Sládkovičová, Veronika; Mangová, Barbara; Pogányová, Andrea; Šimkovic, Ivan; Krumpál, Miroslav


    With respect to acidic, cyanide-laced tailings, the data about in situ toxicity and biological activity in highly polluted environment are often lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics, composition of oribatid mite species, and level of genotoxic impact on plants in the area of inactive tailings pond (Horná Ves, Kremnica region). Sampling of the tailings, soils and selected plant species was carried out in spring of 2012. Trace element analysis (inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry) showed that concentration of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the tailings is approximately in thousands of ppm (mg kg(-1)). Amount of lead exceeded 16,000 mg kg(-1), which is perceived as the biggest threat with respect to possible toxicity. The risk is accentuated by extremely acidic pH of the tailings material which approached 2. In such conditions great mobility of (divalent) heavy metal cations is expected. The total cyanide concentration in the tailings was 472 mg kg(-1). Results of performed tests and measurements suggest that microbial activity at the tailings site (and its close environment) is hampered markedly. In the sludge material we detected low abundance of soil bacteria (2.08 × 10(4) CFU) and predominance of slowly growing K-strategists. On the other hand, the content of microbial C in the sludge sample was not too low, considering its extreme acidity and high amount of risk elements. In the same sample, just one mite species, Oppiella (O.) uliginosa (Willmann 1919), was identified. Also in case of the dam site the abundance of mites was considerably lower in comparison to reference sample. Values of Oribatida abundance were in positive correlation with values of microbial biomass carbon. Results of the pollen grain abortivity test, applied in situ on chosen plant species, indicated substantial presence of genotoxicity in the environment. Total induction index of tailings pond reached 3.59(±2.4) which expresses also

  2. Detection and Characterization of Ultrafine Fe-as-pb Colloids In Acid Rock Drainage Solution From An Ore Mine (United States)

    Zänker, H.; Moll, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Hennig, C.; Reich, T.; Kluge, A.; Hüttig, G.

    The processes of sulfide oxidation, water acidification and water mineralization in abandoned ore mines are closely associated with the existence of gangue fissures in the host rock that contain clay minerals and finely-divided sulfide ores. These fissures release highly mineralized, red-colored acid rock drainage (ARD) solutions which can be collected from pools in front of the fissures. ARD solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-A g mine at Freiberg, Germany, (pH 2.7, sulfate concentration 411 mmol/l, Fe concentration 93,5 mmol/l) was nvestigated by photon correlation i spectroscopy, centrifugation, filtration, ultrafiltration, scanning electron microscopy, ICP-MS, AAS, ion chromatography, TOC analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The question was if this ARD solution contains colloidal particles of the lower nanometer range or if it is particle-free after the common filtration through a 450-nm filter. We found that there is a small amount (about 20 mg/l) of submicron particles of about 100 nm in size. However, the major colloidal component was shown to be a population of ultrafine particles of less than 5 nm. The concentration of these particles is about 1 g/l. They consist of Fe, As and Pb compounds. According to EXAFS spectroscopy, their most probable mineralogical composition is a mixture of hydronium jarosite (HFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) and schwertmannite (ideally Fe8O8(OH)6SO 4). We also observed the formation of a relatively coarse precipitate of a similar mineralogy in the colloidal solution over a time span of months. The ultrafine colloids are obviously an intermediate in the formation process of the long-term precipitate. The arsenic is probably bound onto the ultrafine colloidal particles as a bidentate binuclear ars enate surface complex (inner-sphere complex). However, the transformation of the colloids into the more aggregated long-term precipitate leads to the incorporation of the arsenic into the interior of the iron hydroxy sulfate

  3. Pharmacophore-based database mining for probing fragmental drug-likeness of diketo acid analogues. (United States)

    Bak, A; Magdziarz, T; Polanski, J


    A number of the structurally diverse chemical compounds with functional diketo acid (DKA) subunit(s) have been revealed by combined online and MoStBiodat 3D pharmacophore-guided ZINC and PubChem database screening. We used the structural data available from such screening to analyse the similarities of the compounds containing the DKA fragment. Generally, the analysis by principal component analysis and self-organizing neural network approaches reveals four families of compounds complying with the chemical constitution (aromatic, aliphatic) of the compounds. From a practical point of view, similar studies may reveal potential bioisosteres of known drugs, e.g. raltegravir/elvitegravir. In this context, it seems that mono-halogenated aryl substructures with para group show the closest similarity to these compounds, in contrast to structures where the aromatic ring is halogenated in both ortho- and para-locations.

  4. Changing water quality in the Middle Mahakam Lakes: Water quality trends in a context of rapid deforestation, mining and palm oil plantation development in Indonesia's Middle Mahakam wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de; Ragas, A.M.J.; Nooteboom, G.; Mursidi, M.


    The degradation of Indonesia's wetlands is continuing at a rapid pace. People living in the Middle Mahakam Lakes (MML) region, part of a major wetland area in Indonesia, have observed various negative changes in their local environment, especially with regard to water quality. We verify these local

  5. Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. DV isolated from the sediments of a Pb-Zn mine tailings dam in the Chita region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Kovaliova


    Full Text Available Here we report the draft genome sequence of the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. DV isolated from the sediments of a Pb-Zn mine tailings dam in the Chita region, Russia. The draft genome has a size of 4.9 Mb and encodes multiple K+-transporters and proton-consuming decarboxylases. The phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated ribosomal proteins revealed that strain DV clusters together with the acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. TomC and Desulfovibrio magneticus. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MLBG00000000.

  6. The importance of chemical buffering for pelagic and benthic colonization in acidic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, B., E-mail:; Lessmann, D. [Brandenburg University of Technology at Cottbus, Chair of Water Conservation, Faculty of Environmental Sciences (Germany); Steinberg, C. E. W. [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Germany)


    In poorly buffered areas acidification may occur for two reasons: through atmospheric deposition of acidifying substances and - in mining districts - through pyrite weathering. These different sources of acidity lead to distinct clearly geochemistry in lakes and rivers. In general, the geochemistry is the major determinant for the planktonic composition of the acidified water bodies, whereas the nutrient status mainly determines the level of biomass. A number of acidic mining lakes in Eastern Germany have to be neutralized to meet the water quality goals of the European Union Directives and to overcome the ecological degradation. This neutralization process is limnologically a short-term maturation of lakes, which permits biological succession to overcome two different geochemical buffer systems. First, the iron buffer system characterizes an initial state, when colonization starts: there is low organismic diversity and productivity, clear net heterotrophy in most cases. Organic carbon that serves as fuel for the food web derives mainly from allochthonous sources. In the second, less acidic state aluminum is the buffer. This state is found exceptionally among the hard water mining lakes, often as a result of deposition of acidifying substances onto soft water systems. Colonization in aluminum-buffered lakes is more complex and controlled by the sensitivity of the organisms towards both, protons and inorganic reactive aluminum species. In soft-water systems, calcium may act as antidote against acid and aluminum; however, this function is lost in hard water post mining lakes of similar proton concentrations. Nutrient limitations may occur, but these do not usually control qualitative and quantitative plankton composition. In these lakes, total pelagic biomass is controlled by the bioavailability of nutrients, particularly phosphorus.

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace metals and REE in volcanic massive sulfide host rocks, stream sediments, stream waters and acid mine drainage from the Lousal mine area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec - GeoBiosciences, Technologies and Engineering Research Center, Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail:; Bobos, I. [Departamento de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 687 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Xavier Matos, J. [Centro de Estudos Geologicos e Mineiros de Beja, Rua Frei Amador Arrais No. 39 r/c, Apartado 104, 7801-902 Beja (Portugal); Patinha, C.; Reis, A.P.; Cardoso Fonseca, E. [GeoBioTec - GeoBiosciences, Technologies and Engineering Research Center, Departamento de Geociencias, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)


    Acid mine drainage represents a major source of water pollution in the Lousal area. The concentrations of trace metals and the rare earth elements (REE) in the host rocks, stream sediment, surface waters and acid mine drainage (AMD) associated with abandoned mine adits and tailings impoundments were determined, in order to fingerprint their sources and to understand their mobility and water-rock interaction. The results show that the Fe-SO{sub 4}-rich acid waters vary substantially in composition both spatially and seasonally. These waters include very low pH (mostly in the range 1.9-3.0), extreme SO{sub 4} concentrations (4635-20,070 mg L{sup -1}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), high metal contents (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn and Mn) and very high REE contents. The trace metal concentrations decrease downstream from the discharge points either due to precipitation of neoformed phases or to dilution. The North-American shale composite (NASC)-normalized patterns corresponding to sediment from one stream (Corona stream) show a flat tendency or are slightly enriched in light-REE (LREE). The NASC-normalized patterns corresponding to acidic mine waters show enrichment in the middle REE (MREE) with respect to the LREE and heavy REE (HREE). Moreover, the REE concentrations in acidic mine waters are 2 or 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of the surface waters. Changes of REE concentrations and variation of Eu anomaly show two spatially distinct patterns: (a) pond and spring waters with higher REE concentrations (ranging from 375 to 2870 {mu}g L{sup -1}), that records conspicuous negative Eu anomaly, and (b) seeps from tailings impoundments corresponding to lower REE concentrations than the first pattern (ranging from 350 to 1139 {mu}g L{sup -1}) with typically negative Eu anomaly. The stream water samples collected from the impacted stream during the spring show a low pH (2.8-3.1) and contain high concentrations of Fe and trace elements (up to 61 mg L{sup -1}). Also, temporal variations of

  8. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.


    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325μS/cm to 2,909μS/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of

  9. Potential application of oxygen-18 and deuterium in mining effluent and acid rock drainage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghomshei, M.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering; Allen, D.M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    Oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) and deuterium (D, or {sup 2}H) are routinely used in hydrologic, climatologic and geothermal studies. In hydrology, stable isotopes provide information on the type and topology (altitude and latitude) of the recharge waters and the historical effects on water, related to such physical processes as evaporation (in ponds) melting (of snow or ice), condensation, evapotranspiration and mixing. In geothermal studies, stable isotopes provide key information related to recharge and the various temperature-dependent water/rock isotope exchange reactions. The latter is assessed through the oxygen shift in the {sup 18}O/D correlation. At acid rock drainage (ARD) sites, water/rock interactions are primarily controlled by pH and oxidation potential. Using the isotopic characteristics of the rocks and the recharge waters as a basis, the relative oxygen shift of the ARD effluent can provide information on: (1) the residence time, (2) the rate of water/rock reactions, and (3) the actual pH at the rock/water interface. This paper offers a methodology for conducting oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies related to ARD and other mineral effluent problems. The methodology is based on: (1) comprehensive sampling of regional waters, ARD effluent and major contributing minerals and rocks, (2) isotopic and elemental analysis, and (3) data interpretation on the basis of zero-dimensional (mass balance), multi-component mixing model. (orig.)

  10. Modelling regional response of lakewater chemistry to changes in acidic deposition: the MAGIC model applied to lake surveys in southernmost Norway 1974-1986-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Cosby


    Full Text Available Two methods for modelling regional responses of lake water quality to changes in acidic deposition in southernmost Norway were examined. Both methods are based upon the MAGIC model but differ in mode of regional application; one uses site-specific while the other uses Monte-Carlo methods for model calibration. The simulations of regional responses from both methods were compared with observed responses based on data from three lake surveys in southernmost Norway conducted in 1974, 1986 and 1995. The regional responses of the two modelling approaches were quite similar and agreed well with the observed regional distributions of lakewater chemistry variables. From 1974 to 1986 the observed data indicated that despite a decline of approximately 10% in sulphate (SO4 deposition, the mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC of lakes in southernmost Norway declined by approximately 6 μeq l-1. Both modelling approaches simulated no change or a very small decline in mean ANC for that period. From 1986 to 1995 the observed data indicated that, in response to an approximate 40% decline in SO4 deposition, the mean ANC of lakes in southernmost Norway increased by 11-16 μeq l-1. The modelling approaches simulated increases of 9-10 μeq l-1 in mean ANC for the same period. Both simulations and observations indicate that > 65% of lakes in southernmost Norway were acidic in 1974 and 1995. Both simulation methods predict that >65% of the lakes in southernmost Norway will have positive ANC values within 10 years of reductions of SO4 deposition to 20% of 1974 levels. Of the two regionalization methods the site-specific method appears preferable, because whereas the Monte-Carlo method gives results for a region as a whole, the site-specific method also reveals patterns within the region. The maintenance of a one-to-one correspondence between simulated and observed systems means that simulation results can be mapped for a geographically explicit presentation of model

  11. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  12. Environmental planning in mine waste management: The Huckleberry Mines experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. C. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Letient, H. F. [Compania Minera Antamina (Peru)


    A mine waste management plan, designed to prevent the onset of acid rock drainage and facilitate reclamation of the mine site is discussed. The waste management plan takes into account the requirement for permanently flooding the potentially acid-generating rock and tailings. To avoid long-term acid rock drainage, the plan calls for floating the pyrite out of the tailings towards the end of the life of the mine, thus generating a a non-acid generating tailings stream which will be used to cap the deposited mine waste. When the mine is closed, a permanent water cover will be maintained over the mine waste, leaving only the potentially non-acid generating tailings exposed. Retaining structures will be constructed so as to maximize the use of overburden and minimize the need for additional till and rockfill to be imported from outside the mine site. Dam slopes will be reclaimed with topsoil and overburden stripped during mine development and stockpiled until needed for reclamation. By disposing of the acid-generating mine waste and tailings by permanent flooding, acid generation from these wastes will be prevented, overall environmental liabilities will be minimized, and long-term water quality of the surrounding streams will be safeguarded. 9 figs.

  13. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results (United States)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella


    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  14. Iron buffer system in the water column and partitioning in the sediments of the naturally acidic Lake Caviahue, Neuquén, Argentina (United States)

    Cabrera, J. M.; Diaz, M. M.; Schultz, S.; Temporetti, P.; Pedrozo, F.


    Sedimentary iron partitioning was studied for five sediment strata (16 cm depth) at three sampling sites of the naturally-occurring acidic Lake Caviahue (Patagonia, Argentina). Additionally, water column iron was modeled based on five-year period input loadings to study a possible iron buffer system. The partition coefficient between the water column and the total iron content of the sediments was also addressed. Sedimentary iron was found to be distributed, on average, in the following forms: exchangeable (6%), iron oxides (4%), pyrite and reactive organic matter (38%) and residual (non-andesitic) materials with a high content of humic acids (52%). Furthermore, we found that the dissolved iron in the lake was nearly constant throughout the five year period we studied. This is consistent with the existence of an iron buffer system in the lake at pH between 2.0 and 3.0, which may cause differential iron precipitation at the delta of the volcanic river with respect to the deeper northern and southern arms. Sedimentary iron measurements taken at the delta further support the existence of a buffer system, where it was found that the iron content in the sub-superficial stratum (2 cm) was double that of the remainder of the vertical profile at the same site.

  15. Genome mining of mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) synthesizing and non-synthesizing cyanobacteria: A bioinformatics study. (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra P; Klisch, Manfred; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Häder, Donat-P


    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a family of more than 20 compounds having absorption maxima between 310 and 362 nm. These compounds are well known for their UV-absorbing/screening role in various organisms and seem to have evolutionary significance. In the present investigation we tested four cyanobacteria, e.g., Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 6301, for their ability to synthesize MAA and conducted genomic and phylogenetic analysis to identify the possible set of genes that might be involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds. Out of the four investigated species, only A. variabilis PCC 7937 was able to synthesize MAA. Genome mining identified a combination of genes, YP_324358 (predicted DHQ synthase) and YP_324357 (O-methyltransferase), which were present only in A. variabilis PCC 7937 and missing in the other studied cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two genes are transferred from a cyanobacterial donor to dinoflagellates and finally to metazoa by a lateral gene transfer event. All other cyanobacteria, which have these two genes, also had another copy of the DHQ synthase gene. The predicted protein structure for YP_324358 also suggested that this product is different from the chemically characterized DHQ synthase of Aspergillus nidulans contrary to the YP_324879, which was predicted to be similar to the DHQ synthase. The present study provides a first insight into the genes of cyanobacteria involved in MAA biosynthesis and thus widens the field of research for molecular, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of these evolutionary and industrially important compounds. Based on the results we propose that YP_324358 and YP_324357 gene products are involved in the biosynthesis of the common core (deoxygadusol) of all MAAs.

  16. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.


    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed simulations of the fixed bed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  17. Replacing synthetic with microbial surfactants as collectors in the treatment of aqueous effluent produced by acid mine drainage, using the dissolved air flotation technique. (United States)

    Menezes, Carlyle T B; Barros, Erilson C; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Sarubbo, Leonie A


    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well-established separation process employing micro bubbles as a carrier phase. The application of this technique in the treatment of acid mine drainage, using three yeast biosurfactants as alternative collectors, is hereby analyzed. Batch studies were carried out in a 50-cm high acrylic column with an external diameter of 2.5 cm. High percentages (above 94%) of heavy metals Fe(III) and Mn(II) were removed by the biosurfactants isolated from Candida lipolytica and Candida sphaerica and the values were found to be similar to those obtained with the use of the synthetic sodium oleate surfactant. The DAF operation with both surfactant and biosurfactants, achieved acceptable turbidity values, in accordance with Brazilian standard limits. The best ones were obtained by the biosurfactant from C. lipolytica, which reached 4.8 NTU. The results obtained with a laboratory synthetic effluent were also satisfactory. The biosurfactants removed almost the same percentages of iron, while the removal percentages of manganese were slightly higher compared with those obtained in the acid mine drainage effluent. They showed that the use of low-cost biosurfactants as collectors in the DAF process is a promising technology for the mining industries.

  18. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology


    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  19. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  20. Atmospheric Pb-pollution by pre-medieval mining detected in the sediments of the brackish karst lake An Loch Mor, western Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail:; Romer, R.L. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)


    This paper presents results of geochemical investigations of lake sediments from the karst lake An Loch Mor, Aran Islands, including the first highly resolved record of atmospheric Roman Pb pollution for Ireland. The natural Pb influx into the lake is largely contributed by 3 Pb components, which differ in their isotopic composition: detrital influx of Pb from the siliciclastic input, dissolved influx of Pb released by weathering of the local limestone, and dissolved influx of seawater Pb. The balance between the 3 Pb components varies in concert with the hydrological evolution of the lake. The influx of Pb in dissolved form is estimated by geochemical mass balance assuming that the siliciclastic influx is characterised by the Pb/Al-ratio of the Late Glacial clastic sediments. It typically accounts for 50-80% of total Pb input in the Holocene sediments of An Loch Mor. The natural dissolved influxes of Pb, Sc, and Y reach a similar order of magnitude. Normalisation with Sc and Y is applied to quantify contributions from anthropogenic Pb. Based on continuous sampling of 1 cm sample slices, variations in the influx of Roman Pb could be reconstructed at a time resolution of c. 5 a. Combined geochemical and Pb isotope mass balance is used to characterise the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Pb. Distinctly enhanced influx of anthropogenic Pb occurs in the 1st and 2nd century AD and shows high variability on decadal scale. This is in contrast to central European Pb records, which document a gradual increase and decrease in ancient atmospheric pollution by Roman Pb. The reconstructed high variability in the influx of Roman Pb in An Loch Mor documents variations in the wind regime of western Europe, temporarily favouring the transport of atmospheric Pb to western Ireland.

  1. Selective recovery of dissolved Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in acid mine drainage based on modeling to predict precipitation pH. (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae


    Mining activities have caused serious environmental problems including acid mine drainage (AMD), the dispersion of mine tailings and dust, and extensive mine waste. In particular, AMD contaminates soil and water downstream of mines and generally contains mainly valuable metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni as well as Fe and Al. In this study, we investigated the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni from AMD. First, the speciation of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni as a function of the equilibrium solution pH was simulated by Visual MINTEQ. Based on the simulation results, the predicted pHs for the selective precipitation of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni were determined. And recovery yield of metals using simulation is over 99 %. Experiments using artificial AMD based on the simulation results confirmed the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni, and the recovery yields of Fe/Al/Cu/Zn and Fe/Al/Cu/Ni mixtures using Na2CO3 were 99.6/86.8/71.9/77.0 % and 99.2/85.7/73.3/86.1 %, respectively. After then, the simulation results were applied to an actual AMD for the selective recovery of metals, and the recovery yields of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn using NaOH were 97.2, 74.9, 66.9, and 89.7 %, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that selective recovery of dissolved metals from AMD is possible by adjusting the solution pH using NaOH or Na2CO3 as neutralizing agents.

  2. Signatures of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Metabolic Activity in Enrichment Cultures from a Sulphur Oxidizing Acid Mine Site (United States)

    Slater, G. F.; Bernier, L.; Cowie, B. R.; Warren, L. A.


    Delineating the role of microorganisms in geochemical processes of interest in natural environments requires the development of tools that provide the ability to distinguish amongst microbial activity associated with different metabolic guilds. The gap between phylogenetic characterization and phenotypic understanding remains, underscoring the need to consider alternative methods. Compound specific analysis of cellular components has the potential to differentiate between active metabolic processes supporting microbial communities and may be especially useful in extreme environments. The goal of this study was to determine whether the phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) distribution and isotopic signatures associated with autotrophs and heterotrophs enriched from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system differed, and further whether natural consortial autotrophic isolates showed similar signatures to autotrophic pure strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans. Two distinct initial enrichments with tetrathionate and CO2 yielded primarily autotrophic (95%) Acidithiobaccillus spp. sulphur oxidizing communities. The remaining microbial members of theses enrichments (subculture of the consortial isolates in a medium amended with glucose but without tetrathionate selectively resulted in their visible growth. PLFA profiles and δ13C signatures from autotrophic (1) natural enrichments, pure cultures of (2) A. ferrooxidans and (3) A. thiooxidans were similar, but collectively differed from those of the natural heterotrophic enrichment cultures. The PLFA profiles for the heterotrophic communities were made up of primarily (88-99%) C16:0 and two isomers of C18:1. In contrast, the autotrophic communities had high proportions of C16:1 (up to 18%) as well as cyclo C17 and cyclo C19 PLFA that combined comprised 18 to 58% of the observed PLFA. The δ13C signatures of the PLFA also differed strongly between the two trophic levels. The δ13C of the autotrophic PLFA, - 24 to

  3. Pit lake lime dosing: Assessment of the performance of the treatment based on a high-spatial resolution AUV survey (United States)

    Delgado, Jordi; García-Morrondo, David; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo


    The acidity of mine waters is typically corrected with passive (where possible) and/or active (i.e. chemical additions) systems. In the case of active treatments, lime dosing is a widespread technique due to the relatively ease of implementation and reduced operational costs. While neutralization of acidic waters is routinely performed in circulating water treatment facilities this is not so simple in open waters (e.g. pit lakes) because an efficient treatment requires the adequate distribution of the alkaline reagents throughout the volume of interest. To cope with this problem, a number of technical approaches have been proposed including active stirring (bubbling, etc.), surface spread diffusion, etc. In the early times of flooding of the Meirama mine, managers considered the necessity of lime dosing to correct the initially acidic mine waters. However, lake evolution proved that liming was not necessary and it was desirable to allow a reasonably unmanned evolution of the reclaimed system. In order to ensure that the lime dosing system is in good operative conditions in case of necessity, according to a prescribed time schedule to time mine managers put it in operation. That give us the opportunity to perform a large-scale "tracer" experiment useful to test the efficiency of wet lime dosing in a large water body. Dry lime, which is kept in a storage silo, is directly dosed over the channel of a small stream discharging in the lake. Therefore, stream water becomes saturated with lime and a pH of approximately 12.3. Stream water flows in cascade to the lake so that a certain potential and kinetic energy transfer is delivered to the lake. That promotes currents that enhance the re-distribution of the alkalinity load. In order to check for the distribution of alkaline water in the top body of the lake, an autonomous underwater vehicle (Yellow Spring Instruments Inc. EcoMapper AUV) was used. This device allows for the high- frequency simultaneous measurement of a

  4. Power Plant Discharge Structure, Delta Stabilization Dike, and On-Land Taconite Tailings Disposal, Reserve Mining Company, Silver Bay, Lake County, Minnesota. (United States)


    present time it is not known what would be the ultimate configuration of the delta. Dr. Duncan Hay of Western Canada Hydraulic Laboratories Ltd ., a...Authority of Duluth U.S. Steel Corporation Reserve Mining Company Kemberlands, Ltd . Northern Land Company Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railroad Company...Alan R. Woolworth , Chief Archaeologist, Minnesota Historical Society. Respectfj4y issellfW. Fridley State Historic Preserv on Officer RlF/cr cc: Alan

  5. Stability of uncoated and fulvic acids coated manufactured CeO2 nanoparticles in various conditions: From ultrapure to natural Lake Geneva waters. (United States)

    Oriekhova, Olena; Stoll, Serge


    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in natural water and impact of water composition in changing conditions is of high importance to predict their fate once released into the environment. In this study we investigated the stability of uncoated and Suwannee River fulvic acids coated CeO2 manufactured nanoparticles in various environmental conditions. The effect of pH changes on the nanoparticle and coating stability was first studied in ultrapure water as well as the variation of zeta potentials and sizes with time in presence of fulvic acids at environmental pH. Then the stability of CeO2 in synthetic and natural Lake Geneva waters was investigated as a function of fulvic acids concentration. Our results indicate that the adsorption of environmentally relevant concentrations of Suwannee River fulvic acids promotes CeO2 stabilization in ultrapure water as well as synthetic water and that the coating stability is high upon pH variations. On the other hand in natural Lake Geneva water CeO2 NPs are found in all cases aggregated due to the effect of heterogeneous organic and inorganic compounds.

  6. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure. (United States)

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut


    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  7. The post-mining context at Decazeville-Firmi concession (Aveyron, France): analysis of impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the central shaft. Survey of various scenarios related to the water level of the pit lake in the Grande Decouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojean, R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Institut des Geosciences, Centre de Geologie de l' Ingenieur, UMLV, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Franco, N. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Lazarewicz, J.C. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 13 - Meyreuil (France); Blachere, A.; Lefort, D. [Bureau d' Etudes CESAME, 42 - Fraisses (France); Sorgi, C. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)


    Within the frame of the Survey related to the cessation of mine workings in Decazeville-Firmi concession, various impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the Central Shaft were assessed. Mainly these impacts are related to groundwater behaviour in the abandoned underground coal mines, hydro-chemistry of waters discharged to the environment, ground stability concerns and coal gas emanations. This analysis allowed the choice of the most appropriate elevation of the pit lake level in the Grande Decouverte, with the necessity to continue the pumping. Two main objectives were reached. The elected elevation is high enough to result in a permanent chemical stratification, which allows the pumping of the superficial waters and its discharge to natural watercourses without any treatment. The elected elevation is low enough to avoid any problem of inflow of water or ground stability at some particular places which might have been threatened by the rising of the piezometric level of the mining aquifer. Lastly, the elected elevation of the pit lake allows a quality scenery design around the pit lake. (authors)

  8. Separation of Mn(II) in presence of Al(III) in acid drainage from an Uranium mine with the use of chelating resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Eliane Pavesi B., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Viviane T.; Vaitsman, Delmo S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)


    The acid drainage of Osamu Utsumi mine is the main environmental impact from mining activities in Pocos de Caldas - MG - Brazil. The water produced in this process is characterized by high acidity and heavy metal concentration. To minimize this environmental impact, new technologies directed towards treatment of acid drainage of mine (ADM) have been studied. However, due to the presence of Al{sup 3+} (which has a high charge) in the ADM, these resins get quickly saturated, preventing stripping of divalent cations like Mn{sup 2+}. This study proposes the synthesis of chelating resins that provide preferential retention of Mn{sup 2+} instead of Al{sup 3+}. It was synthesized resins functionalized with amidoxime and dithiocarbamate. The capacity of retention of Mn{sup 2+} e Al{sup 3+} ions at different pH values was assessed for each resin. The stripping of Mn{sup 2+} at 2, 3 and 4 (pH ADM range) by studied resins was not preferential for Mn{sup 2+} in relation to Al{sup 3+}, probably due to the strong electrostatic interaction between this last type of high charge density and the active sites from extractor agents and resins. However at pH 6 (stated by environmental norms for liquid effluents discharge) the synthesized resins had a good retention capacity for Mn{sup 2+}. So it is proposed that the extraction technique using chelating resins could be employed to strip Mn{sup 2+} from ADM at pH 6,0, since at this condition , Al{sup 3+} is precipitated as Al(OH){sub 3}. (author)

  9. Thermodynamics and crystal chemistry of rhomboclase, (H5O2)Fe(SO4)2·2H2O, and the phase (H3O)Fe(SO4)2 and implications for acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Grevel, Klaus Dieter; Kiefer, Boris


    The system Fe2O3-SO3-H2O contains the most important minerals of acid mine drainage (AMD), iron oxides, and iron sulfates. For geochemical modeling of the AMD systems, reliable thermodynamic data for these phases are needed. In this work, we have determined thermodynamic data for the most acidic ...

  10. Reclamation of acidic mine residues by creation of technosoils with the addition of biochar and marble waste (United States)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Acosta, José; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raul


    This study reports the short-term effect of biochar and marble waste addition for the reclamation of acidic mine residues. A lab incubation was carried out for 90 days. Biochars derived from pig manure (PM), crop residues (CR) and municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the soil at a rate of 20 g kg-1. The marble waste (MW) was added at a rate of 200 g kg-1. Bochars and MW were applied independently and combined. A control soil was used without application of amendments. The evolution of different physical, chemical and biochemical properties and availability of heavy metals was periodically monitored. Results showed that original pH (2.8) was increased with all amendments, those samples containing MW being the ones with the highest pH (~8.0). The electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 6.6 to 3.0-4.5 mS cm-1 in all the treatments receiving MW. Soil organic C (SOC) increased in all samples receiving biochar up to 18-20 g kg-1, with no shifts during the 90 d incubation, indicating the high stability of the C supplied. Recalcitrant organic C accounted for ~90-98% of the SOC. No significant effect of amendment addition was observed for carbohydrates, soluble C, microbial biomass C and β-glucosidase activity. However, arylesterase activity increased with amendments, highly related to pH. The availability of heavy metals decreased up to 90-95% owing to the addition of amendments, mainly in samples containing MW. The MW provided conditions to increase pH and decrease EC and metals mobility. Biochar was an effective strategy to increase SOC, recalcitrant C and AS, essential to create soil structure. However, a labile source of organic matter should be added together with the proposed amendments to promote the activation of microbial communities. Acknowledgement : This work has been funded by Fundación Séneca (Agency of Science and Technology of the Region of Murcia, Spain) by the project 18920/JLI/13

  11. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  12. Growth of quailbush in acidic, metalliferous desert mine tailings: effect of Azospirillum brasilense Sp6 on biomass production and rhizosphere community structure. (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Nelson, Karis N; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina M


    Mine tailing deposits in semiarid and arid environments frequently remain devoid of vegetation due to the toxicity of the substrate and the absence of a diverse soil microbial community capable of supporting seed germination and plant growth. The contribution of the plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense Sp6 to the growth of quailbush in compost-amended, moderately acidic, high-metal content mine tailings using an irrigation-based reclamation strategy was examined along with its influence on the rhizosphere bacterial community. Sp6 inoculation resulted in a significant (2.2-fold) increase in plant biomass production. The data suggest that the inoculum successfully colonized the root surface and persisted throughout the 60-day experiment in both the rhizosphere, as demonstrated by excision and sequencing of the appropriate denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band, and the rhizoplane, as indicated by fluorescent in situ hybridization of root surfaces. Changes in rhizosphere community structure in response to Sp6 inoculation were evaluated after 15, 30, and 60 days using DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction amplicons. A comparison of DGGE profiles using canonical correspondence analysis revealed a significant treatment effect (Sp6-inoculated vs. uninoculated plants vs. unplanted) on bacterial community structure at 15, 30, and 60 days (p < 0.05). These data indicate that in an extremely stressed environment such as acid mine tailings, an inoculated plant growth promoting bacterium not only can persist and stimulate plant growth but also can directly or indirectly influence rhizobacterial community development.

  13. Heavy metals removal from acid mine drainage water using biogenic hydrogen sulphide and effluent from anaerobic treatment: Effect of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A.M. [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Carretera de Utrera, km 1. 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Duran-Barrantes, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez, s/n, 41071 Sevilla (Spain); Borja, R., E-mail: [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, C/Serrano, 115-duplicado, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Raposo, F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)


    Four alternatives (runs A, B, C and D) for heavy metals removal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Al) from acid mine drainage water (AMDW) produced in the mining areas of the Huelva Province, Spain, were evaluated. In run A, the anaerobic effluent from the treatment of acid mine drainage water (cheese whey added as a source of carbon) was mixed with the raw AMDW. The pH increased to 3.5 with the addition of KOH. In run B, biogas with around 30% of hydrogen sulphide obtained in the anaerobic reactor was sparged to the mixture obtained in run A, but in this case at a pH of 5.5. In run C, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 3.5 by the addition of KOH solution. Finally, in run D, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 5.5 by the addition of KOH solution and further biogas was sparged under the same conditions as in run A. It was found that heavy metal removal was a function of pH. At a pH of 3.5 most of the iron was removed while Zn and Cu were partially removed. At a pH of 5.5 the removal of all metals increased considerably. The best results were obtained in run B where the percentages of removal of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al achieved values of 91.3, 96.1, 79.0 and 99.0%, respectively. According to the experimental results obtained tentative schemas of the flow diagram of the processes were proposed.

  14. Spatio-temporal detection of the Thiomonas population and the Thiomonas arsenite oxidase involved in natural arsenite attenuation processes in the Carnoulès Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eHovasse


    Full Text Available The acid mine drainage (AMD impacted creek of the Carnoulès mine (Southern France is characterized by acid waters with a high heavy metal content. The microbial community inhabiting this AMD was extensively studied using isolation, metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, and the results showed that a natural arsenic (and iron attenuation process involving the arsenite oxidase activity of several Thiomonas strains occurs at this site. A sensitive quantitative Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM-based proteomic approach was developed for detecting and quantifying the two subunits of the arsenite oxidase and RpoA of two different Thiomonas groups. Using this approach combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis based on pyrosequencing and FISH, it was established here for the first time that these Thiomonas strains are ubiquitously present in minor proportions in this AMD and that they express the key enzymes involved in natural remediation processes at various locations and time points. In addition to these findings, this study also confirms that targeted proteomics applied at the community level can be used to detect weakly abundant proteins in situ.

  15. New insights into the biogeochemistry of extremely acidic environments revealed by a combined cultivation-based and culture-independent study of two stratified pit lakes. (United States)

    Falagán, Carmen; Sánchez-España, Javier; Johnson, David Barrie


    The indigenous microbial communities of two extremely acidic, metal-rich stratified pit lakes, located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Spain), were identified, and their roles in mediating transformations of carbon, iron, and sulfur were confirmed. A combined cultivation-based and culture-independent approach was used to elucidate microbial communities at different depths and to examine the physiologies of isolates, which included representatives of at least one novel genus and several species of acidophilic Bacteria. Phosphate availability correlated with redox transformations of iron, and this (rather than solar radiation) dictated where primary production was concentrated. Carbon fixed and released as organic compounds by acidophilic phototrophs acted as electron donors for acidophilic heterotrophic prokaryotes, many of which catalyzed the dissimilatory reduction in ferric iron; the ferrous iron generated was re-oxidized by chemolithotrophic acidophiles. Bacteria that catalyze redox transformations of sulfur were also identified, although these Bacteria appeared to be less abundant than the iron oxidizers/reducers. Primary production and microbial numbers were greatest, and biogeochemical transformation of carbon, iron, and sulfur, most intense, within a zone of c. 8-10 m depth, close to the chemocline, in both pit lakes. Archaea detected in sediments included two Thaumarchaeota clones, indicating that members of this recently described phylum can inhabit extremely acidic environments.

  16. Studies on the microbial sulphur cycle in acid ponds in the Niederlausitz mining region in Brandenburg; Untersuchungen zum mikrobiellen Schwefelkreislauf in sauren Tagebau-Restseen der Niederlausitz (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.


    The water quality of the acid ponds in the Niederlausitz brown coal mining region is characterised by pH values below 3 and high concentrations of dissolved iron (up to 10 mM) and sulphate (up to 30 mM). The development of these ponds is determined by the equilibrium that arises between acidifying and alkalinising processes. Acidity develops through weathering and oxidation of iron sulphides in the mining refuse, whereas alkalinity arises through the reduction of iron (III) and sulphate in the pond sediments, a process associated with the oxidation of organic matter. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation on the neutralising potential of the sediments in acid ponds and to characterise and identify the microorganisms involved in these processes. Comparative explorations were performed in two acid waters, namely ponds 111 and 107, and in a neutral water, namely pond B, in a semi-natural area of the Niederlausitz region. [German] Die Wasserqualitaet der sauren Bergbau-Restseen im Braunkohlerevier der Niederlausitz ist durch pH-Werte unter pH 3 und hohe Konzentrationen an geloestem Eisen (bis zu 10 mM) und Sulfat (bis zu 30 mM) gekennzeichnet. Die Entwicklung der Restseen wird durch das Gleichgewicht von aziditaets- und alkalinitaetsbildenden Prozessen bestimmt. Aziditaet entsteht bei der Verwitterung bzw. der Oxidation der Eisensulfide im Kippmassiv, waehrend Alkalinitaet bei der an die Oxidation organischer Substanz gekoppelte Reduktion von Eisen(III) und Sulfat in den Sedimenten der Seen gebildet wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Sulfratreduktion und der Schwefeloxidation auf das Neutralisierungspotenzial der Sedimente der sauren Restseen untersucht sowie die an diesen Prozessen beteiligten Mikroorganismen charakterisiert und identifiziert. Vergleichende Untersuchungen wurden in zwei sauren, Restsee 111 und 107, und in einem neutralen Gewaesser, Restsee B, im naturnahen Bereich

  17. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO{sub 2} in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity 1000 mg/l CaCO{sub 3}). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to {lt}4 during the 48 h of contact. Limestone grains developed a rind of gypsum encapsulated by a 10- to 30-mum thick, Fe-Al hydroxysulfate coating. Armoring slowed the reaction and prevented the limestone from generating any additional alkalinity in the system. With the pulsed flow limestone bed process, armor formation is largely suppressed and most limestone grains completely dissolve resulting in an effluent pH of {gt}6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface.

  18. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina


    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  19. Colonization by waterbirds of artificial lakes after surface mining:a case study%露天采矿形成的人工湖中的水鸟建群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1999-2003年,在捷克共和国特布盆地生物圈保护区(Tebo Basin Biosphere Reserve)内,我们对13个采矿后形成的人工湖中水鸟群落的形成过程进行了研究.我们假定生活在邻近鱼塘中的水鸟会逐渐向这些人工湖迁移和聚集.在这些人工湖中共记录到42种水鸟,隶属于10个目,其中17种典型的海滨鸟类是该群落的重要组成部分.这些水鸟的季节动态过程与各物种自身的生活史阶段有关(如筑巢、迁徙),同时也被人类的采矿活动所影响.环境因素和人类干扰影响了绿头鸭(Anas platyrhynchos)、疣鼻天鹅(Cygnus olor)和凤头鸊鷉(Podiceps cristatus) 等优势种的分布.沙坑湖作为一种独特的生境为本保护区的濒危物种提供了栖息地,如:小苇(开鸟)(Ixobrychus minutus)、大苇莺(Acrocephalus arundinaceus)及其它潜在分布的鸟类.对南波西米亚地区沙坑湖鸟类的研究,可为其它相似地区水鸟群落演替研究提供了重要经验%Occurrence of waterbird species was studied on 13 sand-pit lakes in the Trebon Basin Bjiosphere Reserve(South Bohemia, Czech Republic) in 1999-2003 with the hypothesis, that these artificial lakes will be colonized gradually by some species of waterbirds, living in fishponds in the same area. Seventeen species of "hard littoral flora" were found as an important component of the waterbird environment. Fourty two species of water birds were recorded in the sand-pit lakes. These species belong to 10 orders of birds. The seasonal course of waterbird occurrence reflects the causes of the individual species occurrence (nesting, migration). The waterbird occurrence was affected by mining activity. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors affected the occurrence of the most numerous species: mallard Anas platyrhynchos, mute swan Cygnus olor, great crest grebe Podiceps cristatus. Sand-pit lakes represent biotopes that can serve Biosphere Reserve: little bittern Ixobrychus minutus and

  20. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.


    the remaining elements, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn have roughly equivalent accuracy, precision, and detection limit by ICP and DCP. Cobalt and Ni were determined to be better analyzed by ICP, because of lower detection limits; B, Cu, Mo, and Si were determined to be better analyzed by DCP, because of relative freedom from interferences. The determination oral by DCP was far more sensitive, owing to the use of a more sensitive wavelength, compared with the ICP. However, there is a very serious potential interference from a strong Ca emission line near the 396.15 nanometer DCP wavelength. Thus, there is no clear choice between the plasma techniques tested, for the determination oral. The ICP and DCP detection limits are typically between 0.001 and 0.5 milligrams per liter in acid mine waters. For those metals best analyzed by ICP and/or DCP, but below these limits, GFAAS is the method of choice because of its relatively greater sensitivity and specificity. Six of the elements were not determined by DCP, ICP or Zeeman-corrected GFAAS, and are not discussed in this report. These elements are: Bi, Fe(11), Li, Sb, Se, and TI.

  1. Measurements and predictions of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste rock dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.; Wilson, G.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering


    Long-term closure issues with respect to the mining industry and acid rock drainage (ARD) management require accurate measurements, predictions and monitoring of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste-rock dumps. This study uses a technique, called the dynamic closed chamber system (DCC) that measures the oxygen flux into mine waste dumps. The technique was used with an oxygen gas analyzer to directly measure the change in the oxygen concentration in the headspace of the chamber installed at the surface of the waste dumps. A SoilCover model was also used to predict evaporation fluxes on a waste-rock pile after heavy rainfall events. Measurement of actual evaporation across the surfaces of waste dumps is important in the design of soil covers. The paper discussed the site locations including the Key Lake uranium mine located at the southern rim of the Athabasca Basin in north central Saskatchewan as well as the Syncrude Canada Ltd. mine, located 30 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Materials and methods used in the study as well as results and subsequent discussion were also presented. The effect of relative humidity and the effect of soil cover system on oxygen diffusion was reviewed. It was concluded that the SoilCover numerical model can be a useful tool for prediction of actual evaporation on mine waste dumps. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Proceedings of the 2010 International Mine Water Association symposium : mine water and innovative thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkersdorfer, C. [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada); Freund, A. [CBU Press, Sydney, NS (Canada)] (eds.)


    Acid mine drainage is causing pollution in many waterways and ground water tables throughout the world. Hosted by the International Mine Water Association, this symposium examined issues related to acid mine drainage and explored various water treatment and water removal technologies and mine water chemistry analysis methods. Issues concerning the remediation and monitoring of abandoned mines were explored and recent innovations in geochemistry and geological engineering were presented. Water management issues in various types of geologic formations were included. The conference themes were: mine water issues and innovative mining methods; mine water engineering; mine water treatment, active systems; mine water treatment, passive systems; mine water geothermal, geochemistry and biochemistry uses; analysis of mine water and its chemistry; underground and surface coal mining; mine closures; legal and social aspects of mine water; mine tailings; the Cape Breton Development Corporation legacy; and the concept of a zero waste mine. The symposium featured 155 presentations, of which 32 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  3. Acid mine-water and agriculture pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar River, South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, F.; Toca, C.G.; Diaz, E.; De Arambarri, P.


    The Agrio river receives the drainage waters from Aznalcollar opencast-worked polymetallic sulfide deposits and the old mine spoil heaps. Some 7 km downstream, the Agrio river joins the Guadiamar river, which is the last tributary on the right of the Guadalquivir river. Drainage waters from the mine and old spoil heaps are the source of high concentrations of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers. When river flows increase because of heavy rains or reservoir discharges, sediments are resuspended and transported downstream. The presence of other effluents rich in organic matter with active chelating agents facilitates the dissolution and transport of the metals. Consequently, 30 km downstream from the mine heavy metal concentrations in Guadiamar river are still higher than those in other unpolluted rivers of this zone. Pollution by olive mill effluents (alpechines) is important during the grinding season, causing increases in the K, P and organic matter, and decreases in dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen and P fertilization of rice fields at present does not produce abnormal increases in the concentration of these elements in the water. Concentrations of herbicides in rice field canals and Donana National Park waters reach values considered as the limit of safety for aquatic life. 37 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  5. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  6. Characterization of the microbial community composition and the distribution of Fe-metabolizing bacteria in a creek contaminated by acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Qingxiang


    A small watershed heavily contaminated by long-term acid mine drainage (AMD) from an upstream abandoned coal mine was selected to study the microbial community developed in such extreme system. The watershed consists of AMD-contaminated creek, adjacent contaminated soils, and a small cascade aeration unit constructed downstream, which provide an excellent contaminated site to study the microbial response in diverse extreme AMD-polluted environments. The results showed that the innate microbial communities were dominated by acidophilic bacteria, especially acidophilic Fe-metabolizing bacteria, suggesting that Fe and pH are the primary environmental factors in governing the indigenous microbial communities. The distribution of Fe-metabolizing bacteria showed distinct site-specific patterns. A pronounced shift from diverse communities in the upstream to Proteobacteria-dominated communities in the downstream was observed in the ecosystem. This location-specific trend was more apparent at genus level. In the upstream samples (sampling sites just below the coal mining adit), a number of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria such as Alicyclobacillus spp., Metallibacterium spp., and Acidithrix spp. were dominant, while Halomonas spp. were the major Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria observed in downstream samples. Additionally, Acidiphilium, an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, was enriched in the upstream samples, while Shewanella spp. were the dominant Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in downstream samples. Further investigation using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering confirmed the difference of microbial communities between upstream and downstream samples. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and Spearman's rank correlation indicate that total organic carbon (TOC) content is the primary environmental parameter in structuring the indigenous microbial communities

  7. Determination of in situ speciation of manganese in treated acid mine drainage water by using multiple diffusive gradients in thin films devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes F de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Pedrobom, Jorge H. [Centro de Estudos Ambientais - CEA, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24-A, 1515, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Menegário, Amauri A., E-mail: [Centro de Estudos Ambientais - CEA, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24-A, 1515, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Roberto N. [Centro de Estudos Ambientais - CEA, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24-A, 1515, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Py, Delcy A. [INB - Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil, Estrada Poços – Andradas Km 20,6, CEP 37780-000 Caldas, MG (Brazil); Kiang, Chang Hung [Laboratório de Estudos de Bacias - LEBAC, Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas - IGCE, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Avenida 24-A, 1515, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •In situ speciation of Mn by using multiple DGT devices was evaluated. •Chelex resin, DE81 and P81 membranes were used as binding phases in the DGT devices. •The proposed approach was applied to analyze treated acid mine drainage. •Good results were found for speciation of Mn in site containing <40 mg Ca L{sup −1}. DGT speciation were in agreement with speciation by software and by on site SPE. -- Abstract: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem that creates acidic solution with high Mn concentrations. The speciation of residual Mn from AMD after an active treatment involving the addition of a neutralizing agent can reliably evaluate the treatment efficiency and provide knowledge of the Mn species being inputted into the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ lability and speciation of Mn using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique with treated drainage water from a uranium mine (TAMD). DGT devices with different binding phases (Chelex-100 and P81 and DE81membranes) were used to perform the in situ speciation of Mn. A comparison of the results from deploying DGT in the laboratory and in situ shows that the speciation of Mn in TAMD should be performed in situ. Linear deployment curves (from in situ experiments) indicate that the DGT device containing the Chelex-100 binding phase can be used to evaluate Mn lability in TAMD. The labile Mn fraction (from in situ measurements) obtained using the device containing the Chelex-100 resin ranged from 63 to 81% of the total Mn concentration and, when compared to the speciation obtained using the CHEAQS software, indicated that this device was capable of uptaking the free Mn{sup 2+} and a portion of the MnSO{sub 4(aq)}. The values obtained using the DGT technique were compared to those from on site solid phase extraction, and a good agreement was found between the results. The amount of negative Mn species sampled by DE81

  8. Text Mining. (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.


    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  9. Effects of salinity and ultraviolet radiation on the bioaccumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in Artemia from Lake Urmia (Iran). (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Khodabandeh, Saber; Agh, Naser; Bakhtiarian, Mahdieh


    We investigated the effects of salinity and artificial UV radiation on the accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sexual and parthenogenetic Artemia from Lake Urmia. The nauplii hatched from the cysts were cultured until adulthood under two salinities (150 and 250 g L(-1) ) and two light treatments (PAR and PAR+UVR) in the laboratory. Finally, the Artemia were analyzed for their concentration of MAAs. In most of the cases, the higher salinity level applied was found to increase the MAA concentrations in both Artemia populations significantly. The acquisition efficiency of MAAs in both Artemia populations increased under exposure to UVR-supplemented photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) compared to those raised under PAR, except for Porphyra-334. It was observed that combination of UV radiation and elevated salinity significantly increased the bioaccumulation of MAAs. Thus, the presence of these compounds in these populations of Artemia may increase their adaptability for living in high-UV and high-salinity conditions prevailing in Lake Urmia. Higher concentrations of MAAs in the parthenogenetic population of Artemia could be probably attributed to its mono sex nature and higher adaptation capacities to extreme environmental conditions.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of acid mine drainage in Minas Gerais State, Brazil Avaliação preliminar de drenagem ácida no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Wilson Vargas de Mello


    Full Text Available Mining in the State of Minas Gerais-Brazil is one of the activities with the strongest impact on the environment, in spite of its economical importance. Amongst mining activities, acid drainage poses a serious environmental problem due to its widespread practice in gold-extracting areas. It originates from metal-sulfide oxidation, which causes water acidification, increasing the risk of toxic element mobilization and water resource pollution. This research aimed to evaluate the acid drainage problem in Minas Gerais State. The study began with a bibliographic survey at FEAM (Environment Foundation of Minas Gerais State to identify mining sites where sulfides occur. Substrate samples were collected from these sites to determine AP (acidity potential and NP (neutralization potential. The AP was evaluated by the procedure of the total sulfide content and by oxygen peroxide oxidation, followed by acidity titration. The NP was evaluated by the calcium carbonate equivalent. Petrographic thin sections were also mounted and described with a special view to sulfides and carbonates. Based on the chemical analysis, the acid-base accounting (ABA was determined by the difference of AP and NP, and the acid drainage potential obtained by the ABA value and the total volume of material at each site. Results allowed the identification of substrates with potential to generate acid drainage in Minas Gerais state. Altogether these activities represent a potential to produce between 3.1 to 10.4 billions of m³ of water at pH 2 or 31.4 to 103.7 billions of m³ of water at pH 3. This, in turn, would imply in costs of US$ 7.8 to 25.9 millions to neutralize the acidity with commercial limestone. These figures are probably underestimated because some mines were not surveyed, whereas, in other cases, surface samples may not represent reality. A more reliable state-wide evaluation of the acid drainage potential would require further studies, including a larger number of

  11. Assessment of metal loads in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage by using tracer injection and synoptic sampling: Cement Creek, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Walton-Day, K.; Bencala, K.E.


    Watersheds in mineralized zones may contain many mines, each of which can contribute to acidity and the metal load of a stream. In this study the authors delineate hydrogeologic characteristics determining the transport of metals from the watershed to the stream in the watershed of Cement Creek, Colorado. Combining the injection of a chemical tracer, to determine a discharge, with synoptic sampling, to obtain chemistry of major ions and metals, spatially detailed load profiles are quantified. Using the discharge and load profiles, the authors (1) identified sampled inflow sources which emanate from undisturbed as well as previously mined areas; (2) demonstrate, based on simple hydrologic balance, that unsampled, likely dispersed subsurface, inflows are significant; and (3) estimate attenuation. For example, along the 12-km study reach, 108 kg per day of Zn were added to Cement Creek. Almost half of this load came from 10 well-defined areas that included both mined and non-mined parts of the watershed. However, the combined effect of many smaller inflows also contributed a substantial load that could limit the effectiveness of remediation. Of the total Zn load, 58.3 kg/day came from stream segments with no visible inflow, indicating the importance of contributions from dispersed subsurface inflow. The subsurface inflow mostly occurred in areas with substantial fracturing of the bedrock or in areas downstream from tributaries with large alluvial fans. Despite a pH generally less than 4.5, there was 58.4 kg/day of Zn attenuation that occurred in mixing zones downstream from inflows with high pH. Mixing zones can have local areas of pH that are high enough for sorption and precipitation reactions to have an effect. Principal component analysis classified inflows into 7 groups with distinct chemical signatures that represent water-rock interaction with different mineral-alteration suites in the watershed. The present approach provides a detailed snapshot of metal load

  12. Assessment of acid rock drainage pollutants release in the uranium mining site of Poços de Caldas--Brazil. (United States)

    Fernandes, H M; Franklin, M R


    We compared three different techniques to assess acid drainage occurrence connected to pyritic waste rock piles at a uranium mining and milling site in Poços de Caldas--Brazil: (1) mass balance calculations, (2) column leaching experiments and (3) geochemical modelling. The study site was chosen because all the drainage coming from the pile is collected in one holding pond and a huge database (monitoring program) was available. The three independent methods predicted similar values for the intrinsic oxidation rate (IOR) (about 10(-9) kg m-3 s-1). We estimate the total time for consumption of all oxidizable material in the dump to be greater than 500 years. Geochemical model results showed a good agreement between predicted sulphate concentrations in relation to those found in the waste pile drainage, although the Al values were overestimated and pH values were underestimated.

  13. Characterisation of the arsenic resistance genes in Bacillus sp. UWC isolated from maturing fly ash acid mine drainage neutralised solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Cowan


    Full Text Available An arsenic resistant Bacillus sp. UWC was isolated from fly ash acid mine drainage (FA-AMD neutralised solids. A genomic library was prepared and screened in an arsenic sensitive mutant Escherichia coli strain for the presence of arsenic resistance (ars genes. Sequence analysis of a clone conferring resistance to both sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate revealed homologues to the arsR (regulatory repressor, arsB (membrane located arsenite pump, arsC (arsenate reductase, arsD (second regulatory repressor and a metallochaperone and arsA (ATPase genes from known arsenic resistance operons. The Bacillus sp. UWC arsRBCDA genes were shown to be arranged in an unusual manner with the arsDA genes immediately downstream of arsC.

  14. Genome sequence of the copper resistant and acid-tolerant Desulfosporosinus sp. BG isolated from the tailings of a molybdenum-tungsten mine in the Transbaikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Karnachuk


    Full Text Available Here, we report on the draft genome of a copper-resistant and acidophilic Desulfosporosinus sp. BG, isolated from the tailings of a molybdenum-tungsten mine in Transbaikal area. The draft genome has a size of 4.52 Mb and encodes transporters of heavy metals. The phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated ribosomal proteins revealed that strain BG clusters together with the other acidophilic copper-resistant strains Desulfosporosinus sp. OT and Desulfosporosinus sp. I2. The K+-ATPase, Na+/H+ antiporter and amino acid decarboxylases may participate in enabling growth at low pH. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number NZ_MASS00000000.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU


    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  16. Research on the treatment of acid mine wastewater by using SRB method%SRB法处理酸性矿山废水的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜平; 刘书贤; 谭广柱; 刘魁星


    Sulfate acid mine wastewater is one of the biggest pollution sources to ecological environment influence in mining area of our country. Through laboratory static experiment the best growth condition parameters of SRB are determined; the temperature is 351, pH is 7. 0, COD/SO42- is 1. 3, Fe2+ is 150mg/L. Finally, by using the self-design, development/flow (fluidized bed) within the drop flow (biofilm term) type anaerobic biological reactor the paper carried out the feasibility study to synchronize desulfurazation and nitrogen, phosphorus removal, remove heavy metal ions acid wastewater of comprehensive treatment. The experiment showed that this research ideas and process design is feasible, wastewater comprehensive treatment can achieve a more satisfactory effect.%硫酸盐酸性矿山废水是我国矿区水污染中对生态环境破坏影响最大的污染源之一,通过实验室静态实验确定高效SRB最佳生长条件参数为温度35℃,pH 7.0,COD/SO42-比值为1.3,Fe2+=150 mg/L.最后,利用自行设计、研制的内升流(流化床)外降流(生物膜滤池)式厌氧生物反应器进行同步除硫、脱氮、除磷、去除重金属离子酸性废水综合治理的可行性研究,实验表明这一研究思路和工艺设计是可行性的,废水综合处理可达到较为满意的效果.

  17. Determination of in situ speciation of manganese in treated acid mine drainage water by using multiple diffusive gradients in thin films devices. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo Lopes F; Pedrobom, Jorge H; Menegário, Amauri A; Domingos, Roberto N; Py Júnior, Delcy A; Kiang, Chang Hung


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem that creates acidic solution with high Mn concentrations. The speciation of residual Mn from AMD after an active treatment involving the addition of a neutralizing agent can reliably evaluate the treatment efficiency and provide knowledge of the Mn species being inputted into the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ lability and speciation of Mn using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique with treated drainage water from a uranium mine (TAMD). DGT devices with different binding phases (Chelex-100 and P81 and DE81 membranes) were used to perform the in situ speciation of Mn. A comparison of the results from deploying DGT in the laboratory and in situ shows that the speciation of Mn in TAMD should be performed in situ. Linear deployment curves (from in situ experiments) indicate that the DGT device containing the Chelex-100 binding phase can be used to evaluate Mn lability in TAMD. The labile Mn fraction (from in situ measurements) obtained using the device containing the Chelex-100 resin ranged from 63 to 81% of the total Mn concentration and, when compared to the speciation obtained using the CHEAQS software, indicated that this device was capable of uptaking the free Mn(2+) and a portion of the MnSO4(aq). The values obtained using the DGT technique were compared to those from on site solid phase extraction, and a good agreement was found between the results. The amount of negative Mn species sampled by DE81 device was insignificant (speciation obtained using the CHEAQS software indicated that the concentrations of positive Mn species were underestimated for sites with relatively high Ca concentrations (>150 mg L(-1)), which take place due to the saturation of binding sites in the P81 membrane.

  18. Surface properties and intracellular speciation revealed an original adaptive mechanism to arsenic in the acid mine drainage bio-indicator Euglena mutabilis. (United States)

    Halter, David; Casiot, Corinne; Heipieper, Hermann J; Plewniak, Frédéric; Marchal, Marie; Simon, Stéphane; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Bertin, Philippe N


    Euglena mutabilis is a protist ubiquitously found in extreme environments such as acid mine drainages which are often rich in arsenic. The response of E. mutabilis to this metalloid was compared to that of Euglena gracilis, a protist not found in such environments. Membrane fatty acid composition, cell surface properties, arsenic accumulation kinetics, and intracellular arsenic speciation were determined. The results revealed a modification in fatty acid composition leading to an increased membrane fluidity in both Euglena species under sublethal arsenic concentrations exposure. This increased membrane fluidity correlated to an induced gliding motility observed in E. mutabilis in the presence of this metalloid but did not affect the flagellar dependent motility of E. gracilis. Moreover, when compared to E. gracilis, E. mutabilis showed highly hydrophobic cell surface properties and a higher tolerance to water-soluble arsenical compounds but not to hydrophobic ones. Finally, E. mutabilis showed a lower accumulation of total arsenic in the intracellular compartment and an absence of arsenic methylated species in contrast to E. gracilis. Taken together, our results revealed the existence of a specific arsenical response of E. mutabilis that may play a role in its hypertolerance to this toxic metalloid.

  19. Sediment Microbial Community Composition and Mercury Methylation at Four California Mercury Mines (United States)

    Batten, K. M.


    Mercury contamination is a globally significant problem. An important transformation in the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin and bioaccumulant. This transformation is primarily bacterially-mediated, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been specifically implicated as key mercury methylators in lake and estuarine sediments. This study used Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA) analysis to investigate sediment microbial community structure at four abandoned mercury mine sites in the California Coast Range: the Abbott, Reed, Sulphur Bank, and Mt. Diablo mines. Differences in watershed and hydrology among these sites appear to strongly impact microbial community composition. The Abbott and Sulphur Bank mines were determined to have the highest levels of methylmercury. Floc and sediment samples revealed different environments for microbial growth but did not have statistically different methylmercury concentrations. Two PLFA biomarkers for SRB were examined: 10Me16:0 (Desulfobacter) and i17:1 (Desulfovibrio). Results indicate that Desulfobacter and Desulfovibrio organisms are important contributors to methylmercury production in the Abbott, Reed, and Sulphur Bank mines but are not important in the Mt. Diablo Mine where methylmercury production may be abiotic in origin.

  20. Biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient processing in a novel multi-stage raw municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage passive co-treatment system. (United States)

    Strosnider, W H; Winfrey, B K; Nairn, R W


    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. The synthetic AMD had pH 2.60 and 1860 mg/L acidity as CaCO(3) equivalent with 46, 0.25, 2, 290, 55, 1.2 and 390 mg/L of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, respectively. The AMD was introduced to the system at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, Oklahoma USA containing 265 ± 94 mg/L BOD(5), 11.5 ± 5.3 mg/L PO(4)(-3), and 20.8 ± 1.8 mg/L NH(4)(+)-N. During the 135 d experiment, PO(4)(-3) and NH(4)(+)-N were decreased to ecological engineering approach for the developed and developing world that can be optimized and applied to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  1. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO{sub 2} emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Rafael, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA - CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain); Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain)


    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO{sub 2} by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L{sup -1}, iron 348 mg L{sup -1}) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s{sup -1} for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO{sub 2} and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  2. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001 (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.


    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  3. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena


    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  4. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of mesquite grown in acidic lead/zinc mine tailings. (United States)

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M


    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p<0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  5. Vertical distributions of bound saturated fatty acids and compound-specific stable carbon isotope compositions in sediments of two lakes in China: implication for the influence of eutrophication. (United States)

    Wang, Lifang; Xiong, Yongqiang; Wu, Fengchang; Li, Qiuhua; Lin, Tian; Giesy, John P


    Lakes Dianchi (DC) and Bosten (BST) were determined to be at different stages of eutrophication, by use of total organic carbon content, bulk carbon isotopic composition, bulk nitrogen isotopic composition, and bound saturated fatty acid (BSFA) concentrations in sediment cores. A rapid increase in the supply of organic matter (OM) to DC began after the 1950s, while the environment and trophic status of BST remained constant as indicated by characteristics of OM input to sediments. The BSFA ratios of nC14 + nC16 + nC18/nC24 + nC26 + nC28 increase upward from 7 to 13 in the DC core, which are significantly greater than those from BST (2 to 3). This result is consistent with algae or bacteria being the dominant contribution of the OM increase induced by eutrophication in DC. The positive shift of nC16 compound-specific δ (13)C in the upper section might be an indicator of excess algal productivity, which was observed in the two lakes. The positive shifts of compound-specific δ (13)C of other BSFAs were also observed in the upper section of the core only from DC. The observed trends of compound-specific δ(13)C of BSFA originated from different sources became more consistent, which reflected the intensified eutrophication had profoundly affected production and preservation of OM in DC. The results observed for BST indicated that accumulation of algae did not affect the entire aquatic ecosystem until now.

  6. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton


    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  7. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.


    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using

  8. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.


    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct

  9. Specific Environmental Issues in the Ocna Sugatag Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARO G.


    Full Text Available The salt mining in Ocna Sugatag started long time before the first written evidence was made about them; thearchaeological findings prove that the mining activity here was founded in Stone Age. After 1950, the mines from OcnaSugatag were closed and shortly after that were flooded. This event started a series of changes in the structures of theold mines determining the collapse of some of them and has weakened the stability of others. The collapsing of themines determined the formation on the surface of several crumblings and affecting seriously the environment becauseof these crumblings, due to expulsion of salt water from the mines which destroyed the vegetation from the nearby areaand the fauna from local rivers. In Ocna Sugatag, by this way, were formed 46 lakes. The paper presents a detailedanalysis of one of these lakes by presenting their formation mechanism, morphological characteristics and the impactover the environment. Besides of negative impact over the environment of the mining activity and its results, the peoplefrom Ocna Sugatag gained a lot due to the regional mining. In the functioning period of the mine, the community ofOcna Sugatag witnessed a high economic development. After the closing of the mines and the appearance of the lakes,people took advantage of this and developed a flowering touristic region with many watering places, holiday resorts andagro-touristic mansions. Considering the maintenance of this potential, the intervention of top, modern principles in thefield of environment protection is considered essential.

  10. Processos físico-químicos em drenagem ácida de mina em mineração de carvão no sul do Brasil Physico-chemical processes in acid mine drainage in coal mining, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Polvani Campaner


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage generated from coal mine showed a pH of 3.2, high concentrations of SO4(2-, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn and minor As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The major reduction in the concentration occurred for Al, As, Cr, Fe and Pb after the treatment with CaO. The evolution of these acid waters within the tributary stream showed decreasing concentration for all soluble constituents, except Al. This natural attenuation was controlled by pH (6.4 to 10.8 as a result of concurrent mixing with tributary stream and reaction with local bedrock that contains limestone. Aluminum increasing concentration during this evolution seems to be related to an input of Al-enriched waters due to the leaching of silicate minerals in alkaline conditions.

  11. The geochemistry of acid rock drainage and estimating its ecological impact at a uranium mine in tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.L.; Twining, J.R.; Bennett, J.W.; Comarmond, M.J. [Managing Mine Wastes Project, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)


    Geochemical kinetic modelling of the effluent chemistry from waste rock dumps at the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine has been undertaken. The modelling examined the periods both before and after the installation of covers being placed on the dumps. Effluent from the waste rock dump migrates into the adjacent East Branch of the Finniss River and may induce ecological detriment. The model predicts pollutant loads that are significantly greater than that currently observed in the field. The observed reduction of pollutant loads after the cover was placed on the dump is attributed to a decrease in the rate of water infiltration due to the cover placement. It is estimated that a significant increase in pollutant loads is likely to occur Ca. 35 years after remediation. A computer program for ecological risk assessment, AQUARISK, has been developed and applied to evaluate the likelihood of biotic detriment due to exposure to pollutants from the site. Measured and modelled water quality data have been used in AQUARISK, in conjunction with national water quality guidelines and literature derived ecotoxicological data, to estimate the ecological risk for copper, this being a key pollutant. Both the present and past copper concentrations in the East Branch have a 100% risk of exceeding current regulatory criteria in addition to criteria derived from available dose-response data. The predicted increase in copper is unlikely to change these risks. However, the present reduction has led to an appreciable increase in the measured diversity of species at the site (from 8 to 50% implied) as also reflected in the AQUARISK estimate of increased tolerance (from 5 to 36% predicted). Modelled bioavailable copper concentrations will have a deleterious impact on the present degree of recovery and a return to the previous, unacceptably low, system diversity. To achieve a situation where 67% of species are likely to tolerate the effluent from the site, the average target copper concentration

  12. Biological treatment of acid mine water: selection of a biomass population enriched in sulphate-reducing bacteria; Tratamiento biologico de aguas acidas de mineria: seleccion de una poblacion bacteriana enriquecida en bacterias sulfatoreductoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Jimenez Rodriguez, A. M.; Martel Villagran, F. J.


    The purpose of this work is to study the biological sulphate reduction. AYESA (Aguas y Estructuras, S. A.) is developing the technical attendance. This study is being demonstrated under the Acid Water Treatment Program, conducted by the Consejeria del Medio Ambiente (Junta de Andalucia). Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the metal mining industry. This wastewater is formed when sulphide ores undergo chemical and biological oxidation processes and is characterized by low pH-values and high levels of sulphate and metals. The effect of stimuling bacteria sulphate reduction in such systems in order to improve water quality was examined in a laboratory scale experiment, in 250 mL, magnetically stirred, batch, anaerobic reactors, to 25 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern


    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Using fluorescence-based microplate assay to assess DOM-metal binding in reactive materials for treatment of acid mine drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Mihaela Neculita; Yves Dudal; Gerald J Zagury


    One potential drawback of compost-based passive bioreactors, which is a promising biotechnology for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, is the transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-metal complexes in surface waters.To address this problem, the objective of this study was to assess the maximum capacity of organic substrates to release soluble DOM-metal complexes in treated water.The reactivities of DOM in maple wood chips and sawdust, composted poultry manure, and leaf compost were quantified toward Cd2+, Ni2+, Fe2+, and Cu2+ using fluorescence quenching.The DOM showed the highest reactivity toward Fe, but a limited number of available sites for sorption, whereas DOM-Cd complexes exhibited the lowest fluorescence quenching.Overall, the DOM from a mixture of wastes formed higher concentrations of DOM-metal complexes relative to sole substrates.Among DOM-metal complexes, the concentrations of DOM-Ni complexes were the highest.After reaching steady-state, low concentrations of DOM-metal complexes were released in treated water, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions based on geochemical modeling.Therefore, in addition to physicochemical characterization, fluorescence quenching technique is recommended for the substrate selection of bioreactors.

  15. The relative merits of dolomitic and calcitic limestone in detoxifying and revegetating acidic, nickel- and copper-contaminated soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, D.; Winterhalder, K. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)


    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and Particulate metal contamination, but can be detoxified revegetated by the surface application of an growth is better on soil treated ground limestone. On certain barren sites, plant growth is better on soil treated with dolomitic limestone than with calcitic limestone and greenhouse experiments using mung beans (Vigna radiata) have shown superior root and shoot growth on certain contaminated soils when the limestone is dolomitic rather than calcitic. Results of experiments with species used in revegetation (Agrostis gigantea and Lotus corniculatus) suggest that leguminous species are more sensitive to Ca:Mg ratio than grasses, that the plant response to this ratio is greater at lowering liming levels, and that the response is more marked on more toxic soils. The effects of calcium:magnesium ratio of the limestone used in revegetating acidic, metal-contaminated soils are clearly complex, interactive and difficult to interpret. Further studies are needed, but meanwhile it is recommended that the practice of using dolomitic limestone to detoxify barren Sudbury soils be continued, since there is a risk of induced magnesium deficiency at certain sites when calcitic limestone is used.

  16. Biochemical passive reactors for treatment of acid mine drainage: Effect of hydraulic retention time on changes in efficiency, composition of reactive mixture, and microbial activity. (United States)

    Vasquez, Yaneth; Escobar, Maria C; Neculita, Carmen M; Arbeli, Ziv; Roldan, Fabio


    Biochemical passive treatment represents a promising option for the remediation of acid mine drainage. This study determined the effect of three hydraulic retention times (1, 2, and 4 days) on changes in system efficiency, reactive mixture, and microbial activity in bioreactors under upward flow conditions. Bioreactors were sacrificed in the weeks 8, 17 and 36, and the reactive mixture was sampled at the bottom, middle, and top layers. Physicochemical analyses were performed on reactive mixture post-treatment and correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria and cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity. All hydraulic retention times were efficient at increasing pH and alkalinity and removing sulfate (>60%) and metals (85-99% for Fe(2+) and 70-100% for Zn(2+)), except for Mn(2+). The longest hydraulic retention time (4 days) increased residual sulfides, deteriorated the quality of treated effluent and negatively impacted sulfate-reducing bacteria. Shortest hydraulic retention time (1 day) washed out biomass and increased input of dissolved oxygen in the reactors, leading to higher redox potential and decreasing metal removal efficiency. Concentrations of iron, zinc and metal sulfides were high in the bottom layer, especially with 2 day of hydraulic retention time. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity were higher in the middle layer at 4 days of hydraulic retention time. Hydraulic retention time had a strong influence on overall performance of passive reactors.

  17. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming


    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  18. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J


    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3).

  19. Remediação de drenagem ácida de mina usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinzas leves de carvão Remediation of acid mine drainage using zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash


    Denise Alves Fungaro; Juliana de Carvalho Izidoro


    Zeolitic material was synthesized from coal fly ashes (baghouse filter fly ash and cyclone filter fly ash) by hydrothermal alkaline activation. The potential application of the zeolitic product for decontamination of waters from acid mine drainage was evaluated. The results showed that a dose of 30 g L-1 of zeolitic material allowed the water to reach acceptable quality levels after treatment. Both precipitation and cation-exchange processes accounted for the reduction in the pollutant concen...

  20. Sorption studies of Zn(II) and Cu(II) onto vegetal compost used on reactive mixtures for in situ treatment of acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Gibert, Oriol; de Pablo, Joan; Cortina, José Luis; Ayora, Carlos


    The efficiency of the sulphate reducing bacteria-based in situ treatment of acid mine drainage is often limited by the low degradability of the current carbon sources, typically complex plant-derived materials. In such non-sulphate-reducing conditions, field and laboratory experiences have shown that mechanisms other than sulphide precipitation should be considered in the metal removal, i.e. metal (oxy)hydroxides precipitation, co-precipitation with these precipitates, and sorption onto the organic matter. The focus of the present paper was to present some laboratory data highlighting the Zn and Cu sorption on vegetal compost and to develop a general and simple model for the prediction of their distribution in organic-based passive remediation systems. The model considers two kinds of sorption sites ( succeeds SO(2)H(2)) and the existence of monodentate and bidentate metal-binding reactions, and it assumes that only free M(2+) species can sorb onto the compost surface. The acid-base properties of the compost were studied by means of potentiometric titrations in order to identify the nature of the involved surface functional groups and their density. The distribution coefficient (K(D)) for both Zn and Cu were determined from batch experiments as a function of pH and metal concentration. The model yielded the predominant surface complexes at the experimental conditions, being succeeds SO(2)Zn for Zn and succeeds SO(2)HCu(+) and ( succeeds SO(2)H)(2)Cu for Cu, with log K(M) values of -2.10, 3.36 and 4.65, respectively. The results presented in this study have demonstrated that the proposed model provides a good description of the sorption process of Zn and Cu onto the vegetal compost used in these experiments.

  1. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005 (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  2. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.


    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (< 10%) of colloidal Al, Fe and Zn from the water column.

  3. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi


    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  4. Efluent treatment with dolomite mining


    Romero Baylón, Alfonso; UNMSM; Flores Chávez, Silvana; UNMSM; Arévalo, Walter; UNMSM


    The article shows a methodology for acid water treatment, through the remediation of effluents from the mining industry, based on the use of treated dolomite, which reduces the concentrations of dissolved heavy metal ions in metallurgical and mining effluent to reducing high levels of heavy metals, which are indicators of improved water quality of industrial wastes, mainly from metallurgical processes concentrator plants. This treatment technique solves the problem of effluent generation with...

  5. Phosphate Mines, Jordan (United States)


    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)


    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Development of a biotechnological process for the treatment of acid mine drainages. Final report; Entwicklung eines biotechnischen Verfahrens zur Behandlung saurer, sulfat- und metallhaltiger Waesser. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerdich, D.; Pfeifer, F.; Schacht, S. [DMT-Inst. fuer Chemische Umwelttechnologie, Essen (Germany)


    This project was to develop a biotechnological process for the simultaneous removal of metals and sulfate from acid mine drainage. The metabolic capability of sulfate reducing bacteria was used to convert sulfates to sulfides which will induce the precipitation of metal ions as metal sulfides. Stages of the developed water treatment process should be characterized and proved for application with original waste water in laboratory scale. A sulfate reducing consortium was enriched and characterized due to its relevant growth requirements like substrate spectrum of complex and defined carbon sources, pH and temperature optimum and sulfide tolerance. The stoichiometric quotient of substrate conversion to sulfate reduction which is an important cost factor was estimated in batch and continuous cultures. For continuous cultivation a fixed bed reactor with external loop was used. The pH-shift formed during growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria was used to develop a pH auxostatic regulation system which improves process safety of continuous cultivation. As a method for biomass estimation a new enzymatic assay based on bioluminescent estimation of APS-reductase, a key enzyme of desulfuricants, was developed and tested for its applicability. Precipitation of metals was carried out in a separate reactor stage. The precipitation was preferentially efficient using gaseous H{sub 2}S rather than Na{sub 2}S as reactant resulting in a better flocculation and crystallization of the product. The complete configuration of bioreactor and precipitation stage was tested with original acid drainage from an old coal mining field. With lactic acid as carbon source and a hydraulic retention time of 7.6 h a sulfate reduction rate of 9 g/l/d was obtained. The sediment contained 30% of solid phase which after drying could be characterized as machinavite. [Deutsch] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Entwicklung eines biotechnischen Verfahrens, in welchem Sulfat durch mikrobielle Reduktion zu

  8. Chemometric analysis of fatty acids profile of bream (Abramis brama, ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and perch (Perca fluviatilis meat from Lake Gopło and Włocławski Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumila Kupcewicz


    Full Text Available The 18 fatty acid profiles have been determined in 63 samples of muscles from three freshwater fish species: bream, ruffe and perch by gas chromatography method. The fish were collected in natural condition from two reservoirs located in central Poland: Lake Gopło and Włocławski Reservoir. A chemometric study with the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, principal component (PCA and stepwise linear discrimination analysis (LDA was applied to characterize, classify and differentiate collected samples. The chemometric techniques by using fatty acids content as descriptors allow clearly distinguish 6 groups according to fish species and their geographical origin.

  9. Recovery of tungsten from wolframite from the Igarape Manteiga mine (Rondonia - Brazil) via acidic leaching; Isolamento do tungstenio da volframita da mina de Igarape Manteiga (Rondonia - Brasil) por lixiviacao acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mantovano, Jose Luiz; Vianna, Claudio Augusto; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)


    We report results of the efficiency of tungsten extraction from wolframite concentrate (containing 61.5 wt % WO{sub 3}) from the Igarape Manteiga mine (state of Rondonia, Brazil) through acid leaching with strong mineral acids at 100 deg C and 400 rpm for 2-4 h. HCl yielded insoluble matter containing the highest WO{sub 3} content (90 wt %). This solid was dissolved in concentrated NH{sub 3(aq)} at 25 deg C and the insoluble matter filtrated. The filtrate was slowly evaporated. 70 wt % of the tungsten present in the starting concentrate material was recovered as ammonium paratungstate (APT). (author)