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Sample records for acidic lakes ph

  1. Algal and bacterial activities in acidic (pH 3) strip mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyure, R.A.; Konopka, A.; Brooks, A.; Doemel, W.

    1987-01-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H 2 S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H 2 S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [ 14 C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake

  2. Benthic fauna of extremely acidic lakes (pH 2-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G G

    2001-07-01

    The structure of the benthic invertebrate communities were investigated in terms of composition, abundance, and biomass from extremely acidic lakes with pH values from 2 to 3 in areas where coal was intensively mined in the Lusatian region in the eastern region of Germany. Benthic invertebrates colonisation on leaves and the breakdown rate processing of the three deciduous leaf: Betula pendula (birch), Fraxinus excelsior (ash), and Juglans regia (walnut) were investigated. Also, the main key-species of these acidic environments were investigated, in terms of description of pupal exuviae of Chironomus crassimanus and the feeding habit of this acid-resistant species through analysis of their gut content. The benthic food web in extremely acidic mining Lusatian lakes is very short in terms of species richness, trophic relationship, guilds and functional feeding groups. Collector-filters and scraper-grazers were absent in extremely acidic mining lakes (AML 107, AML 111 and AML 117). Shredders as Limnophyes minimus (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) and Hydrozetes lacustris (Acari, Hydrozetidae) occurred in low abundance in AML 107 and AML 111, and it may be in response to slow leaf breakdown process in these ecosystems, except in AML 117 where the H. lacustris contributed most to ecosystems functioning via the processing of litter. Aquatic insects as Sialis lutaria (Megaloptera, Sialidae), Orectochilus villosus (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae), Coenagrion mercuriale (Odonata, Coenagrionidae), and Phryganeidae (Trichoptera) are the top-predators of these ecosystems. They did not depend on the level of pH in the lakes, but on the availability of food resources. (orig.)

  3. The geochemistry during management of lake acidification caused by the rewetting of sulfuric (pH < 4) acid sulfate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, Luke M.; Shand, Paul; Self, Peter; Fitzpatrick, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic geochemistry of a lake acidification event and its management was assessed. • Sulfate complexes dominated the aqueous metal speciation at low pH. • Iron oxydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite) were identified. • Aerial additions of limestone to the acidic water slowly returned the pH to near neutral. • Coating of the limestone with gypsum and metal precipitates limited its neutralisation efficiency. - Abstract: Understanding the geochemistry and kinetics of acidification events arising from acid sulfate soils is important to enable effective management and risk assessment. Large-scale exposure and oxidation of acid sulfate soils occurred during a drought in the Lower Lakes (Murray–Darling Basin) of South Australia. We examined the geochemical changes that occurred in one region (Boggy Lake) that experienced surface water acidification and was subsequently neutralised via aerial limestone (CaCO 3 ) dosing and dilution via natural lake refill. Very low pH (< 3) and high concentrations (≈10–1000 mg/L Fe, Al, Mn) of dissolved metals were initially found in surface water. The water chemistry exhibited pH-dependent enhancement of constituents typically associated with acid sulfate soils (SO 4 , Al and Fe). Geochemical speciation calculations indicated that most (60–80%) of the acidity was present as dissolved metal-sulfate complexes at low pH. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the orange-brown precipitates present after an initial limestone dosing were secondary oxyhydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite). Further limestone dosing resulted in neutralisation of the pH, reduction in dissolved metal concentrations, dissolution of jarosite and schwertmannite precipitates, and formation of other metal oxyhydroxide phases. The results were consistent with a pE-pH diagram constructed for metal-sulfur geochemistry. Assessment of the measured and simulated (using PHREEQC) pH and Ca/Cl ratio during

  4. Acidity of Lakes and Impoundments in North-Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lake and impoundment pH for several years, intensive sampling within years, and pH-calcium plots verify normal pH levels and do not show evidence of changes due to acid precipitation. These data in comparison with general lake data narrow the northern Lake States area in which rain or snow may cause lake acidification.

  5. Effects of acidity on primary productivity in lakes: phytoplankton. [Lakes Panther, Sagamore, and Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G R

    1979-01-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity are being studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed as of July 31, 1979 are Woods 27, Sagamore 38, and Panther 64, conforming to other observations that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity found in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly instead of occuring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton (net > 48 ..mu..m), nannoplankton (48 > nanno > 20 ..mu..m) and ultraplankton (20 > ultra >0.45 ..mu..m) to productivity per m/sup -2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of /sup 14/C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (/sup 14/C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This is consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. (ERB)

  6. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  7. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  8. Microbial ecology of acid strip mine lakes in southern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyure, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the limnology and microbial ecology of two acid strip mine lakes in the Greene-Sullivan State Forest near Dugger, Indiana. Reservoir 29 is a larger lake (225 ha) with water column pH of 2.7 and sediment pH of 3.8. Lake B, a smaller (20 ha) lake to the south of Reservoir 29, also has an acidic water column (pH 3.4) but more neutral sediments (pH 6.2). Both have very high sulfate concentrations: 20-30 mM in the water column and as high as 100 mM in the hypolimnion of Lake B. Low allochthonous carbon and nutrient input characterize these lakes as oligotrophic, although algal biomass is higher than would be expected for this trophic status. In both lakes, algal populations are not diverse, with a few species of single-celled Chlorophyta and euglenoids dominating. Algal biomass is concentrated in a thin 10 cm layer at the hypolimnion/metalimnion interface, although light intensity at this depth is low and severely limits productivity. Bacterial activity based on 14 C-glucose incorporation is highest in the hypolimnion of both lakes, and sulfate-reduction is a dominant process in the sediments. Rates of sulfate-reduction compare with those in other freshwater environments, but are not as high as rates measured in high sulfate systems like saltmarsh and marine sediments

  9. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  10. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHfluoride-rich water is the source of a ca. 50 km long acid river that transports substantial quantities of potentially toxic elements. A downstream trend of increasing pH from fluoride levels pose some of the most severe environmental threats. Its concentration decreases from ca. 1300 mg/kg in the lake to ca. 10 mg/kg in a coastal area downstream, where virtually all of the river water is used for irrigating rice fields and other cropland. Apart from serious problems for agriculture, our survey of 55 drinking water wells in the irrigation area shows that 50% contain fluoride above the 1.5 ppm WHO limit, in line with the observation that dental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  11. A review of acidity generation and consumption in acidic coal mine lakes and their watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Lakes developing in former coal mine pits are often characterized by high concentrations of sulfate and iron and low pH. The review focuses on the causes for and fate of acidity in these lakes and their watersheds. Acidification is primarily caused by the generation of ferrous iron bearing and mineralized groundwater, transport through the groundwater-surface water interface, and subsequent iron oxidation and precipitation. Rates of acidity generation in mine tailings and dumps, and surface water are often similar (1 to >10 mol m(-2) yr(-1)). Weathering processes, however, often suffice to buffer groundwaters to only moderately acidic or neutral pH, depending on the suite of minerals present. In mine lakes, the acidity balance is further influenced by proton release from transformation of metastable iron hydroxysulfate minerals to goethite, and proton and ferrous iron sequestration by burial of iron sulfides and carbonates in sediments. These processes mostly cannot compensate acidity loading from the watershed, though. A master variable for almost all processes is the pH: rates of pyrite oxidation, ferrous iron oxidation, mineral dissolution, iron precipitation, iron hydroxide transformation, and iron and sulfate reduction are strongly pH dependent. While the principle mechanism of acidity generation and consumption and several controls are mostly understood, this cannot be said about the fate of acidity on larger spatial and temporal scales. Little is also known about critical loads and the internal regulation of biogeochemical iron, sulfur, and carbon cycling in acidic mine lakes.

  12. A review of acidity generation and consumption in acidic coal mine lakes and their watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Lakes developing in former coal mine pits are often characterized by high concentrations of sulfate and iron and low pH. The review focuses on the causes for and fate of acidity in these lakes and their watersheds. Acidification is primarily caused by the generation of ferrous iron bearing and mineralized groundwater, transport through the groundwater-surface water interface, and subsequent iron oxidation and precipitation. Rates of acidity generation in mine tailings and dumps, and surface water are often similar (1 to >10 mol m -2 yr -1 ). Weathering processes, however, often suffice to buffer groundwaters to only moderately acidic or neutral pH, depending on the suite of minerals present. In mine lakes, the acidity balance is further influenced by proton release from transformation of metastable iron hydroxysulfate minerals to goethite, and proton and ferrous iron sequestration by burial of iron sulfides and carbonates in sediments. These processes mostly cannot compensate acidity loading from the watershed, though. A master variable for almost all processes is the pH: rates of pyrite oxidation, ferrous iron oxidation, mineral dissolution, iron precipitation, iron hydroxide transformation, and iron and sulfate reduction are strongly pH dependent. While the principle mechanism of acidity generation and consumption and several controls are mostly understood, this cannot be said about the fate of acidity on larger spatial and temporal scales. Little is also known about critical loads and the internal regulation of biogeochemical iron, sulfur, and carbon cycling in acidic mine lakes. (author)

  13. Acidity removal from Lusatian mining lakes through eutrophication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyson, A.; Nixdorf, B.; Steinberg, C.F.W. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The flooded, disused lignite pits of Lusatia in north-eastern Germany are characterised by low pH (2 - 3.5) and high concentrations of iron which contribute to high acidity. Removal of acidity from these lakes using low-cost, environmentally acceptable technologies is being investigated. One option is the enhancement of biologically mediated, alkalinity generating processes, through controlled eutrophication to sustainably increase nutrient cycling and carbon inputs. Although the primary production of these waters is potentially high and diverse algae grow in these lakes, the growth of autotrophic organisms is usually limited by extremely low concentrations of P and inorganic C. Theoretical considerations and laboratory mesocosm results are used to demonstrate the potential productivity of these acid waters and the direct and indirect role of controlled eutrophication in removing acidity. Such data are being used to generate self-sustaining, environmentally friendly, affordable remediation strategies to develop these lakes for recreation and wildlife. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  14. pH dependent dissolution of sediment aluminum in six Danish lakes treated with aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, Kasper; Jensen, Henning S.; Egemose, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The possible pH dependent dissolution of aluminum hydroxides (Al(OH)(3)) from lake sediments was studied in six lakes previously treated with Al to bind excess phosphorus (P). Surface sediment was suspended for 2 h in lake water of pH 7.5, 8.5, or 9.5 with resulting stepwise increments in dissolved...

  15. Geochemical processes in an acidic mine lake in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: San Telmo pit lake (SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Cánovas, Carlos; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Olías Álvarez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides information on the physicochemical processes of water and sediments from San Telmo pit lake. It is a valuable tool to evaluate best treatment remediation options in the long term. This lake has a meromictic nature, is highly acidic (pH of 2.8) and pH- buffered by Fe(III) precipitation. In San Telmo sediments, iron reduction and sulphide oxidation may be thermodynamically favoured due to low pH values in pore waters and the abundance of schwertmannite. The...

  16. Acid lake in N.Y. gets relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pond in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State has received a second soothing dose of baking soda. The 21 tons of sodium bicarbonate should moderate the pond's acidic conditions, lethal to fish and other forms of life.Wolf Pond, 25 miles (40 km) north of Saranac Lake, has developed an extremely low pH (4.5) because of acid rain and the runoff of acidic surface water, combined with very little outflow. The pond was first treated with sodium bicarbonate by t h e New York Department of Environmental Conservation in 1984; afterward the pH rose to about 6.2. Fish stocked by local residents have continued to live in the pond, despite the eventual rebound in its acidity.

  17. Acid rain still plaguing lakes and loons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain monitoring began more than two decades ago by Environment Canada and recent numbers indicate that acid levels in the inland waters barely respond to the reductions in sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Under the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement, both countries have committed to reduce SO 2 emissions by 50 per cent over 1980 levels and to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. Although Canada's goal for SO 2 reductions was achieved in 1994, the nitrogen oxide emissions remained relatively constant. A study of 152 lakes in southeastern Canada indicated that the lakes are only 41 per cent less acidic than they were 20 years ago. The area studied is more vulnerable since it received more acid rain than any other part of the country and the granite bedrock of the Canadian Shield shows a weakness in neutralizing ability. The acidification has caused declines in the populations of fish and invertebrate which loons rely on to survive. A volunteer-based program called Canadian Lakes Loon Survey supported by Environment Canada and other partners began annual monitoring of the breeding success of loons on about 800 lakes. The results showed a decline in the proportion of successful breeding between 1981 and 1997. The decline was more pronounced where the acid level was greatest. Near Sudbury, Ontario, where the emissions of SO 2 declined dramatically, invertebrates started reappearing and fish populations were successfully re-established

  18. Generation of Acid Mine Lakes Associated with Abandoned Coal Mines in Northwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, Deniz; Balci, Nurgul; Baba, Alper

    2016-05-01

    A total of five acid mine lakes (AMLs) located in northwest Turkey were investigated using combined isotope, molecular, and geochemical techniques to identify geochemical processes controlling and promoting acid formation. All of the investigated lakes showed typical characteristics of an AML with low pH (2.59-3.79) and high electrical conductivity values (1040-6430 μS/cm), in addition to high sulfate (594-5370 mg/l) and metal (aluminum [Al], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], nickel [Ni], and zinc [Zn]) concentrations. Geochemical and isotope results showed that the acid-generation mechanism and source of sulfate in the lakes can change and depends on the age of the lakes. In the relatively older lakes (AMLs 1 through 3), biogeochemical Fe cycles seem to be the dominant process controlling metal concentration and pH of the water unlike in the younger lakes (AMLs 4 and 5). Bacterial species determined in an older lake (AML 2) indicate that biological oxidation and reduction of Fe and S are the dominant processes in the lakes. Furthermore, O and S isotopes of sulfate indicate that sulfate in the older mine lakes may be a product of much more complex oxidation/dissolution reactions. However, the major source of sulfate in the younger mine lakes is in situ pyrite oxidation catalyzed by Fe(III) produced by way of oxidation of Fe(II). Consistent with this, insignificant fractionation between δ(34) [Formula: see text] and δ(34) [Formula: see text] values indicated that the oxidation of pyrite, along with dissolution and precipitation reactions of Fe(III) minerals, is the main reason for acid formation in the region. Overall, the results showed that acid generation during early stage formation of an AML associated with pyrite-rich mine waste is primarily controlled by the oxidation of pyrite with Fe cycles becoming the dominant processes regulating pH and metal cycles in the later stages of mine lake development.

  19. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  20. Biology and chemistry of three Pennsylvania lakes: responses to acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradt, P.T.; Dudley, J.L.; Berg, M.B.; Barrasso, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The biology and chemistry of three northeastern Pennsylvania lakes was studied from summer 1981 through summer 1983 to evaluate lakes with different sensitivities to acidification. At the acidified lake there were fewer phytoplankton and zooplankton species than at the moderately sensitive lakes. The most numerous plankton species in all three lakes are reportedly acid tolerant. Among the benthic macro-invertebrates (BMI) there were more acid tolerant Chironomidae at the acidified lake, but more acid intolerant Ephemeroptera and Mollusca and a higher wet weight at the least sensitive lake. There were no differences among the lakes' BMI mean total numbers or mean number of taxa. The fish community at the acidified lake was dominated by stunted Lepomis gibbosus, but L. machrochirous were most abundant in the other lakes. Principal component analysis suggested a shift in all three lakes over the sampling period toward combined lower pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, Ca and Mg and higher Al and Mn. Such chemical changes have been associated with acidification. The rate and extent of acidification appeared to be controlled by geological and hydrological characteristics of the drainage basins. 38 refs.

  1. Biology and chemistry of tree Pennsylvania lakes: responses to acid precipitation. [Lepomis gibbosus; Lepomis machrochirous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradt, P.T.; Dudley, J.L.; Berg, M.B.; Barrasso, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The biology and chemistry of three northeastern Pennsylvania lakes was studied from summer 1981 through summer 1983 to evaluate lakes with different sensitivities to acidification. At the acidifies lake (total alkalinity par. delta 0.0 ..mu..eq L/sup -1/) there were fewer phytoplankton and zooplankton species than at the moderately sensitive lakes. The most numerous plankton species in all three lakes are reportedly acid tolerant. Among the benthic macro- invertebrates (BMI) there were more acid tolerant Chironomidae at the acidified lake, but more acid intolerant Ephemeroptera and Mollusca and a higher wet weight at the least sensitive lake. There were no differences among the lakes' BMI mean total numbers or mean number of taxa. The fish community at the acidified lake was dominated by stunted Lepomis gibbosus, but L. machrochirous were most abundant in the other lakes. Principal component analysis suggested a shift in all three lakes over the sampling period toward combined lower pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, Ca, and Mg and higher Al and Mn. Such chemical changes have been associated with acidification. The rate and extent of acidification appeared to be controlled by geological and hydrological characteristics of the drainage basins.

  2. Modeling the acid-base chemistry of organic solutes in Adirondack, New York, lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Lehtinen, Michael D.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1994-02-01

    Data from the large and diverse Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate four simple organic acid analog models in an effort to quantify the influence of naturally occurring organic acids on lake water pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The organic acid analog models were calibrated to observations of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic anion (An-) concentrations from a reduced data set representing 1128 individual lake samples, expressed as 41 observations of mean pH, in intervals of 0.1 pH units from pH 3.9 to 7.0. Of the four organic analog approaches examined, including the Oliver et al. (1983) model, as well as monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic representations, the triprotic analog model yielded the best fit (r2 = 0.92) to the observed data. Moreover, the triprotic model was qualitatively consistent with observed patterns of change in organic solute charge density as a function of pH. A low calibrated value for the first H+ dissociation constant (pKal = 2.62) and the observation that organic anion concentrations were significant even at very low pH (acidic functional groups. Inclusion of organic acidity in model calculations resulted in good agreement between measured and predicted values of lake water pH and ANC. Assessments to project the response of surface waters to future changes in atmospheric deposition, through the use of acidification models, will need to include representations of organic acids in model structure to make accurate predictions of pH and ANC.

  3. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  4. The neutralization of acidic coal mine lakes by additions of natural organic matter: a mesocosm test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Gastineau, J.; Ratcliff, E.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical polyethylene enclosures 3 m in length and 1 m in diameter reaching from the surface to the bottom were constructed in an acid (pH=3.1) lake on a coal surface mine in southern Illinois. Wheat straw was added to the enclosures to test the effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on water chemistry. Added straw increased sulfide concentrations, raised pH to 6.5, reduced O 2 and increased acid neutralizing capacity of the enclosed water columns when compared with a control enclosure and with the open lake. Generation of acid neutralizing capacity exceeded the standing stock of sulfide indicating that sulfide was removed either by precipitation of FeS or outgassing of H 2 S. The pH and acid neutralizing capacity within the enclosures eventually returned to the level of the surrounding lake because of water exchange around the enclosure walls. Our results show that additions of organic matter to acid surface mine lakes result in the generation of acid neutralizing capacity

  5. Mercury and other element exposure in tree swallows nesting at low pH and neutral pH lakes in northern Wisconsin USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Dummer, Paul M.; Rossmann, Ronald; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) demonstrate similar responses to lake pH and mercury (Hg) contamination in northern Wisconsin as do common loons (Gavia immer). Similar to common loons, Hg concentrations in the blood of tree swallow nestlings were higher, Hg concentrations in eggs tended to be higher, and egg size tended to be smaller at low (<6.2) pH lakes. In contrast to common loons, tree swallow nestling production was not lower at low pH lakes. Based on modeling associations, Hg concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestling blood can be used to predict Hg concentrations in common loons without the invasive or destructive sampling of loons. Mean concentrations of cadmium, manganese, and mercury in nestling livers were higher at low pH lakes than neutral pH lakes. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, mercury, selenium, and zinc were not at toxic levels. - Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallow nestling livers were higher in low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow eggs were smaller at low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow hatching success was not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs. ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallows can be used to predict common loon exposure. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows were higher at low pH lakes.

  6. Extremely acidic mine lake ecosystems in Lusatia (Germany) : characterisation and development of sustainable, biology-based acidity removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyson, A.; Deneke, R.; Nixdorf, B.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    2003-01-01

    There are approximately 500 infilled open-cast lignite pits in Germany that are extremely acidic because of high concentrations of dissolved metals, mostly iron and aluminium. The mining lakes have pH values of 2.4 to 3.4 and also have high sulphate concentrations. Efforts are being made to neutralize the lakes for recreational purposes. The acidity can be removed from the lakes in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner by flooding through diversion of neutral, nutrient-rich river water. This paper described the living conditions of the acidic mining lakes in the Lausitz region of Germany and summarized the benefits of the controlled eutrophication approach to enhance natural, self-sustaining processes for acid neutralization. Compared to infilling with river water, eutrophication increases lake productivity and removes acidity through sediment bound and water column biologically-mediated processes. The study involved basic research on particle transport in streams and lakes, pelagic food web interactions and submerged macrophyte metabolism. It also looked at the role of wetlands, bacterial interactions at the water-sediment interface, and modelling. It was shown that the addition of phosphorus and carbon to the water column can enhance primary production. Future studies will examine environmentally acceptable treatment strategies that offer an alternative to chemical treatment. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Primordial soup or vinaigrette: did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Harold S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA world concept has wide, though certainly not unanimous, support within the origin-of-life scientific community. One view is that life may have emerged as early as the Hadean Eon 4.3-3.8 billion years ago with an atmosphere of high CO2 producing an acidic ocean of the order of pH 3.5-6. Compatible with this scenario is the intriguing proposal that life arose within alkaline (pH 9-11 deep-sea hydrothermal vents like those of the 'Lost City', with the interface with the acidic ocean creating a proton gradient sufficient to drive the first metabolism. However, RNA is most stable at pH 4-5 and is unstable at alkaline pH, raising the possibility that RNA may have first arisen in the acidic ocean itself (possibly near an acidic hydrothermal vent, acidic volcanic lake or comet pond. As the Hadean Eon progressed, the ocean pH is inferred to have gradually risen to near neutral as atmospheric CO2 levels decreased. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that RNA is well suited for a world evolving at acidic pH. This is supported by the enhanced stability at acidic pH of not only the RNA phosphodiester bond but also of the aminoacyl-(tRNA and peptide bonds. Examples of in vitro-selected ribozymes with activities at acid pH have recently been documented. The subsequent transition to a DNA genome could have been partly driven by the gradual rise in ocean pH, since DNA has greater stability than RNA at alkaline pH, but not at acidic pH. Testing the hypothesis We have proposed mechanisms for two key RNA world activities that are compatible with an acidic milieu: (i non-enzymatic RNA replication of a hemi-protonated cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, and (ii specific aminoacylation of tRNA/hairpins through triple helix interactions between the helical aminoacyl stem and a single-stranded aminoacylating ribozyme. Implications of the hypothesis Our hypothesis casts doubt on the hypothesis that RNA evolved in the vicinity of alkaline

  8. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac WONG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  9. Introducing TEX86 as a Water pH Proxy for Alkaline Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Tian, Q.; Li, X.; Liang, J.; Yue, H.; Hou, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lake water pH represents one of the most important indicators for lake evolution and factors influencing the evolution of aquatic ecosystem, however, which is less studied on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Applicability of diatom assemblages, an effective proxy of lake water pH variation in freshwater lakes, is highly limited on the TP because the widespread distribution of alkaline lakes is unfavorable for preservation of diatom shells. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are a series of specific membrane lipids biosynthesized by archaea and bacteria, which appear to be a promising method to reflect lake water pH variation. Here we present the distribution of iGDGTs compounds in surface sediments across the TP to discuss the effect of various environmental factors on iGDGTs distribution. The results show that TEX86 is a promising proxy for lake water pH in high-elevation alkaline lakes, as water pH appears to be the most important factor to affect the cyclization of iGDGTs. We proposed the water pH calibration for lakes (salinitywater pH. The TEX86-derived pH at Bangong Co varied from 8.69 to 9.49 since the last 16 kyr BP, which is generally consistent with precipitation isotope variation that was reconstructed from leaf wax D/H ratios in the same sediment core, suggesting the lake water pH was mainly controlled by local hydrology. We believe that TEX86 will be able to infer past water pH of alkaline lakes over TP and could be a potentially useful tool for reconstructing pH in alkaline lakes worldwide after regional calibrated.

  10. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The pH of aqueous environments is determined by the dominant buffer systems of the water, defined operationally as total alkalinity (TA). The major buffer systems in the modern ocean are carbonic and boric acids of which the species bicarbonate, carbonate and borate make up about 77%, 19% and 4% of the TA, respectively. During the course of seawater evaporation (e.g. lagoons) the residual brine loses considerable portion of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate alkalinity (CA) already at the early stages of evaporation. DIC and CA decrease due to massive precipitation of CaCO3, while total boron (TB) increases conservatively, turning borate to the dominant alkalinity species in marine derived brines. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (KB‧) in saline and hypersaline waters, using the Dead Sea (DS) as a case study. We explain the DS low pH (∼6.3) and the effect of the boric and carbonic acid pK‧-s on the behavior of the brine's buffer system, including the pH increase that results from brine dilution. The KB‧ in DS was estimated from TB, TA, DIC and pH data measured in this study and early empirical data on artificial DS brines containing just carbonic acid. The KB‧ value was corroborated by Pitzer ion interaction model calculations using PHREEQC thermodynamic code applied to the chemical composition of the DS. Our results show that KB‧ increases considerably with the brine's ionic strength, reaching in the DS to a factor of 100 higher than in ;mean; seawater. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses of other natural brines it is suggested that brines' composition is a major factor in determining the KB‧ value and in turn the pH of such brines. We show that the higher the proportion of divalent cations in the brine the higher the dissociation constants of the weak acids (presumably due to formation of complexes). The low pH of the Dead Sea is accordingly explained by its extremely

  11. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenings, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied

  12. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  13. Characterization of three acid strip mine lakes in Grundy County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Master, W. A.

    1979-09-01

    Three small lakes with acid water and one with circumneutral water at an abandoned strip mine site were characterized to identify factors limiting biological productivity. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature profiles were determined. Water samples were analyzed for 23 parameters, and the lakes were examined for the presence of aquatic vascular plants and benthic inhabitants. The acid lakes ranged from 0.9 ha to 2.7 ha in surface area and from 3.1 m to 6.7 m in maximum depth. The mean pH of the acid lakes ranged from 3.1 to 3.9. Chemicals found at concentrations higher than Illinois surface water standards or federal criteria for the protection of aquatic life included Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, SO/sub 4/=, and Zn. A number of these chemicals were at sufficiently high concentrations to limit the survival and productivity of most aquatic fauna. The lake with the poorest water quality had the least diversity of aquatic vascular plants and benthic invertebrates, while the circumneutral lake had the greatest diversity of species.

  14. Hydrogeochemical Processes Causing Persistent Low pH in Lakes within a Reclaimed Lignite Mine, East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J. C.; Schwab, P.; Knappett, P.; Deng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Surface water pH values ranging from 2.5 to 2.6 have been reported in three lakes at a reclaimed lignite mine located in the Wilcox Formation of East Texas (the site). Traditional neutralization processes using alkaline chemicals to neutralize the surface water were found to be temporary solutions at the site. Low pH conditions usually are caused by oxidation of pyritic materials in the original tailings, but that was not always apparent based on previous studies at this site. The objective of this study is to determine factors contributing to acid seepage to aid in developing pre- and post-mining strategies to mitigate persistent acidity in surface waters at this and other sites. Mineralogy, hydrogeology, and hydrogeochemical reactions were evaluated. A network of 30 wells was used to monitor the water table and chemistry of the shallow, unconfined aquifer surrounding the lakes. Pressure transducers were deployed in 18 of these wells and each of the lakes to measure high frequency water levels over approximately one year. These water levels were contoured to visualize changing hydraulic head over time and determine the correlation in time between ground water flow directions and local rainfall events. Boreholes at 15 of the monitoring wells were continuously cored, and samples were taken at selected depth intervals based on pH measurements. XRD, SEM, and TEM were used to determine the mineralogy of select soil samples. Ion chromatography was used to determine sulfate concentration, and ICP-MS was used to determine solute concentrations from water and digested soil samples. Framboidal and microcrystalline pyrite were identified in the vadose zone in silt and clay-sized fractions; these minerals have high surface area that is conducive to rapid oxidation and acidification as ground water permeates from the vadose into the saturated zone. Morphology in addition to quantity of weatherable pyrite plays a significant role in acidification. Computer models were used to

  15. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  16. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  17. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of core and intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  18. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of coreand intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  19. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1987-01-01

    The acidification of lake waters from airborne pollution is of continental proportions both in North America and Europe. A major concern of the acid rain problem is the cumulative ecosystem damage to lakes and forest. The number of lakes affected in northeastern U.S. and on the Canadian Shield is though to be enormous. How seasonal changes in lake transparency are related to annual acidic load was examined. The relationship between variations in lake acidification and ecophysical units was also examined. The utility of Thematic Mapper based observations to measure seasonal changes in the optical transparency in acid lakes was investigated. The potential for this optical response is related to a number of local ecophysical factors with bedrock geology being, perhaps, the most important. Other factors include sulfate deposition, vegetative cover, and terrain drainage/relief. The area of southern Ontario contains a wide variety of geologies from the most acid rain sensitive granite quartzite types to the least sensitive limestone dolomite sediments. Annual sulfate deposition ranges from 1.0 to 4.0 grams/sq m.

  20. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities,

  1. Methanogenesis in the sediment of the acidic Lake Caviahue in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Matthias; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin; Scharf, Burkhard; Richnow, Hans H.

    2008-12-01

    The biogeochemistry of methane in the sediments of Lake Caviahue was examined by geochemical analysis, microbial activity assays and isotopic analysis. The pH in the water column was 2.6 and increased up to a pH of 6 in the deeper sediment pore waters. The carbon isotope composition of CH 4 was between - 65 and - 70‰ which is indicative for the biological origin of the methane. The enrichment factor ɛ increased from - 46‰ in the upper sediment column to more than - 80 in the deeper sediment section suggesting a transition from acetoclastic methanogenesis to CO 2 reduction with depth. In the most acidic surface layer of the sediment (pH Copahue Volcano, supported high rates of sulfate reduction which probably raised the pH and created favorable conditions for methanogens in deeper sediment layers.

  2. New findings on the application of in-lake technologies for neutralisation of acid mining lakes; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Anwendung von In-Lake-Verfahren fuer die Neutralisation saurer Bergbaufolgeseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, W. [eta AG engineering, Spremberg (Germany); Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The neutralisation of acidic open cast mining lakes is an important task at the restoration of post lignit mining landscapes in Lusatia and Middle Germany. From several treatment technologies for the manipulation of ground and surface waters the in-lake-treatment procedures are most cost effective, licensable and usable with passable risks to reach ecological targets. The proceedings and the results of a two-stage-treatment technology of the Horstteich near Luckau will be exemplified in this article. In this case it was possible, within 20 days, to improve the water quality from extreme acidic (pH {approx} 2.8) to neutral conditions (pH > 8). During the neutralisation nearly all heavy metals and suspended substances were precipitated and a noticeable buffer was built up against acidic inflows. (orig.)

  3. Water pH and temperature in Lake Biwa from MBT'/CBT indices during the last 280 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajioka, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takemura, K.; Hayashida, A.; Kitagawa, H.

    2014-10-01

    We generated a 280 000 yr record of water pH and temperature in Lake Biwa, central Japan, by analysing the methylation index (MBT') and cyclisation ratio (CBT) of branched tetraethers in sediments from piston and borehole cores. Our aim was to understand the responses of precipitation and air temperature in central Japan to the East Asian monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Because the water pH in Lake Biwa is determined by phosphorus and alkali cation inputs, the record of water pH should indicate the changes in precipitation and temperature in central Japan. Comparison with a pollen assemblage in a Lake Biwa core suggests that lake water pH was determined by summer temperature in the low-eccentricity period before 55 ka, while it was determined by summer precipitation in the high-eccentricity period after 55 ka. From 130 to 55 ka, the variation in lake pH (summer precipitation) lagged behind that in summer temperature by several thousand years. This perspective is consistent with the conclusions of previous studies (Igarashi and Oba, 2006; Yamamoto, 2009), in that the temperature variation preceded the precipitation variation in central Japan.

  4. Light Rare Earth Elements enrichment in an acidic mine lake (Lusatia, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozau, Elke; Leblanc, Marc; Seidel, Jean Luc; Staerk, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the acidic waters (lake and groundwater) of a lignite mining district (Germany). The Fe- and SO 4 -rich lake water (pH 2.7) displays high REE contents (e.g. La∼70 μg/l, Ce∼160 μg/l) and an enrichment of light REE (LREE) in the NASC normalised pattern. Considering the hydrodynamic model and geochemical data, the lake water composition may be calculated as a mixture of inflowing Quaternary and mining dump groundwaters. The groundwater of the dump aquifer is LREE enriched. Nevertheless, the leachates of dump sediments generally have low REE contents and display flat NASC normalised patterns. However, geochemical differences and REE pattern in undisturbed lignite (LREE enriched pattern and low water soluble REE contents) and the weathered lignite of the dumps (flat REE pattern and high water soluble REE contents) suggest that lignite is probably the main REE source rock for the lake water

  5. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2002-01-01

    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10 4 cells mL -1 rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications

  6. Liming the acid lake Hovvatn, Norway: a whole-ecosystem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raddum, G G; Brettum, P; Matzow, D; Nilssen, J P; Skov, A; Sveaelv, T; Wright, R F

    1986-12-01

    Hovvatn, a 1 sq. km. chronically-acidified lake in southernmost Norway, was treated with 200 tonne of powdered limestone in March 1981. An additional 40 tonne were added to a 0.046 sq km pond (Pollen) draining into Hovvatn. The lakes were stocked with brown trout in June 1981 and in each subsequent year. At ice-out pH rose from 4.4 to 6.3 (Hovvatn) and 7.5 (Pollen), Ca and alkalinity increased, and total Al decreased by 120 ..mu..g/l. None of the other major ions exhibited significant changes in concentration. Total organic C and P increased after liming. The phytoplankton community was dominated by chrysophytes and did not change significantly following liming. The zooplankton community was typical of acid lakes prior to liming. There was a clear succession in species dominance following treatment, although no new species immigrated to the lakes. Zoobenthos changed from a community characterized by low abundance and reduced number of species to increased abundance of oligochaetes, mayflies and chironomids. Hovvatn and Pollen were barren of fish prior to stocking. The stocked fish showed remarkably high growth rate during the first years. Liming apparently improved conditions for zoobenthos, enhancing the processing of fine detritus which in turn resulted in elevated levels of TOC and P in the lakewaters during the first year after liming. The oligotrophication process typical of acid lakes was temporarily reversed by liming. The interactions between groups of organisms in Hovvatn and Pollen indicates that many years are required before a new steady-state can be attained following liming. 61 references.

  7. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  8. Inter- and intra-annual chemical variability during the ice-free season in lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Shelley E; Dillon, Peter J; Somers, Keith; Keller, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying chemical variability in different lake types is important for the assessment of both chemical and biological responses to environmental change. For monitoring programs that emphasize a large number of lakes at the expense of frequent samples, high variability may influence how representative single samples are of the average conditions of individual lakes. Intensive temporal data from long-term research sites provide a unique opportunity to assess chemical variability in lakes with different characteristics. We compared the intra- and inter-annual variability of four acidification related variables (Gran alkalinity, pH, sulphate concentration, and total base cation concentration) in four lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories. Variability was highest in lakes with high flushing rates and was not influenced by historic acid deposition in our study lakes. This has implications for the amount of effort required in monitoring programs. Lakes with high flushing rates will require more frequent sampling intervals than lakes with low flushing rates. Consideration of specific lake types should be included in the design of monitoring programs.

  9. An overview of a uranium acidic mining lake (Caldas, Brazil): composition of the zooplankton community and limno-chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Roque, C.V.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Laboratory (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This research represents an attempt to fill a gap in the information on the zooplankton composition and limno-chemical aspects of the uranium pit lake (Osamu Utsumi Pit, Brazil), affected by acid mine drainage. In the present study water samples were collected three-monthly, for a period of one year (2008-2009). The water samples from the uranium pit lake showed moderately acidic pH values (3.6 to 4.1), high values of the electrical conductivity, sulfate, uranium, fluoride, zinc, manganese and aluminum concentrations. The Rotifera cephalodella sp., Keratella americana, K. cochlearis, Bdelloidea order and the Cladocera Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., were registered in the samples from the uranium pit lake with ADM. Of the species registered the Bdelloidea order was the most important in terms of density (17,500 - 77,778 ind m{sup -3}), since it occurred throughout the whole sampling period. In this study, probably the combined effect of moderately acid pH values and other potentially co-stressors factors, for example the high concentrations of stable and radioactive chemical species, could have influenced this richness and also the composition of the zooplankton species in the water samples from the uranium pit lake. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Gas flushing through hyper-acidic crater lakes: the next steps within a reframed monitoring time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouwet, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    Tracking variations in the chemical composition, water temperature and pH of brines from peak-activity crater lakes is the most obvious way to forecast phreatic activity. Volcano monitoring intrinsically implies a time window of observation that should be synchronised with the kinetics of magmatic processes, such as degassing and magma intrusion. To decipher "how much time ago" a variation in degassing regime actually occurred before eventually being detected in a crater lake is key, and depends on the lake water residence time. The above reasoning assumes that gas is preserved as anions in the lake water (SO4, Cl, F anions), in other words, that scrubbing of acid gases is complete and irreversible. Less is true. Recent work has confirmed, by direct MultiGas measurement from evaporative plumes, that even the strongest acid in liquid medium (i.e. SO2) degasses from hyper-acidic crater lakes. The less strong acid HCl has long been recognised as being more volatile than hydrophyle in extremely acidic solutions (pH near 0), through a long-term steady increase in SO4/Cl ratios in the vigorously evaporating crater lake of Poás volcano. We now know that acidic gases flush through hyper-acidic crater lake brines, but we don't know to which extend (completely or partially?), and with which speed. The chemical composition hence only reflects a transient phase of the gas flushing through the lake. In terms of volcanic surveillance this brings the advantage that the monitoring time window is definitely shorter than defined by the water chemistry, but yet, we do not know how much shorter. Empirical experiments by Capaccioni et al. (in press) have tried to tackle this kinetic problem for HCl degassing from a "lab-lake" on the short-term (2 days). With this state of the art in mind, two new monitoring strategies can be proposed to seek for precursory signals of phreatic eruptions from crater lakes: (1) Tracking variations in gas compositions, fluxes and ratios between species in

  11. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of Gammarus lacustris inhabiting lakes with and without fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhutova, O N; Sharapova, T A; Kalachova, G S; Shulepina, S P; Gladyshev, M I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a biotic factor--the presence of predatory fish in water--on the composition and content of fatty acids in crustaceans was studied in the populations of the lake amphipod Gammarus lacustris from two lakes with fish and three lakes without fish. It was found that, at an overall increase in the quantity and quality of food resources (namely, increase in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the biomass), the relative rate of DHA accumulation in gammarids in the lakes without fish is higher than in the lake with fish.

  12. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater

  13. Seasonal dynamics and life histories of pelagic cladocerans (Crustacea; Cladocera in an acid boreal lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Petter NILSSEN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the surveyed anthropogenic acidified Lake Gjerstadvann with pH ≈ 5.2 situated in southern Norway, spatial and temporal distribution of three characteristic planktonic cladocerans inhabiting acidified boreal biotopes, Bosmina longispina, Holopedium gibberum, and Diaphanosoma brachyurum, were studied over a period of one year. The major pelagic predator was Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis. The local perch probably balanced the cladoceran community and facilitated co-existence of all three species of cladocerans by removing significant portions of B. longispina, which could also be the case in similar types of boreal lakes. Invertebrate predators such as the dipteran larvae Chaoborus flavicans and carnivorous copepods did not seem to influence the cladoceran community. B. longispina was perennial, whereas both H. gibberum and D. brachyurum were recorded only during the ice-free period. The life cycle of these free-living pelagic species ranged from 2-3 in D. brachyurum, 3 in H. gibberum to approximately 6 annual generations in B. longispina. Wintering took place as resting eggs in D. brachyurum and H. gibberum, while B. longispina produced resting eggs in addition to an active planktonic stay. The warm water tolerant D. brachyurum was mainly distributed above the thermocline, whereas H. gibberum also inhabited deeper strata, and B. longispina most vertical strata of the lake. Maximum seasonal clutch volume of B. longispina coincided in time with peak in food abundance and may be a useful parameter to identify planktonic food availability in such lakes. Knowledge of the autecology and life history of species is fundamental for understanding ecosystem stress, such as anthropogenic acidification and recovery through liming or by natural causes. Seasonal depth isoplots combined with life history studies of commonly co-occurring cladoceran species from natural acid and anthropogenic acidified lakes on the Northern Hemisphere seem to be uncommon

  14. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 μS cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards.

  15. Hydrochloric acid leach of Agnew Lake uranium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.; Ipekoglue, B.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrochloric acid leaching was conducted on the radioactive mineral concentrate separated from the Agenw Lake uranium ore. Leach tests conducted at the optimum conditions (75 0 C; 36 hours; 66.0 Kg HCl/tonne; solid:liquid -1:1) resulted in the extraction of 87% uranium and 84% radium. The radionuclide level of the residue was U-0.016%, Th-0.24% and Ra-65 pCi/g solids. However to obtain a residue almost free of radium (i.e., Ra level at the detection limit: 4-6 pCi/g solids), the first stage leach residue was further treated with hydrochloric acid. The radium level in the best second stage leach residue was also above the target level. Therefore, multistage (3 or 4) hydrochloric acid and/or neutral chloride leaching is recommended to obtain tailings almost free of radionuclide

  16. Water pH and temperature in Lake Biwa from MBT'/CBT indices during the last 282 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajioka, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takemura, K.; Hayashida, A.

    2014-03-01

    We generated a 282 000-year record of water pH and temperature in Lake Biwa, central Japan, by analysing the methylation index (MBT') and cyclisation ratio (CBT) of branched tetraethers in sediments from piston and borehole cores to understand the responses of precipitation and air temperature in central Japan to the East Asian monsoon variability on the orbital timescale. Because water pH in Lake Biwa is determined by phosphorus input driven by precipitation, the record of water pH should indicate changes in summer precipitation in central Japan. The estimated pH showed significant periodicity at 19 and 23 ka (precession) and at 41 ka (obliquity). The variation in the estimated pH agrees with variation in the pollen temperature index. This indicates synchronous variation in summer air temperature and precipitation in central Japan, which contradicts the conclusions of previous studies. The variation in estimated pH was also synchronous with the variation of oxygen isotopes in stalagmites in China, suggesting that East Asian summer monsoon precipitation was governed by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation on orbital timescales. However, the estimated winter temperatures were higher during interglacials and lower during glacials, showing an eccentricity cycle. This suggests that the temperature variation reflected winter monsoon variability.

  17. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P level of P level of P level of P level of P level of P chemistry were similar to those of the ALTM Program, although decreases in SO 42- concentrations were more evident in the year-round ALTM record. Overall, the results suggest (a) a degree of chemical recovery from acidification during the summer, (b) an increase in phytoplankton productivity, and (c) a decreasing trend in NO 3- concentrations resulting from the increased productivity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  18. Acidic pH promotes intervertebral disc degeneration: Acid-sensing ion channel -3 as a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hamish T J; Hodson, Nathan; Baird, Pauline; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A

    2016-11-17

    The aetiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration remains poorly understood. Painful IVD degeneration is associated with an acidic intradiscal pH but the response of NP cells to this aberrant microenvironmental factor remains to be fully characterised. The aim here was to address the hypothesis that acidic pH, similar to that found in degenerate IVDs, leads to the altered cell/functional phenotype observed during IVD degeneration, and to investigate the involvement of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) -3 in the response. Human NP cells were treated with a range of pH, from that of a non-degenerate (pH 7.4 and 7.1) through to mildly degenerate (pH 6.8) and severely degenerate IVD (pH 6.5 and 6.2). Increasing acidity of pH caused a decrease in cell proliferation and viability, a shift towards matrix catabolism and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and pain-related factors. Acidic pH resulted in an increase in ASIC-3 expression. Importantly, inhibition of ASIC-3 prevented the acidic pH induced proinflammatory and pain-related phenotype in NP cells. Acidic pH causes a catabolic and degenerate phenotype in NP cells which is inhibited by blocking ASIC-3 activity, suggesting that this may be a useful therapeutic target for treatment of IVD degeneration.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  20. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ 13 C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  1. Decomposition of Alternative Chirality Amino Acids by Alkaliphilic Anaerobe from Owens Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of alkaliphilic microbial communities from anaerobic sediments of Owens and Mono Lakes in California led to the isolation of a bacterial strain capable of metabolizing amino acids with alternative chirality. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the anaerobic strain BK1 belongs to the genus Tindallia; however, despite the characteristics of other described species of this genus, the strain BK1 was able to grow on D-arginine and Dlysine. Cell morphology of this strain showed straight, motile, non-spore-forming rods with sizes 0.45 x 1.2-3 microns. Physiological characteristics of the strain showed that it is catalase negative, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, and obligately alkaliphilic. This isolate is unable to grow at pH 7 and requires CO3 (2-) ions for growth. The strain has chemo-heterotrophic metabolism and is able to ferment various proteolysis products and some sugars. It plays the role of a primary anaerobe within the trophic chain of an anaerobic microbial community by the degradation of complex protein molecules to smaller and less energetic molecules. The new isolate requires NaCl for growth, and can grow within the range of 0.5-13 %, with the optimum at 1 % NaCl (w/v). The temperature range for the growth of the new isolate is 12-40 C with optimum at 35 C. The pH range for the growth of strain BK1 occurs between 7.8 and 11.0 with optimum at 9.5. This paper presents detailed physiological characteristics of the novel isolate from Owens Lake, a unique relic ecosystem of Astrobiological significance, and makes an accent on the ability of this strain to utilize L-amino acids.

  2. Acid skim milk gels: The gelation process as affected by preheated pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of preheating milk (10 min 80 [degree sign]C) at pH values from 6.20 to 6.90 on formation of acid skim milk gels was studied by dynamic oscillation measurements. Up to pH 6.65 a higher pH of heating (pHheating) resulted in a higher G'. Since below pH 4.9 the development of

  3. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T

    2017-06-01

    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades. © 2016 John

  4. Whole-lake algal responses to a century of acidic industrial deposition on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.; Dixit, S.S.; Graham, M.D.; Gunn, J.M.; Chen, Y.-W.; Belzile, N.

    2002-01-01

    A century of cultural acidification is hypothesized to have altered algal community structure in boreal lakes. To date, this hypothesis has remained untested because of both the lack of data predating the onset of industrial pollution and incomplete estimates of whole-lake algal community structure. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of sedimentary pigments was used to quantify whole-lake algal responses to acid deposition in six boreal lakes located in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada. Concomitant significant increases in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, diatom-inferred lake acidity, and metal levels since 1900 suggested that algal abundances in four acidified lakes and one small, circumneutral lake were enhanced by aerial pollution. An alternate explanation is that increased acidity and underwater light availability in the acidified lakes shifted algal abundance towards phytobenthos and deepwater phytoplankton, whose pigment signatures were better preserved in the sediments. Taxonomically diagnostic pigment stratigraphies were consistent with shifts in algal community structure towards filamentous green phytobenthos and deepwater phytoflagellates in the acidified lakes. Our findings suggest that decades of aerial pollution have altered the base of foodwebs in boreal lakes, potentially rendering them less resilient to other environmental stressors. (author)

  5. The evolution of a mining lake - From acidity to natural neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira, E-mail: esienkie@twarda.pan.pl; Gąsiorowski, Michał, E-mail: mgasior@twarda.pan.pl

    2016-07-01

    Along the border of Poland and Germany (central Europe), many of the post-mining lakes have formed “an anthropogenic lake district”. This study presents the evolution of a mining lake ecosystem (TR-33) based on subfossil phyto- and zooplankton, isotopic data (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N), elemental analyses of organic carbon and nitrogen (C/N ratio and TOC) and sedimentological analyses. Recently, lake TR-33 became completely neutralized from acidification and an increase in eutrophication began a few years ago. However, the lake has never been neutralized by humans; only natural processes have influenced the present water quality. From the beginning of the existence of the lake (1920s) to the present, we can distinguish four stages of lake development: 1) very shallow reservoir without typical lake sediments but with a sand layer containing fine lignite particles and very poor diatom and cladoceran communities; 2) very acidic, deeper water body with increasing frequencies of phyto- and zooplankton; 3) transitional period (rebuilding communities of diatoms and Cladocera), meaning a deep lake with benthic and planktonic fauna and flora with wide ecological tolerances; and 4) a shift to circumneutral conditions with an essential increase in planktonic taxa that prefer more fertile waters (eutrophication). In the case of lake TR-33, this process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. - Highlights: • Originally acid water lake had poor phyto- and zooplankton populations. • Process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. • Presently, lake's ecosystem is similar to other shallow lakes in the region. • Changes in the lake are representative for other mine lakes.

  6. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  7. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  8. Parent Body Influences on Amino Acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a primitive C2 carbonaceous chondrite with a mineralogy, oxygen isotope, and bulk chemical. However, in contrast to many CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, the Tagish Lake meteorite was reported to have only trace levels of indigenous amino acids, with evidence for terrestrial L-amino acid contamination from the Tagish Lake meltwater. The lack of indigenous amino acids in Tagish Lake suggested that they were either destroyed during parent body alteration processes and/or the Tagish Lake meteorite originated on a chemically distinct parent body from CI and CM meteorites where formation of amino acids was less favorable. We recently measured the amino acid composition of three different lithologies (11h, 5b, and 11i) of pristine Tagish Lake meteorite fragments that represent a range of progressive aqueous alteration in order 11h amino acids found in hot-water extracts of the Tagish Lake fragments were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPA/NAC derivatization. Stable carbon isotope analyses of the most abundant amino acids in 11h were measured with gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  9. Experimental study of trace metal chemistry in soft-water lakes at different pH levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, T A; Kipphut, G; Hesslein, R H; Schindler, D W

    1980-03-01

    The biogeochemistry of Hg, Zn, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, V, Th, Ba, Cs, As, and Se in two soft-water lakes of the Canadian shield was investigated. The residence times of the radionuclides in the water were determined, and the partitioning of the nuclides among different metal-binding agents in the water and sediments was studied. Metals of high crystal field stabilization energy, high electronegativity, or small ionic radius were most readily scavenged by greater than 0.45 micrometer suspended particles and dispersed colloids in the water, disappeared most rapidly from the water column, and were preferentially accumulated by sedimentary binding agents, including organic substances. Hg was removed fairly rapidly from the water at pH 6.7-6.8 owing to its high electronegativity but was removed more slowly than any other metal at pH 5.1 owing to its large ionic radius. Acidification of lake water to pH 5.1 interfered with accumulation of Hg and other metals by organic ooze. Acidification also lowered the concentration of extractable colloidal phosphate in the ooze but had no effect on extractable orthophosphate content. 45 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Removal of emerging perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate contaminants from lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2017-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the major polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contaminating global water environment. This study investigated the efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) treatment for removing PFOS and PFOA contaminants from lake water. NF gave greater removal of all contaminant types (in terms of organic matter, PFOS and PFOA) than GAC treatment which in turn was greater than UF treatment. The lower removal by UF was due to larger pore size of the membrane compared to the size of the target contaminants. For all treatment processes, lower pH (4) in the feedwater showed greater rejection of the organics and selected PFASs. This was likely due to increase in the electrostatic repulsion between solute and sorbent. It could be observed that on increasing the concentration of organics in the feed solution, the rejection of PFOA/PFOS decreased which was due to competition between organics and PFOS/PFOA for binding sites on the membrane/activated carbon surface. It was also noted that protein content led to greater influence for lower rejection of the PFOA/PFOS than carbohydrate or DOC content. This study demonstrated the potential use of membrane processes for removing emerging persistent organic pollutant removal from lake water.

  11. Fish populations in a large group of acid-stressed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, H H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stress on the number and diversity of fish species in a group of acid-stressed lakes. The study area was the La Cloche Mountains, a series of quartzite ridges covering 1,300 km/sup 2/ along the north shore of Georgian Bay and north channel of Lake Huron. Within these ridges are 173 lakes; 68 of the largest of these made up the study sample. The lakes of the La Cloche Mountains are undergoing rapid acidification. Coincident with this there has been the loss of sport fishes from several lakes. Lakes such as Nellie, Lumsden, O.S.A., Acid and Killarney supported good sport fisheries for the lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush) for many years, but have ceased to do so in the last 5 to 15 years. Other sport fishes, notably the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) have disappeared from some of the La Cloche Lakes. Thus recreational fishing alone could not have been the cause of the change. Beamish (1974) recorded the extreme sparcity of the three remaining fish species in O.S.A. Lake. Many of the lakes of the La Cloche mountains are accessible only with difficulty and little or no information exists for these lakes prior to this study. This precluded simple comparison of these lakes before and during acidification. This lack of historic data determined in part the approach taken in this study; a comparison of the fish communities of a group of lakes differing in degree of acid stress.

  12. Variations of thiaminase I activity pH dependencies among typical Great Lakes forage fish and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, L.; Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The source of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web remains unknown. Biochemical characterization of the thiaminase I activities observed in forage fish was undertaken to provide insights into potential thiaminase sources and to optimize catalytic assay conditions. We measured the thiaminase I activities of crude extracts from five forage fish species and one strain of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus over a range of pH values. The clupeids, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, had very similar thiaminase I pH dependencies, with optimal activity ranges (> or = 90% of maximum activity) between pH 4.6 and 5.5. Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius had optimal activity ranges between pH 5.5-6.6. The thiaminase I activity pH dependence profile of P. thiaminolyticus had an optimal activity range between pH 5.4 and 6.3, which was similar to the optimal range for rainbow smelt and spottail shiners. Incubation of P. thiaminolyticus extracts with extracts from bloater Coregonus hoyi (normally, bloaters have little or no detectable thiaminase I activity) did not significantly alter the pH dependence profile of P. thiaminolyticus-derived thiaminase I, such that it continued to resemble that of the rainbow smelt and spottail shiner, with an apparent optimal activity range between pH 5.7 and 6.6. These data are consistent with the hypothesis of a bacterial source for thiaminase I in the nonclupeid species of forage fish; however, the data also suggest different sources of thiaminase I enzymes in the clupeid species.

  13. Summit crater lake observations, and the location, chemistry, and pH of water samples near Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska: 2004-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Janet R.; Scott, William E.; Evans, William C.; Wang, Bronwen; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    maximum depth of 45 m (resulting pH ~2.9), and preventing the annual salmon run in the King Salmon River. A simultaneous release of gas and acidic aerosols from the crater caused widespread vegetation damage along the flow path. Since 2005, we have been monitoring the crater lake water that continues to flow into Mother Goose Lake by collecting surface water samples for major cation and anion analysis, measuring surface-water pH of affected drainages, and photo-documenting the condition of the summit crater lake. This report describes water sampling locations, provides a table of chemistry and pH measurements, and documents the condition of the summit crater between 2004 and 2011. In September 2013, the report was updated with results of water-chemistry samples collected in 2011 and 2012, which were added as an addendum.

  14. Neutralizing salivary pH by mouthwashes after an acidic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mojdeh; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Kymer-Davis, Emily; Stewart, Colette W; Zhang, Yanhui H; Versluis, Antheunis; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the neutralizing effect of mouthwashes on salivary pH after an acidic challenge. Twelve participants were recruited for three visits, one morning per week. Resting saliva was collected at baseline and after 2-min swishing with 20 mL orange juice as an acidic challenge. Participants then rinsed their mouth for 30 s with 20 mL water (control), an over-the-counter mouthwash (Listerine), or a two-step mouthwash, randomly assigned for each visit. Saliva was collected immediately, 15, and 45 min after rinsing. The pH values of the collected saliva were measured and analyzed with anova, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (significance level: 0.05). Orange juice significantly lowered salivary pH. Immediately after rinsing, Listerine and water brought pH back to baseline values, with the pH significantly higher in the Listerine group. The two-step mouthwash raised pH significantly higher than Listerine and water, and higher than the baseline value. Salivary pH returned to baseline and was not significantly different among groups at 15 and 45 min post-rinsing. Mouth rinsing after an acidic challenge increased salivary pH. The tested mouthwashes raised pH higher than water. Mouthwashes with a neutralizing effect can potentially reduce tooth erosion from acid exposure. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Acidic pH sensing in the bacterial cytoplasm is required for Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral. Amino acid substitutions in PhoQ's cytoplasmic domain hindered activation by acidic pH and attenuated virulence in mice, but did not abolish activation by low Mg(2+) or the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Conversely, removal of PhoQ's extracytoplasmic domains prevented the response to the latter PhoQ-activating signals but not to acidic pH. PhoP-dependent genes were minimally induced by acidic pH in the non-pathogenic species Salmonella bongori but were activated by low Mg(2+) and C18G as in pathogenic S. enterica. Our findings indicate that the sensor PhoQ enables S. enterica to respond to both host- and bacterial-derived signals that alter its cytoplasmic pH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe based on a benzothiazole derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiujuan; Li, Xian; Feng, Suxiang; Liang, Beibei; Zhou, Tiqiang; Xu, Min; Ma, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-01

    A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe 1 based on a benzothiazole derivative has been designed, synthesized and developed. The linear response range covers the acidic pH range from 3.44 to 6.46, which is valuable for pH researches in acidic environment. The evaluated pKa value of the probe 1 is 4.23. The fluorescence enhancement of the studied probe 1 with an increase in hydrogen ions concentration is based on the hindering of enhanced photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Moreover, the pH sensor possesses a highly selective response to H+ in the presence of metal ions, anions and other bioactive small molecules which would be interfere with its fluorescent pH response. Furthermore, the probe 1 responds to acidic pH with short response time that was less than 1 min. The probe 1 has been successfully applied to confocal fluorescence imaging in live HeLa cells and can selectively stain lysosomes. All of such good properties prove it can be used to monitoring pH fluctuations in acidic environment with high sensitivity, pH dependence and short response time.

  17. Hyperpolarized Amino Acid Derivatives as Multivalent Magnetic Resonance pH Sensor Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundshammer, Christian; Düwel, Stephan; Ruseckas, David; Topping, Geoffrey; Dzien, Piotr; Müller, Christoph; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Hövener, Jan B; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Glaser, Steffen J; Schilling, Franz

    2018-02-15

    pH is a tightly regulated physiological parameter that is often altered in diseased states like cancer. The development of biosensors that can be used to non-invasively image pH with hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has therefore recently gained tremendous interest. However, most of the known HP-sensors have only individually and not comprehensively been analyzed for their biocompatibility, their pH sensitivity under physiological conditions, and the effects of chemical derivatization on their logarithmic acid dissociation constant (p K a ). Proteinogenic amino acids are biocompatible, can be hyperpolarized and have at least two pH sensitive moieties. However, they do not exhibit a pH sensitivity in the physiologically relevant pH range. Here, we developed a systematic approach to tailor the p K a of molecules using modifications of carbon chain length and derivatization rendering these molecules interesting for pH biosensing. Notably, we identified several derivatives such as [1- 13 C]serine amide and [1- 13 C]-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as novel pH sensors. They bear several spin-1/2 nuclei ( 13 C, 15 N, 31 P) with high sensitivity up to 4.8 ppm/pH and we show that 13 C spins can be hyperpolarized with dissolution dynamic polarization (DNP). Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemical shift pH sensors that might help to design tailored probes for specific pH in vivo imaging applications.

  18. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  19. UV absorption reveals mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs in Tatra mountain lake phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced absorption of UV radiation, an effect characteristic of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, is reported in samples of phytoplankton from six lakes in the Tatra Mountains National Park (Poland. It was demonstrated that the mass-specific UV absorption coefficients for the phytoplankton in these lakes increased with altitude above sea level. Based on a comparison with the phytoplankton of Alpine lakes, investigated earlier by other authors (cited in this paper, it may be inferred that the phytoplankton of Tatra mountain lakes produce MAAs, which protect plant cells from UV light, the intensity of which increases with altitude.

  20. Measurement of pH, alkalinity and acidity in ultra-soft waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... A blend composed of the raw water, sodium chloride (to increase conductivity), and standard bicarbonate (to increase buffering capacity) was titrated with standard strong acid in two pH regions: 6.3 pH < 4.0. In both methods, total alkalinity was determined using the latter set of points, ...

  1. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...

  2. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  3. Intracellular pH Response to Weak Acid Stress in Individual Vegetative Bacillus subtilis Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rachna; Vischer, Norbert O E; Smelt, Jan P P M; van Beilen, Johan W A; Ter Beek, Alexander; De Vos, Winnok H; Brul, Stanley; Manders, Erik M M

    2016-11-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) critically affects bacterial cell physiology. Hence, a variety of food preservation strategies are aimed at perturbing pH i homeostasis. Unfortunately, accurate pH i quantification with existing methods is suboptimal, since measurements are averages across populations of cells, not taking into account interindividual heterogeneity. Yet, physiological heterogeneity in isogenic populations is well known to be responsible for differences in growth and division kinetics of cells in response to external stressors. To assess in this context the behavior of intracellular acidity, we have developed a robust method to quantify pH i at single-cell levels in Bacillus subtilis Bacilli spoil food, cause disease, and are well known for their ability to form highly stress-resistant spores. Using an improved version of the genetically encoded ratiometric pHluorin (IpHluorin), we have quantified pH i in individual B. subtilis cells, cultured at an external pH of 6.4, in the absence or presence of weak acid stresses. In the presence of 3 mM potassium sorbate, a decrease in pH i and an increase in the generation time of growing cells were observed. Similar effects were observed when cells were stressed with 25 mM potassium acetate. Time-resolved analysis of individual bacteria in growing colonies shows that after a transient pH decrease, long-term pH evolution is highly cell dependent. The heterogeneity at the single-cell level shows the existence of subpopulations that might be more resistant and contribute to population survival. Our approach contributes to an understanding of pH i regulation in individual bacteria and may help scrutinizing effects of existing and novel food preservation strategies. This study shows how the physiological response to commonly used weak organic acid food preservatives, such as sorbic and acetic acids, can be measured at the single-cell level. These data are key to coupling often-observed single-cell heterogeneous growth

  4. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljestrand, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO/sub 2/, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not (H/sup +/). Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity (H/sup +/) yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO/sub 2/ system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometers is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH/sub 3/, HCl, NHO/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 3/COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  5. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, Howard M.

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO 2, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not [H +]. Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity [H +] yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO 2 system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometeors is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH 3, HCl, HNO 3, SO 2 and CH 3COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  6. Towards control of aggregational behaviour of alpha-lactalbumin at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jane B; Fojan, Peter; Sorensen, John; Petersen, Steffen B

    2006-07-01

    alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La) undergoes considerable structural changes upon loss of bound Ca2+ at acidic pH, leaving alpha-La in a molten globule structure. Using fluorescence the present work provides more insight into the structural transition of alpha-La at acidic pH leading to protein aggregation, most likely caused by a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The rate of aggregation is determined by the protein concentration and temperature applied. Availability of Ca2+ stabilises the protein, and thus prevent aggregation at pH values as low as pH 2.9. In contrast, presence of Cu2+ induces a destabilisation of the protein, which can be explained by a binding to the Zn2+ binding site in alpha-La, possibly resulting in structural alterations of the protein. In general, presence of anions destabilize alpha-La at pH values below pI, with SO4(2-) exhibiting the strongest effect on the protein stability, thus correlating well with the Hofmeister series. At more acidic pH values far from pI, alpha-La becomes more stable towards ion induced aggregation, since higher ion activity is required to efficiently screen the charges on the protein surface. The results presented in this paper provide detailed knowledge on the external parameters leading to aggregation of alpha-La at acidic pH, thus permitting rational design of the aggregation process.

  7. Geochemical processes assessed by Rare Earth Elements fractionation at “Laguna Verde” acidic-sulphate crater lake (Azufral volcano, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Burbano, Viviana; Rouwet, Dmitri; Garzón, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical behaviour of major elements, Fe, Al, Mn, and Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the “Laguna Verde” acidic crater lake of Azufral volcano (Colombia). The cold lake water (T close to 10 °C) is sulphate-dominated, due to absorption and oxidation of H_2S (pH 2.1–2.7, Eh 196–260 mV), and Na-enriched (Total Dissolved Solids 0.79 g L"−"1). The total amount of REE dissolved in the lake ranges from 3.3 to 9.1 ppb. The REE patterns normalized to the local rocks show a Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) depletion quite constant in the 15 samples. Similar patterns were already found in the acidic sulphate springs of Nevado del Ruiz volcano-hydrothermal system, caused by the precipitation of alunite and jarosite, absorbing LREE and hence removing them from solution. Alunite and jarosite minerals are not oversaturated at chemical-physical conditions within the lake itself, but alunite becomes oversaturated for temperatures above ≈100 °C, reigning in the underlying hydrothermal system. Water temperatures close to 75 °C were found in the northern part of the lake. Coupling the distribution of REE in lake water (LREE depleted) and the saturation indexes, we suggest that the distribution of REE in the lake water is the result of the alunite precipitation in the northern part of the lake and/or in the deeper hydrothermal system. The acidic hydrothermal fluids mobilize the REE with contents up to ≈5 orders of magnitude higher than seawater; acidic-hydrothermal systems, such as acidic crater lakes, can hence be considered potential REE “reservoirs”. - Highlights: • Acidic crater lakes can be considered potential Rare Earth Elements reservoirs. • Alunite precipitation removes Light Rare Earth Elements. • Rare Earth Elements identify geochemical processes in volcano-hydrothermal systems.

  8. pH and Titratable Acidity of different Cough Syrups in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cough linctuses are liquid oral medicines widely used in children to treat cough and related conditions. Some of their constituents are acidic and dental erosive. Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the endogenous pH and titratable acidity of Nigerian cough syrups and also determine their erosive ...

  9. Intracellular product recycling in high succinic acid producing yeast at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahl, S.A.; Bernal Martinez, C.; Zhao, Zheng; van Gulik, W.M.; Jansen, Mickel L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of succinic acid has progressed dramatically, and a series of high-producing hosts are available. At low cultivation pH and high titers, the product transport can become bidirectional, i.e. the acid is reentering

  10. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  11. Benthic fauna of 41 acid sensitive headwater lakes in north central Ontario. [Chironomidae salinarius; Chironomidae anthracinus; Tanytarsini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, R.; Kelso, J.R.M.; Douglas, A.

    1986-01-01

    The benthic fauna of 41 nonhumic, soft water lakes situated north of lakes Superior and Huron were sampled during 1980. The pH range of the lakes sampled was 4.6 to 7.7. The benthic infauna displayed regional differences in abundance and composition, with large variation with each district. Total abundance, biomass, and number of taxa were not correlated with lake pH or alkalinity. The Chironomidae displayed a slight change in percent composition of the major species with lower pH. The Tanytarsini and Chironomus Salinarius group decreased, while C. anthracinus group increased in relative abundance in those lakes with lower pH. Other factors appear to control the distribution of the various invertebrate orders, with depth and sediment nature being important variables.

  12. Hydrological evolution and chemical structure of a hyper-acidic spring-lake system on Whakaari/White Island, NZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, B. W.; White, S.; Britten, K.; Scott, B. J.

    2017-10-01

    White Island has a long and varied history of acid spring discharge and shallow ephemeral lake formation on its main crater floor. In the 12 months prior to the onset of the 1976-2000 eruptive episode, mass discharge from the spring system increased ca. 10-fold, pointing to a strong coupling of the hydrothermal environment to the evolving magmatic system. Between 1976 and 1978, the formation of numerous eruption vents to 200 m depth in the Western Sub-crater abruptly changed the hydraulic gradients in the volcano, resulting in the reversal of groundwater flow in the massif towards the newly-formed crater(s). This affected not only the style of volcanic activity (leading to phreatic-phreatomagmatic-magmatic eruption cycles), but also led to the demise of the spring system, with discharge from the main crater declining by a factor > 100 by 1979. Eruptive activity ended shortly after a moderate Strombolian eruption in mid-2000, after which ephemeral lakes started to form in the eruption crater complex. Between 2003 and 2015 there were three complete lake filling and evaporative cycles, reflecting varying heat flow through the conduit system beneath the lake. Over these cycles, lake water concentrations of Cl and SO4 varied between ca. 35-150 and 5-45 g/L respectively, with pH values temporally ranging from + 1.5 to - 1. Springs appeared on the Main Crater floor in 2004, and their discharges varied with lake level, pointing to the lake level being a primary control over the piezometric surface in the crater area. Springs closest to the crater complex show direct evidence of crater lake water infiltration into the crater floor aquifer, whereas distal spring discharges show compositional variations reflecting vertical displacement of the interface between shallow, dilute condensate and underlying acidic brine fluids. Source components for the spring fluids include magmatic vapour, dissolved andesitic host rocks, seawater and meteoric water. Lake waters, on the other hand

  13. Importance of different physiological groups of iron reducing microorganisms in an acidic mining lake remediation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Katharina; Meier, Jutta; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2009-05-01

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing microorganisms play an important role for alkalinity-generating processes in mining lakes with low pH. In the acidic mining lake 111 in Lusatia, Germany, a passive in situ remediation method was tested in a large scale experiment, in which microbial iron and sulfate reduction are stimulated by addition of Carbokalk (a mixture of the nonsugar compounds of sugar beets and lime) and straw. The treated surface sediment consisted of three layers of different pH and geochemical composition. The top layer was acidic and rich in Fe(III), the second and third layer both showed moderately acidic to circum-neutral pH values, but only the second was rich in organics, strongly reduced and sulfidic. Aim of the study was to elucidate the relative importance of neutrophilic heterotrophic, acidophilic heterotrophic, and acidophilic autotrophic iron-reducing microorganisms in each of the three layers. In order to distinguish between them, the effect of their respective characteristic electron donors acetate, glucose, and elemental sulfur on potential iron reduction rates was investigated. Limitation of iron reduction by the availability of Fe(III) was revealed by the addition of Fe(OH)(3). The three groups of iron-reducing microorganisms were quantified by most probable number (MPN) technique and their community composition was analyzed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In the acidic surface layer, none of the three electron donors stimulated iron reduction; acetate even had an inhibiting effect. In agreement with this, no decrease of the added electron donors was observed. Iron reduction rates were low in comparison to the other layers. Iron reduction in layers 2 and 3 was enhanced by glucose and acetate, accompanied by a decrease of these electron donors. Addition of elemental sulfur did not enhance iron reduction in either layer. Layer 2 exhibited the highest iron reduction rate (4.08 mmol dm(-3) d(-1)) and the highest cell numbers in MPN

  14. The pH ruler: a Java applet for developing interactive exercises on acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H

    2011-07-01

    In introductory biochemistry courses, it is often a struggle to teach the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry in a manner that is relevant to biological systems. To help students gain a more intuitive and visual understanding of abstract acid-base concepts, a simple graphical construct called the pH ruler Java applet was developed. The applet allows students to visualize the abundance of different protonation states of diprotic and triprotic amino acids at different pH values. Using the applet, the student can drag a widget on a slider bar to change the pH and observe in real time changes in the abundance of different ionization states of this amino acid. This tool provides a means for developing more complex inquiry-based, active-learning exercises to teach more advanced topics of biochemistry, such as protein purification, protein structure and enzyme mechanism.

  15. Mesocosm studies to assess acidity removal from acidic mine lakes through controlled eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyson, A.; Nixdorf, B.; Kalin, M.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    1998-01-01

    Flooded lignite pits (Tagebaurestseen) in Lusatia, Germany, are acidic (pH 2.5-4) with high concentrations of iron. Mesocosms (total volume 20 l) were set up with water and sediment from a Tagebaurestsee to assess the effects of phosphate and organic amendments under natural light and low temperature. Chemical and biological parameters were observed over a 9-month period. Phosphate rock addition resulted in sustained reduction in acidity in the water column and induced the growth of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae) near the water surface and Lepocinclis teres (Euglenophyceae) in a band above the sediment. Addition of potatoes to mesocosms resulted in the generation of near-anoxic conditions above the sediment, and phosphorus, ammonium and carbon (organic and inorganic) were released as the potatoes decomposed. A pH > 6 was attained with 5.1 g (dry weight) of potatoes and pH > 8 with 34 g (dry weight). In both mesocosms, more than 90% of total acidity was removed

  16. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Soto Obando, Alina; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-12-01

    Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40-230%) and food intake (5-50%) and extended survival (10-160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5-20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Hyperpolarized Amino Acid Derivatives as Multivalent Magnetic Resonance pH Sensor Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hundshammer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available pH is a tightly regulated physiological parameter that is often altered in diseased states like cancer. The development of biosensors that can be used to non-invasively image pH with hyperpolarized (HP magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has therefore recently gained tremendous interest. However, most of the known HP-sensors have only individually and not comprehensively been analyzed for their biocompatibility, their pH sensitivity under physiological conditions, and the effects of chemical derivatization on their logarithmic acid dissociation constant (pKa. Proteinogenic amino acids are biocompatible, can be hyperpolarized and have at least two pH sensitive moieties. However, they do not exhibit a pH sensitivity in the physiologically relevant pH range. Here, we developed a systematic approach to tailor the pKa of molecules using modifications of carbon chain length and derivatization rendering these molecules interesting for pH biosensing. Notably, we identified several derivatives such as [1-13C]serine amide and [1-13C]-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as novel pH sensors. They bear several spin-1/2 nuclei (13C, 15N, 31P with high sensitivity up to 4.8 ppm/pH and we show that 13C spins can be hyperpolarized with dissolution dynamic polarization (DNP. Our findings elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemical shift pH sensors that might help to design tailored probes for specific pH in vivo imaging applications.

  18. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  19. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Luke L; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Evans, Louis H; Tsvetnenko, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH approximately 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and (c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  20. Monascus ruber as cell factory for lactic acid production at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusthuis, Ruud A; Mars, Astrid E; Springer, Jan; Wolbert, Emil Jh; van der Wal, Hetty; de Vrije, Truus G; Levisson, Mark; Leprince, Audrey; Houweling-Tan, G Bwee; Pha Moers, Antoine; Hendriks, Sjon Na; Mendes, Odette; Griekspoor, Yvonne; Werten, Marc Wt; Schaap, Peter J; van der Oost, John; Eggink, Gerrit

    2017-07-01

    A Monascus ruber strain was isolated that was able to grow on mineral medium at high sugar concentrations and 175g/l lactic acid at pH 2.8. Its genome and transcriptomes were sequenced and annotated. Genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were introduced to accomplish lactic acid production and two genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) were knocked out to subdue ethanol formation. The strain preferred lactic acid to glucose as carbon source, which hampered glucose consumption and therefore also lactic acid production. Lactic acid consumption was stopped by knocking out 4 cytochrome-dependent LDH (CLDH) genes, and evolutionary engineering was used to increase the glucose consumption rate. Application of this strain in a fed-batch fermentation resulted in a maximum lactic acid titer of 190g/l at pH 3.8 and 129g/l at pH 2.8, respectively 1.7 and 2.2 times higher than reported in literature before. Yield and productivity were on par with the best strains described in literature for lactic acid production at low pH. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pd(II)/PhI(OAc)2 promoted direct cross coupling of glucals with aromatic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Zubeda; Shankar, G; Sirisha, K; Reddy, B V Subba

    2018-05-22

    A highly efficient oxidative C2-aroyloxylation of D-glucal with aromatic carboxylic acids has been achieved for the first time using 5 mol% Pd(OAc) 2 and 1 equiv of PhI(OAc) 2 to produce C2-aroyloxyglycals in good yields. The use of excess of PhI(OAc) 2 (2 equiv) provides C2-acyloxyglycal exclusively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. pH and its frequency distribution patterns of Acid Precipitation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Moritsugu; Katou, Takunori; Sekiguchi, Kyoichi

    1991-01-01

    The pH data was collected at the 29 stations in Phase-I study of Acid Precipitation Survey over Japan by Japan Environment Agency in terms of frequency distribution patterns. This study was undertaken from April 1984 to March 1988, which was the first survey of acid precipitation over Japan with identical sampling procedures and subsequent chemical analyses. While the annual mean pH at each station ranged from 4.4 to 5.5, the monthly mean varied more widely, from 4.0 to 7.1. Its frequency distribution pattern was obtained for each station, and further grouped into four classes: class I; a mode at the rank of pH 4.5∼4.9, class II; bimodes above and below this pH region, class III; a mode at a higher pH region, class IV; a mode at a lower pH region. The bimodal pattern was suggestive of precipitation with and without incorporation of significant amounts of basic aerosol of anthropogenic origin during descent of rain droplet. The patterns of the stations were also classified on a basis of summer-winter difference into another four classes. Winter pH values were appreciably lower than summer pHs in western parts of Japan and on Japan Sea coast, we attribute the winter pH to probable contribution of acidic pollutants transported by strong winter monsoon from Eurasian Continent. At most stations in northern and eastern Japan, the pH was higher in winter months reflecting more incorporation of basic materials, e.g., NH 4 + and Ca 2+ . (author)

  3. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Julie P M; Méresse, Stéphane; Pocachard, Bérengère; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Aussel, Laurent; Barras, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i) to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii) to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii) to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  4. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P M Viala

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  5. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  6. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  7. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  8. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  9. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V LaBelle

    Full Text Available Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (∼ 5. Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased >100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ∼ 5-15 mM (catholyte volume/day acetate and >1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ∼ 6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈ 2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent, 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured.

  10. Assessing diet compositions of Lake Ontario predators using fatty acid profiles of prey fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Austin; Pattridge, Robert; Rinchard, Jacques; Walsh, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles are used in food web studies to assess trophic interactions between predator and prey. The present study provides the first comprehensive fatty acid dataset for important prey and predator species in Lake Ontario. Three major prey fish (alewife, rainbow smelt, and round goby) were collected at three sites along the southern shore of Lake Ontario during the spring and fall of 2013, and predator species were collected in similar locations during the summer of 2013. Fatty acid compositions were compared among all prey species, all predator species, and information from both predator and prey was used to infer foraging differences among predators. Seasonal differences in fatty acids were found within each prey species studied. Differences among prey species were greater than any spatio-temporal differences detected within species. Fatty acids of predators revealed species-specific differences that matched known foraging habits. Chinook and Coho salmon, which are known to select alewife as their dominant prey item, had relatively little variation in fatty acid profiles. Conversely, brown trout, lake trout, yellow perch and esocids had highly variable fatty acid profiles and likely highly variable diet compositions. In general, our data suggested three dominant foraging patterns: 1) diet composed of nearly exclusively alewife for Chinook and Coho Salmon; 2) a mixed diet of alewife and round goby for brown and lake trout, and both rock and smallmouth bass; 3) a diet that is likely comprised of forage fishes other than those included in our study for northern pike and chain pickerel.

  11. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  12. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  13. Vaginal pH and microbicidal lactic acid when lactobacilli dominate the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Deirdre E; Moench, Thomas R; Cone, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid.

  14. The effects of extracellular pH and hydroxycinnamic acids influence the intracellular pH of Brettanomyces bruxellensis DSM 7001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolongo, Simona; Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Aabo, Thomas Ask

    2014-01-01

    and intracellular pH changes in B. bruxellensis DSM 7001, in response to extracellular pH, as well as to the presence of an energy source and hydroxycinnamic acids, have been investigated in this paper by means of Fluorescent Ratio Imaging Microscopy (FRIM). The results show that B. bruxellensis DSM 7001 is able...

  15. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  16. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  17. ESTIMATION OF pH, TOTAL ACID AND ETHANOL CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALCOHOL-CONTAINING MOUTHWASHES AND ITS EFFECT ON SALIVARY pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi Shaik; Sharath Pocha Reddy; Sameeulla Shaik; Sarah Emerald Sheela Nemalladinne; Dandu Sivasai Prasad Reddy; Kotu Nagavenkata Sai Praveen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of mouthwash has become widespread as a part of routine oral hygiene. Mouthwashes may have deleterious effects on oral tissues because of its low pH, high acid content and use of ethanol as an antiseptic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional experimental study was conducted among 48 undergraduate dental students. Eight commercially available alcohol-containing mouthwashes, which are available in Indian market were selected for which the pH, total acid an...

  18. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  19. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0-7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils.

  20. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0–7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils. PMID

  1. Dissolved Divalent Metal and pH Effects on Amino Acid Polymerization: A Thermodynamic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Polymerization of amino acids is a fundamentally important step for the chemical evolution of life. Nevertheless, its response to changing environmental conditions has not yet been well understood because of the lack of reliable quantitative information. For thermodynamics, detailed prediction over diverse combinations of temperature and pH has been made only for a few amino acid-peptide systems. This study used recently reported thermodynamic dataset for the polymerization of the simplest amino acid "glycine (Gly)" to its short peptides (di-glycine and tri-glycine) to examine chemical and structural characteristics of amino acids and peptides that control the temperature and pH dependence of polymerization. Results showed that the dependency is strongly controlled by the intramolecular distance between the amino and carboxyl groups in an amino acid structure, although the side-chain group role is minor. The polymerization behavior of Gly reported earlier in the literature is therefore expected to be a typical feature for those of α-amino acids. Equilibrium calculations were conducted to examine effects of dissolved metals as a function of pH on the monomer-polymer equilibria of Gly. Results showed that metals shift the equilibria toward the monomer side, particularly at neutral and alkaline pH. Metals that form weak interaction with Gly (e.g., Mg 2+ ) have no noticeable influence on the polymerization, although strong interaction engenders significant decrease of the equilibrium concentrations of Gly peptides. Considering chemical and structural characteristics of Gly and Gly peptides that control their interactions with metals, it can be expected that similar responses to the addition of metals are applicable in the polymerization of neutral α-amino acids. Neutral and alkaline aqueous environments with dissolved metals having high affinity with neutral α-amino acids (e.g., Cu 2+ ) are therefore not beneficial places for peptide bond formation on the primitive

  2. Environmental responsiveness of polygalacturonic acid-based multilayers to variation of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Marta; Noel, Timothy R; Parker, Roger

    2011-02-14

    The effect of pH on the stability of layer-by-layer deposited polygalacturonic acid (PGalA)-based multilayer films prepared with the polycations poly-L-lysine, chitosan, and lysozyme is studied. The response was characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance, dual polarization interferometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which probe multilayer thickness, density, polymer mass (composition and speciation), and hydration. All multilayers showed irreversible changes in response to pH change becoming thinner due to the partial disassembly. Preferential loss of the polycation (50-80% w/w) and relative small losses of PGaLA (10-35% w/w) occurred. The charge density on the polycation has a strong influence on the response to the acid cycle. Most of the disassembly takes place at the pH lower that pK(a) of PGaLA, indicating that this factor was crucial in determining the stability of the films. The pH challenge also revealed a polycation-dependent shift to acid pH in the PGaLA pK(a).

  3. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A wireless pH sensor using magnetoelasticity for measurement of body fluid acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pengfei; Gao, Xianjuan; Xiao, Xilin; Yang, Wenyue; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-04-01

    The determination of body fluid acidity using a wireless magnetoelastic pH-sensitive sensor is described. The sensor was fabricated by casting a layer of pH-sensitive polymer on a magnetoelastic ribbon. In response to an externally applied time-varying magnetic field, the magnetoelastic sensor mechanically vibrates at a characteristic frequency that is inversely dependent upon the mass of the pH polymer film, which varies as the film swells and shrinks in response to pH. As the magnetoelastic sensor is magnetostrictive, the mechanical vibrations of the sensor launch magnetic flux that can be detected remotely using a pickup coil. The sensor can be used for direct measurements of body fluid acidity without a pretreatment of the sample by using a filtration membrane. A reversible and linear response was obtained between pH 5.0 and 8.0 with a measurement resolution of pH 0.1 and a slope of 0.2 kHz pH(-1). Since there are no physical connections between the sensor and the instrument, the sensor can be applied to in vivo and in situ monitoring of the physiological pH and its fluctuations.

  5. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Modeling aluminum-silicon chemistries and application to Australian acidic playa lakes as analogues for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Crowley, J. K.; Thomson, B. J.; Kargel, J. S.; Bridges, N. T.; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A.; Brown, A. J.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza Filho, C. R.

    2009-06-01

    Recent Mars missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major relevant findings are the presence in Meridiani Planum sediments of the mineral jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt) and related minerals that require formation from an acid-salt brine and oxidizing environment. Similar mineralogies have been observed in acidic saline lake sediments in Western Australia (WA), and these lakes have been proposed as analogues for acidic sedimentary environments on Mars. The prior version of the equilibrium chemical thermodynamic FREZCHEM model lacked Al and Si chemistries that are needed to appropriately model acidic aqueous geochemistries on Earth and Mars. The objectives of this work were to (1) add Al and Si chemistries to the FREZCHEM model, (2) extend these chemistries to low temperatures (enthalpy data. New aluminum and silicon parameterizations added 12 new aluminum/silicon minerals to this Na-K-Mg-Ca-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Al-H-Cl-Br-SO 4-NO 3-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-Si-H 2O system that now contain 95 solid phases. There were similarities, differences, and uncertainties between Australian acidic, saline playa lakes and waters that likely led to the Burns formation salt accumulations on Mars. Both systems are similar in that they are dominated by (1) acidic, saline ground waters and sediments, (2) Ca and/or Mg sulfates, and (3) iron precipitates such as jarosite and hematite. Differences include: (1) the dominance of NaCl in many WA lakes, versus the dominance of Fe-Mg-Ca-SO 4 in Meridiani Planum, (2) excessively low K + concentrations in Meridiani Planum due to jarosite precipitation, (3) higher acid production in the presence of high iron concentrations in Meridiani Planum, and probably lower rates of acid neutralization and hence, higher acidities on Mars owing to colder temperatures, and (4) lateral salt patterns in WA lakes. The WA playa lakes display significant lateral variations in mineralogy and water

  7. A proposed relationship between pH and ascorbic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A relationship between the ascorbic acid content of fresh squeezed juice of orange, lemon, grape and lime and the pH was presented. The relationship established were statistically compared with those obtained by the 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. It was shown that they do not differ significantly (p≥0.05) ...

  8. Dynamics of fatty acid vesicles in response to pH stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikari, Keita; Sakuma, Yuka; Jimbo, Takehiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of decanoic acid/decanoate (DA) vesicles in response to pH stimuli. Two types of dynamic processes induced by the micro injection of NaOH solutions are sequentially observed: deformations and topological transitions. In the deformation stage, DA vesicles show a series...

  9. Effects of pH, titratable acidity and calcium concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been reported that experimental addition of calcium in beverages can reduce the progression of erosion. This study was carried out to investigate effects the of pH, titratable acidity and calcium concentration of non alcoholic carbonated beverages on enamel erosion of extracted human premolar teeth. Method: ...

  10. Measurement of pH, alkalinity and acidity in ultra-soft waters | Lahav ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the "blend" method, equilibrium chemistry data were used to calculate total acidity for each point based on the known total alkalinity, pH reading, temperature and ionic strength. The two methods gave excellent results (in terms of both repetition and accuracy) as compared to characterisation based on total alkalinity and ...

  11. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  12. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  13. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Lisa A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pKa and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pKa and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  14. Protein Complexation and pH Dependent Release Using Boronic Acid Containing PEG-Polypeptide Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Graciela E; Deming, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    New poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) copolypeptides have been prepared, where the side-chain amine groups of lysine residues are modified to contain ortho-amine substituted phenylboronic acid, i.e., Wulff-type phenylboronic acid (WBA), groups to improve their pH responsive, carbohydrate binding properties. These block copolymers form nanoscale complexes with glycosylated proteins that are stable at physiological pH, yet dissociate and release the glycoproteins under acidic conditions, similar to those found in endosomal and lysosomal compartments within cells. These results suggest that WBA modified polypeptide copolymers are promising for further development as degradable carriers for intracellular protein delivery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Contributions of Cell Metabolism and H+ Diffusion to the Acidic pH of Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Schornack

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is hypoxic and acidic. These conditions have a significant impact on tumor progression and response to therapies. There is strong evidence that tumor hypoxia results from inefficient perfusion due to a chaotic vasculature. Consequently, some tumor regions are well oxygenated and others are hypoxic. It is commonly believed that hypoxic regions are acidic due to a stimulation of glycolysis through hypoxia, yet this is not yet demonstrated. The current study investigates the causes of tumor acidity by determining acid production rates and the mechanism of diffusion for H+ equivalents through model systems. Two breast cancer cell lines were investigated with divergent metabolic profiles: nonmetastatic MCF-7/s and highly metastatic MDA-mb-435 cells. Glycolysis and acid production are inhibited by oxygen in MCF-7/s cells, but not in MDA-mb-435 cells. Tumors of MDAmb-435 cells are significantly more acidic than are tumors of MCF-7/s cells, suggesting that tumor acidity is primarily caused by endogenous metabolism, not the lack of oxygen. Metabolically produced protons are shown to diffuse in association with mobile buffers, in concordance with previous studies. The metabolic and diffusion data were analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model to demonstrate that the consequent pH profiles conform well to measured pH values for tumors of these two cell lines.

  16. Ionoregulatory and toxicological responses of stonefly nymphs (Plecoptera) to acidic and alkaline pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechleitner, R.A.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Stetler, D.A.

    1985-03-01

    The acute toxicities of acidic and alkaline pH to nymphs of the stoneflies Pteronarcys dorsata, P. proteus, and Tallaperla maria were determined in 96-hr static bioassays. The acidic and alkaline 96-hr LC/sub 50/ values were 2.8 to 3.3 and 12.1 to 10.3, respectively. Exposure to pH 3.0 for 72 hr or longer caused a significant loss of sodium from nymphs of P. proteus. Morphological changes, including distension of cuticular disk and increased number of vesicles, were observed in gill tissue from nymphs of P. dorsata exposed to pH 2.5 for 9 hr while minor changes were observed in nymphs exposed to pH 4.0 for 96 hr. Changes in gill tissue ultrastructure included an increase in number of vesicles and a decrease in number and size of mitochondria in nymphs exposed to alkaline pH of 11.75.

  17. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhang'e; Wu Feng; Deng Nansheng

    2006-01-01

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10 9 cells L -1 raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L -1 humic acid and 20 μmol L -1 Fe 3+ . The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment

  18. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate...... in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved....... Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing....

  19. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  20. Studies on mountain streams in the English lake district I. PH, calcium and the distribution of invertebrates in the River Duddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, D.W.; Carrick, T.R.

    1973-01-01

    The River Duddon and its tributaries rarely exceed pH 7.0. There are three types of acid regime; pH>5.7 and pH<5.7 independent of season or rainfall, and fluctuating acidity with pH<5.7 in winter and wet periods, pH>5.7 in summer or dry periods. PH in the River Duddon fluctuates for most of its length. Ph>5.7 is characteristic of tributaries in the lower drainage basin, but pH<5.7 occurs in the headwaters of two of these tributaries. With five exceptions, pH<5.7 or fluctuating pH are characteristic of tributaries in the upper drainage basin. A very close relationship exists between the pH regime of stream water and the benthis cauna. Apart from oligochaetes and flatworms, streams with pH<5.7 or fluctuating pH are characterized by thirteen common or abundant taxa; six plecoptera, four trichoptera and three diptera. These taxa are also common in streams with pH>5.7 but in addition these streams contain ephemeroptera, the trichopterans wormaldia and hydropsyche, the mollusc Ancylus and the amphipod gammarus. It is concluded that the calcium concentration is less important than the pH-bicarbonate concentrations in limiting the qualitative distribution of benthic invertebrates. The limiting effect of pH<5.7 on an extensive range of taxa in the duddon also occurs in other areas. The affected taxa are generally herbivores. It is suggested that in the case of insects the limiting effects of low pH may indirectly operate through changes in food supply.

  1. Geochemistry of highly acidic mine water following disposal into a natural lake with carbonate bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisskirchen, Christian; Dold, Bernhard; Friese, Kurt; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Morgenstern, Peter; Glaesser, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mean lake water element composition did not differ greatly from discharged AMD. → Most elements showed increasing concentrations from the surface to lake bottom. → Jarosite formed in the upper part, settled, and dissolved in the deeper part of the lake. → Elements migrated into the underlying carbonates in the sequence As 3 , 4330 mg/L Fe and 29,250 mg/L SO 4 . Mean trace element concentrations were 86.8 mg/L Cu, 493 mg/L Zn, 2.9 mg/L Pb and 48 mg/L As, which did not differ greatly from the discharged AMD. Most elements showed increasing concentrations from the surface to the lake bottom at a maximal depth of 41 m (e.g. from 3581 to 5433 mg/L Fe and 25,609 to 35,959 mg/L SO 4 ). The variations in the H and O isotope compositions and the element concentrations within the upper 10 m of the water column suggest mixing with recently discharged AMD, shallow groundwater and precipitation waters. Below 15 m a stagnant zone had developed. Gypsum (saturation index, SI ∼ 0.25) and anglesite (SI ∼ 0.1) were in equilibrium with lake water. Jarosite was oversaturated (SI ∼ 1.7) in the upper part of the water column, resulting in downward settling and re-dissolution in the lower part of the water column (SI ∼ -0.7). Accordingly, jarosite was only found in sediments from less than 7 m water depth. At the lake bottom, a layer of gel-like material (∼90 wt.% water) of pH ∼1 with a total organic C content of up to 4.40 wet wt.% originated from the kerosene discharge of the Cu-extraction plant and had contaminant element concentrations similar to the lake water. Below the organic layer followed a layer of gypsum with pH 1.5, which overlaid the dissolving carbonate sediments of pH 5.3-7. In these two layers the contaminant elements were enriched compared to lake water in the sequence As < Pb ∼ Cu < Cd < Zn = Mn with increasing depth. This sequence of enrichment was explained by the following processes: (i) adsorption of As on Fe

  2. A combined CaO/electrochemical treatment of the acid mine drainage from the "Robule" Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was development and application of the purification system suitable for the treatment of the acid mine drainage (AMD) accumulated in the "Robule" Lake, which represents the part of the Bor copper mining and smelting complex, Serbia. The study was undertaken in order to minimize adverse effect on the environment caused by the discharge of untreated AMD, which was characterized with low pH value (2.63) and high concentration of heavy metals (up to 610 mg/L) and sulfates (up to 12,000 mg/L). The treatment of the effluent included pretreatment/pH adjustment with CaO followed by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrode sets. Following the final treatment, the decrease in the concentration of heavy metals ranged from 40 up to 61000 times depending on the metal and its initial concentration. The parameters, color and turbidity were removed completely in the pretreatment step, while the removal efficiencies for other considered parameters were as follows: EC = 55.48%, SO(4) (2-) = 70.83%, Hg = 98.36%, Pb = 97.50%, V = 98.43%, Cr = 99.86%, Mn = 97.96%, Fe = 100.00%, Co = 99.96%, Ni = 99.78%, Cu = 99.99% and Zn = 99.94%. Because the concentrations of heavy metals in the electrochemically treated AMD (ranging from 0.001 to 0.336 mg/L) are very low, the negative impact of this effluent on the aquatic life and humans is not expected. The sludge generated during the treatment of AMD is suitable for reuse for at least two purposes (pretreatment of AMD and covering of the flotation waste heap). From the presented results, it could be concluded that electrochemical treatment is a suitable approach for the treatment of AMD.

  3. The effect of pH on the erosion of dentine and enamel by dietary acids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N X; Hughes, J A; Addy, M

    2001-09-01

    The reported incidence of tooth erosion caused by acidic soft drinks has been increasingly documented. Citric and phosphoric acids are the two main dietary acids present in these soft drinks. Many variables need to be determined in order to assess risk factors for dental erosion caused by beverage consumption including pH, titratable acidity, pKa, buffering capacity, hence the aim of these in vitro investigations. Methodologies included profiling flat enamel and dentine samples (acidic solutions adjusted with alkali over the available pH range; citric, phosphoric and hydrochloric acid were adjusted with sodium hydroxide and citric acid with trisodium citrate. Tissue loss was calculated by profilometry. Results showed that under these conditions citric acid caused far more erosion over the pH range employed than phosphoric acid for both tissue types. Citric acid compared with hydrochloric acid highlighted dissolution and chelation effects. Phosphoric acid caused minimal erosion over pH 3 for enamel and pH 4 for dentine. These factors could be considered in order to reduce the erosivity of acidic soft drinks.

  4. Monomeric banana lectin at acidic pH overrules conformational stability of its native dimeric form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed M Khan

    Full Text Available Banana lectin (BL is a homodimeric protein categorized among jacalin-related family of lectins. The effect of acidic pH was examined on conformational stability of BL by using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS binding, size exclusion chromatography (SEC and dynamic light scattering (DLS. During acid denaturation of BL, the monomerization of native dimeric protein was found at pH 2.0. The elution profile from SEC showed two different peaks (59.65 ml & 87.98 ml at pH 2.0 while single peak (61.45 ml at pH 7.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R h of native BL was 2.9 nm while at pH 2.0 two species were found with R h of 1.7 and 3.7 nm. Furthermore at, pH 2.0 the secondary structures of BL remained unaltered while tertiary structure was significantly disrupted with the exposure of hydrophobic clusters confirming the existence of molten globule like state. The unfolding of BL with different subunit status was further evaluated by urea and temperature mediated denaturation to check their stability. As inferred from high Cm and ΔG values, the monomeric form of BL offers more resistance towards chemical denaturation than the native dimeric form. Besides, dimeric BL exhibited a Tm of 77°C while no loss in secondary structures was observed in monomers even up to 95°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on monomeric subunit of lectins showing more stability against denaturants than its native dimeric state.

  5. The role of pegmatites and acid fluids for REE/HFSE mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic pluton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A.

    2012-12-01

    . We modeled the interaction of HF-NaCl and HF-HCl-NaCl fluids with a Strange Lake pegmatite at 400-250 °C to test different alteration scenarios. The simulations indicated that a stronger acid than HF is needed to shift the system towards fluid buffered pH values, which are required to remobilize the REE and Zr. Comparison of the field study with numerical simulation indicates that for the effective hydrothermal remobilization of REE/HFSE, the system needs a source of elevated acidity and high fluid/rock ratios. We propose a model in which the Strange Lake pegmatites were a source of acidic fluids and upon cooling were affected by autometasomatic alteration due to increased acidity of the fluids, creating pathways for REE/HFSE mobilization.

  6. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pHwaters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. pH studies in the synthesis of amino acid coated hydrophilic MNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Namita; Dube, Charu Lata

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles magnetite and maghemite (MNPs) are specially useful in various fields like biomedical, waste disposal, catalysis etc. because of their biocompatibility and magnetic properties. They can be manipulated by applying magnetic field and hence their easier separation, wider applications and unending scope in the field of research. They are inherently hydrophobic, and aggregate easily mainly due to magnetic and nanosize effects. The present work reports the synthesis of hydrophilic, stably dispersed MNPs coated by different amino acids at different pH values. Lower concentration of amino acids, 1/3 (moles by moles) of Iron salts concentration was used in the study. Crystallites were found to be approximately 6-7 nm in size, as determined by XRD and also found to have good magnetization values in VSM studies. The effects of coating are mainly studied by FTIR and TG. Higher/lower pH values have been studied for better coating, and it is observed that higher pH is more helpful in getting better results, on bare MNPs synthesized under a pH of approximately 13.3. The effects of net charge on coating efficiency were also studied.

  8. Novel pH responsive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles for oral peptide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-02-01

    In present study, novel pH sensitive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PCP) nanoparticles were prepared under mild aqueous conditions via polyelectrolyte complexation. Free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) was carried out in presence of chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using a water-soluble initiator and particles were obtained spontaneously during polymerization without using organic solvents or surfactants/steric stabilizers. Dried particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) were visualized under transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM studies indicated that PCP particles have an aggregated and irregular morphology, however, TEM revealed that these aggregated particles were composed of smaller fragments with size less than 1 micron. Insulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model proteins were incorporated into the nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release characteristics were evaluated at pH 1.2 and 7.4. PCP nanoparticles exhibited good protein encapsulation efficiency and pH responsive release profile was observed under in vitro conditions. Trypsin inhibitory effect of these PCP nanoparticles was studied using casein substrate and these particles displayed lesser inhibitory effect than reference polymer carbopol. Preliminary investigation suggests that these particles can serve as good candidate for oral peptide delivery. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Deletion of the pH sensor GPR4 decreases renal acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuming; Yang, Li V; Tiegs, Brian C; Arend, Lois J; McGraw, Dennis W; Penn, Raymond B; Petrovic, Snezana

    2010-10-01

    Proton receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that accept protons as ligands and function as pH sensors. One of the proton receptors, GPR4, is relatively abundant in the kidney, but its potential role in acid-base homeostasis is unknown. In this study, we examined the distribution of GPR4 in the kidney, its function in kidney epithelial cells, and the effects of its deletion on acid-base homeostasis. We observed GPR4 expression in the kidney cortex, in the outer and inner medulla, in isolated kidney collecting ducts, and in cultured outer and inner medullary collecting duct cells (mOMCD1 and mIMCD3). Cultured mOMCD1 cells exhibited pH-dependent accumulation of intracellular cAMP, characteristic of GPR4 activation; GPR4 knockdown attenuated this accumulation. In vivo, deletion of GPR4 decreased net acid secretion by the kidney and resulted in a nongap metabolic acidosis, indicating that GPR4 is required to maintain acid-base homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that GPR4 is a pH sensor with an important role in regulating acid secretion in the kidney collecting duct.

  10. pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, V; Alling, V; Nurida, N L

    2015-01-01

    of increasing amounts (0–30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused...... a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30 tons ha−1, the estimated increase in soil...... pH from the initial mean pH of 4.7 was about 0.5 units for the cacao shell BC, whereas this was only 0.05 and 0.04 units for the oil palm shell and rice husk BC, respectively. Besides depending on BC type, the increase in soil pH upon the addition of each of the three BCs was mainly dependent...

  11. Cation effects on phosphatidic acid monolayers at various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Cathcart, Matthew G; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2016-10-01

    The impact of pH and cations on phase behavior, stability, and surface morphology for dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers was investigated. At pHCations are found to expand and stabilize the monolayer in the following order of increasing magnitude at pH 5.6: Na + >K + ∼Mg 2+ >Ca 2+ . Additionally, cation complexation is tied to the pH and protonation state of DPPA, which are the primary factors controlling the monolayer surface behavior. The binding affinity of cations to the headgroup and thus deprotonation capability of the cation, ranked in the order of Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >Na + >K + , is found to be well explained by the law of matching water affinities. Nucleation of surface 3D lipid structures is observed from Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Na + , but not from K + , consistent with the lowest binding affinity of K + . Unraveling cation and pH effects on DPPA monolayers is useful in further understanding the surface properties of complex systems such as organic-coated marine aerosols where organic films are directly influenced by the pH and ionic composition of the underlying aqueous phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dendritic Zinc Growth in Acid Electrolyte: Effect of the pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Leandro N.; Pary, Paola; Seré, Pablo R.; Conconi, M. Susana; Egli, Walter A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, dendritic growth at the edges of electrogalvanized steel strip has been studied using a specially designed rotating washer electrode which simulates the fluid dynamic conditions and the current density distribution at the steel strip edge found in a production line. The effect of electrolyte pH and current density on dendritic growth in an acidic zinc plating bath (ZnSO4 and H2SO4) was addressed. The temperature was kept constant at 60 °C. Solution pH was adjusted to 1, 2 or 3 using different amounts of H2SO4. In addition, the influence of temperature on the pH of the solution was determined. The current density was set at 40 or 60 A/dm2, similar to that used in the industry. Deposits were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that pH strongly affects dendrites shape, length and texture. Furthermore, the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge and of deposits on the flat portion of the washer changed considerably as solution pH was increased from 1 to 3. It was found that the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge stems from the morphology of the deposit on its flat portion, which in turn determines their shape.

  13. Antimony leaching release from brake pads: Effect of pH, temperature and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang; Li, Sisi

    2015-03-01

    Metals from automotive brake pads pollute water, soils and the ambient air. The environmental effect on water of antimony (Sb) contained in brake pads has been largely untested. The content of Sb in one abandoned brake pad reached up to 1.62×10(4) mg/kg. Effects of initial pH, temperature and four organic acids (acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and humic acid) on Sb release from brake pads were studied using batch reactors. Approximately 30% (97 mg/L) of the total Sb contained in the brake pads was released in alkaline aqueous solution and at higher temperature after 30 days of leaching. The organic acids tested restrained Sb release, especially acetic acid and oxalic acid. The pH-dependent concentration change of Sb in aqueous solution was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In addition, Sb contained in topsoil from land where brake pads were discarded (average 9×10(3) mg/kg) was 3000 times that in uncontaminated soils (2.7±1 mg/kg) in the same areas. Because potentially high amounts of Sb may be released from brake pads, it is important that producers and environmental authorities take precautions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y

    2017-05-01

    We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

  15. The influence of total organic carbon (TOC) on the relationship between acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and fish status in Norwegian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Espen; Larssen, Thorjørn; Fjeld, Eirik

    2004-06-29

    Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is the parameter most commonly used as chemical indicator for fish response to acidification. Empirical relationships between fish status of surface waters and ANC have been documented earlier. ANC is commonly calculated as the difference between base cations ([BC]=[Ca2+]+[Mg2+]+[N+]+[K+]) and strong acid anions ([SAA]=[SO4(2)-]+[NO3-]+[Cl-]). This is a very robust calculation of ANC, because none of the parameters incorporated are affected by the partial pressure of CO2, in contrast to the remaining major ions in waters, pH ([H+]), aluminum ([Aln+]), alkalinity ([HCO3-/CO3(2)-]) and organic anions ([An-]). Here we propose a modified ANC calculation where the permanent anionic charge of the organic acids is assumed as a part of the strong acid anions. In many humic lakes, the weak organic acids are the predominant pH-buffering system. Because a significant amount of the weak organic acids have pK-values4.5). This means that they will be permanently present as anions, equal to the strong acid inorganic anions, SO4(2)-, NO3- and Cl-. In the literature, natural organic acids are often described as triprotic acids with a low pK1 value. Assuming a triprotic model, we suggest to add 1/3 of the organic acid charge density to the strong acid anions in the ANC calculation. The suggested organic acid adjusted ANC (ANC(OAA)), is then calculated as follows: ANC(OAA)=[BC]-([SAA]+1/3CD*TOC) where TOC is total organic carbon (mg C L(-1)), and CD=10.2 is charge density of the organic matter (microeq/mg C), based on literature data from Swedish lakes. ANC(OAA) gives significant lower values of ANC in order to achieve equal fish status compared with the traditional ANC calculation. Using ANC(OAA) the humic conditions in lakes are better taken into account. This may also help explain observations of higher ANC needed to have reproducing fish populations in lakes with higher TOC concentrations. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Geochemical evolution of the acid crater lake of Poas volcano (Costa Rica): Insights into volcanic-hydrothermal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Cruz, María

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the evolution of Laguna Caliente, an acid crater lake at the summit of Po:is, a persistently active volcano in central Costa Rica. The appearance, volume, temperature and chemical composition of the lake have continuously changed over the entire known period of its

  17. A new boronic acid fluorescent sensor based on fluorene for monosaccharides at physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona; Eslami, Abbas; Emami, Saeed

    2015-06-05

    Fluorescent boronic acids are very useful fluorescent sensor for detection of biologically important saccharides. Herein we synthesized a new fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides at physiological pH. Upon addition of fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, ribose, and maltose at different concentration to the solution of 7-(dimethylamino)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2-boronic acid (7-DMAFBA, 1), significant decreases in fluorescent intensity were observed. It was found that this boronic acid has high affinity (K(a)=3582.88 M(-1)) and selectivity for fructose over glucose at pH=7.4. The sensor 1 showed a linear response toward d-fructose in the concentrations ranging from 2.5×10(-5) to 4×10(-4) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 1.3×10(-5) mol L(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of polysorbate 80 and cyclopropane fatty acid synthase activity on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Oberg, T S; Hughes, J E; Ward, R E; Brighton, C; Welker, D L; Steele, J L

    2014-03-01

    Lactic acid is an important industrial chemical commonly produced through microbial fermentation. The efficiency of acid extraction is increased at or below the acid's pKa (pH 3.86), so there is interest in factors that allow for a reduced fermentation pH. We explored the role of cyclopropane synthase (Cfa) and polysorbate (Tween) 80 on acid production and membrane lipid composition in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 at low pH. Cells from wild-type and an ATCC 334 cfa knockout mutant were incubated in APT broth medium containing 3 % glucose plus 0.02 or 0.2 % Tween 80. The cultures were allowed to acidify the medium until it reached a target pH (4.5, 4.0, or 3.8), and then the pH was maintained by automatic addition of NH₄OH. Cells were collected at the midpoint of the fermentation for membrane lipid analysis, and media samples were analyzed for lactic and acetic acids when acid production had ceased. There were no significant differences in the quantity of lactic acid produced at different pH values by wild-type or mutant cells grown in APT, but the rate of acid production was reduced as pH declined. APT supplementation with 0.2 % Tween 80 significantly increased the amount of lactic acid produced by wild-type cells at pH 3.8, and the rate of acid production was modestly improved. This effect was not observed with the cfa mutant, which indicated Cfa activity and Tween 80 supplementation were each involved in the significant increase in lactic acid yield observed with wild-type L. casei at pH 3.8.

  19. Anti-biofilm potential of phenolic acids: the influence of environmental pH and intrinsic physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Horta, Bruno; Calhau, Conceição; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, M Manuela

    2016-09-13

    Phenolic acids are a particular group of small phenolic compounds which have exhibited some anti-biofilm activity, although the link between their activity and their intrinsic pH is not clear. Therefore, the present work examined the anti-biofilm activity (inhibition of biomass and metabolic activity) of phenolic acids in relation to the environmental pH, as well as other physico-chemical properties. The results indicate that, while Escherichia coli was not inhibited by the phenolic acids, both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were susceptible to the action of all phenolic acids, with the pH playing a relevant role in the activity: a neutral pH favored MRSE inhibition, while acidic conditions favored MRSA inhibition. Some links between molecular polarity and size were associated only with their potential as metabolic inhibitors, with the overall interactions hinting at a membrane-based mechanism for MRSA and a cytoplasmic effect for MRSE.

  20. Optical ph sensing material prepared from doped sol-gel film for use in acid-base titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An optical pH sensing material has been prepared in this study by using sol-gel technique. Bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and thymol blue were chosen in this study as acidbase indicators for strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base and weak acid-strong base titration, respectively. The results show that these indicators could be successfully entrapped inside the sol-gel film and still maintain its chemical behaviour as in solution. The entrapped acid-base indicators respond well to any pH changes and could be used to determine the end-point of the acid-base titration.

  1. Critical Loads of Acid Deposition for Wilderness Lakes in the Sierra Nevada (California) Estimated by the Steady-State Water Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn D. Shaw; Ricardo Cisneros; Donald Schweizer; James O. Sickman; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Major ion chemistry (2000-2009) from 208 lakes (342 sample dates and 600 samples) in class I and II wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada was used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to estimate critical loads for acid deposition and investigate the current vulnerability of high elevation lakes to acid deposition. The majority of the lakes were dilute (...

  2. Isoelectric focusing of dansylated amino acids in immobilized pH gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Bosisio, Adriana; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Egen, Ned B.; Bier, Milan

    1986-01-01

    The 21 free amino acids commonly encountered in proteins have been transformed into 'carrier ampholyte' species by reacting their primary amino groups with dansyl chloride. These derivatives can thus be focused in an immobilized pH gradient covering the pH interval 3.1 to 4.1, except for arginine, which still retains a pI of 8.8. Due to their inherent fluorescence, the dansyl derivatives are revealed in UV light, with a sensitivity of the order of 2-4 ng/sq mm. All nearest neighbors are separated except for the following couples: Asn-Gln, Gly-Thr, Val-Ile and Cys-Cys2, with a resolving power, in a Delta(pI) scale, of the order of 0.0018 pH units. Except for a few cases (notably the aromatic amino acids), the order of pI values is well correlated with the pK values of carboxyl groups, suggesting that the latter are not altered by dansylation. From the set of pK(COOH)-pI values of the different amino acids, the pK of the tertiary amino group in the dansyl label has been calculated to be 5.11 + or - 0.06. Knowing the pK of the amino-dansyl and the pI of the excess, free dansyl label (pI = 3.34), a pK of 1.57 is derived for its sulfonic acid group.

  3. Thermodynamic Solubility Profile of Carbamazepine-Cinnamic Acid Cocrystal at Different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramatnia, Fatemeh; Shayanfar, Ali; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-08-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystal formation is a direct way to dramatically influence physicochemical properties of drug substances, especially their solubility and dissolution rate. Because of their instability in the solution, thermodynamic solubility of cocrystals could not be determined in the common way like other compounds; therefore, the thermodynamic solubility is calculated through concentration of their components in the eutectic point. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of an ionizable coformer in cocrystal with a nonionizable drug at different pH. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a nonionizable drug with cinnamic acid (CIN), which is an acidic coformer, was selected to prepare CBZ-CIN cocrystal and its thermodynamic solubility was studied in pH range 2-7. Instead of HPLC that is a costly and time-consuming method, a chemometric-based approach, net analyte signal standard addition method, was selected for simultaneous determination of CBZ and CIN in solution. The result showed that, as pH increases, CIN ionization leads to change in CBZ-CIN cocrystal solubility and stability in solution. In addition, the results of this study indicated that there is no significant difference between intrinsic solubility of CBZ and cocrystal despite the higher ideal solubility of cocrystal. This verifies that ideal solubility is not good parameter to predict cocrystal solubility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Spontaneous aggregation of humic acid observed with AFM at different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Claudio; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Angelico, Ruggero; Cho, Hyen Goo; Francioso, Ornella; Ertani, Andrea; Nardi, Serenella

    2015-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy in contact (AFM-C) mode was used to investigate the molecular dynamics of leonardite humic acid (HA) aggregate formed at different pH values. HA nanoparticles dispersed at pH values ranging from 2 to 12 were observed on a mica surface under dry conditions. The most clearly resolved and well-resulted AFM images of single particle were obtained at pH 5, where HA appeared as supramolecular particles with a conic shape and a hole in the centre. Those observations suggested that HA formed under these conditions exhibited a pseudo-amphiphilic nature, with secluded hydrophobic domains and polar subunits in direct contact with hydrophilic mica surface. Based on molecular simulation methods, a lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) model was proposed to explain the HA ring-like morphology. The LCC model optimized the parameters of β-O-4 linkages between 14 units of 1-4 phenyl propanoid, and resulted in an optimized structure comprising 45-50 linear helical molecules looped spirally around a central cavity. Those results added new insights on the adsorption mechanism of HA on polar surfaces as a function of pH, which was relevant from the point of view of natural aggregation in soil environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of systemic pH on pHi and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH i ), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH 4 Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO 3 (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH i and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH i did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability

  6. Putrescine biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally activated at acidic pH and counteracts acidification of the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-11-07

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is a lactic acid bacterium that synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The AGDI genes cluster includes aguR. This encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system, the job of which is to sense the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulate the transcription of the catabolic operon aguBDAC. The latter encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine. This work reports the effect of extracellular pH on putrescine biosynthesis and on the genetic regulation of the AGDI pathway. Increased putrescine biosynthesis was detected at acidic pH (pH5) compared to neutral pH. Acidic pH induced the transcription of the catabolic operon via the activation of the aguBDAC promoter PaguB. However, the external pH had no significant effect on the activity of the aguR promoter PaguR, or on the transcription of the aguR gene. The transcriptional activation of the AGDI pathway was also found to require a lower agmatine concentration at pH5 than at neutral pH. Finally, the following of the AGDI pathway counteracted the acidification of the cytoplasm under acidic external conditions, suggesting it to provide protection against acid stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. pH dependence of the properties of waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives containing acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Canetta, Elisabetta; Weerakkody, Tecla G; Keddie, Joseph L; Rivas, Urko

    2009-03-01

    Polymer colloids are often copolymerized with acrylic acid monomers in order to impart colloidal stability. Here, the effects of the pH on the nanoscale and macroscopic adhesive properties of waterborne poly(butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) films are reported. In films cast from acidic colloidal dispersions, hydrogen bonding between carboxylic acid groups dominates the particle-particle interactions, whereas ionic dipolar interactions are dominant in films cast from basic dispersions. Force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope and macroscale mechanical measurements show that latex films with hydrogen-bonding interactions have lower elastic moduli and are more deformable. They yield higher adhesion energies. On the other hand, in basic latex, ionic dipolar interactions increase the moduli of the dried films. These materials are stiffer and less deformable and, consequently, exhibit lower adhesion energies. The rate of water loss from acidic latex is slower, perhaps because of hydrogen bonding with the water. Therefore, although acid latex offers greater adhesion, there is a limitation in the film formation.

  8. Multimedia fate modeling of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in the shallow lake Chaohu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, X.; Liu, W.; He, W.; Xu, F.; Koelmans, Albert A; Mooij, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater shallow lake ecosystems provide valuable ecological services to human beings. However, these systems are subject to severe contamination from anthropogenic sources. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS),

  9. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

  10. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y ATP (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [ 14 C]acetate and [ 14 C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation

  11. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  12. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups. PMID:27008254

  13. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately

  14. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Sanz, Jose Luis; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Stams, Alfons J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed

  15. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene, E-mail: irene.sanchezandrea@wur.nl [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sanz, Jose Luis [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bijmans, Martijn F.M. [Wetsus, Centre of Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed.

  16. Seasonal dynamics, composition and feeding patterns of ciliate assemblages in oligotrophic lakes covering a wide pH range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Miroslav; Callieri, C.; Šimek, Karel; Vázquez, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 2 (2006), s. 261-287 ISSN 0003-9136 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0072; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296; GA MŠk(CZ) OK 118 Grant - others:UNAM DGAPA/PAPIIT(MX) IN208502; EC(XE) ENV4-CT95-0007; EC(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00032; FES UNAM(MX) PAPCA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : mountain lakes * timberline * acidified lakes * tropical high altitude lake * mixotrophy * oligotrichs * prostomes * gymnosotmes * peritrichs * scuticociliates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2006

  17. Aromatic amino acids and their relevance in the specificity of the PH domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morales, J.; Sobol, Margaryta; Rodriguez-Zapata, L.C.; Hozák, Pavel; Castano, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2017), č. článku e2649. ISSN 0952-3499 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA ČR GA16-03346S; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PH domain * Phosphatidic acid * Phosphoinositides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2016

  18. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  19. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mode of de-esterification of alkaline and acidic pectin methyl esterases at different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvetter, Thomas; Fraeye, Ilse; Sila, Daniel N; Verlent, Isabel; Smout, Chantal; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2006-10-04

    Highly esterified citrus pectin was de-esterified at pH 4.5 and 8.0 by a fungal pectin methyl esterase (PME) that was shown to have an acidic isoelectric pH (pI) and an acidic pH optimum and by a plant PME that was characterized by an alkaline pI and an alkaline pH optimum. Interchain and intrachain de-esterification patterns were studied by digestion of the pectin products with endo-polygalacturonase and subsequent analysis using size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. No effect of pH was observed on the de-esterification mode of either of the two enzymes. Acidic, fungal PME converted pectin according to a multiple-chain mechanism, with a limited degree of multiple attack at the intrachain level, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0. A multiple-attack mechanism, with a high degree of multiple attack, was more appropriate to describe the action mode of alkaline, plant PME, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0.

  1. Comparing the acidities of aqueous, frozen, and freeze-dried phosphate buffers: Is there a "pH memory" effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetráková, Ľubica; Vykoukal, Vít; Heger, Dominik

    2017-09-15

    The concept of "pH memory" has been established in the literature for the correlation between the pH of a pre-lyophilization solution and the ionization state of freeze-dried powder (lyophile). In this paper, the concept of "pH memory" is explored for the system of an aqueous solution, a frozen solution, and a lyophile. Sodium and potassium phosphate buffers in the pH range of 5-9 were frozen and lyophilized with sulfonephthalein indicators as acidity probes, and their Hammett acidity functions were compared to the initial pH of the aqueous solution. The results show that the acidities of the lyophiles are somewhat changed compared to the initial pHs, but the acidities in the frozen state differ more substantially. The Hammett acidity functions of the frozen buffers were found to be markedly dissimilar from the initial pH, especially in the sodium phosphate frozen at 233K, where an increase in the initial pH led to a decrease in the Hammett acidity function of the frozen state at a certain pH range. The large acidification observed after freezing the sodium phosphate buffer was not detected in the lyophiles after the sample had been dried; the phenomenon is explained considering the formed crystals analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that monitoring the final acidity of a lyophile is not sufficient to predict all the acidity changes throughout the whole lyophilization process. The importance of well-controlled freezing and lyophilization conditions follows from the results of the research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of Th with humic acid over a wide pH region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, G.; Guczi, J. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygi ene, Budapest, H-1775 (Hungary); Geckeis, H. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Reiller, P. [CEA, CE Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division/DPC/SERC, Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, F-91191 Gif-sue-Y vette (France); Bulman, R.A. [Radiation Protection Division Division, Health Protec tion Agency, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    The influence of humic substances on the migration of tetravalent actinides in the far-field of nuclear waste repositories has been modeled by examining the uptake of Th(IV) by a silica/humic acid composite. It is anticipated that this material might serve as a geochemical model of the humate-coated minerals that are likely to be present in the vicinity of the repositories. The binding of Th(IV) by the immobilized humic acid was examined at pH 1-9 in 0.1 mol/l NaClO{sub 4} by the batch method. Th(IV)-humate conditional stability constants have been evaluated from data obtained from these experiments by using non-linear regression of binding isotherms. The results have been interpreted in terms of complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry.

  3. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values ( 4 and 11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH 14 and brown at pH 2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms ;C;, ;H; and ;Dprot; at pH 14 and Forms ;A;, ;D;, and ;P; at pH 2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH 2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450 cm- 1, 616 to 632 cm- 1, 1332 to 1343 cm- 1 etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at 1548 cm- 1 in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at 1580 cm- 1. Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH 14. For example, the 423 cm- 1 band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at 447 cm- 1 in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at 850, 1067 and 1214 cm- 1 in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH 2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH 14). The DFT calculations for these

  4. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bai Yanqing; Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH i ) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH i in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH i of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na + /H + -antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH i in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH i may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

  5. Estimated net acid excretion inversely correlates with urine pH in vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Oliver, Lauren M; Goldin, Barry R; Woods, Margo N; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2008-09-01

    Diet affects urine pH and acid-base balance. Both excess acid/alkaline ash (EAA) and estimated net acid excretion (NAE) calculations have been used to estimate the effects of diet on urine pH. This study's goal was to determine if free-living vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores have increasingly acidic urine, and to assess the ability of EAA and estimated NAE calculations to predict urine pH. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study assessed urine samples of 10 vegan, 16 lacto-ovo vegetarian, and 16 healthy omnivorous women in the Boston metropolitan area. Six 3-day food records from each dietary group were analyzed for EAA content and estimated NAE, and correlations with measured urine pH were calculated. The mean (+/- SD) urine pH was 6.15 +/- 0.40 for vegans, 5.90 +/- 0.36 for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 5.74 +/- 0.21 for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .013). Calculated EAA values were not significantly different among the three groups, whereas mean estimated NAE values were significantly different: 17.3 +/- 14.5 mEq/day for vegans, 31.3 +/- 8.5 mEq/day for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 42.6 +/- 13.2 mEq/day for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .01). The average deattenuated correlation between urine pH and EAA was 0.333; this value was -0.768 for estimated NAE and urine pH, with a regression equation of pH = 6.33 - 0.014 NAE (P = .02, r = -0.54). Habitual diet and estimated NAE calculations indicate the probable ranking of urine pH by dietary groups, and may be used to determine the likely acid-base status of an individual; EAA calculations were not predictive of urine pH.

  6. Acidic pH retards the fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide due to electrostatic repulsion of histidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type-II diabetes. IAPP is secreted together with insulin from the acidic secretory granules at a low pH of approximately 5.5 to the extracellular environment at a neutral pH. The increased accumulation of extracellular hIAPP in diabetes indicates that changes in pH may promote amyloid formation. To gain insights and underlying mechanisms of the pH effect on hIAPP fibrillogenesis, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model were performed to study the structural properties of five hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers, under acidic and neutral pH, respectively. In consistent with experimental findings, simulation results show that acidic pH is not conducive to the structural stability of these oligomers. This provides a direct evidence for a recent experiment [L. Khemtemourian, E. Domenech, J. P. F. Doux, M. C. Koorengevel, and J. A. Killian, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15598 (2011)], 10.1021/ja205007j, which suggests that acidic pH inhibits the fibril formation of hIAPP. In addition, a complementary coarse-grained simulation shows the repulsive electrostatic interactions among charged His18 residues slow down the dimerization process of hIAPP by twofold. Besides, our all-atom simulations reveal acidic pH mainly affects the local structure around residue His18 by destroying the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, due to the repulsive interactions between protonated interchain His18 residues at acidic pH. It is also disclosed that the local interactions nearby His18 operating between adjacent β-strands trigger the structural transition, which gives hints to the experimental findings that the rate of hIAPP fibril formation and the morphologies of the fibrillar structures are strongly pH-dependent.

  7. Poly methacrylic acid modified CDHA nanocomposites as potential pH responsive drug delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare pH sensitive polymethacrylic acid-calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocomposites. The CDHA nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation method. The modification of CDHA by methacrylic acid (MA) was achieved by AIBN initiated free radical polymerization with sodium bisulphite as catalyst followed by emulsion technique. These nanocomposites with a half life of 8h consisted of high aspect ratio, needle like particles and exhibited an increase in swelling behaviour with pH. The in vivo potential of the nanocomposites was evaluated in vitro by the results of cell aggregation, protein adsorption, MTT assay and haemolytic activity. The invitro loading and release studies using albumin as a model drug indicate that the nanocomposites gave better loading when compared to the CDHA nanoparticles and altered the drug release rates. The nanocomposites also exhibited good uptake on C6 glioma cells as studied by fluorescence microscopy. The results obtained suggest that these nanocomposites have great potential for oral controlled protein delivery and can be extended further for intracellular drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  10. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpers Charles N

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5. The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1 preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2 stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2–3 ‰ heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3 reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures.

  11. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, C.D.; Wilkin, R.T.; Alpers, Charles N.; Rye, R.O.; Blaine, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1) preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2) stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2-3 ??? heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3) reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures. ?? 2007 Church et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. Sensitive detection of strong acidic condition by a novel rhodamine-based fluorescent pH chemosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jia-Lian; Yang, Ting-Ting; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue; Cheng, Shu-Jin; Zuo, Hua; He, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    A novel rhodamine-based fluorescent pH probe responding to extremely low pH values has been synthesized and characterized. This probe showed an excellent photophysical response to pH on the basis that the colorless spirocyclic structure under basic conditions opened to a colored and highly fluorescent form under extreme acidity. The quantitative relationship between fluorescence intensity and pH value (1.75-2.62) was consistent with the equilibrium equation pH = pKa + log[(Imax - I)/(I - Imin)]. This sensitive pH probe was also characterized with good reversibility and no interaction with interfering metal ions, and was successfully applied to image Escherichia coli under strong acidity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP no Estado do Amazonas Potential acidity by pH SMP method in Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir um modelo matemático que estime o H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. Foram utilizadas 246 amostras de solo provenientes de diversas localidades. Mesmo apresentando menor coeficiente da correlação (r = 0,89*, a equação H+Al = 30,646 - 3,848pH SMP obtida em H2O foi mais eficiente que a obtida em solução CaCl2 (H+Al = 30,155 - 3,834pH SMP, r = 0,91*, a qual subestima os valores da acidez potencial.The objective of this work was to determine a mathematic model that estimates the potential acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1. Two hundred and forty six soil samples from several localities were utilized. Despite presenting a lower correlation coefficient (r = 0.89*, the equation H+Al = 30.646 - 3.848pH SMP, obtained in H2O, was more efficient than in the CaCl2 solution (H+Al = 30.155 -3.834pH SMP, r = 0.91*, since this last one underestimates the values of the potential acidity.

  15. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Zhang' e [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: zhepeng@126.com; Wu Feng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: fengwu@whu.edu.cn; Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-12-15

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L{sup -1} humic acid and 20 {mu}mol L{sup -1} Fe{sup 3+}. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment.

  16. Behaviour of lactose with the presence of lactic acid and Ca as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Gauthier, Claire; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-11-01

    Contradictory statements about the effects of pH change on crystallisation behaviour of lactose exist in the literature. Considering the importance of addressing the processability issue of acid whey, a systematic study is required to establish lactose crystallisation behaviour in the presence of LA and Ca at concentrations present in real acid whey waste streams emphasising impact of pH. Structural modifications of lactose were evident at elevated, more neutral pH in the presence of 1% w/w LA and 0·12% w/w Ca. These structural changes led to changes in the anomeric equilibrium of lactose, which manipulated the water-lactose behaviour and increased the crystallinity. Therefore, altering pH to 6·5 may be the solution to proper industrial processing of acid whey, enhancing the ability of lactose to crystallise properly.

  17. Determination of the titratable acidity and the pH of wine based on potentiometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahl, Katja; Kahlert, Heike; von Mühlen, Lisandro; Albrecht, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Behnert, Jürgen

    2013-07-15

    A FIA system using a pH-sensitive detector based on a graphite/quinhydrone/silicone composite electrode was applied to determine sequentially the titratable acidity and the pH of wine, as well as the sum of calcium and magnesium ions. For all measurements the same FIA configuration was used employing different carrier solutions. The results for the determination of acidity and pH are in good agreement with those obtained by classical potentiometric titrations and by pH measurements using a conventional glass electrode. The standard deviation was less than 1.5% for both kinds of measurements and the sample volume was 150 μL. The method allows about 40 determinations of titratable acidity per hour and 30 pH measurements per hour. The titration method can be adjusted to the legal requirements in USA and Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth of Avena Coleoptiles and pH Drop of Protoplast Suspensions Induced by Chlorinated Indoleacetic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Doll, Hans; Böttger, M.

    1978-01-01

    -auxins. Some of the derivatives were compared for their effect on pH decline in stem protoplast suspensions of Helianthus annuus L. and Pisum sativum L. The change of pH occurs without a lag period or with only a very short one. Derivatives which are very active in the Avena straight growth assay cause......Several indoleacetic acids, substituted in the benzene ring, were compared in the Avena straight growth bioassay. 4-Chloroindoleacetic acid, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is one of the strongest hormones in this bioassay. With an optimum at 10-6 mol l-1, it is more active than indoleacetic...... a larger pH decline than indoleacetic acid, while inactive derivatives cause effectively no pH decline....

  19. Enzymatic characterization of peptidic materials isolated from aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide (pH 9) and hydrocyanic acid (pH 6) exposed to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niketic, V; Draganić, Z; Nesković, S; Draganić, I

    1982-01-01

    The enzymatic digestion of some radiolytically produced peptidic materials was examined. The substrates were compounds isolated from 0.1 molar solutions of NH4CN (pH 9) and HCN (pH 6), after their exposure to gamma rays from a 60Co source (15-20 Mrad doses). Commercial proteolytic enzymes pronase and aminopeptidase M were used. The examined materials were of composite nature and proteolytic action was systematically observed after their subsequent purification. In some fractions the effect was found to be positive with up to 30% of peptide bonds cleaved with respect to the amino acid content. These findings support our previous conclusions on the free radical induced formation of peptidic backbones without the intervention of amino acids. Some side effects were also noted which might be of interest in observations on enzymatic cleavage of other composite peptidic materials of abiotic origin.

  20. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  1. Volcanic nutrient inputs and trophic state of Lake Caviahue, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo, Fernando L.; Temporetti, Pedro F.; Beamud, Guadalupe; Diaz, Mónica M.

    2008-12-01

    The strategies for eutrophication control, remediation, and policy management are often defined for neutral to alkaline freshwater systems, as they are most suitable for human use. The influence of nutrients on eutrophication in a naturally-acidic lake is poorly known. The main purpose of the present work is to evaluate the significance of volcanic nutrients in the control of the trophic state of the acidic Lake Caviahue, located at North Patagonia, Argentina. Acidic water systems were most studied on artificial acidified lakes, such as mining lakes in Germany or pit lakes in the United States. Lake Caviahue received a very high P load (42-192 ton P/yr) and low N load (14 ton N/yr), mainly as ammonium with quite low N:P ratios (Copahue volcano represents the main natural contribution of nutrients and acidity to the Lake Caviahue. The lake is oligotrophic in terms of CHLa. Neither the transparency nor the nutrient, dissolved or particulate, contents are to date representative of the trophic state of the lake. High P loads do not imply the eutrophication of the lake. We suggest that nitrogen and not phosphorus represents the key control nutrient in volcanically acidified lakes as TON was better related to CHLa observed (0.13-0.36 mg/m 3) in the lake. The pH increased around one unit (pH 2.0-3.0) during the last five years suggesting that the lake has not yet returned to a stable state.

  2. Amino acid composition reveals functional diversity of zooplankton in tropical lakes related to geography, taxonomy and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren-Riaño, Nelson J; Guisande, Cástor; Shurin, Jonathan B; Jones, Natalie T; Barreiro, Aldo; Duque, Santiago R

    2018-04-16

    Variation in resource use among species determines their potential for competition and co-existence, as well as their impact on ecosystem processes. Planktonic crustaceans consume a range of micro-organisms that vary among habitats and species, but these differences in resource consumption are difficult to characterize due to the small size of the organisms. Consumers acquire amino acids from their diet, and the composition of tissues reflects both the use of different resources and their assimilation in proteins. We examined the amino acid composition of common crustacean zooplankton from 14 tropical lakes in Colombia in three regions (the Amazon floodplain, the eastern range of the Andes, and the Caribbean coast). Amino acid composition varied significantly among taxonomic groups and the three regions. Functional richness in amino acid space was greatest in the Amazon, the most productive region, and tended to be positively related to lake trophic status, suggesting the niche breadth of the community could increase with ecosystem productivity. Functional evenness increased with lake trophic status, indicating that species were more regularly distributed within community-wide niche space in more productive lakes. These results show that zooplankton resource use in tropical lakes varies with both habitat and taxonomy, and that lake productivity may affect community functional diversity and the distribution of species within niche space.

  3. Changes in composition and enamel demineralization inhibition activities of gallic acid at different pH values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Huang, S.; Deng, M.; Xie, X.; Liu, M.; Liu, H.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gallic acid (GA) has been shown to inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel; however, GA solution is highly acidic. This study was to investigate the stability of GA solutions at various pH and to examine the resultant effects on enamel demineralization. Methods.

  4. Acid-extrusion from tissue: the interplay between membrane transporters and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    The acid-base balance of cells is related to the concentration of free H⁺ ions. These are highly reactive, and their intracellular concentration must be regulated to avoid detrimental effects to the cell. H⁺ ion dynamics are influenced by binding to chelator substances ('buffering'), and by the production, diffusion and membrane-transport of free H⁺ ions or of the H⁺-bound chelators. Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation aims to balance this system of diffusion-reaction-transport processes at a favourable steady-state pHi. The ability of cells to regulate pHi may set a limit to tissue growth and can be subject to selection pressures. Cancer cells have been postulated to respond favourably to such selection pressures by evolving a better means of pHi regulation. A particularly important feature of tumour pHi regulation is acid-extrusion, which involves H⁺-extrusion and HCO₃⁻-uptake by membrane-bound transporter-proteins. Extracellular CO₂/HCO₃⁻ buffer facilitates these membrane-transport processes. As a mobile pH-buffer, CO₂/HCO₃⁻ protects the extracellular space from excessive acidification that could otherwise inhibit further acid-extrusion. CO₂/HCO₃⁻ also provides substrate for HCO₃⁻-transporters. However, the inherently slow reaction kinetics of CO₂/HCO₃⁻ can be rate-limiting for acid-extrusion. To circumvent this, cells can express extracellular-facing carbonic anhydrase enzymes to accelerate the attainment of equilibrium between CO₂, HCO₃⁻ and H⁺. The acid-extrusion apparatus has been proposed as a target for anti-cancer therapy. The major targets include H⁺ pumps, Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers and carbonic anhydrases. The effectiveness of such therapy will depend on the correct identification of rate-limiting steps in pHi regulation in a specific type of cancer.

  5. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  6. Evaluation of glutamic acid and glycine as sources of nonessential amino acids for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    1. A semi-purified test diet which contained either glutamic acid or glycine as the major source of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) was fed to lake and rainbow trout.2. Trout fed the diet containing glutamic acid consistently showed better growth and feed conversion efficiencies than those fed the diets containing glycine.3. The data indicate that these trout utilize glutamic acid more efficiently than glycine when no other major sources of NEAA are present.

  7. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  8. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pK a of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pK a 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  10. Fucoxanthin from brown seaweed Sargassum cristaefolium tea in acid pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, Hartati; Mufti, Eka Deviana; Nurhanief, Ardian Eko

    2017-05-01

    Dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium contains the pigment fucoxanthin, which is responsible for the red-orange color found in brown algae, and is a kind of photosynthetic pigment. Fucoxanthin can be used as an anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-cholesterol, and anti-diabetic agent and as a food colorant, but it is very unstable. The aim of this research was to determine the stability of fucoxanthin from dried tea brown algae at different pH (2, 6). This involved thin layer chromatography, peak absorption, wavelength analysis and reposition in FTIR. The research showed that fucoxanthin from fresh and dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium using chromatography columns had an orange color, Rf value of 0.26-0.28, and a spectral pattern in acetone solvent of 446.3-447.4 λmax. Fucoxanthin at pH 2 showed that there was no allenic group, as fucoxanthin solution had a pale yellow color. It is therefore shown that fucoxanthin is not stable in acid solution.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the zooplankton community in uranium mining lakes with acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, H.; Ferrari, C.; Nascimento, M.R. [Brazilian Nulcear Energy Commission/Pocos de Caldas Laboratory (Brazil); Rodgher, S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho/Science and Technology Institute (Brazil); Wisniewski, M.J. [Alfenas Federal University/Limnology Laboratory (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Several mining lakes are characterized by the inorganic pollution of its waters, known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The current study was developed in order to evaluate the effect of water hardness and chemical pollutants on the richness and density of the zoo-planktonic community species. A seasonal study was conducted in a uranium mining lake affected by AMD. In environmental conditions of extremely high hardness water values (960.3 to 1284,9 mg/l), zoo-planktonic species have indicated resistance to the combined effect of elevated average concentrations of chemical pollutants such as Al (81.9 mg/l), Zn (15.5 mg/l), Mn (102.8 mg/l), U (2.9 mg/l) and low pH values (average = 3.8). Thus, in environments of extreme chemical conditions, such as a uranium mining lake affected by AMD, the hardness showed to be the best predictor of the zoo-planktonic community richness, indicating a protective effect of ions Ca{sup +2} over in special to Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina sp., Keratella americana and K. cochlearis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Boer, H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vesseur, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher

  13. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately differed, whereas levels of diatom FA markers were higher in Lake Shunet and of Cyanobacteria and green algae markers in Lake Shira. In general, markers in storage lipids—triacylglycerols (TAG) of A. sali...

  14. Influence of acidic pH on keratinocyte function and re-epithelialisation of human in vitro wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Emanuelsson, Peter; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are one of the greatest challenges for the healthcare system. Today, a plethora of dressings are used in the treatment of these wounds, each with specific influence on the wound environment. Due to differences in the permeability of the dressings the use will result in differences in the pH balance in the wound bed. However, little is known about how changes in the pH in the wound environment affect the different phases of the healing process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acidic pH on the regeneration phase by studying keratinocyte function in vitro and re-epithelialisation in an in vitro model of human skin. In vitro assays showed reduced viability and migration rates in human keratinocytes when pH was lowered. Real time PCR revealed differential expression of genes related to wound healing and environmental impairment. Tissue culture showed no re-epithelialisation of wounds subjected to pH 5.0 and moderate re-epithelialisation at pH 6.0, compared to controls at pH 7.4. The results indicate that lowering pH down to pH 5.0 in wounds is counterproductive in aspect of keratinocyte function which is crucial for successful wound healing.

  15. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish by-products is inactivated with inorganic acid (pH 1) and base (pH 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, M; Modahl, I; Nygaard, H; Lie, K M

    2014-04-01

    The aquaculture industry needs a simple, inexpensive and safe method for the treatment of fish waste without heat. Microbial inactivation by inorganic acid (HCl) or base (KOH) was determined using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as a model organism for fish pathogens. Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were general hygiene indicators in supplementary examinations. IPNV, which is considered to be among the most chemical- and heat-resistant fish pathogens, was reduced by more than 3 log in 4 h at pH 1.0 and pH 12.0. Salmonella was rapidly inactivated by the same treatment, whereas spores of C. perfringens were hardly affected. The results indicate that low and high pH treatment could be particularly suitable for fish waste destined for biogas production. pH treatment at aquaculture production sites could reduce the spread of fish pathogens during storage and transportation without disturbing the anaerobic digestion process. The treatment could also be an alternative to the current energy-intensive steam pressure sterilization of fish waste to be used by the bioenergy, fertilizer and soil improver industries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M.; Peplies, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of -0.67 and -0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry

  17. Removal of Radium-226 from Radium-Contaminated Soil using Distilled Water and Humic Acid: Effect of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Effect of washing solutions' pH removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid extracted from Malaysian peat soil was studied by batch washing method. The study encompassed the extraction of humic acid and the washing of radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid solutions of 100 ppm, both with varying pHs in the range of 3 to 11. The radioactivity concentration of radium-226 was determined by gamma spectrometer.The removal of radium-226 was greater when humic acid solutions were used compared to distilled water at the pH range studied and both washing solutions showed greater removal of radium-226 when basic solutions were used. Nevertheless, comparable removal efficiencies were observed when neutral and highly basic humic acid solutions were used. (author)

  18. The effect of antacid on salivary pH in patients with and without dental erosion after multiple acid challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuhair, Sarah; Dennison, Joseph B; Yaman, Peter; Neiva, Gisele F

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of antacid swish in the salivary pH values and to monitor the pH changes in subjects with and without dental erosion after multiple acid challenge tests. 20 subjects with tooth erosion were matched in age and gender with 20 healthy controls according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Baseline measures were taken of salivary pH, buffering capacity and salivary flow rate using the Saliva Check System. Subjects swished with Diet Pepsi three times at 10-minute intervals. Changes in pH were monitored using a digital pH meter at 0-, 5-, and 10- minute intervals and at every 5 minutes after the third swish until pH resumed baseline value or 45 minutes relapse. Swishing regimen was repeated on a second visit, followed by swishing with sugar-free liquid antacid (Mylanta Supreme). Recovery times were also recorded. Data was analyzed using independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test (α= 0.05). Baseline buffering capacity and flow rate were not significantly different between groups (P= 0.542; P= 0.2831, respectively). Baseline salivary pH values were similar between groups (P= 0.721). No significant differences in salivary pH values were found between erosion and non-erosion groups in response to multiple acid challenges (P= 0.695) or antacid neutralization (P= 0.861). Analysis of salivary pH recovery time revealed no significant differences between groups after acid challenges (P= 0.091) or after the use of antacid (P= 0.118). There was a highly significant difference in the survival curves of the two groups on Day 2, with the non-erosion group resolving significantly faster than the erosion group (P= 0.0086).

  19. Enrofloxacin sorption on smectite clays: effects of pH, cations, and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Hu, Shan; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-04-15

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) occurs widely in natural waters because of its extensive use as a veterinary chemotherapeutic agent. To improve our understanding of the interaction of this emerging contaminant with soils and sediments, sorption of ENR on homoionic smectites and kaolinite was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, exchangeable cations, and humic acid concentration. Batch experiments and in situ ATR-FTIR analysis suggested multiple sorption mechanisms. Cation exchange was a major contributor to the sorption of cationic ENR species on smectite. The decreased ENR sorption with increasing ionic strength indicated the formation of outer-sphere complexes. Exchangeable cations significantly influenced the sorption capacity, and the observed order was Csacid had a negligible contribution to the interlayer intercalation. The results of this study provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of ENR sorption on clay minerals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid-base equilibria and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We review fundamental and applied acid-base equilibrium chemistry useful to microfluidic electrokinetics. We present elements of acid-base equilibrium reactions and derive rules for pH calculation for simple buffers. We also present a general formulation to calculate pH of more complex, arbitrary mixtures of electrolytes, and discuss the effects of ionic strength and temperature on pH calculation. More practically, we offer advice on buffer preparation and on buffer reporting. We also discuss "real world" buffers and likely contamination sources. In particular, we discuss the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on buffer systems, namely, the increase in ionic strength and acidification of typical electrokinetic device buffers. In Part II of this two-paper series, we discuss the coupling of acid-base equilibria with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems.

  1. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  2. Acidic nanoparticles are trafficked to lysosomes and restore an acidic lysosomal pH and degradative function to compromised ARPE-19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel C Baltazar

    Full Text Available Lysosomal enzymes function optimally in acidic environments, and elevation of lysosomal pH can impede their ability to degrade material delivered to lysosomes through autophagy or phagocytosis. We hypothesize that abnormal lysosomal pH is a key aspect in diseases of accumulation and that restoring lysosomal pH will improve cell function. The propensity of nanoparticles to end up in the lysosome makes them an ideal method of delivering drugs to lysosomes. This study asked whether acidic nanoparticles could traffic to lysosomes, lower lysosomal pH and enhance lysosomal degradation by the cultured human retinal pigmented epithelial cell line ARPE-19. Acidic nanoparticles composed of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA 502 H, PLGA 503 H and poly (DL-lactide (PLA colocalized to lysosomes of ARPE-19 cells within 60 min. PLGA 503 H and PLA lowered lysosomal pH in cells compromised by the alkalinizing agent chloroquine when measured 1 hr. after treatment, with acidification still observed 12 days later. PLA enhanced binding of Bodipy-pepstatin-A to the active site of cathepsin D in compromised cells. PLA also reduced the cellular levels of opsin and the lipofuscin-like autofluorescence associated with photoreceptor outer segments. These observations suggest the acidification produced by the nanoparticles was functionally effective. In summary, acid nanoparticles lead to a rapid and sustained lowering of lysosomal pH and improved degradative activity.

  3. Acid-base equilibria in the reaction of tantalum pentafluoride with O,O-diphenyl-H-benzoylamidophosphate (PhO)2P(0)NHC(O)Ph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, E.G.; Kharrmann, Eh.; Shcherbakova, M.N.; Buslaev, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Method of 19 F NMR was used to study TaF 5 interaction with imidodiphosphoric acid ester (PhO) 2 P(O)NHC(O)Ph(LH) in methylene chloride. Dimeric molecular LH(TaF 5 ) 2 complex was the main form in the solution with towfold TaF 5 excess; phosphoryl and carbonyl groups partisipate in complexing at that. Increase of ligand content in the solution up to equimolar one results to preliminary ligand coordination via P=O-group. Introduction of the base excess to the solution results to formation of L - anion which is coordinated to TaF 5 in a monodentate way via phosphoryl group or in a chelate way with fluorine ion substitution and formation of LTaF 4 + cationw

  4. pH-, Lactic Acid-, and Non-Lactic Acid-Dependent Activities of Probiotic Lactobacilli against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Fayol-Messaoudi, Domitille; Berger, Cédric N.; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying the antibacterial activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains appears to be multifactorial and includes lowering of the pH and the production of lactic acid and of antibacterial compounds, including bacteriocins and nonbacteriocin, non-lactic acid molecules. Addition of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium to the incubating medium delays the killing activity of lactic acid. We found that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Lactobacill...

  5. Zooplankton community composition of high mountain lakes in the Tatra Mts., the Alps in North Tyrol, and Scotland: relationship to pH, depth, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skála Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The European EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic & socio-economic Evaluation project was a survey of high mountain lakes (above treeline across Europe using unified methods of sampling and analysis. The sampling was carried out in summer or autumn 2000, and comprised biological samples, and samples for chemical analysis. Data from three lake districts are used in this paper: the Tatra Mts. in Slovakia and Poland (45 lakes, the Alps in Tyrol in Austria (22 lakes, and Scotland (30 lakes. As it is shown by multiple regression analysis, DTOC (dissolved or total organic carbon is the key variable for most groups of zooplankton. With increasing DTOC and mostly with chlorophyll-a decreasing, pH increasing and depth decreasing, macrofitrators with coarse filter meshes are replaced by microfiltrators with fine filter meshes. Higher DTOC may increase bacterioplankton production and advantage species able to consume bacteria (microfiltrators. Other zooplankton species also differ in their preference for DTOC, chlorophyll-a, pH and depth, but DTOC being positively correlated with chlorophyll-a and pH positively correlated with depth. It may be caused by their different preference for food quality in terms of C:P ratio.

  6. The pH profile for acid-induced elongation of coleoptile and epicotyl sections is consistent with the acid-growth theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.; Buckley, G.; Nowbar, S.; Lew, N. M.; Stinemetz, C.; Evans, M. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The acid-growth theory predicts that a solution with a pH identical to that of the apoplast of auxin-treated tissues (4.5.-5.0) should induce elongation at a rate comparable to that of auxin. Different pH profiles for elongation have been obtained, however, depending on the type of pretreatment between harvest of the sections and the start of the pH-incubations. To determine the acid sensitivity under in vivo conditions, oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile, maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile and pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections were abraded so that exogenous buffers could penetrate the free space, and placed in buffered solutions of pH 3.5-6.5 without any preincubation. The extension, without auxin, was measured over the first 3 h. Experiments conducted in three laboratories produced similar results. For all three species, sections placed in buffer without pretreatment elongated at least threefold faster at pH 5.0 than at 6.0 or 6.5, and the rate elongation at pH 5.0 was comparable to that induced by auxin. Pretreatment of abraded sections with pH-6.5 buffer or distilled water adjusted to pH 6.5 or above gave similar results. We conclude that the pH present in the apoplast of auxin-treated coleoptile and stems is sufficiently low to account for the initial growth response to auxin.

  7. Concentration of total protein and degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemella Nur Illahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fasting, the mouth does not work to eat and drink so that the salivary glands become less active so saliva production decreased and there was a change in eating timewhich is relation to the mastication process that impact on changes in the degree of acidity (pH Objectives: To determine the concentration of total protein and the degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting. Materials and Methods: The study was observational analytic design with longitudinal (follow up study conducted in the Hj. Halima Dg. Sikati Dental Hospital inKandea in July 2015, the sampling method was purposive sampling. Population was 35 clinical students at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University with a total sample of 16 students who fit the criteria of the study subjects. To calculate the total protein of saliva concentration using Kyltecautoanalyzerand pH meter to measure the acidity of saliva. Data was analyzed was using SPSS version 17.0 (paired t-test, p <0.05. Results: The mean of total protein (% while fasting by 0135% ± 0.026 and the mean total protein (% after breakfasting at 0.179% ± 0.035, while the average degree of acidity (pH during fasting at 7.26 ± 0:24 and the average degree of acidity (pH after breakfasting at 7.66 ± 0.23 with p-value (0.000. Conclusions: An increase in the total protein concentration and acidity (pH after breakfasting.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for systemic salmonellae virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kevin G; Delbecq, Scott P; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Dove, Katja K; Prost, Lynne R; Daley, Margaret E; Zeth, Kornelius; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-05-23

    Salmonella PhoQ is a histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain (PD) that promotes virulence by detecting the macrophage phagosome. PhoQ activity is repressed by divalent cations and induced in environments of acidic pH, limited divalent cations, and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP). Previously, it was unclear which signals are sensed by salmonellae to promote PhoQ-mediated virulence. We defined conformational changes produced in the PhoQ PD on exposure to acidic pH that indicate structural flexibility is induced in α-helices 4 and 5, suggesting this region contributes to pH sensing. Therefore, we engineered a disulfide bond between W104C and A128C in the PhoQ PD that restrains conformational flexibility in α-helices 4 and 5. PhoQ(W104C-A128C) is responsive to CAMP, but is inhibited for activation by acidic pH and divalent cation limitation. phoQ(W104C-A128C) Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is virulent in mice, indicating that acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for virulence.

  10. Ecotechnological water quality control in acidic mining lakes. Part 2. Primary production and respiration; Oekotechnologische Steuerung der Gewaesserguete in sauren Tagebauseen. Teil 2. Primaerproduktion und Respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, W. [Inst. fuer Wasser und Boden, Dresden (Germany); Nixdorf, B. [Brandenburgisch-Technische Univ., Fakultaet fuer Umweltwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Gewaesserschutz, Bad Saarow (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The necessity of neutralizing acidic mining lakes is obvious if the water is to be used in reservoirs (Lohsa II) or for other purposes such as balancing the water budget, fishing or recreation or to be discharged into river systems. Flushing of mining lakes with alkaline surface water from rivers is the moist common method to stabilize the lake structures and to neutralize acidic water. This method is limited in lakes without river coupling or with a high re-acidification potential. The present contribution demonstrates the possibility of biogenic alkalinity production in acidic mining lakes focusing on the main biological processes of primary production and respiration. The influence of biogenic matter transformation on water chemistry in acidic mining lakes is analyzed. Calculation of the extent of aerobic and anaerobic decay of organic matter will be a necessary prerequisite for sustainable sulfate reduction. (orig.)

  11. Effect of Temperature and pH on Formulating the Kinetic Growth Parameters and Lactic Acid Production of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Aghababaie

    2014-09-01

    Results: Second order model for Xmax, μmax, P and K was significant but product formation parameters were almost constant. The optimum values of temperature and pH for attaining maximum biomass, maximum specific growth rate, and maximum acid production were obtained at 44 °C and 5.7, respectively. Conclusions: The attained empirical mathematical correlations of RSM alongside the kinetic equations could be used to determine growth conditions under predefined temperature and pH in the fermentation process. Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Richards model, Response surface methodology, Lactic acid production, Luedeking-Piret model

  12. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  13. [Effects of soil pH on the competitive uptake of amino acids by maize and microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing Xu; Wang, Jun; Cao, Xiao Chuang; Sun, Yan; Sun, Tao; Wu, Liang Huan

    2017-07-18

    Organic nitrogen can play an important role in plant growth, and soil pH changed greatly due to the over-use of chemical fertilizers, but the effects of soil pH on the competitive uptake of amino acids by plants and rhizosphere microorganisms are lack of detailed research. To study the effects of soil pH on the uptake of amino acids by maize and soil microorganisms, two soils from Hangzhou and Tieling were selected, and the soil pH was changed by the electrokinesis, then the 15 N-labeled glycine was injected to the centrifuge tube with a short-term uptake of 4 h. Soil pH had a significant effect on the shoot and root biomass, and the optimal pH for maize shoot growth was 6.48 for Hangzhou red soil, while it was 7.65 for Tieling brown soil. For Hangzhou soil, the 15 N abundance of maize shoots under pH=6.48 was significantly higher than under other treatments, and the uptake amount of 15 N-glycine was also much higher. However, the 15 N abundance of maize shoots and roots under pH=7.65 Tieling soil was significantly lower than it under pH=5.78, but the uptake amount of 15 N-glycine under pH=7.65 was much higher. The microbial biomass C was much higher in pH=6.48 Hangzhou soil, while it was much lower in pH=7.65 Tieling soil. According to the results of root uptake, root to shoot transportation, and the competition with microorganisms, we suggested that although facing the fierce competition with microorganisms, the maize grown in pH=6.48 Hangzhou soil increased the uptake of glycine by increasing its root uptake and root to shoot transportation. While in pH=7.65 Tieling soil, the activity of microorganisms was decreased, which decreased the competition with maize for glycine, and increased the uptake of glycine by maize.

  14. Optical ph sensing material prepared from doped sol-gel film for use in acid-base titration

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ahmad; T.W. Tan

    2017-01-01

    An optical pH sensing material has been prepared in this study by using sol-gel technique. Bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and thymol blue were chosen in this study as acidbase indicators for strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base and weak acid-strong base titration, respectively. The results show that these indicators could be successfully entrapped inside the sol-gel film and still maintain its chemical behaviour as in solution. The entrapped acid-base indicators respond well to ...

  15. Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kombucha Tea Against Low pH and Bile Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha tea is a functional drink fermented by various types of microbes. Kombucha tea is also a source of lactic acid bacteria that can maintain the balance of the microflora of the digestive tract which can improve the health of the human body. Lactic acid bacteria can act as a probiotic if it is able to survive to the human gastrointestinal tract, where in order to reach the digestive tract, lactic acid bacteria has to be resistant to the low pH in the stomach and bile salts. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of resistance of lactic acid bacteria in kombucha tea against low pH and bile salts. This study uses 20 isolates, each of these isolates were tested to the resistance of low pH 2.0 and 0.5 % bile salts with incubation time of 4 hours. The results indicated that from 20 isolates of lactic acid bacteria that were obtained from kombucha tea, 15 isolates were resistant to low pH and 13 isolates were resistant to bile salts. The isolates have a huge potential to be developed as a probiotic candidate that can contribute greatly to the health of the digestive tract.

  16. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products.

  17. Use of cation selective membrane and acid addition for PH control in two-dimensional electrokinetic remediation of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, M.S.M.; Lynch, R.J. [Cambridge Univ., Engineering Dept. (United Kingdom); Ilett, D.J. [AEA Technology, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of using a combination of a cation selective membrane and acid addition for pH control in electrokinetic remediation to toxic and heavy metals from low-permeability soil has been investigated. The high pH generated during the remediation process, as a result of surplus OH{sup -} ions, may cause metal ions to precipitate as hydroxides at or near the cathodes. This region of high pH is known to be associated with high electrical resistance, which limits the remediation efficiency by inhibiting current flow through the soil. One way to control pH is by adding acid to neutralize the OH{sup -} ions. However, preliminary work showed that addition of acid to the cathodic region was not effective in preventing the spread of the alkaline zone from cathodes toward anodes. Precipitates were formed before metal ions reached the cathodic region. Therefore, another method of pH control was investigated, using a cation selective membrane to enhance the electrokinetic process. The membrane was placed in front of the cathodes to contain the OH{sup -} ions generated, and confine the precipitates of metal hydroxide to a small cathodic region. The clean-up of a contaminated site was modelled in a rectangular tank, using silt as the low permeability soul and copper to simulate the contamination. The objective was to redistribute the contaminant so as to concentrate it into a small area. Three experiments were performed with the following methods of pH control: (1) acid addition, (2) use of a cation selective membrane and (3) a combination of acid addition and a cation selective membrane. Using the combined approach, it was found that 75% of the target clean-up section (bounded by the cation selective membrane and the anodes) had more than 40% of the initial copper removed. The general efficiency of remediation increased in the following order. (orig.)

  18. Enrichment of Non-Terrestrial L-Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Aqueous Alteration on the Tagish Lake Meteorite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Herd, Christopher D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquid chromatography fluorescence detection time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Large L-enantiomeric excesses (L(sub ee) approx. 43 to 59%) of the a-hydrogen aspartic and glutamic amino acids were measured in Tagish Lake, whereas alanine, another alpha-hydrogen protein amino acid, was found to be nearly racemic (D approx. L) using both techniques. Carbon isotope measurements of D- and L-aspartic acid and D- and L-alanine in Tagish Lake fall well outside of the terrestrial range and indicate that the measured aspartic acid enantioenrichment is indigenous to the meteorite. Alternate explanations for the Lexcesses of aspartic acid such as interference from other compounds present in the sample, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination were investigated and rejected. These results can be explained by differences in the solid-solution phase behavior of aspartic acid, which can form conglomerate enantiopure solids during crystallization, and alanine, which can only form racemic crystals.

  19. Fast Hydrazone Reactants: Electronic and Acid/Base Effects Strongly Influence Rate at Biological pH

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Eric T.; Park, Do-Hyoung; Crisalli, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Kinetics studies with structurally varied aldehydes and ketones in aqueous buffer at pH 7.4 reveal that carbonyl compounds with neighboring acid/base groups form hydrazones at accelerated rates. Similarly, tests of a hydrazine with a neighboring carboxylic acid group show that it also reacts at an accelerated rate. Rate constants for the fastest carbonyl/hydrazine combinations are 2–20 M−1sec−1, which is faster than recent strain-promoted cycloaddition reactions.

  20. THE BIOENERGETICS OF AMMONIA AND HYDROXYLAMINE OXIDATION IN NITROSOMONAS-EUROPAEA AT ACID AND ALKALINE PH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRIJLINK, MJ; ABEE, T; LAANBROEK, HJ; DEBOER, W; KONINGS, WN

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizers depend on alkaline or neutral conditions for optimal activity. Below pH 7 growth and metabolic activity decrease dramatically. Actively oxidizing cells of Nitrosomonas europaea do not maintain a constant internal pH when the external pH is varied from 5 to 8. Studies of

  1. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier

  2. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat [Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd [Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  3. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  4. Charge-transfer-based terbium MOF nanoparticles as fluorescent pH sensor for extreme acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zewan; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-15

    Newly emerged metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have aroused the great interest in designing functional materials by means of its flexible structure and component. In this study, we used lanthanide Tb 3+ ions and small molecular ligands to design and assemble a kind of pH-sensitive MOF nanoparticle based on intramolecular-charge-transfer effect. This kind of made-to-order MOF nanoparticle for H + is highly specific and sensitive and could be used to fluorescently indicate pH value of strong acidic solution via preset mechanism through luminescence of Tb 3+ . The long luminescence lifetime of Tb 3+ allows eliminating concomitant non-specific fluorescence by time-revised fluorescence techniques, processing an advantage in sensing H + in biological media with strong autofluorescence. Our method showed a great potential of MOF structures in designing and constructing sensitive sensing materials for specific analytes directly via the assembly of functional ions/ligands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial stratification in low pH oxic and suboxic macroscopic growths along an acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez-García, Celia; Mesa, Victoria; Sprenger, Richard Remko

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic growths at geographically separated acid mine drainages (AMDs) exhibit distinct populations. Yet, local heterogeneities are poorly understood. To gain novel mechanistic insights into this, we used OMICs tools to profile microbial populations coexisting in a single pyrite gallery AMD (pH...

  6. Microwave synthesis of delaminated acid saponites using quaternary ammonium salt or polymer as template. Study of pH influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebretsadik, Fiseha B.; Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Salagre, Pilar; Cesteros, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous saponites were prepared at pH8 and 13 without and with template (surfactant or polymer) at 453K and autogenic pressure using microwaves or conventional oven during the hydrothermal ageing treatment. Acidity was obtained by calcination of the NH4-form. The effect of dilution

  7. Microbial stratification in low pH oxic and suboxic macroscopic growths along an acid mine drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez-Garcia, C.; Mesa, V.; Sprenger, R.R.; Richter, M.; Suarez Diez, M.; Solano, J.; Bargiela, R.; Golyshina, O.V.; Manteca, A.; Ramos, J.L.; Gallego, J.R.; Llorente, I.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Jensen, O.N.; Paláez, A.I.; Sánchez, J.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic growths at geographically separated acid mine drainages (AMDs) exhibit distinct populations. Yet, local heterogeneities are poorly understood. To gain novel mechanistic insights into this, we used OMICs tools to profile microbial populations coexisting in a single pyrite gallery AMD (pH

  8. Direct Measurement of pH in Individual Particles via Raman Microspectroscopy and Variation in Acidity with Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindelaub, Joel D; Craig, Rebecca L; Nandy, Lucy; Bondy, Amy L; Dutcher, Cari S; Shepson, Paul B; Ault, Andrew P

    2016-02-18

    Atmospheric aerosol acidity is an important characteristic of aqueous particles, which has been linked to the formation of secondary organic aerosol by catalyzing reactions of oxidized organic compounds that have partitioned to the particle phase. However, aerosol acidity is difficult to measure and traditionally estimated using indirect methods or assumptions based on composition. Ongoing disagreements between experiments and thermodynamic models of particle acidity necessitate improved fundamental understanding of pH and ion behavior in high ionic strength atmospheric particles. Herein, Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the pH of individual particles (H2SO4+MgSO4) based on sulfate and bisulfate concentrations determined from νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)), the acid dissociation constant, and activity coefficients from extended Debye-Hückel calculations. Shifts in pH and peak positions of νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)) were observed as a function of relative humidity. These results indicate the potential for direct spectroscopic determination of pH in individual particles and the need to improve fundamental understanding of ion behavior in atmospheric particles.

  9. The effect of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, E. A. M.; Hensgens, R. L.; Mihatsch, W. A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H. N.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants. In this explorative RCT, preterm infants

  10. Effecf of pH and some cations on activity of acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. isolated from acid sulphate soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairatana Nilnond

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. is able to hydrolyze organic phosphorus. These soil yeast microorganisms were isolated from rice roots grown in acid sulphate soil that generally contains highamount of aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn ions. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pH and some cations on acid phosphatase activity. Two isolates of Ustilago sp., AR101and AR102, were cultured in 100 mL of modified Pikovskaya's broth containing Na-phytate, pH 4, and acid phosphatase activity was determined at pH 2.0-7.0. Effect of Al, Fe, and Mn, including calcium (Ca ions,on growth of AR101 and AR102, secreted acid phosphatase activity, and the ability of acid phosphatase on the phosphorus release from Na-phytate by Ustilago sp. were investigated. It was found that the optimum pH for acid phosphatase activity was 3.5-4.5. The activity of acid phosphatase secreted from AR101 (3,690nmol min-1 mL-1 was remarkably higher than that from AR102 (956 nmol min-1 mL-1. Aluminum, iron, manganese and calcium ions in the medium did not affect the growth of either isolate. The activity of secretedacid phosphatase of AR101 was inhibited by Al and Ca ion, and synthesis of acid phosphatase of Ustilago sp. AR102 was possibly stimulated by Fe ion. Both AR101 and AR102 solubilized Na-phytate, resulting in therelease of P. However, some amount of released P was then precipitated with Al and Fe ions as the highly insoluble Fe- or Al- phosphate.

  11. The effects of pH on N-methacryloyl glycine primer on bond strength to acid-etched dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, N; Suzuki, K; Asakura, T; Nakai, H; Yasuda, S; Nemoto, K

    1996-07-01

    To develop a more effective adhesive primer, it is imperative to understand the adhesion mechanisms of the resin to the demineralized dentin through a dentin primer. When the bonding agent was directly applied to the dentin etched by 40 wt % phosphoric acid without a primer pretreatment, the bond strength of the resin to the dentin was 5 MPa. Conversely, when the demineralized dentin was pretreated with the N-methacryloyl glycine (NM alpha A) primer solution with a pH value of 1.5, the bond strength increased considerably to 15 MPa. However, the bond strength dropped dramatically from 15 to 3 MPa when the sodium salt of NM alpha A was added, thereby increasing the pH value of the NM alpha A primer solution from 3.2 to 5.0. When the pH value was increased above 3.5 (pKa value), the number of ionized NM alpha A species increased in the solution. As a result, the bond strength of the resin fell to approximately 3 MPa. This result was obtained despite the 5-micron-thick hybrid layer that was created in the subsurface of the intertubular dentin. The number of unionized NM alpha A species increased by lowering the pH value below 3.5. As a result, the NM alpha A primer provided a higher bond strength of the resin to the demineralized dentin. In contrast, when 10 wt % citric acid containing 3 wt % ferric chloride was applied to the dentin, maximum bond strength was obtained when the pH value of the NM alpha A primer solution was 3.5. The pH dependency of the bond strength obtained following 10 wt % citric acid containing 3 wt % ferric chloride etching is different from the results obtained from 40 wt % phosphoric acid etching. This can be attributed to the difference in the characteristics of the demineralized collageous layer.

  12. Influence of pH of acid irrigation water on the transfer of elements into rice plant from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Tomokazu; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots under six different pH conditions of acid irrigation water (pH: 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0. 2.5) and ion exchange water (pH: 7.5), in order to study an influence of pH of irrigation water on the transfer of elements into rice plant from soils. The acid irrigation water was prepared by adding mixed solution of 1N H 2 SO 4 and 1N HNO 3 (1:1) to ion exchange water. The rice grain yielded was separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff and they were powdered one by one. The contents of twenty five elements in the three parts of grain (14 samples each) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. It was clarified that the contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Mg, Rb, Mo, Ni, and Cs in the polished rice increased with decreasing pH of the acid irrigation water. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for Na, Al, Sc, Mn, Cl, Ca, V and Co. The relationships between the contents of elements in the bran or chaff and pH of the acid irrigation water were not so clear as the case of polished rice. The enrichment factor of trace elements from soils was calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff The high enrichment of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se and Cu was observed in the polished rice. Manganese and Cr were concentrated more in the bran than in the polished rice. (author)

  13. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Uric Acid and pH in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Amjad, Samaneh Vaziri; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants protect the body against cellular damage. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense systems. Uric acid is the main and predominant salivary antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary uric acid levels and pH in HIV-infected patients in the west of Iran. HIV-infected patients were selected from behavioral advisory centers of Hamadan and Kermanshah Provinces, west of Iran. Saliva was collected between 8 and10 in the morning. Five mL of whole unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes by spitting into sterilized Falcon tubes based on Navazesh method; pH was measured with a pH meter and uric acid was assessed with spectrophotometric method. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary pH in the HIV-positive group was lower (6.99±0.46) than the healthy controls (7.14±1.03) but the difference was not statistically significant (P=380). Uric acid concentrations in HIV-infected patients (2.94±2.14) were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls (5.21±2.30). The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group (P=0.001). Mean age and DMFT index of the case group were higher than the control group. Uric acid, the main antioxidant of saliva, was significantly lower in HIVinfected individuals; pH also was lower in these patients. HIV can alter salivary antioxidant status, which can influence patients' oral health status. Diet with antioxidant properties might be helpful in these patients. More research is necessary to discover true antioxidant and salivary changes and their relation with HIV consequences in future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack region lakes (New York, USA) since preindustrial times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, B.F.; Smol, J.P.; Kingston, J.C.; Charles, D.F.; Birks, H.J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Preindustrial and present-day lake water pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), total monomeric aluminum Al(sub m), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were inferred from the species composition of diatom and chrysophyte microfossils in the tops (present-day inferences) and bottoms (pre-1850 inferences) of sediment cores collected from a statistically selected set of Adirondack lakes. Results from the study lakes were extrapolated to a predefined target population of 675 low-alkalinity Adirondack region lakes. Estimates of preindustrial to present-day changes in lake water chemistry show that approximately 25-35% of the target population has acidified. The magnitude of acidification was greatest in the low-alkalinity lakes of the southwestern Adirondacks, an area with little geological ability to neutralize acidic deposition and receives the highest annual average rainfall in the region. The authors estimate that approximately 80% of the target population lakes with present-day measured pH = or < 5.2 and 30-45% of lakes with pH between 5.2 and 6.0 have undergone large declines in pH and ANC, and concomitant increases in Al(sub m). Estimated changes in (DOC) were small and show no consistent pattern in the acidified lakes. The study provides the first statistically based regional evaluation of the extent of lake acidification in the Adirondacks

  16. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsh, A.V.; Budrene, S.F.; Yankyavichyus, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  17. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Sharma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-. Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-. Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage; however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage. Low pH can facilitate entry of F(- into cells. Here, we asked if F(- was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function.Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(- at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(- required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(- dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(- treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(- in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pH<6.0 as compared to secretory stage ameloblasts (pH approximately 7.2. Intriguingly, F(--treated rats demonstrated a striking decrease in transcripts expressed during the maturation stage of enamel development (Klk4 and Amtn. In contrast, the expression of secretory stage genes, AmelX, Ambn, Enam and Mmp20, was unaffected.The low pH environment of maturation stage ameloblasts facilitates the uptake of F(-, causing increased cell stress that compromises ameloblast function, resulting in dental fluorosis.

  18. Sorption of triclosan onto activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite: effects of pH, ionic strength, and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Oh, Seok-Young; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-07-15

    Sorption of triclosan on three sorbents, viz., activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength and humic acid (HA) concentration through controlled batch experiments. Triclosan sorption was found to be higher in the acidic pH range, as varying pH showed significant influence on the surface charge of the sorbents and degree of ionization of the sorbate. Sorption capacity of the sorbents increased with an increase in the ionic strength of solution. At low pH (pH 3), the overall increase in triclosan sorption was 1.2, approximately 4 and 3.5 times, respectively for activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite when ionic strength was increased from 1x10(-3) to 5x10(-1) M. Triclosan sorption onto activated carbon decreased from 31.4 to 10.6 mg g(-1) by increasing the HA concentration to 200 mg C L(-1). However, during sorption onto kaolinite and montmorillonite, the effect of HA was very complex probably due to (i) hydrophobicity (log K(ow)=4.76) of triclosan; and (ii) complexation of HA with triclosan. Though triclosan sorption onto activated carbon is higher, the potential of kaolinite and montmorillonite in controlling the transport of triclosan in subsurface environment can still be appreciable. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the coexistence of sodium caseinate and Tween 20 as stabilizers of food emulsions at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Luisa; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Cofelice, Martina; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco; Cuomo, Francesca

    2018-02-05

    In the present investigation the properties of edible nanoemulsions were studied. Sodium caseinate represents a good candidate for food emulsion preparations thanks to its surface-active properties and because it is perceived as a natural product by consumers. Nevertheless, it is very sensitive to acidic pH close to its isoelectric point and, if used as emulsion stabilizer, this aspect can negatively affect the emulsion stability. In order to prevent this drawback, sodium caseinate was used in combination with a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20) as emulsifier of oil/water nanoemulsions. For these reasons, nanoemulsions stabilized by Tween 20, sodium caseinate and by a blend of the two emulsifiers were studied and compared according to their response to pH variations. Nanoemulsions were characterized for size of the dispersed phase with variation of time and temperature, for their rheological properties, for surface charge as a function of pH and for protein fluorescence. Noticeably, it was ascertained that, at pH close to caseinate isoelectric point, emulsions stabilized with the blend of caseinate and Tween 20 were more stable, compared with emulsions stabilized only with sodium caseinate. Such behavior was explained according to the composition of the emulsifiers at the oil/water interface where, at acidic pH, the presence of Tween 20 ensured the steric stabilization thus improving the role of sodium caseinate as emulsion stabilizer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Microeukaryotic biodiversity in the waste ore samples surrounding an acid mine drainage lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yuan; Hao, Chun-Bo; Wang, Li-Hua; Lü, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Na; Liu, Ying; Feng, Chuan-Ping

    2013-10-01

    The abandoned mineral samples were collected in an acid mine drainage area in Anhui Province. Molecular ecological methods were used to construct 18S rDNA clone libraries after analyzing the main physicochemical parameters, and then the microeukaryotic diversity and community structure in the acid mine drainage area were studied. The results showed that the region was strongly acidic (pH <3), and the concentrations of Fe, SO2-(4), P, NO-(3) -N showed the same trend, all higher in the bare waste ore samples PD and 1 M than in the vegetation covered samples LW and XC. Four eukaryotic phyla were detected in the abandoned mineral samples: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota and Arthropoda. Glomeromycota can form an absolute symbiotic relationship with the plant, and it was a key factor for early plant to adapt the terrestrial environment. The biodiversity of the vegetation covered samples LW and XC, which contained Glomeromycota, was much higher than that of the bare abandoned rock samples PD and 1 M. Moreover, many sequences in the libraries were closely related to some isolated strains, which are tolerant to low pH and heavy metals, such as Penicillium purpurogenum, Chaetothyriales sp. and Staninwardia suttonii.

  1. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Skobe, Ziedonis; Tannous, Bakhos A; Bartlett, John D

    2010-05-28

    It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-)). Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-). Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage); however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage). Low pH can facilitate entry of F(-) into cells. Here, we asked if F(-) was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function. Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(-) at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(-) required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(-) dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(-) treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(-) in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pHdental fluorosis.

  2. Indications of human activity from amino acid and amino sugar analyses on Holocene sediments from lake Lonar, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Wiesner, M.; Prasad, S.; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Brauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The DFG funded HIMPAC (Himalaya: Modern and Past Climates) programme aims to reconstruct Holocene Indian Monsoon climate using a multi-proxy and multi-archive approach. First investigations made on sediments from a ca. 10 m long core covering the whole Holocene taken from the lake Lonar in central India's state Maharashtra, Buldhana District, serve to identify changes in sedimentation, lake chemistry, local vegetation and regional to supra-regional climate patterns. Lake Lonar occupies the floor of an impact crater that formed on the ~ 65 Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. It covers an area of ca. 1 km2 and is situated in India's core monsoon area. The modern lake has a maximum depth of about 5 m, is highly alkaline, and hyposaline, grouped in the Na-Cl-CO3 subtype of saline lakes. No out-flowing stream is present and only three small streams feed the lake, resulting in a lake level highly sensitive to precipitation and evaporation. The lake is eutrophic and stratified throughout most of the year with sub- to anoxic waters below 2 m depth. In this study the core sediments were analysed for their total amino acid (AA) and amino sugar (AS) content, the amino acid bound C and N percentage of organic C and total N in the sediment and the distribution of individual amino acids. The results roughly show three zones within the core separated by distinct changes in their AA content and distribution. (i) The bottom part of the core from ca. 12000 cal a BP to 11400 cal a BP with very low AA and AS percentage indicating high lithogenic contribution, most probably related to dry conditions. (ii) From 11400 cal a BP to 1200 cal a BP the sediments show moderate AA and AS percentages and low values for the ratios of proteinogenic AAs to their non-proteinogenic degradation products (e.g. ASP/β-ALA; GLU/γ-ABA). (iii) The top part of the core (land use. This hypothesis is corroborated by the dating of more than 10 temple ruins surrounding the lake, which were built in the 12

  3. Simultaneous estimation of a binary mixture of a weak acid and a strong acid by volumetric titration and pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Sanat; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2012-01-01

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated in the aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for the separation of uranium and plutonium by PUREX process, comprises the fission and corrosion products in 4 M nitric acid. Reduction in waste volume is accomplished by destroying the acidity of the waste solution from 4 to less than 2 M by treating it with formaldehyde and subsequent concentration by evaporation. In the denitration by HCHO, nitric acid in the waste solution is reduced to NOx and water via nitrous acid as the intermediate product: whereas formaldehyde is oxidized to formic acid which is converted to CO 2 and H 2 O subsequently. The reaction is highly exothermic and the release of all gaseous products may lead to uncontrollable process conditions. Hence, for the safe operation, it is desirable to estimate the concentration of residual formic acid as well as nitric acid in the product stream as a function of time. The acidity in the feed solution is 4 M and the concentration of HNO 3 in the product solution is in the range 1- 4 M. Since the formic acid generated during the reaction will be consumed immediately, the concentration of residual acid will be in the range 0.05-0.5 M. A simultaneous titration method based on pH measurement and volumetric analysis has been developed in the present work for the quantitative determination of the weak acid (HCOOH)with known pKa value and the strong acid (HNO 3 ) in the binary mixture

  4. Inter-annual variations in water yield to lakes in northeastern Alberta: implications for estimating critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick HAZEWINKEL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of water were applied to estimate water yield to fifty lakes in northeastern Alberta as part of an acid sensitivity study underway since 2002 in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR. Herein, we apply site-specific water yields for each lake to calculate critical loads of acidity using water chemistry data and a steady-state water chemistry model. The main goal of this research was to improve site-specific critical load estimates and to understand the sensitivity to hydrologic variability across a Boreal Plains region under significant oil sands development pressure. Overall, catchment water yields were found to vary significantly over the seven year monitoring period, with distinct variations among lakes and between different regions, overprinted by inter-annual climate-driven shifts. Analysis of critical load estimates based on site-specific water yields suggests that caution must be applied to establish hydrologic conditions and define extremes at specific sites in order to protect more sensitive ecosystems. In general, lakes with low (high water yield tended to be more (less acid sensitive but were typically less (more affected by interannual hydrological variations. While it has been customary to use long-term water yields to define a static critical load for lakes, we find that spatial and temporal variability in water yield may limit effectiveness of this type of assessment in areas of the Boreal Plain characterized by heterogeneous runoff and without a long-term lake-gauging network. Implications for predicting acidification risk are discussed for the AOSR.

  5. Urea Fertilizer and pH Influence on Sorption Process of Flumetsulam and MCPA Acidic Herbicides in a Volcanic Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Graciela; Jorquera, Milko; Demanet, Rolando; Elgueta, Sebastian; Briceño, Gabriela; de la Luz Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea fertilizer and pH on the sorption process of two acidic herbicides, flumetsulam (2',6'-difluoro-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide) and MCPA (4-chloro--tolyloxyacetic acid), on an Andisol. Urea reduced the adsorption of MCPA but not that of flumetsulam. The Freundlich parameter of MCPA decreased from 8.5 to 5.1 mg L kg. This finding could be attributed to an increase in dissolved organic C due to an initial increase in soil pH for urea application. The higher acidic character of MCPA compared with that of flumetsulam produced a greater hydrolysis of urea, leading to a further pH increase. A marked effect of pH on the adsorption of both herbicides was observed. The organic C distribution coefficient () values for flumetsulam were in the range of 74 to 10 L kg, while those of MCPA were in the range of 208 to 45 L kg. In the kinetic studies, the pseudo-second-order model appeared to fit the data best ( > 0.994). The initial adsorption rates () ranged from 20.00 to 4.59 mg kg h for flumetsulam and from 125.00 to 25.60 mg kg hfor MCPA. Both herbicides were adsorbed rapidly during the first stage of the sorption process, and the rates of sorption were dependent on pH. The application of the Elovich and Weber-Morris models led us to conclude that mass transfer through the boundary layer and, to a lesser degree, intraparticle diffusion were influenced by the chemical character of the herbicide. These results suggest that urea application could increase leaching of acid herbicides in soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Effect of pH and chloroauric acid concentration on the geometry of gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Rodríguez, G. R.; Gauthier, G. H.; Ladeira, L. O.; Sanabria Cala, J. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their excellent surface properties, gold nanoparticles have been used in a wide range of applications from optics and catalysis to biology and cancer treatment by thermal therapy. Gold nanoparticles can absorb a large amount of radiation according to their geometry, such as nanospheres and nanorods. The importance of gold nanoparticles geometry is based on the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength where exists a greater absorption of radiation, which belongs to the visible region for nanospheres and ranges between visible and near infrared regions for nanorods, conferring greater biomedical applicability to the latter. When using photochemical synthesis method, which consists of reducing gold atoms to their metallic state with UV radiation, the geometry of gold nanoparticles depends on different variables such as: 1) pH, 2) concentration of chloroauric acid, 3) the surfactant, 4) concentration of silver nitrate, 5) temperature and 6) irradiation time. Therefore, in this study the geometry of the gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis was determined as a function of solution pH and chloroauric acid concentration, using Spectrophotometry in the Ultraviolet Visible region (UV-vis) as characterization technique. From the analysis of the UV-vis spectra, it was determined that at an acidic pH the particles have two absorption bands corresponding to nanorods geometry, while at a basic pH only nanospheres are found and at a neutral pH the lower relative intensity of the second band indicates the simultaneous existence of the two geometries. The increase in the concentration of chloroauric acid produces a decrease in the amount of synthesized nanorods, seen as a decrease of the relative intensity of the second absorption band. Therefore, obtaining gold nanoparticles with nanorods geometry favours fields such as biomedicine, because they are capable of absorbing infrared radiation and can be used as photosensitive agents in localized thermal therapy

  7. Cholic acid is accumulated spontaneously, driven by membrane Delta pH, in many lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurdi, P; van Veen, HW; Tanaka, H; Mierau, [No Value; Konings, WN; Tannock, GW; Tomita, F; Yokota, A

    2000-01-01

    Many lactobacilli from various origins were found to apparently lack cholic acid extrusion activity. Cholic acid was accumulated spontaneously, driven by the transmembrane proton gradient. Accumulation is a newly identified kind of interaction between intestinal microbes and unconjugated bile acids

  8. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and pH control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28 %), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L d (0.84m{sup 3}m{sup 3} d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3 % in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%). (author)

  9. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars

    2013-11-06

    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STABILITY OF BETACYANIN PIGMENTS FROM RED PURPLE PITAYA FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus : INFLUENCE OF PH, TEMPERATURE, METAL IONS AND ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C.S Tang, C.S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin pigments from red-purple pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus could be an attractive source of red colourant for food application. This paper presents results on the extraction of betacyanin pigments from pitaya fruits grown locally in Malaysia. Both the flesh of the fruit and its mesocarp were investigated and it was found that the flesh had higher pigment contents compared to its peel component. The concentration of betacyanins expressed as betanin equivalents per 100 g of flesh and peel were 10.1 ± 0.6 mg and 6.7 ± 0.2 mg, respectively when 80% methanol was used.  The stability of betacyanin pigments were investigated at different pH, temperature and in presence of different concentrations of metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the pigment was most stable at pH range between 5 and 6. However, it forfeited its stability to the heat induced at elevated temperatures. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ proved to be capable of accelerating betacyanin degradation, with Cu2+ exhibiting the greatest effect. By contrast, supplementation with ascorbic acid could enhance the pigment stability against the detrimental effects caused by pH, temperature and metal ions. Nevertheless, if the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds 0.7 %, it may change its role from pigment stabilizer to become a pro-oxidant.    Keywords: Betacyanin, pigments, pitaya fruit, Hylocereus polyrhizus, ascorbic acid

  11. Modelling Yersinia enterocolitica inactivation in coculture experiments with Lactobacillus sakei as based on pH and lactic acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M; Geeraerd, A H; Logist, F; De Visscher, Y; Vereecken, K M; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F

    2006-08-15

    In food processing and preservation technology, models describing microbial proliferation in food products are a helpful tool to predict the microbial food safety and shelf life. In general, the available models consider microorganisms in pure culture. Thus, microbial interactions are ignored, which may lead to a discrepancy between model predictions and the actual microbial evolution, particularly for fermented and minimally processed food products in which a background flora is often present. In this study, the lactic acid mediated negative microbial interaction between the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei and the psychrotrophic food pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica was examined. A model describing the lactic acid induced inhibition (i.e., early induction of the stationary phase) of the pathogen [Vereecken, K.M., Devlieghere, F., Bockstaele, A., Debevere, J., Van Impe, J.F., 2003. A model for lactic acid induced inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica in mono- and coculture with Lactobacillus sakei. Food Microbiology 20, 701-713.] was extended to describe the subsequent inactivation (i.e., decrease of the cell concentration to values below the detection limit). In the development of a suitable model structure to describe the inactivation process, critical points in the variation of the specific evolution rate mu [1/h] with the dynamic (time-varying) pH and undissociated lactic acid profiles were taken into account. Thus, biological knowledge, namely, both pH and undissociated lactic acid have an influence on the microbial evolution, was incorporated. The extended model was carefully validated on new data. As a result, the newly developed model is able to accurately predict the growth, inhibition and subsequent inactivation of Y. enterocolitica in coculture as based on the dynamic pH and lactic acid profiles of the medium.

  12. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Bath Composition at Acidic pH on Electrodeposition of Nickel-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Corrosion Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-layered silicates were electrochemically deposited from acidic bath solutions. Citrate was used as a ligand to stabilize nickel (II ions in the plating solution. The silicate, montmorillonite, was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta-potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The solution particles at pH 2.5 (−22.2 mV and pH 3.0 (−21.9 mV were more stable than at pH 1.6 (−10.1 mV as shown by zeta-potential analysis of the nickel-citrate-montmorillonite plating solution. Ecorr for the films ranged from −0.32 to −0.39 V with varying pH from 1.6 to 3.0. The films were immersed in 3.5% NaCl and the open circuit potential monitored for one month. The coatings deposited at pH 3.0 were stable 13 days longer in the salt solution than the other coatings. X-ray diffraction showed a change in the (111/(200 ratio for the coatings at the various pHs. The scanning electron microscopy and hardness results also support that the electrodeposition of nickel-montmorillonite at pH 3.0 (234 GPa had improved hardness and morphology compared to pH 2.5 (174 GPa and pH 1.6 (147 GPa.

  14. Succinoglycan Production Contributes to Acidic pH Tolerance in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Justin P; Geddes, Barney A; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the hypothesis that exopolysaccharide plays a role in the survival of Sinorhizobium meliloti at low pH levels is addressed. When S. meliloti was grown at pH 5.75, synthesis of succinoglycan increased, whereas synthesis of galactoglucan decreased. Succinoglycan that was isolated from cultures grown at low pH had a lower degree of polymerization relative to that which was isolated from cultures grown at neutral pH, suggesting that low-molecular weight (LMW) succinoglycan might play a role in adaptation to low pH. Mutants unable to produce succinoglycan or only able to produce high-molecular weight polysaccharide were found to be sensitive to low pH. However, strains unable to produce LMW polysaccharide were 10-fold more sensitive. In response to low pH, transcription of genes encoding proteins for succinoglycan, glycogen, and cyclic β(1-2) glucans biosynthesis increased, while those encoding proteins necessary for the biosynthesis of galactoglucan decreased. While changes in pH did not affect the production of glycogen or cyclic β(1-2) glucan, it was found that the inability to produce cyclic β(1-2) glucan did contribute to pH tolerance in the absence of succinoglycan. Finally, in addition to being sensitive to low pH, a strain carrying mutations in exoK and exsH, which encode the glycanases responsible for the cleavage of succinoglycan to LMW succinoglycan, exhibited a delay in nodulation and was uncompetitive for nodule occupancy. Taken together, the data suggest that the role for LMW succinoglycan in nodule development may be to enhance survival in the colonized curled root hair.

  15. Change of physical and chemical parameters of fulvic acids at different pH of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Kremleva, Tatyana

    2017-04-01

    Organic substances of humic nature significantly change physicochemical properties at different pH of natural waters. As a consequence, a large number of consecutive and parallel reactions in the structure of organic polymers, and reacting with inorganic anions. The main indicators of changes in the properties of organic acids in natural systems are changes in their IR spectra, changes in the colloid stability (the zeta potential) as well as in the molecular weight and emission spectra (fluorescence emission spectra). The aim of our study was to evaluate of changing in physical and chemical properties of the fulvic acid from soil/water samples in the natural areas of European Russia and Western Siberia (the steppe and the northern taiga zones) at different pH (from 8 to 1.5). Changes in absorption bands of fulvic acid caused by both COOH groups and amino groups with varying degrees of protonation were found. Consequently, we can assume that in an electric field fulvic acid change the sign of their charge at depending on pH. During the lowering of the pH intensity of C-O bands generally decreases, while in the region 1590 cm-1 disappears. In turn, the band at 1700 cm-1 is the most intense; it could mean a complete protonation of the carboxyl groups. According to our data, the values of zeta potential changes depending on pH of the system. The zeta potential becomes more negative with increasing pH and it may be due to ionization of oxygen groups of fulvic acid. For the colloidal polymer systems the value of the zeta potential is strongly negative (less than -20 mV) and strongly positive (over 20 mV) characterize the system as the most stable. Our experimental data for the study of the zeta potential of fulvic acids extracted from the soils and waters of different climatic zones show zonal influence of the qualitative characteristics of organic substances on the surface charge of the high-molecular micelle of fulvic acids. It was found that fulvic acids extracted

  16. Effect of urine pH changed by dietary intervention on uric acid clearance mechanism of pH-dependent excretion of urinary uric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanbara Aya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finding reported in a previous paper - alkalization of urine facilitates uric acid excretion - is contradictory to what one might expect to occur: because food materials for the alkalization of urine contain fewer purine bodies than those for acidification, less uric acid in alkaline urine should have been excreted than in acid urine. To make clear what component of uric acid excretion mechanisms is responsible for this unexpected finding, we simultaneously collected data for the concentration of both creatinine and uric acid in serum as well as in urine, in order to calculate both uric acid and creatinine clearances. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government’s health promotion program, we made recipes which consisted of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H + -load (acidic diet and others composed of less protein and more vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkaline diet. This is a crossover study within some limitations. Healthy female students, who had no medical problems at the regular physical examination provided by the university, were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid, titratable acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl−,SO42−,PO4− necessary for the estimation of acid–base balance were measured. In the early morning before breakfast of the 1st, 3rd and 5th experimental day, we sampled 5 mL of blood to estimate the creatinine and uric acid concentration in serum. Results and discussion Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42−] + organic acid − gut alkaliwas linearly related with the excretion of acid (titratable acid + [NH4+] − [HCO3−], indicating that H + in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of

  17. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  18. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakteri asam laktat telah lama dikembangkan sebagai probiotik. Penentuan kondisi lingkungan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan sel serta asam organik memberikan gambaran aktivitas optimum untuk kinerja probiotik baik dalam sistem fisiologi inang maupun dalam sistem bioproses untuk produksi sel dan metabolit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor lingkungan (pH, suhu dan salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi total asam organik tiga isolat bakteri asam laktat yang telah diseleksi dari intestinum udang penaeid. Eksperimen menggunakan  medium deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS cair. Perlakuan pH awal meliputi  nilai pH 4, 5 dan 6. Perlakuan suhu meliputi suhu 25, 30 dan 35OC serta perlakuan salinitas  meliputi salinitas 0,75 %, 1,5 % dan 3 %.  Setiap interval 6 jam dilakukan pengambilan sampel kultur bakteri dan penghitungan pertumbuhan berdasarkan perubahan optical density (pada panjang gelombang 600 nm sedangkan produksi asam laktat dianalisis dengan metode titrimetrik menggunakan NaOH 1 N sebagai larutan titrasinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa suhu, pH awal dan salinitas berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi asam organik. Nilai kondisi lingkungan terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dapat berbeda dengan nilai terbaik untuk produksi asam organic. Hal ini ditunjukan oleh nilai laju pertumbuhan dan produksi asam laktat tertinggi dari tiga isolat uji terjadi pada suhu, pH awal dan salinitas yang berbeda.  Isolat L12 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 0,75%. Isolat L14 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Isolat L 21 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30 oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Kata kunci: bakteri asam laktat, suhu, pH, salinitas, asamorganik, pertumbuhan, Lactic acid bacteria are widely distributed in intestinal tracts of various animals where they live as normal flora.Strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most common microbes employed as probiotics, The optimum

  19. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on the sorption and desorption of cobalt to bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sh.M.; Ren, A.P.; Chen, Ch.L.; Chen, Y.X.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Humic substances and bentonite have attracted great interest in radioactive waste management. Here the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) under ambient conditions was studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength, FA and solution concentrations on cobalt sorption to bentonite were also investigated using batch techniques. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH and is independent of ionic strength under our experimental conditions. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to bentonite. In the presence of FA, little effect of FA on cobalt sorption was found at pH 8. The addition sequences of FA/Co 2+ to the bentonite suspension on the sorption of cobalt to FA-coated bentonite were also studied. The results indicated that the sorption is not influenced by the addition sequences. Some possible mechanisms are discussed

  20. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  1. Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Soon-Kwang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in Streptomycetes by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in Streptomyces strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in S. coelicolor A3(2. Results According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of sigH (heat shock, sigR (oxidative stress, sigB (osmotic shock, and hrdD that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of hspR was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall. Conclusion From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.

  2. Negative Effect of Ellagic Acid on Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid N. M. Abdelazeem; Yogesh Singh; Florian Lang; Madhuri S. Salker

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress. Growth of tumor cells could be suppressed by the polyphenol Ellagic acid, which is found in various fruits and vegetables. An effect of ...

  3. A fluorescent pH probe for acidic organelles in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Wei; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Chung

    2017-09-26

    A water-soluble pH sensor, 2-(6-(4-aminostyryl)-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)-N, N-dimethylethanamine (ADA), was synthesized based on the molecular design of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The fluorescence emission response against a pH value is in the range 3-6, which is suitable for labelling intracellular pH-dependent microenvironments. After biological evolution, ADA is more than a pH biosensor because it is also an endocytosis pathway tracking biosensor that labels endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosome pH gradients. From this, the emissive aggregates of ADA and protonated-ADA in these organs were evaluated to explore how this probe stresses emission colour change to cause these unique cellular images.

  4. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Koenig, Brenda G; Struger, John

    2003-12-01

    Prescription and nonprescription drugs have been detected in rivers and streams in Europe and the United States. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source of these contaminants, but few data exist on the spatial distribution of drugs in surface waters near STPs. Samples of surface water were collected in the summer and fall of 2000 at open-water sites in the lower Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake Erie), at sites near the two STPs for the city of Windsor (ON, Canada), and at sites in Hamilton Harbour (ON, Canada), an embayment of western Lake Ontario that receives discharges from several STPs. In a follow-up study in the summer of 2002, samples of surface water and final effluent from adjacent STPs were collected from sites in Hamilton Harbour and Windsor. In addition, surface water and STP effluent samples were collected in Peterborough (ON, Canada). All samples of surface water and STP effluents were analyzed for selected acidic and neutral drugs. In the survey of Hamilton Harbour and Windsor conducted in 2000, acidic drugs and the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were detected at ng/L concentrations at sites that were up to 500 m away from the STP, but the hydrological conditions of the receiving waters strongly influenced the spatial distribution of these compounds. Drugs were not detected at open-water locations in western Lake Erie or in the Niagara River near the municipality of Niagara-on-the-Lake (ON, Canada). However, clofibric acid, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, and carbamazepine were detected in samples collected in the summer of 2000 at sites in Lake Ontario and at a site in the Niagara River (Fort Erie, ON, Canada) that were relatively remote from STP discharges. Follow-up studies in the summer of 2002 indicated that concentrations of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near the point of sewage discharge into the Little River (ON, Canada) STP were approximately equal to the concentrations in the final effluent from the STP. Caffeine and

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux: the acid test, scintigraphy or the pH probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.J.; Byrne, W.J.; Euler, A.R.; Latture, T.; Leach, M.; Campbell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The best established technique for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux in children is the 24 hr esophageal pH probe test. No simultaneous comparison of this technique with radionuclide scans has been reported. Therefore, simultaneous 1 hr pH monitoring and gastroesophageal scintigraphy were performed in 49 infants and children with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. Forty-seven of these patients also were later monitored by the 24 hr pH probe test. Upper gastrointestinal series were performed on all patients. All patients with a positive 1 hr pH monitoring also had positive simultaneous scintigraphy. All patients with positive scintigraphy and pH probe monitoring also had a positive upper gastrointestinal series for reflux. The sensitivity of gastroesophageal scintigraphy, when compared to the 24 hr probe as a standard, was 79%; its specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the upper gastrointestinal series was 86%, when compared to the 24 hr pH probe test. However, its specificity was only 21%

  6. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  7. Enhanced α-ketoglutaric acid production and recovery in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast by effective pH controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Samoilenko, Vladimir A

    2013-10-01

    The replacement of chemical synthesis by environmentally friendly energy-efficient technologies for production of valuable metabolites is a principal strategy of developing biotechnological industry all over the world. In the present study, we develop a method for α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) production from rapeseed oil with the use of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Sixty strains of Y. lipolytica yeasts were tested for their ability to produce KGA, and the strain Y. lipolytica 212 (Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2412) was selected as a promising KGA producer. Using a three-stage pH controlling, in which pH was 4.5 in the growth phase, then since 72 to 144 h, pH was maintained at 3.5 and in the later phase of acid production, the titration by KOH was switch off, selected strain produced 106.5 g l(-1) of KGA with mass yield of 0.95 g g(-1). KGA in the form of monopotassium salt was isolated from the culture broth and purified. The isolation procedure involved separation of biomass, extraction of residual triglycerides, filtrate bleaching, and acidification with mineral acid (to pH 2.8-3.4), concentration, precipitation of mineral salts, and crystallization of the product. The purity of KGA isolated from the culture filtrate reached 99.1 %.

  8. Effect of pH, ionic strength and humic acid on the sorption of uranium(VI) to attapulgite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Zhiwei [Radiochemistry Laboratory, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Fan Qiaohui [Radiochemistry Laboratory, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China)], E-mail: fanqiaohui@gmail.com; Wang Wenhua; Xu Junzheng [Radiochemistry Laboratory, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Chen Lei [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, 255049 Zibo, Shandong (China); Wu Wangsuo [Radiochemistry Laboratory, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China)], E-mail: wuws@lzu.edu.cn

    2009-09-15

    Attapulgite was investigated to remove UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions because of its strong sorption capacity. Herein, the attapulgite sample was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and acid-base titration in detail. Sorption of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} on attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH values and ionic strength. The presence of humic acid enhanced the sorption of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} on attapulgite obviously because of the strong complexation of humic acid (HA) with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} on attapulgite surface. Sorption of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} on attapulgite was mainly dominated by ion-exchange or outer-sphere complexation at low pH values, and by inner-sphere complexation at high pH values. The results indicated that attapulgite was a suitable material for the preconcentration and solidification of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} from large volume of solutions because of its negative surface charge and large surface areas.

  9. Speciation of humic acid and some transition metal ions in presence of each other under alkaline pH conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Hemalatha; Desai, M.V.M.

    1998-12-01

    Humic acid, the major natural organic matter of marine sediments, is extracted and its interactions with Zn, Mn, Co, Fe and Hg are studied. All these elements are found to form cationic, anionic and neutral complexes with humic acid in the pH range of 7 to 13. A novel feature of the work is that the humic acid itself undergoes change in its ionic character in presence of trace elements in the entire pH range studied. The rates of formation of anionic and neutral species for Zn, Mn, Co, Fe and Hg are different for each metal ion. Iron forms predominantly anionic species and the best fit lines of anionic and neutral species are practically parallel to each other. The best fit line of anionic and neutral species have positive slopes in case of Mn and Co. In case of Hg, the best fit line of the anionic species has positive slope and that of neutral species has a negative slope. Thus the abundance and type of species have an interdependence on metal ion, types of species and pH. (author)

  10. Improved fluorescent labeling of chitin oligomers: Chitinolytic properties of acidic mammalian chitinase under somatic tissue pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Satoshi; Kimura, Masahiro; Kato, Naoki; Kashimura, Akinori; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Kanayama, Naoto; Ohno, Misa; Honda, Shotaro; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2017-05-15

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions including asthma, allergic inflammation and food processing. AMCase is most active at pH 2.0, and its activity gradually decreases to up to pH 8. Here we analyzed chitin degradation by AMCase in weak acidic to neutral conditions by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis established originally for oligosaccharides analysis. We found that specific fragments with slower-than-expected mobility as defined by chitin oligosaccharide markers were generated at pH 5.0∼8.0 as by-products of the reaction. We established an improved method for chitin oligosaccharides suppressing this side reaction by pre-acidification of the fluorophore-labeling reaction mixture. Our improved method specifically detects chitin oligosaccharides and warrants quantification of up to 50nmol of the material. Using this strategy, we found that AMCase produced dimer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) at strong acidic to neutral condition. Moreover, we found that AMCase generates (GlcNAc) 2 as well as (GlcNAc) 3 under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Even protected areas such as Kruger National Park receive acid rain which may lead to possible negative effects on the park's natural amphibian populations. We conducted acute (LC50) and chronic acid tolerance bioassays on embryos ...

  12. Spring flood pH decline in northern Sweden: Towards an operational model separating natural acidity from anthropogenic acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, H.

    1999-10-01

    The spring flood is a defining feature of the ecosystem in northern Sweden. In this region, spring flood is an occasion for dramatic hydrochemical changes that profoundly effect the biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem. Spring flood is also the period most susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. A belief in the anthropogenic component to pH decline during spring flood has been an important factor in spending over half a billion crowns to lime surface waters in Northern Sweden during the last decade. The natural component of episodic pH decline during spring flood, however, has received less attention. The main objective of this work is to present an operational model for separating and quantifying the anthropogenic and natural contributions of episodic acidification during high flow events in Northern Sweden. The key assumptions in this model are that baseflow ANC has not been affected by anthropogenic acidification, that DOC has not changed due to modern land-use practice and that natural dilution during hydrological episodes can be quantified. The limited data requirements of 10-15 stream water samples before and during spring flood make the model suitable for widespread use in environmental monitoring programs. This makes it possible to distinguish trends of human impact as well as natural pH decline in space and time. Modeling results from northern Sweden demonstrate that the natural driving mechanisms of dilution and organic acidity were the dominant factors in the episodic acidification of spring flood in the region. The anthropogenic contribution to spring pH decline was similar in size to the natural contribution in only two of the more than 30 events where this model was applied. Natural factors alone were found to cause pH values below 4.5 in some streams. Anthropogenic sources of acidity can be superimposed on this natural dynamics. In the sites studied, the magnitude of the anthropogenic ANC decline was correlated to the winter deposition of

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.S.; Cook, R.B.; Miegroet, H.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  14. TRPM5 mediates acidic extracellular pH signaling and TRPM5 inhibition reduces spontaneous metastasis in mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Koga, Kaori; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Maehata, Yojiro; Ozawa, Shigeyuki; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-10-03

    Extracellular acidity is a hallmark of solid tumors and is associated with metastasis in the tumor microenvironment. Acidic extracellular pH (pH e ) has been found to increase intracellular Ca 2+ and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression by activating NF-κB in the mouse B16 melanoma model. The present study assessed whether TRPM5, an intracellular Ca 2+ -dependent monovalent cation channel, is associated with acidic pH e signaling and induction of MMP-9 expression in this mouse melanoma model. Treatment of B16 cells with Trpm5 siRNA reduced acidic pH e -induced MMP-9 expression. Enforced expression of Trpm5 increased the rate of acidic pH e -induced MMP-9 expression, as well as increasing experimental lung metastasis. This genetic manipulation did not alter the pH e critical for MMP-9 induction but simply amplified the percentage of inducible MMP-9 at each pH e . Treatment of tumor bearing mice with triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), an inhibitor of TRPM5, significantly reduced spontaneous lung metastasis. In silico analysis of clinical samples showed that high TRPM5 mRNA expression correlated with poor overall survival rate in patients with melanoma and gastric cancer but not in patients with cancers of the ovary, lung, breast, and rectum. These results showed that TRPM5 amplifies acidic pH e signaling and may be a promising target for preventing metastasis of some types of tumor.

  15. Impact of temperature, pH, and salinity changes on the physico-chemical properties of model naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsie, Alena; Parnis, J Mark; Mackay, Donald

    2016-03-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity change on naphthenic acids (NAs) present in oil-sands process wastewater were modeled for 55 representative NAs. COSMO-RS was used to estimate octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA) partition ratios and Henry's law constants (H). Validation with experimental carboxylic acid data yielded log KOW and log H RMS errors of 0.45 and 0.55 respectively. Calculations of log KOW, (or log D, for pH-dependence), log KOA and log H (or log HD, for pH-dependence) were made for model NAs between -20 °C and 40 °C, pH between 0 and 14, and salinity between 0 and 3 g NaCl L(-1). Temperature increase by 60 °C resulted in 3-5 log unit increase in H and a similar magnitude decrease in KOA. pH increase above the NA pKa resulted in a dramatic decrease in both log D and log HD. Salinity increase over the 0-3 g NaCl L(-1) range resulted in a 0.3 log unit increase on average for KOW and H values. Log KOW values of the sodium salt and anion of the conjugate base were also estimated to examine their potential for contribution to the overall partitioning of NAs. Sodium salts and anions of naphthenic acids are predicted to have on average 4 log units and 6 log units lower log KOW values, respectively, with respect to the corresponding neutral NA. Partitioning properties are profoundly influenced by the by the relative prevailing pH and the substance's pKa at the relevant temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of acid deposition and forest harvesting on lakes and their forested catchments in south central Ontario: a critical loads approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Watmough

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acid deposition and tree harvesting on three lakes and their representative sub-catchments in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of south-central Ontario was assessed using a critical loads approach. As nitrogen dynamics in forest soils are complex and poorly understood, for simplicity and to allow comparison among lakes and their catchments, CLs (A for both lakes and forest soils were calculated assuming that nitrate leaching from catchments will not change over time (i.e. a best case scenario. In addition, because soils in the region are shallow, base cation weathering rates for the representative sub-catchments were calculated for the entire soil profile and these estimates were also used to calculate critical loads for the lakes. These results were compared with critical loads obtained by the Steady State Water Chemistry (SSWC model. Using the SSWC model, critical loads for lakes were between 7 and 19 meq m-2yr-1 higher than those obtained from soil measurements. Lakes and forests are much more sensitive to acid deposition if forests are harvested, but two acid-sensitive lakes had much lower critical loads than their respective forested sub-catchments implying that acceptable acid deposition levels should be dictated by the most acid-sensitive lakes in the region. Under conditions that assume harvesting, the CL (A is exceeded at two of the three lakes and five of the six sub-catchments assessed in this study. However, sulphate export from catchments greatly exceeds input in bulk deposition and, to prevent lakes from falling below the critical chemical limit, sulphate inputs to lakes must be reduced by between 37% and 92% if forests are harvested. Similarly, sulphate leaching from forested catchments that are harvested must be reduced by between 16 and 79% to prevent the ANC of water draining the rooting zone from falling below 0 μeq l-1. These calculations assume that extremely low calcium leaching losses (9–27 μeq l-1 from

  17. Poly-dopamine-beta-cyclodextrin: A novel nanobiopolymer towards sensing of some amino acids at physiological pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sattar; Bageri, Leyla; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Karimzadeh, Ayub; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2016-01-01

    A novel nanobiopolymer film was electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon through cyclic voltammetry from dopamine, β-cyclodextrin, and phosphate buffer solution in physiological pH (7.40). The electrochemical behavior of polydopamine-Beta-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation and determination of some amino acids (L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, L-Glycine, and L-Phenylalanine). The modified electrode was applied for selected amino acid detection at physiological pH using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry, chronocoulometery. The linear concentration range of the proposed sensor for the L-Glycine, L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylalanine were 0.2–70, 0.06–0.2, 0.01–0.1, and 0.2–10 μM, while low limit of quantifications were 0.2, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.2 μM, respectively. The modified electrode shows many advantages as an amino acid sensor such as simple preparation method without using any specific electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, good sensitivity, short response time, and long term stability. - Highlights: • A novel biopolymer film with entitled PDA-β-CD was electrodeposited on the GCE. • Synergetic effect of β-CD and GQD on the electrical signal amplifications was investigated. • The performance of β-CD-GQD-GCE towards electrochemical sensing of some amino acids was investigated.

  18. Poly-dopamine-beta-cyclodextrin: A novel nanobiopolymer towards sensing of some amino acids at physiological pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: mhmmd_hasanzadeh@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bageri, Leyla [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad [School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, Ayub [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin [Department of Nanochemistry, Nano Technology Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Technology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboob, Soltanali [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    A novel nanobiopolymer film was electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon through cyclic voltammetry from dopamine, β-cyclodextrin, and phosphate buffer solution in physiological pH (7.40). The electrochemical behavior of polydopamine-Beta-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation and determination of some amino acids (L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, L-Glycine, and L-Phenylalanine). The modified electrode was applied for selected amino acid detection at physiological pH using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry, chronocoulometery. The linear concentration range of the proposed sensor for the L-Glycine, L-Cysteine, L-Tyrosine, and L-Phenylalanine were 0.2–70, 0.06–0.2, 0.01–0.1, and 0.2–10 μM, while low limit of quantifications were 0.2, 0.06, 0.01, and 0.2 μM, respectively. The modified electrode shows many advantages as an amino acid sensor such as simple preparation method without using any specific electron transfer mediator or specific reagent, good sensitivity, short response time, and long term stability. - Highlights: • A novel biopolymer film with entitled PDA-β-CD was electrodeposited on the GCE. • Synergetic effect of β-CD and GQD on the electrical signal amplifications was investigated. • The performance of β-CD-GQD-GCE towards electrochemical sensing of some amino acids was investigated.

  19. Comparative study on sorption of radiocobalt to montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Cheng, J.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences of FA/Co 2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption. (author)

  20. Synthesis and HNO Donating Properties of the Piloty's Acid Analogue Trifluoromethanesulphonylhydroxamic acid: Evidence for Quantitative Release of HNO at Neutral pH Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Sonya K; Bharadwaj, Vinay; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jiuhong; Seed, Alexander J; Brasch, Nicola Elizabeth; Sampson, Paul

    2018-03-11

    Trifluoromethanesulphonylhydroxamic acid, CF3SO2NHOH, is shown to release HNO under physiological pH conditions. A two-step synthesis is presented with the first complete characterization of CF3SO2NHOH. This molecule rapidly decomposes in neutral aqueous solution to cleanly release HNO and CF3SO2-, demonstrated using the HNO traps TXPTS and HOCbl, and by 19F NMR spectroscopy. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Complex formation in the system uranium(VI) - alpha-substituted carboxylic acids studied by TRLFS. Pt. III. Alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at pH 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, H.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Fanghaenel, Th.; Grenthe, I.

    2002-01-01

    At higher ligand concentrations a 1:2 complex between UO 2 2+ and α-aminoisobutyric acid was observed at pH 4. Fluorescence lifetimes and spectra were obtained for UO 2 [NH 3 C(CH 3 ) 2 COO] 2 2+ . The complex formation constant was found to be log β 1:2 = 2.07±0.25. (orig.)

  2. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  3. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K.; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G.; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K+ currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K+ channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance–voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn2+. Low pH similarly reduces Mg2+ sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca2+. Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K+ currents observed in vivo. PMID:23712551

  4. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cingolani, Gino, E-mail: cingolag@upstate.edu; Andrews, Dewan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood [Department of Pathology, Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail-fiber gp26 is described. To study possible pH-induced conformational changes in gp26 structure, native trimeric gp26 has been crystallized at acidic pH (4.6) and a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) has been crystallized at neutral and alkaline pH (7-10). Gp26 is one of three phage P22-encoded tail accessory factors essential for stabilization of viral DNA within the mature capsid. In solution, gp26 exists as an extended triple-stranded coiled-coil protein which shares profound structural similarities with class I viral membrane-fusion protein. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of P22 tail extracted from mature virions, gp26 forms an ∼220 Å extended needle structure emanating from the neck of the tail, which is likely to be brought into contact with the cell’s outer membrane when the viral DNA-injection process is initiated. To shed light on the potential role of gp26 in cell-wall penetration and DNA injection, gp26 has been crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH. Crystals of native gp26 grown at pH 4.6 diffract X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with a dimer of trimeric gp26 molecules in the asymmetric unit. To study potential pH-induced conformational changes in the gp26 structure, a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) was generated. Hexagonal crystals of MBP-gp26 were obtained at neutral and alkaline pH using the high-throughput crystallization robot at the Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. These crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Structural analysis of gp26 crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH is in progress.

  5. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K; Bayliss, Douglas A; Jegla, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K(+) currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K(+) channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance-voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn(2+). Low pH similarly reduces Mg(2+) sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca(2+). Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K(+) currents observed in vivo.

  6. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  7. Dual fluorescence of N-phenylanthranilic acid: Effect of solvents, pH and β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2007-11-01

    Spectral characteristics of N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPAA) have been studied in different solvents, pH and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and compared with anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2ABA). In all solvents a dual fluorescence is observed in NPAA, whereas 2ABA gives single emission. Combining the results observed in the absorption, fluorescence emission and fluorescence excitation spectra, it is found that strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) interactions present in NPAA molecule. The inclusion complex of NPAA with β-CD is analysed by UV-vis, fluorimetry, FT-IR, 1H NMR, scanning electron microscope and AM 1 method. The above spectral studies show that NPAA forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with β-CD and COOH group present in the β-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  8. Dual fluorescence of N-phenylanthranilic acid: Effect of solvents, pH and beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N; Balasubramanian, T

    2007-11-01

    Spectral characteristics of N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPAA) have been studied in different solvents, pH and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and compared with anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2ABA). In all solvents a dual fluorescence is observed in NPAA, whereas 2ABA gives single emission. Combining the results observed in the absorption, fluorescence emission and fluorescence excitation spectra, it is found that strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) interactions present in NPAA molecule. The inclusion complex of NPAA with beta-CD is analysed by UV-vis, fluorimetry, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, scanning electron microscope and AM 1 method. The above spectral studies show that NPAA forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with beta-CD and COOH group present in the beta-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  9. Estimation of redox potentials of Fe(III)- gallic acid complexes at different pH by spectrophotometric titration with ascorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Tasneem, Z.; Kazmi, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Fe(III) is strongly chelated by Gallic acid. This equilibrium as well as the kinetics of reduction of the complex is strongly pH dependent. The complex was prepared in acetate buffers of pH 4.6, 5.0 and 5.6 and in Tris buffer of pH 7.0.The complex was reduced by ascorbate. The reduced absorbance was taken to be a measure of reaction. Nernst equation was then applied to determine the standard redox potentials of the complex taking the literature values of the redox potentials of ascorbate at different pH. The values of redox potentials of complex were found to be 0.197 V at pH 4.6. 0.181 V at pH 5.0 1.132 V at pH 5.6 and 0.092 V at pH 7.0. (author)

  10. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  11. The activity of hyperthermophilic glycosynthases is significantly enhanced at acidic pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perugino, G.; Trincone, A.; Giordano, A.; Oost, van der J.; Kaper, T.; Rossi, M.; Moracci, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that the hyperthermophilic glycosynthase from Sulfolobus so fataricus (Ssbeta-glyE387G) can promote the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides from activated beta-glycosides, at pH 6.5, in the presence of 2 M sodium formate as an external nucleophile. In an effort to

  12. Intracellular pH Response to Weak Acid Stress in Individual Vegetative Bacillus subtilis Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; van Beilen, J.W.A.; Ter Beek, A.; De Vos, W.H.; Brul, S.; Manders, E.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) critically affects bacterial cell physiology. Hence, a variety of food preservation strategies are aimed at perturbing pHi homeostasis. Unfortunately, accurate pHi quantification with existing methods is suboptimal, since measurements are averages across populations of cells,

  13. Effect of slightly acid pH with or without chloride in radioactive water on the corrosion of maraging steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, G.; Rameau, J. J.

    1996-02-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior of maraging steel used in the tanks of French plants for reprocessing radioactive water which may contain chloride ions at pH 3. The rest or corrosion potentials can be either in the transpassive or active regions due to the presence of radiolytic species. The corrosion current and potential depend on the pH and intermediates formed on the surface in the active region; therefore, maraging steel behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry without and with electrode rotation and different acid pH which provide an indication of mechanisms, modification of local pH and transient formation. In the passive -transpassive region, breakdown and porosity in the oxide appear with or without chloride, according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In presence of chloride, the corrosion kinetics were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anodic and cathodic areas of maraging steel corroded by pitting were shown using the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique.

  14. Effect of slightly acid pH with or without chloride in radioactive water on the corrosion of maraging steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Rameau, J.J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electrochimie et d`Electrometallurgie, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-02-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior of maraging steel used in the tanks of French plants for reprocessing radioactive water which may contain chloride ions at pH 3. The rest or corrosion potentials can be either in the transpassive or active regions due to the presence of radiolytic species. The corrosion current and potential depend on the pH and intermediates formed on the surface in the active region; therefore, maraging steel behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry without and with electrode rotation and different acid pH which provide an indication of mechanisms, modification of local pH and transient formation. In the passive-transpassive region, breakdown and porosity in the oxide appear with or without chloride, according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In presence of chloride, the corrosion kinetics were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anodic and cathodic areas of maraging steel corroded by pitting were shown using the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique. (orig.).

  15. Effect of Aging Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of Sintered 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Nykiel, Aneta; Kazior, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The general corrosion behavior of sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel processed under different processing conditions in dilute sulfuric acid solution at 25 °C was studied by open-circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The corrosion resistance was evaluated based on electrochemical parameters, such as polarization resistance, corrosion potential, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate. The results showed that the precipitation-hardening treatment could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel in studied environment. As far as the influence of aging temperature on corrosion behavior of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel is concerned, polarization resistance and corrosion rate are reduced with increasing aging temperature from 480 up to 500 °C regardless of the temperature of solution treatment. It can be concluded that the highest corrosion resistance in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution exhibits 17-4 PH after solution treatment at 1040 °C followed by aging at 480 °C.

  16. Effect of slightly acid pH with or without chloride in radioactive water on the corrosion of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.; Rameau, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior of maraging steel used in the tanks of French plants for reprocessing radioactive water which may contain chloride ions at pH 3. The rest or corrosion potentials can be either in the transpassive or active regions due to the presence of radiolytic species. The corrosion current and potential depend on the pH and intermediates formed on the surface in the active region; therefore, maraging steel behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry without and with electrode rotation and different acid pH which provide an indication of mechanisms, modification of local pH and transient formation. In the passive-transpassive region, breakdown and porosity in the oxide appear with or without chloride, according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In presence of chloride, the corrosion kinetics were obtained by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anodic and cathodic areas of maraging steel corroded by pitting were shown using the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique. (orig.)

  17. Insights into Insulin Fibril Assembly at Physiological and Acidic pH and Related Amyloid Intrinsic Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iannuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human insulin is a widely used model protein for the study of amyloid formation as both associated to insulin injection amyloidosis in type II diabetes and highly prone to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. In this study, we aim to gain new structural insights into insulin fibril formation under two different aggregating conditions at neutral and acidic pH, using a combination of fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron miscroscopy. We reveal that fibrils formed at neutral pH are morphologically different from those obtained at lower pH. Moreover, differences in FTIR spectra were also detected. In addition, only insulin fibrils formed at neutral pH showed the characteristic blue-green fluorescence generally associated to amyloid fibrils. So far, the molecular origin of this fluorescence phenomenon has not been clarified and different hypotheses have been proposed. In this respect, our data provide experimental evidence that allow identifying the molecular origin of such intrinsic property.

  18. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  19. Conformational changes in human serum albumin studied by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Distance measurements as a function of pH and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Pedersen, A O

    1989-01-01

    pH- and fatty acid-induced conformational changes in human serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence-energy transfer, determining the distance between Trp-214 and bound bilirubin at 25 degrees C. This distance changes significantly with the pH, being 2.52 +/- 0.01 nm at pH 6, 2.31 +/- 0.04 nm...... at pH 9, 2.13 +/- 0.07 nm at pH 11.0 and 2.77 nm at pH 11.9. The influence of different fatty acids on the distance was also determined. At pH 7.4 medium-chain fatty acids seem to increase this distance, whereas long-chain fatty acids, at low concentrations, decrease the distance between the two...... chromophores. The contraction of the protein carrying long-chain saturated fatty acids is even more pronounced at pH 9. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Feb-15...

  20. Assessment of Envi-Carb™ as a passive sampler binding phase for acid herbicides without pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seen, Andrew; Bizeau, Oceane; Sadler, Lachlan; Jordan, Timothy; Nichols, David

    2014-05-01

    The graphitised carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent Envi-Carb has been used to fabricate glass fibre filter- Envi-Carb "sandwich" disks for use as a passive sampler for acid herbicides. Passive sampler uptake of a suite of herbicides, including the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides 4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba), was achieved without pH adjustment, demonstrating for the first time a suitable binding phase for passive sampling of acid herbicides at neutral pH. Passive sampling experiments with Duck River (Tasmania, Australia) water spiked at 0.5 μg L(-1) herbicide concentration over a 7 d deployment period showed that sampling rates in Duck River water decreased for seven out of eight herbicides, and in the cases of 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Clopyralid) and Dicamba no accumulation of the herbicides occurred in the Envi-Carb over the deployment period. Sampling rates for 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Picloram), 2,4-D and MCPA decreased to approximately 30% of the sampling rates in ultrapure water, whilst sampling rates for 2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoylsulfamoyl) benzoic acid, methyl ester (Sulfometuron-methyl) and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid (Triclopyr) were approximately 60% of the ultrapure water sampling rate. For methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D-alaninate (Metalaxyl-M) there was little variation in sampling rate between passive sampling experiments in ultrapure water and Duck River water. SPE experiments undertaken with Envi-Carb disks using ultrapure water and filtered and unfiltered Duck River water showed that not only is adsorption onto particulate matter in Duck River water responsible for a reduction in herbicide sampling rate, but interactions of herbicides with dissolved or colloidal matter (matter able to pass through a 0.2 μm membrane filter) also reduces the herbicide sampling

  1. Inhibitors of acid secretion can benefit gastric wound repair independent of luminal pH effects on the site of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Aihara, Eitaro; Kenny, Susan; Varro, Andrea; Montrose, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The authors’ goal was to measure pH at the gastric surface (pHo) to understand how acid secretion affects the repair of microscopic injury to the gastric epithelium. Methods Microscopic gastric damage was induced by laser light, during confocal/two-photon imaging of pH-sensitive dyes (Cl-NERF, BCECF) that were superfused over the mucosal surface of the exposed gastric corpus of anaesthetised mice. The progression of repair was measured in parallel with pHo. Experimental conditions included varying pH of luminal superfusates, and using omeprazole (60 mg/kg ip) or famotidine (30 mg/kg ip) to inhibit acid secretion. Results Similar rates of epithelial repair and resting pHo values (~pH 4) were reported in the presence of luminal pH 3 or pH 5. Epithelial repair was unreliable at luminal pH 2 and pHo was lower (2.5±0.2, P pH 3). Epithelial repair was slower at luminal pH 7 and pHo was higher (6.4±0.1, PpH 3 or pH 7, omeprazole reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair, although only at pH 3 did omeprazole further increase surface pH above the level caused by imposed damage. At luminal pH 7, famotidine also reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair. Neither famotidine nor omeprazole raised plasma gastrin levels during the time course of the experiments. Conclusions Epithelial repair in vivo is affected by luminal pH variation, but the beneficial effects of acutely blocking acid secretion extend beyond simply raising luminal and/or surface pH. PMID:21997560

  2. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Santofimia

    Full Text Available The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth. Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD, including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified

  3. Photonic crystal fiber interferometric pH sensor based on polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid hydrogel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengbing; Dong, Xinyong; Wong, Wei Chang; Chen, Li Han; Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2015-04-01

    We present a simple photonic crystal fiber interferometer (PCFI) that operates in reflection mode for pH measurement. The sensor is made by coating polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel onto the surface of the PCFI, constructed by splicing a stub of PCF at the distal end of a single-mode fiber with its free end airhole collapsed. The experimental results demonstrate a high average sensitivity of 0.9 nm/pH unit for the 11 wt.% PVA/PAA coated sensor in the pH range from 2.5 to 6.5. The sensor also displays high repeatability and stability and low cross-sensitivity to temperature. Fast, reversible rise and fall times of 12 s and 18 s, respectively, are achieved for the sensor time response.

  4. Bioaccumulation of ultraviolet sunscreen compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids) by the heterotrophic freshwater ciliate Bursaridium living in alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Bettina; Kammerlander, Barbara; Summerer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ciliates in shallow alpine lakes are exposed to high levels of incident solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We observed the presence of specific sunscreen compounds, the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), in several populations of Bursaridium, a relatively large ciliate species found in such lakes. The populations from 3 highly UV transparent lakes revealed the presence of 7 MAAs (MG, SH, PR, PI, AS, US, and PE) in total concentrations of 3.6–52.4 10−5 μg μg−1 dry weight (DW) per individual, whereas in one glacially turbid and less UV transparent lake, no MAAs were detected in the Bursaridium population. The MAAs in the ciliates generally reflected the composition and relative amounts of the lakes’ seston MAAs, assuming that the ciliates fed on MAA-rich plankton. We experimentally found that naturally acquired MAAs prevented ciliate mortality under simulated UVR and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) conditions. We further tested the dietary regulation of the MAAs-content in the ciliates under artificial UVR and PAR exposure and found an increase in MAAs concentrations in all treatments. Our assumption was that several stress factors other than irradiation were involved in the synthesis or up-regulation of MAAs. PMID:28690781

  5. Purification and characterization of two distinct acidic phytases with broad pH stability from Aspergillus niger NCIM 563.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S K; Magdum, A; Khire, J M

    2010-11-01

    Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 produced two different extracellular phytases (Phy I and Phy II) under submerged fermentation conditions at 30°C in medium containing dextrin-glucose-sodium nitrate-salts. Both the enzymes were purified to homogeneity using Rotavapor concentration, Phenyl-Sepharose column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The molecular mass of Phy I and II as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration were 66, 264, 150 and 148 kDa respectively, indicating that Phy I consists of four identical subunits and Phy II is a monomer. The pI values of Phy I and II were 3.55 and 3.91, respectively. Phy I was highly acidic with optimum pH of 2.5 and was stable over a broad pH range (1.5-9.0) while Phy II showed a pH optimum of 5.0 with stability in the range of pH 3.5-9.0. Phy I exhibited very broad substrate specificity while Phy II was more specific for sodium phytate. Similarly Phy II was strongly inhibited by Ag(+), Hg(2+) (1 mM) metal ions and Phy I was partially inhibited. Peptide analysis by Mass Spectrometry (MS) MALDI-TOF also indicated that both the proteins were totally different. The K(m) for Phy I and II for sodium phytate was 2.01 and 0.145 mM while V(max) was 5,018 and 1,671 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of Phy I and Phy II were FSYGAAIPQQ and GVDERFPYTG, respectively. Phy II showed no homology with Phy I and any other known phytases from the literature suggesting its unique nature. This, according to us, is the first report of two distinct novel phytases from Aspergillus niger.

  6. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Cation-anion imbalance: Effect on PWR steam generator crevice pH - an acidic case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, J.P.N.; Shoemaker, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange resins remove cations more efficiently than anions from feedwater to nuclear steam generators. The resulting imbalance is made up in the feedwater train by ammonia additions. In the steam generator, the ammonia is quickly flashed off leaving acid ions for an ionic balance. The almost pure water concentrates by boiling in heated crevices, in theory, to levels permitted by the available superheat (difference between primary and secondary temperatures). The concentrations may reach an ionic strength of greater than 20 molal on the hot leg, depending on bulk water concentration, time of steady state operation, fouling of crevice locations, and solubilities of the various salts, i.e., kinetic as well as thermodynamic considerations. While some of the acid species distill out of the crevices, more may be trapped by corrosive reactions. In the paper, theoretical crevice pH is calculated by MULTEQ. An attempt is made to relate pH to steady state operation time and crevice fouling. The data are normalized to be independent of bulk water concentration. Neutralization of the acid is explored

  8. Effects of sulfite and pH an abscisic acid (ABA) dependent transpiration and on stomatal opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    In rice, alday, wheat and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum l. samsun and samsun nn) plants which contained large amounts of ABA, the transpiration rate decreased rapidly with 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 20 to 65% of the initial level after 5- to 30-min exposure depending on their ABAj contents. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (n. Gutinosa l.) with low ABA contents, the rate slightly increased for 20 and 40 min, respectively, after the start of the fumigation and then decreased gradually. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, pronouncedly decreased with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50%, respectively, of the initial levels after 40-min exposure. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCL to N. tacum l. samsun nn leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 m NA/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCL of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to N. glutinosa l. leaves exerted little change in the transpiration rate. When 10-4 m ABA was applied to broad bean leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, their transpiration rate was decreased by HCl, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ application. In sonicated epidermal strips peeled from broad bean leaves, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ produced a slight increase in the stomatal aperture size in the absence of ABA, but showed no effect in the presence of ABA. The aperture size was identical in the pH range of 3.0 to 7.0 in the incubation medium. In the presence of ABA in the medium, the aperture size was small in the acidic region of pH with a minimal value at pH 4.0. ABA decreased the aperture size at concentrations above 10-9 m at pH 4.0 and 10-6 m at pH 7.0 in the medium. ABA uptake by epidermal strips was large in the acidic region, especially at pH 4.0.

  9. Two distinct etiologies of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: interactions among pH, Helicobacter pylori, and bile acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi eMukaisho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer can be classified as cardia and noncardia subtypes according to the anatomic site. Although the gastric cancer incidence has decreased steadily in several countries over the past 50 years, the incidence of cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC continue to increase. The etiological factors involved in the development of both cardia cancers and EACs are associated with high animal fat intake, which causes severe obesity. Central obesity plays roles in cardiac-type mucosa lengthening and partial hiatus hernia development. There are two distinct etiologies of cardia cancer subtypes: one associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER, which predominantly occurs in patients without Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and resembles EAC, and the other associated with H. pylori atrophic gastritis, which resembles noncardia cancer. The former can be developed in the environment of high volume duodenal content reflux, including bile acids and a higher acid production in H. pylori–negative patients. N-nitroso compounds, which are generated from the refluxate that includes a large volume of bile acids and are stabilized in the stomach (which has high levels of gastric acid, play a pivotal role in this carcinogenesis. The latter can be associated with the changing colonization of H. pylori from the distal to the proximal stomach with atrophic gastritis because a high concentration of soluble bile acids in an environment of low acid production is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori in the distal stomach with H. pylori infection. The manuscript introduces new insights in causative factors of adenocarcinoma of the cardia about the role of bile acids in gastro-esophageal refluxate based upon robust evidences supporting interactions among pH, H. pylori, and bile acids.

  10. Microfiltration membranes prepared from polyethersulfone powder grafted with acrylic acid by simultaneous irradiation and their pH dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Li Jingye; Hou Zhengchi; Yao Side; Shi Liuqing; Liang Guoming; Sheng Kanglong

    2008-01-01

    Polyethersulfone (PES) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) by simultaneous γ-ray irradiation. The kinetics of the radiation induced graft polymerization was studied and the grafted PES powder was characterized. Then, microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from PES-g-PAAc powder with different degrees of grafting (DG) under phase inversion method. The swelling behavior and the mean pore size of MF membranes were measured, and the filtration property was tested. The results showed that the pore size and the flux of MF membranes increased with the increase in DG. And, MF membranes' properties were dependent on the pH value

  11. Effect of pH and salts on microstructure and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber suspensions upon high pressure homogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Katleen L.D.D.; Panozzo, Agnese; Moelants, Katlijn; Cardinaels, Ruth; Wallecan, Joël; Moldenaers, Paula; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper the effect of pH and salts on microstructural and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber residue (AR) suspensions upon mild and intense shearing was investigated. To this aim, AR suspensions were adjusted to a pH of 2.5 (as is), 4.5, 5.5, 7 or 10 prior to or

  12. Effect of salt and acidic pH on the stability of virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia enterocolitica and expression of virulence-associated characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence plasmid (pYV) under different NaCl concentrations and under acidic pH conditions was investigated. Exposure of five strains representing five serotypes of pYV-bearing virulent Y. enterocolitica to 0.5, 2 and 5% NaCl and under conditions of pH 4...

  13. Influence on Levels of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    Involves secondary students in a study designed to allow investigation into how different levels of information presented by various technologies (chemical indicators, pH meters, and microcomputer-based laboratories-MBLs) affected students' understanding of acid, base, and pH concepts. Results showed that students using MBLs exhibited a greater…

  14. New Amino-Acid-Based β-Phosphorylated Nitroxides for Probing Acidic pH in Biological Systems by EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Gosset, Gaëlle; Clément, Jean-Louis; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Siri, Didier; Gaudel-Siri, Anouk; Rockenbauer, Antal; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing interest in measuring pH in biological samples by using nitroxides with pH-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Aiming to improve the spectral sensitivity (Δa X ) of these probes (i.e., the difference between the EPR hyperfine splitting (hfs) in their protonated and unprotonated forms), we characterized a series of novel linear α-carboxy, α'-diethoxyphosphoryl nitroxides constructed on an amino acid core and featuring an (α or α')-C-H bond. In buffer, the three main hfs (a N , a H , and a P ) of their EPR spectra vary reversibly with pH and, from a P or a H titration curves, a two- to fourfold increase in sensitivity was achieved compared to reference imidazoline or imidazolidine nitroxides. The crystallized carboxylate 10 b (pK a ≈3.6), which demonstrated low cytotoxicity and good resistance to bioreduction, was applied to probe stomach acidity in rats. The results pave the way to a novel generation of highly sensitive EPR pH markers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  16. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs......) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both...

  17. Growth of aspergillus terreus and the production of itaconic acid in batch and continuous cultures. The influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychtera, M.; Wase, J.D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus (NRRL 1960) was cultivated in batch and in continuous single-stage culture. The influence of pH on the growth of the organism, on the formation of itaconic acid and on the kinetics of fermentation was studied under phosphate limitation, both at controlled ph values and also when the pH was allowed to decrease in a natural way. In the pH range 1.7-3.5, the ratio of undissociated:half-dissociated acid varied from 190:1 to 1.5:1. The amount of completely dissociated acid may be regarded as negligible. In batch systems operated without pH control, an initial pH of 3.1 proved to be the most effective. Product formation under such conditions started at a point where the exponential growth phase commenced and was described by a zero-order equation. The maximum itaconic acid production rate was shifted behind maximum growth rate. The continuous single-stage system was first order with respect to product formation. At pH greater than 3.1, a number of aberrant and pellet forms of the mould occurred, resulting in decreased acid production. (Refs. 41).

  18. Partitioning of uranyl between ferrihydrite and humic substances at acidic and circum-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublet, Gabrielle; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott; Kumar, Naresh; Lowry, Gregory V.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2017-10-01

    As part of a larger study of the reactivity and mobility of uranyl (U(VI)O22+) cations in subsurface environments containing natural organic matter (NOM) and hydrous ferric oxides, we have examined the effect of reference humic and fulvic substances on the sorption of uranyl on 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh), a common, naturally occurring nano-Fe(III)-hydroxide. Uranyl was reacted with Fh at pH 4.6 and 7.0 in the presence and absence of Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) (0-835 ppm) or Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) (0-955 ppm). No evidence was found for reduction of uranyl by either form of NOM after 24 h of exposure. The following three size fractions were considered in this study: (1) ≥0.2 μm (Fh-NOM aggregates), (2) 0.02-0.2 μm (dispersed Fh nanoparticles and NOM macro-molecules), and (3) <0.02 μm (dissolved). The extent to which U(VI) is sorbed in aggregates or dispersed as colloids was assessed by comparing U, Fe, and NOM concentrations in these three size fractions. Partitioning of uranyl between Fh and NOM was determined in size fraction (1) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Uranyl sorption on Fh-NOM aggregates was affected by the presence of NOM in different ways depending on pH and type of NOM (ESHA vs. SRFA). The presence of ESHA in the uranyl-Fh-NOM ternary system at pH 4.6 enhanced uranyl uptake more than the presence of SRFA. In contrast, neither form of NOM affected uranyl sorption at pH 7.0 over most of the NOM concentration range examined (0-500 ppm); at the highest NOM concentrations (500-955 ppm) uranyl uptake in the aggregates was slightly inhibited at pH 7.0, which is interpreted as being due to the dispersion of Fh aggregates. XAS at the U LIII-edge was used to characterize molecular-level changes in uranyl complexation as a result of sorption to the Fh-NOM aggregates. In the absence of NOM, uranyl formed dominantly inner-sphere, mononuclear, bidentate sorption complexes on Fh. However, when NOM concentration was increased at pH 4.6, the

  19. Effects of acidic deposition on in-lake phosphorus availability: A lesson from lakes recovering from acidification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Kaňa, Jiří; Norton, S. A.; Stuchlík, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2015), s. 2895-2903 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09231S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : modelling * recovery from acid ification * nutrients * phosphorus Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.393, year: 2015

  20. Multimedia fate modeling of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in the shallow lake Chaohu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Koelmans, Albert A; Mooij, Wolf M

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater shallow lake ecosystems provide valuable ecological services to human beings. However, these systems are subject to severe contamination from anthropogenic sources. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), are among the contaminants that have received substantial attention, primarily due to abundant applications, environment persistence, and potential threats to ecological and human health. Understanding the environmental behavior of these contaminants in shallow freshwater lake environments using a modeling approach is therefore critical. Here, we characterize the fate, transport and transformation of both PFOA and PFOS in the fifth largest freshwater lake in China (Chaohu) during a two-year period (2013-2015) using a fugacity-based multimedia fate model. A reasonable agreement between the measured and modeled concentrations in various compartments confirms the model's reliability. The model successfully quantifies the environmental processes and identifies the major sources and input pathways of PFOA and PFOS to the Chaohu water body. Sensitivity analysis reveals the critical role of nonlinear Freundlich sorption, which contributes to a variable fraction of the model true uncertainty in different compartments (8.1%-93.6%). Through additional model scenario analyses, we further elucidate the importance of nonlinear Freundlich sorption that is essential for the reliable model performance. We also reveal the distinct composition of emission sources for the two contaminants, as the major sources are indirect soil volatilization and direct release from human activities for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. The present study is expected to provide implications for local management of PFASs pollution in Lake Chaohu and to contribute to developing a general model framework for the evaluation of PFASs in shallow lakes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Copper availability and bioavailability are controlled by rhizosphere pH in rape grown in an acidic Cu-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaignon, Valerie; Quesnoit, Marie [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols Ecologie fonctionnelle and Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Hinsinger, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.hinsinger@supagro.inra.f [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols Ecologie fonctionnelle and Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2009-12-15

    We evaluated how root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH varied and interacted with Cu availability and bioavailability in an acidic soil. Rape was grown on a Cu-contaminated acidic soil, which had been limed at 10 rates. Soil Cu bioavailability was not influenced by liming. However, liming significantly decreased CaCl{sub 2}-extracted Cu for pH between 3.7 and 5.1. Little effect was found for pH above 5.1. For soil pH < 4.4, CaCl{sub 2}-Cu contents were smaller in rhizosphere than uncropped soil. Rhizosphere alkalisation occurred at pH < 4.8, while acidification occurred at greater pH. This explained the changes of CaCl{sub 2}-Cu in the rhizosphere at low pH and the absence of pH dependency of Cu bioavailability to rape. In addition, apoplastic Cu in roots increased with increasing soil pH, most probably as a result of increased dissociation and affinity of cell wall compounds for Cu. - Root-induced increase in pH reduces Cu availability in the rhizosphere and Cu bioavailability to rape.

  2. Effects of experimental acidification on mobilisation of metals from sediments of limed and non-limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waellstedt, Teresia; Borg, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pH on the mobilisation of metals from lake sediments, intact sediment cores with overlying water were sampled from one lime treated lake and one acidified lake. The overlying water of two cores from each lake was successively acidified to pH 4.2 over a period of 3 months. In the acid treated samples from the limed lake, the initial concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in the overlying water were generally lower and the final concentrations were higher than in the acid treated samples from the acidified lake. The labile inorganic fraction of Al (Al i ) was increasingly dominating as pH decreased. Redox potential and pH in the sediment indicated that the upper two centimetres were involved in the exchange reactions. The experiment showed that mobilisation of metals from sediments can occur and the results indicated that mobilisation could contribute to increased concentrations of metals in lake water during reacidification of formerly lime treated lakes. - Reacidification leads to mobilisation of metals from lake sediments

  3. The acid tolerance response and pH adaptation of Enterococcus faecalis in extract of lime Citrus aurantiifolia from Aceh Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Zaki; Soraya, Cut

    2018-01-01

    Background:  The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acid tolerance response and pH adaptation when Enterococcus faecalis interacted with extract of lime ( Citrus aurant iifolia ). Methods : We used E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and lime extract from Aceh, Indonesia. The microbe was analyzed for its pH adaptation, acid tolerance response, and adhesion assay using a light microscope with a magnification of x1000. Further, statistical tests were performed to analyze both correlation and significance of the acid tolerance and pH adaptation as well as the interaction activity. Results : E. faecalis was able to adapt to a very acidic environment (pH 2.9), which was characterized by an increase in its pH (reaching 4.2) at all concentrations of the lime extract (p lime extract based on spectrophotometric data (595 nm) (p lime extract was relatively stable within 6 up to 12 hours (p 0.05) based on the mass profiles of its interaction activity. Conclusions : E. faecalis can adapt to acidic environments (pH 2.9-4.2); it is also able to tolerate acid generated by Citrus auranti ifolia extract, revealing a stable interaction in the first 6-12 hours.

  4. Removal of arsenic from synthetic acid mine drainage by electrochemical pH adjustment and coprecipitation with iron hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny Weijun; Bejan, Dorin; Bunce, Nigel J

    2003-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), which is caused by the biological oxidation of sulfidic materials, frequently contains arsenic in the form of arsenite, As(III), and/or arsenate, As(V), along with much higher concentrations of dissolved iron. The present work is directed toward the removal of arsenic from synthetic AMD by raising the pH of the solution by electrochemical reduction of H+ to elemental hydrogen and coprecipitation of arsenic with iron(III) hydroxide, following aeration of the catholyte. Electrolysis was carried out at constant current using two-compartment cells separated with a cation exchange membrane. Four different AMD model systems were studied: Fe(III)/As(V), Fe(III)/As(III), Fe(II)/As(V), and Fe(II)/As(III) with the initial concentrations for Fe(III) 260 mg/L, Fe(II) 300 mg/L, As(V), and As(III) 8 mg/L. Essentially quantitative removal of arsenic and iron was achieved in all four systems, and the results were independent of whether the pH was adjusted electrochemically or by the addition of NaOH. Current efficiencies were approximately 85% when the pH of the effluent was 4-7. Residual concentrations of arsenic were close to the drinking water standard proposed by the World Health Organization (10 microg/L), far below the mine waste effluent standard (500 microg/L).

  5. Comparative study of buffered 50% glycolic acid (pH 3.0) + 0.5% salicylic acid solution vs Jessner's solution in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Jae, Jeong; Dong Ju, Hyun; Dong Hyun, Kim; Yoon, Moon Soo; Lee, Hee Jung

    2017-11-21

    Superficial chemical peels are frequently used in acne vulgaris treatment. Although glycolic acid (GA) has been widely used in clinical practice, its pH ranges from 0.08-2.75 and thus should be neutralized after application to avoid burns. To evaluate treatment efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using buffered 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% salicylic acid (SA) solution that does not need to be neutralized in the treatment of acne vulgaris compared to the conventional peeling using Jessner's solution. We performed a prospective, randomized, evaluator-blind, split-face clinical trial. Twenty patients were randomized by assigning one side of each patient's face to receive a 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% SA peel (GA side) and the other side to receive the Jessner's solution (Jessner's solution side). All patients underwent 2 sessions of treatment spaced 2 weeks apart. Lesion count, acne severity, subjective efficacy assessment, and side effects were evaluated. The total lesion count was significantly reduced for the GA and Jessner's solution sides (P  .05). The GA side had fewer side effects than the Jessner's solution side. The results of this study suggest that chemical peeling using the 50% GA (pH 3.0) + 0.5% SA solution can be as effective and convenient as the conventional peeling using Jessner's solution in the treatment of acne vulgaris and may show fewer adverse events than the conventional peeling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile–water (containing 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min for 12 min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00–5,000 ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2 ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2 ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  7. Modeling of acetate-type fermentation of sugar-containing wastewater under acidic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Pan, Xin-Rong; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Li, Chen-Xuan; Chen, Chang-Bin; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to provide insights into the directed production of acetate and methane from sugar-containing wastewater under low pH conditions. The model sufficiently described the dynamics of liquid-phase and gaseous products in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor by comprehensively considering the syntrophic bioconversion steps of sucrose hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis under acidic pH conditions. The modeling results revealed a significant pH-dependency of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and ethanol-producing processes that govern the sucrose fermentative pathway through changing the hydrogen yield. The reaction thermodynamics of such acetate-type fermentation were evaluated, and the implications for process optimization by adjusting the hydraulic retention time were discussed. This work sheds light on the acid-stimulated acetate-type fermentation process and may lay a foundation for optimization of resource-oriented processes for treatment of food wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis: pH dependence of kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, F; Castillón, M; De La Mata, I; Acebal, C

    1998-01-01

    The variation of kinetic parameters of d-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis with pH was used to gain information about the chemical mechanism of the oxidation of D-amino acids catalysed by this flavoenzyme. d-Alanine was the substrate used. The pH dependence of Vmax and Vmax/Km for alanine as substrate showed that a group with a pK value of 6.26-7.95 (pK1) must be unprotonated and a group with a pK of 10.8-9.90 (pK2) must be protonated for activity. The lower pK value corresponded to a group on the enzyme involved in catalysis and whose protonation state was not important for binding. The higher pK value was assumed to be the amino group of the substrate. Profiles of pKi for D-aspartate as competitive inhibitor showed that binding is prevented when a group on the enzyme with a pK value of 8.4 becomes unprotonated; this basic group was not detected in Vmax/Km profiles suggesting its involvement in binding of the beta-carboxylic group of the inhibitor. PMID:9461524

  9. EXAFS study on the neptunium(V) complexation by various humic acids under neutral pH conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Reich, T. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Univ. Mainz, Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The structure of Np(V) humic acid (HA) complexes at pH 7 was studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (EXAFS). For the first time, the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation of HA and Np(V) in the neutral pH range was investigated using modified HAs with blocked phenolic OH groups and Bio-Rex70, a cation exchange resin having only carboxyl groups as proton exchanging sites. The formation of Np(V) humate complexes was verified by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Axial Np-O bond distances of 1.84-1.85 Aa were determined for the studied Np(V) humate complexes and the Np(V)-Bio-Rex70 sorbate. In the equatorial plane Np(V) is surrounded by about 3 oxygen atoms with bond lengths of 2.48-2.49 Aa. The comparison of the structural parameters of the Np(V) humates with those of Np(V)-Bio-Rex70 points to the fact that the interaction between HA and Np(V) in the neutral pH range is dominated by carboxylate groups. However, up to now a contribution of phenolic OH groups to the interaction process cannot be excluded completely. The comparison of the obtained structural data for the Np(V) humates to those of Np(V) carboxylates and Np(V) aquo ions reported in the literature indicates that humic acid carboxylate groups predominantly act as monodentate ligands. A differentiation between equatorial coordinated carboxylate groups and water molecules using EXAFS spectroscopy is impossible. (orig.)

  10. Modulation of Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a by Intracellular pH and Its Role in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hua; Leng, Tian-Dong; Feng, Xue-Chao; Yang, Tao; Simon, Roger P; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2016-08-26

    An important contributor to brain ischemia is known to be extracellular acidosis, which activates acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of proton-gated sodium channels. Lines of evidence suggest that targeting ASICs may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for stroke. Investigations of the role of ASICs in ischemic brain injury have naturally focused on the role of extracellular pH in ASIC activation. By contrast, intracellular pH (pHi) has received little attention. This is a significant gap in our understanding because the ASIC response to extracellular pH is modulated by pHi, and activation of ASICs by extracellular protons is paradoxically enhanced by intracellular alkalosis. Our previous studies show that acidosis-induced cell injury in in vitro models is attenuated by intracellular acidification. However, whether pHi affects ischemic brain injury in vivo is completely unknown. Furthermore, whereas ASICs in native neurons are composed of different subunits characterized by distinct electrophysiological/pharmacological properties, the subunit-dependent modulation of ASIC activity by pHi has not been investigated. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo ischemic brain injury models, electrophysiological, biochemical, and molecular biological approaches, we show that the intracellular alkalizing agent quinine potentiates, whereas the intracellular acidifying agent propionate inhibits, oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell injury in vitro and brain ischemia-induced infarct volume in vivo Moreover, we find that the potentiation of ASICs by quinine depends on the presence of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a subunits, but not ASIC1b, ASIC3 subunits. Furthermore, we have determined the amino acids in ASIC1a that are involved in the modulation of ASICs by pHi. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Phosphatidic acid is a pH biosensor that links membrane biogenesis to metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, B.P.; Shin, J.J.H.; Orij, R.; Chao, J.T.; Li, S.C.; Guan, X.L.; Khong, A.; Jan, E.; Wenk, M.R.; Prinz, W.A.; Smits, G.J.; Loewen, C.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of lipids by proteins is important for their targeting and activation in many signaling pathways, but the mechanisms that regulate such interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that binding of proteins to the ubiquitous signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) depended on

  12. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... responsible for about 90% of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) that is emitted in South ... premier conservation areas, KNP has a mandate to conserve and manage all ... ians, most focused on effects of metals (23%), acid precipitation. (22%) and .... leaves. Excess food was siphoned out of the containers to reduce.

  13. Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

  14. Influence of culture media, pH and temperature on growth and bacteriocin production of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En; Fan, Lihua; Yan, Jinping; Jiang, Yueming; Doucette, Craig; Fillmore, Sherry; Walker, Bradley

    2018-01-24

    There has been continued interest in bacteriocins research from an applied perspective as bacteriocins have potential to be used as natural preservative. Four bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus curvatus (Arla-10), Enterococcus faecium (JFR-1), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (JFR-5) and Streptococcus thermophilus (TSB-8) were previously isolated and identified in our lab. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal growth conditions for both LAB growth and bacteriocins production. In this study, various growth conditions including culture media (MRS and BHI), initial pH of culture media (4.5, 5.5, 6.2, 7.4 and 8.5), and incubation temperatures (20, 37 and 44 °C) were investigated for LAB growth measured as optical density (OD), bacteriocin activity determined as arbitrary unit and viability of LAB expressed as log CFU ml -1 . Growth curves of the bacteriocinogenic LAB were generated using a Bioscreen C. Our results indicated that Arla-10, JFR-1, and JFR-5 strains grew well on both MRS and BHI media at growth temperature tested whereas TSB-8 strain, unable to grow at 20 °C. LAB growth was significantly affected by the initial pH of culture media (p < 0.001) and the optimal pH was found ranging from 6.2 to 8.5. Bacteriocin activity was significantly different in MRS versus BHI (p < 0.001), and the optimal condition for LAB to produce bacteriocins was determined in MRS broth, pH 6.2 at 37 °C. This study provides useful information on potential application of bacteriocinogenic LAB in food fermentation processes.

  15. pH-, Lactic acid-, and non-lactic acid-dependent activities of probiotic Lactobacilli against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol-Messaoudi, Domitille; Berger, Cédric N; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2005-10-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying the antibacterial activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains appears to be multifactorial and includes lowering of the pH and the production of lactic acid and of antibacterial compounds, including bacteriocins and nonbacteriocin, non-lactic acid molecules. Addition of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium to the incubating medium delays the killing activity of lactic acid. We found that the probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, and L. rhamnosus GR1 induced a dramatic decrease in the viability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 mainly attributable to non-lactic acid molecule(s) present in the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS). These molecules were more active against serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in the exponential growth phase than in the stationary growth phase. We also showed that the production of the non-lactic acid substance(s) responsible for the killing activity was dependent on growth temperature and that both unstable and stable substances with killing activity were present in the CFCSs. We found that the complete inhibition of serovar Typhimurium SL1344 growth results from a pH-lowering effect.

  16. pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China as influenced by incorporation of crop straw biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhao, An-zhen; Yuan, Jin-hua; Jiang, Jun [Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The key factors influencing pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions, and effects of soil evolution and incorporation of biochars on pH buffering capacity were investigated to develop suitable methods to increase pH buffering capacity of acid soils. Materials and methods: A total of 24 acid soils collected from southern China were used. The pH buffering capacity was determined using acid-base titration. The values of pH buffering capacity were obtained from the slope of titration curves of acid or alkali additions plotted against pH in the pH range 4.0-7.0. Two biochars were prepared from straws of peanut and canola using a low temperature pyrolysis method. After incubation of three acid soils, pH buffering capacity was then determined. Results and discussion: pH buffering capacity had a range of 9.1-32.1 mmol kg{sup -1} pH{sup -1} for 18 acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China. The pH buffering capacity was highly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.707) with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) measured with ammonium acetate method at pH 7.0 and decreased with soil evolution due to the decreased CEC. Incorporation of biochars at rates equivalent to 72 and 120 t ha{sup -1} increased soil pH buffering capacity due to the CEC contained in the biochars. Incorporation of peanut straw char which itself contained more CEC and alkalinity induced more increase in soil CEC, and thus greater increase in pH buffering capacity compared with canola straw char. At 5% of peanut straw char added, soil CEC increased by 80.2%, 51.3%, and 82.8% for Ultisol from Liuzhou, Oxisol from Chengmai and Ultisol from Kunlun, respectively, and by 19.8%, 19.6%, and 32.8% with 5% of canola straw char added, respectively; and correspondingly for these soils, the pH buffering capacity increased by 73.6%, 92.0%, and 123.2% with peanut straw char added; and by 31.3%, 25.6%, and 52.3% with canola straw char added, respectively. Protonation

  17. Negative Effect of Ellagic Acid on Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Khalid N M; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian; Salker, Madhuri S

    2017-01-01

    Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress. Growth of tumor cells could be suppressed by the polyphenol Ellagic acid, which is found in various fruits and vegetables. An effect of Ellagic acid on transport processes has, however, never been reported. The present study thus elucidated an effect of Ellagic acid on cytosolic pH (pHi), NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein abundance, Na+/H+ exchanger activity, and lactate release. Experiments were performed in Ishikawa cells without or with prior Ellagic acid (20 µM) treatment. NHE1 transcript levels were determined by qRT-PCR, NHE1 protein abundance by Western blotting, pHi utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na+/H+ exchanger activity from Na+ dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, cell volume from forward scatter in flow cytometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence, glucose uptake utilizing 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose, and lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing a colorimetric (570 nm)/ fluorometric enzymatic assay. A 48 hour treatment with Ellagic acid (20 µM) significantly decreased NHE1 transcript levels by 75%, NHE1 protein abundance by 95%, pHi from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.02 ± 0.01, Na+/H+ exchanger activity by 77%, forward scatter by 10%, ROS by 82%, glucose uptake by 58%, and lactate release by 15%. Ellagic acid (20µM) markedly down-regulates ROS formation and NHE1 expression leading to decreased Na+/H+ exchanger activity, pHi, glucose uptake and lactate release in endometrial cancer cells. Those effects presumably contribute to reprogramming and growth

  18. Negative Effect of Ellagic Acid on Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid N. M. Abdelazeem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress. Growth of tumor cells could be suppressed by the polyphenol Ellagic acid, which is found in various fruits and vegetables. An effect of Ellagic acid on transport processes has, however, never been reported. The present study thus elucidated an effect of Ellagic acid on cytosolic pH (pHi, NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein abundance, Na+/H+ exchanger activity, and lactate release. Methods: Experiments were performed in Ishikawa cells without or with prior Ellagic acid (20 µM treatment. NHE1 transcript levels were determined by qRT-PCR, NHE1 protein abundance by Western blotting, pHi utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl-5-(and-6-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na+/H+ exchanger activity from Na+ dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, cell volume from forward scatter in flow cytometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence, glucose uptake utilizing 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino-2-deoxyglucose, and lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing a colorimetric (570 nm/ fluorometric enzymatic assay. Results: A 48 hour treatment with Ellagic acid (20 µM significantly decreased NHE1 transcript levels by 75%, NHE1 protein abundance by 95%, pHi from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.02 ± 0.01, Na+/H+ exchanger activity by 77%, forward scatter by 10%, ROS by 82%, glucose uptake by 58%, and lactate release by 15%. Conclusion: Ellagic acid (20µM markedly down-regulates ROS formation and NHE1 expression leading to decreased Na+/H+ exchanger activity, pHi, glucose uptake and lactate release in endometrial cancer cells. Those

  19. Evaluation of citric acid and GDL in the recovery at different pH levels of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores subjected to HTST treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla Santos, M H; Torres Zarzo, J

    1996-04-01

    Spores of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 were treated at different temperatures (121, 126, 130 and 135 degrees C) in white asparagus purée (pH 5.8) and acidified with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) and citric acid to pH levels of 5.5, 5.0 and 4.5. Afterwards, the spores were recovered in MPA3679 medium in various conditions: unacidified (pH 7.5), acidified with GDL (500 ppm) and acidified with citric acid (500 and 250 ppm) to pH levels of 6.5, 6.0 and 5.0. The results indicated that the pH levels, concentration and type of acid used act synergistically rather than independently. Citric acid has a stronger inhibiting effect than GDL on the recovery of C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores. At the higher heat treatments (130 and 135 degrees C) the major injury on the spores sensitize more than against the acids and low pH values.

  20. Copper availability and bioavailability are controlled by rhizosphere pH in rape grown in an acidic Cu-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaignon, Valerie; Quesnoit, Marie; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated how root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH varied and interacted with Cu availability and bioavailability in an acidic soil. Rape was grown on a Cu-contaminated acidic soil, which had been limed at 10 rates. Soil Cu bioavailability was not influenced by liming. However, liming significantly decreased CaCl 2 -extracted Cu for pH between 3.7 and 5.1. Little effect was found for pH above 5.1. For soil pH 2 -Cu contents were smaller in rhizosphere than uncropped soil. Rhizosphere alkalisation occurred at pH 2 -Cu in the rhizosphere at low pH and the absence of pH dependency of Cu bioavailability to rape. In addition, apoplastic Cu in roots increased with increasing soil pH, most probably as a result of increased dissociation and affinity of cell wall compounds for Cu. - Root-induced increase in pH reduces Cu availability in the rhizosphere and Cu bioavailability to rape.

  1. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substrate specificity and pH dependence of homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, R L; Waymack, P P

    1991-08-01

    The broad substrate specificity of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase (WGAP) was extensively investigated by chromatographic, electrophoretic, NMR, and kinetic procedures. WGAP exhibited no divalent metal ion requirement and was unaffected upon incubation with EDTA or o-phenanthroline. A comparison of two catalytically homogeneous isoenzymes revealed little difference in substrate specificity. The specificity of WGAP was established by determining the Michaelis constants for a wide variety of substrates. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate, pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and ATP were preferred substrates while lesser activities were seen toward sugar phosphates, trimetaphosphate, phosphoproteins, and (much less) phosphodiesters. An extensive table of Km and Vmax values is given. The pathway for the hydrolysis of trimetaphosphate was examined by colorimetric and 31P NMR methods and it was found that linear tripolyphosphate is not a free intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In contrast to literature reports, homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase exhibits no measurable carboxylesterase activity, nor does it hydrolyze phenyl phosphonothioate esters or phytic acid at significant rates.

  3. Esophageal pH monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  4. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. ORP and pH measurements to detect redox and acid-base anomalies from hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Tagoro submarine volcano is located 1.8 km south of the Island of El Hierro at 350 m depth and rises up to 88 m below sea level. It was erupting melting material for five months, from October 2011 to March 2012, changing drastically the physical-chemical properties of the water column in the area. After this eruption, the system evolved to a hydrothermal system. The character of both reduced and acid of the hydrothermal emissions in the Tagoro submarine volcano allowed us to detect anomalies related with changes in the chemical potential and the proton concentration using ORP and pH sensors, respectively. Tow-yos using a CTD-rosette with these two sensors provided the locations of the emissions plotting δ(ORP)/δt and ΔpH versus the latitude or longitude. The ORP sensor responds very quickly to the presence of reduced chemicals in the water column. Changes in potential are proportional to the amount of reduced chemical species present in the water. The magnitude of these changes are examined by the time derivative of ORP, δ(ORP)/δt. To detect changes in the pH, the mean pH for each depth at a reference station in an area not affected by the vent emission is subtracted from each point measured near the volcanic edifice, defining in this way ΔpH. Detailed surveys of the volcanic edifice were carried out between 2014 and 2016 using several CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the ORP and pH changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. Moreover, meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which increases the acidity above the volcano by 20%. Sites like the Tagoro submarine volcano, in its degasification stage, provide an excellent opportunity to study the carbonate system in a high CO2 world, the volcanic contribution to the global

  6. Diet of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) in Arctic lakes during the nesting season inferred from fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Iverson, S J; Padula, V. M.; Rosenberger, A E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dietary habits of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) can give important insights into their ecology, however, studying the diet of loons is difficult when direct observation or specimen collection is impractical. We investigate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Tissue analysis from 26 yellow-billed loons and eleven prey groups (nine fish species and two invertebrate groups) from Arctic lakes suggests that yellow-billed loons are eating high proportions of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) during late spring and early summer. The prominence of blackfish in diets highlights the widespread availability of blackfish during the early stages of loon nesting, soon after spring thaw. The high proportions of broad whitefish and three-spined stickleback may reflect a residual signal from the coastal staging period prior to establishing nesting territories on lakes, when loons are more likely to encounter these species. Our analyses were sensitive to the choice of calibration coefficient based on data from three different species, indicating the need for development of loon-specific coefficients for future study and confirmation of our results. Regardless, fish that are coastally distributed and that successfully overwinter in lakes are likely key food items for yellow-billed loons early in the nesting season.

  7. Electrolytic extraction drives volatile fatty acid chain elongation through lactic acid and replaces chemical pH control in thin stillage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen J; Candry, Pieter; Basadre, Thais; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are building blocks for the chemical industry. Sustainable, biological production is constrained by production and recovery costs, including the need for intensive pH correction. Membrane electrolysis has been developed as an in situ extraction technology tailored to the direct recovery of VFA from fermentation while stabilizing acidogenesis without caustic addition. A current applied across an anion exchange membrane reduces the fermentation broth (catholyte, water reduction: H2O + e(-) → ½ H2 + OH(-)) and drives carboxylate ions into a clean, concentrated VFA stream (anolyte, water oxidation: H2O → 2e(-) + 2 H(+) + O2). In this study, we fermented thin stillage to generate a mixed VFA extract without chemical pH control. Membrane electrolysis (0.1 A, 3.22 ± 0.60 V) extracted 28 ± 6 % of carboxylates generated per day (on a carbon basis) and completely replaced caustic control of pH, with no impact on the total carboxylate production amount or rate. Hydrogen generated from the applied current shifted the fermentation outcome from predominantly C2 and C3 VFA (64 ± 3 % of the total VFA present in the control) to majority of C4 to C6 (70 ± 12 % in the experiment), with identical proportions in the VFA acid extract. A strain related to Megasphaera elsdenii (maximum abundance of 57 %), a bacteria capable of producing mid-chain VFA at a high rate, was enriched by the applied current, alongside a stable community of Lactobacillus spp. (10 %), enabling chain elongation of VFA through lactic acid. A conversion of 30 ± 5 % VFA produced per sCOD fed (60 ± 10 % of the reactive fraction) was achieved, with a 50 ± 6 % reduction in suspended solids likely by electro-coagulation. VFA can be extracted directly from a fermentation broth by membrane electrolysis. The electrolytic water reduction products are utilized in the fermentation: OH(-) is used for pH control without added chemicals, and H2 is

  8. Influence of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic cultures and pH value in fermented yoghurt drink to sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we can see on market mainly fermented milk products with addition of probiotic microorganisms, especially strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. We can meet also other types of pro­bio­tic products. It is recommended to consume at least 100 grams of fermented milk products with mi­ni­mal concentration of 106 of probiotics in one gram or mililitr of product daily for reaching positive effect on men’s health. During fermentation of the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are disunite and many of aromatic compounds ane compose. They give a typical sensory characteristic to fermented milk products. For quality and quantity level of probiotics, changes of pH value and sensory qua­li­ty of five kinds of fermented milk product Yoghurt Drink with different flavour were analyzed during the whole expiration period (28 days. Obtained results were statistically evaluated via the analysis of variance and the method of multiple comparison according to Tukey test (P < 0,010 and (P < 0,001. During the minimal endurance time lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium sp. were evaluated and changes of descriptors and pH value were detected. Number of LAB was up to 107 CFU/ml in all samples during 28 days of analysis. Only at sample 2 the number of LAB was 106 CFU/ml. Bifidobacterium sp. grew about degree. The number of LAB and Bifidobacterium sp. of yoghurt drink correspond with public notice number 77/2003 Sb, LAB 107 nad Bifidobacterium sp. 106 KTJ / ml. During 28 days of storage the pH value decreased. The biggest pH drop was recorded between 21. and 28. days of sto­ra­ge in all samples. The beginning pH value was 4.03–4.07 and the final value was between 3.80–3.95.The results of sensory evaluation processed by analysis of dispersion according to type were statistically conlusive in descriptors thickness, texture, intensity of smell, pleasantness of taste and general impression. The results of sensory evaluation processed by

  9. Rumen morphometrics and the effect of digesta pH and volume on volatile fatty acid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L Q; Costa, S F; Lopes, F; Guerreiro, M C; Armentano, L E; Pereira, M N

    2013-04-01

    The effects of rumen digesta volume and pH on VFA absorption and its relation to rumen wall morphology were evaluated. Nine rumen cannulated cows formed 3 groups based on desired variation in rumen morphology: The High group was formed by Holsteins yielding 25.9 kg milk/d and fed on a high-grain total mixed ration (TMR); the Medium group by Holstein-Zebu crossbreds yielding 12.3 kg milk/d and fed on corn silage, tropical pasture, and a commercial concentrate; and the Dry group by nonlactating grazing Jerseys fed exclusively on tropical pasture. Within each group, a sequence of 3 ruminal conditions was induced on each cow in 3 × 3 Latin Squares, with 7-d periods: high digesta volume and high pH (HVHP), low volume and high pH (LVHP), and low volume and low pH (LVLP). Rumen mucosa was biopsied on the first day of Period 1. Ruminal morphometric variables evaluated were mitotic index, absorptive surface and papillae number per square centimeter of wall, area per papillae, papillae area as a percentage of absorptive surface, and epithelium, keratinized layer, and nonkeratinized layer thickness. There was marked variation in rumen morphology among the groups of cows. Grazing Jerseys had decreased rumen wall absorptive surface area and basal cells mitotic index, and increased thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer compared with cows receiving concentrates. Mean rumen pH throughout the 4 h sampling period was: 6.78 for HVHP, 7.08 for LVHP, and 5.90 for LVLP (P rumen wall to absorb VFA was estimated by the Valerate/CrEDTA technique. The fractional exponential decay rate for the ratio of valeric acid to Cr (k Val/Cr) was determined by rumen digesta sampling at 20-min intervals during 4 h, after the mixing of markers and the return of the evacuated ruminal content. The k Val/Cr values for treatments HVHP, LVHP, and LVLP were, respectively: 19.6, 23.9, and 35.0 %/h (SEM = 2.01; P = 0.21 for contrast HVHP vs. LVHP and P rumen wall and the mean of the 3 k Val

  10. Binary boronic acid-functionalized attapulgite with high adsorption capacity for selective capture of nucleosides at acidic pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Shuqiang; Cheng, Ting; Wang, Shuxia; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for selective capture of cis-diols such as nucleosides. Adsorbents with features of low binding pH and high adsorption capacity are highly desired. However, most reported materials only possess one of the two features. We have synthesized a 1,3,5-triazine-containing binary boronic acid by reacting cyanuric chloride with 3-amino phenylboronic acid, and the product was then grafted onto attapulgite (a fibrous aluminum-magnesium silicate). The resulting functionalized attapulgite exhibit low binding pH (5.0) and display high adsorption capacity (19.5 ± 1.1 mg⋅g"−"1 for adenosine). The material exhibits high selectivity for cis-diols even in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of interferences. It was applied to the selective extraction of nucleosides from human urine. Typical features of the method include (a) limits of detection in the range from 4 to 17 ng⋅mL"−"1, (b) limits of quantification between 13 and 57 ng⋅mL"−"1, (c) relative standard deviations of ≤9.1 %, and (d) recoveries of nucleosides from spiked human urine between 85.0 and 112.9 %. In our perception, the material and method offer a promising strategy for selective capture of cis-diols in the areas of proteomics, metabolomics and glycomics. (author)

  11. Acidity function p(a(H) gamma(Cl)) as a step to pH assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camões, Maria Filomena; Guiomar Lito, Maria

    2002-11-01

    The conventional assignment of pH reference buffer standards, pH(S), is achieved by means of a series of procedures that follow from measurement of Harned cell potentials for an electrolyte solution which is the buffer solution of interest. An intermediate step is assessment of the acidity function p( a(H) gamma(Cl))(0), the extrapolated value of a linear representation of the dependence of p( a(H) gamma(Cl)) on m(Cl) for at least three different molalities, m(Cl), of added alkali chloride (0.005; 0.010; 0.015 mol kg(-1) KCl). This experimental value can be compared with a theoretically expected value calculated from the dissociation constants of the buffer species. Whereas these calculations always give negative slopes for diprotic and triprotic acids and zero slope for monoprotic acids, experimental values with negative or positive slopes can be obtained for well fitting straight lines obtained for buffer solutions with ionic strengths from 0.0025 to 0.144 mol kg(-1). Such disagreement between theoretically and experimentally obtained values introduce an extra source of uncertainty in the establishment of pH(S) and on its traceability chain. In this work examples are presented and discussed for which the discrepancy between expected and experimental values leads to different intercept p( a(H) gamma(Cl))(0).

  12. Abundance and δ13C values of fatty acids in lacustrine surface sediments: Relationships with in-lake methane concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stötter, Tabea; Bastviken, David; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Rinta, Päivi; Schilder, Jos; Schubert, Carsten J.; Heiri, Oliver

    2018-07-01

    Proxy-indicators in lake sediments provide the only approach by which the dynamics of in-lake methane cycling can be examined on multi-decadal to centennial time scales. This information is necessary to constrain how lacustrine methane production, oxidation and emissions are expected to respond to global change drivers. Several of the available proxies for reconstructing methane cycle changes of lakes rely on interpreting past changes in the abundance or relevance of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), either directly (e.g. via analysis of bacterial lipids) or indirectly (e.g. via reconstructions of the past relevance of MOB in invertebrate diet). However, only limited information is available about the extent to which, at the ecosystem scale, variations in abundance and availability of MOB reflect past changes in in-lake methane concentrations. We present a study examining the abundances of fatty acids (FAs), particularly of 13C-depleted FAs known to be produced by MOB, relative to methane concentrations in 29 small European lakes. 39 surface sediment samples were obtained from these lakes and FA abundances were compared with methane concentrations measured at the lake surface, 10 cm above the sediments and 10 cm within the sediments. Three of the FAs in the surface sediment samples, C16:1ω7c, C16:1ω5c/t, and C18:1ω7c were characterized by lower δ13C values than the remaining FAs. We show that abundances of these FAs, relative to other short-chain FAs produced in lake ecosystems, are related with sedimentary MOB concentrations assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We observed positive relationships between methane concentrations and relative abundances of C16:1ω7c, C16:1ω5c/t, and C18:1ω7c and the sum of these FAs. For the full dataset these relationships were relatively weak (Spearman's rank correlation (rs) of 0.34-0.43) and not significant if corrected for multiple testing. However, noticeably stronger and statistically significant

  13. Mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic organisms living under different UV exposure conditions in Patagonian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARTAROTTI, BARBARA; BAFFICO, GUSTAVO; TEMPORETTI, PEDRO; ZAGARESE, HORACIO E.

    2011-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in zooplankton from 13 Argentinian lakes covering a broad range in altitude, maximum depth and physico-chemical properties of the water. Four to nine different MAAs (predominantly porphyra-334 and shinorine) were found in the copepods Boeckella gibbosa, B. gracilipes, B. meteoris and Parabroteas sarsi, and in the ciliate Stentor amethystinus, while MAAs were undetectable in the cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana. Among the different copepods, maximum MAA concentrations accounted for 0.25–1.31% of the dry weight, and contents were generally about three to seven times (up to 43 times) higher in the animals living in the clearest lakes compared to those occurring in low-UV systems. This variability in the content of MAAs was related to the lake altitude (r2 = 0.71), and the fraction of the water column to which 1% of the surface UV radiation at 320 nm penetrated (r2 = 0.57). Our data therefore underscore the role of MAAs as sunscreens to decrease the potential negative effects of solar radiation, but they also indicate that other environmental factors besides UV transparency play a role in determining MAA concentrations. One lake was selected to obtain additional information on the qualitative composition of MAAs in seston of <100 μm between two sampling sites and over a 2 month study period (austral summer). Six different MAAs were detected in the samples, with porphyra-334 and palythine being predominant. In the copepods collected simultaneously, there was low variation in MAA concentrations between the two sites and over time. Thus, our results suggest that under similar UV exposure conditions MAA contents of planktonic organisms show low temporal variation. PMID:21258622

  14. A mathematical model for the generation and control of a pH gradient in an immobilized enzyme system involving acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Fournier, R L; Varanasi, S

    1998-02-20

    An optimal pH control technique has been developed for multistep enzymatic synthesis reactions where the optimal pH differs by several units for each step. This technique separates an acidic environment from a basic environment by the hydrolysis of urea within a thin layer of immobilized urease. With this technique, a two-step enzymatic reaction can take place simultaneously, in proximity to each other, and at their respective optimal pH. Because a reaction system involving an acid generation represents a more challenging test of this pH control technique, a number of factors that affect the generation of such a pH gradient are considered in this study. The mathematical model proposed is based on several simplifying assumptions and represents a first attempt to provide an analysis of this complex problem. The results show that, by choosing appropriate parameters, the pH control technique still can generate the desired pH gradient even if there is an acid-generating reaction in the system. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Physicochemical studies on Uburu Salt Lake Ebonyi State-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubugwo, I E; Ofoegbu, C J; Ukwuoma, C U

    2007-09-15

    Physicochemical properties of soil (sediment) and water from Uburu salt lake were evaluated and compared with control soil and surface water from the same community. Results showed significant (p copper, lead and zinc in the lake water relative to the control. The values of these metals in the lake soil (sediments) however, were significantly (p potassium, nitrate, carbonate, sulphate and phosphate levels compared to the control. Significant (p < 0.05) changes were also noted in the lake soil's pH, exchangeable acidity, nitrogen, organic carbon, calcium and magnesium levels. Also the soil texture was affected relative to the control. In a number of cases, the values of the studied parameters were higher than the permissible WHO standards. In view of these findings, cautious use of the salt lake soil and water is advocated.

  16. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  17. Chemical treatment of acid mining lakes in the Lausitz region. Experience with lime slurry resuspension in Koschen lake; Die chemische Behandlung saurer Tagebauseen in der Lausitz. Erfahrungen zur Kalkschlammresuspension im Tagebausee Koschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbauverwaltungs-Gesellschaft mbH, Senftenberg (Germany); Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Acidic groundwater from catchments areas at mining lakes in the Lausitz basin causes negative effects on water quality. Those do not fit to existing standards and does not correspond to further use of mining lakes. Most of the lakes are to be filled by surface waters from nearby rivers and creeks. Cause of the limited availability of flooding water a hydrochemical treatment of water bodies is necessary. In order to apply modern techniques, the LMBV company support partners to develop new procedures. The LMBV evaluates the results of R+D projects on applications to reach the objectives with high efficiency, sustainability and cost effectiveness. At the Koschen lake, limestone slurry of a former treatment plant had to be moved because of stability reasons. In order to ameliorate the water quality in the lake, this slurry deposit had been mixed to a 540,000 m{sup 3} suspension and used as neutralising agent. Wind effects had been used to spread the agent all over the water body. While running this project in 2004 and 2005, the lake had been filled simultaneously with about 9 Mio. m{sup 3} of surface waters. Hydrochemical modelling, based on a monitoring program, allows demonstrating the effects of the treatment as well as the filling process. The increase of alkalinity gained by treatment and by filling was about +0.7 eq/m{sup 3} respectively +0.2 eq/m{sup 3}. Together they allow ameliorating the water body by economic means. (orig.)

  18. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on rates of hydrogen production from galvanized steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyola, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the known sources of hydrogen gas within a nuclear plant containment building during a LOCA is the high temperature corrosion of galvanized steel yielding hydrogen gas. The importance of this source of hydrogen will vary depending on the severity of the accident. In an accident which resulted in core degradation, for example, the major source of hydrogen would probably be the metal-water reaction of the zircaloy cladding, and the corrosion of galvanized steel would then become a relatively minor source of hydrogen. However, in an accident in which core degradation is avoided or limited to minor damage, the corrosion of galvanized steel, and presumably of other materials as well, would then become a major contributor to the buildup of hydrogen within containment. The purpose of this paper is to present the overall effects of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on the rate of hydrogen generation over a broad range of each parameter

  20. Efficient interrupting skills of amino acid metallointercalators with DNA at physiological pH: Evaluation of biological assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Natarajan; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2014-06-01

    The 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives (sbnd NO2, sbnd OCH3) and their mixed-ligand complexes with amino acids have been synthesized and investigated for their binding with CT DNA using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements under physiological conditions of pH (stomach 4.7; blood 7.4). The results from all techniques i.e. binding constant (Kb), and free energy change (ΔG) were in good agreement and inferred spontaneous compound-DNA complexes formation via intercalation. Among all the compounds 1 and 4 showed comparatively greater binding at pH 7.4 as evident from its greater Kb values. All the complexes exhibit oxidative cleavage of supercoiled (SC) pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of H2O2 as an activator. It is remarkable that at 25 μM concentration 1 and 4 completely degrade SC DNA into undetectable minor fragments and thus they act as efficient chemical nucleases. Among the new complexes, complexes 1 and 4 have highest potential against all the microorganisms tested. The results of the above biological experiments also reveal that the choice of different metal ions has little influence on the DNA binding, DNA cleavage and antimicrobial assay.

  1. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PH-sensing 96-well microtitre plates for the characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gernot T; Goelling, Detlef; Klimant, Ingo; Schneider, Holger; Heinzle, Elmar

    2003-08-01

    A new method for characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures is presented. Microplates with integrated optical pH sensors are developed. Two fluorophores, a pH-sensitive and a pH-insensitive one are immobilised at the bottom of a polystyrene 96-well microtitre plate. The pH-insensitive fluorophore serves as an internal reference and makes calibration unnecessary. The sensor measures pH accurately in optically well-defined media. Particles and fluorophores contained in the bulk medium disturbed the measurements. Despite these disturbances it was possible to clearly sense differences in inoculum type and in inoculum sizes of cultures of Lactococcus lactis and of Streptococcus thermophilus at 30 and 37 degrees C. Besides a pH-related signal there is information about other changes during milk fermentation. The cultivation results were compared with those from the established CINAC-method. From this comparison it can be concluded that the new method can be used reliably to characterize particularly a large number of strains for screening purposes but also for quality control.

  3. Bilayers at High pH in the Fatty Acid Soap Systems and the Applications for the Formation of Foams and Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Zhang, Heng; Zhong, Yingping; Jiang, Liwen; Xu, Mengxin; Zhu, Xionglu; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-08-20

    In our previous work, we reported bilayers at high pH in the stearic acid/CsOH/H2O system, which was against the traditional viewpoint that fatty acid (FA) bilayers must be formed at the pKa of the fatty acid. Herein, the microstructures at high pH of several fatty acid soap systems were investigated systematically. We found that palmitic acid/KOH/H2O, palmitic acid/CsOH/H2O, stearic acid/KOH/H2O, and stearic acid/CsOH/H2O systems can form bilayers at high pH. The bilayer structure was demonstrated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR), and molecular dynamics simulation was used to confirm the formation of bilayers. The influence of fatty acids with different chain lengths (n = 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and different counterions including Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), (CH3)4N(+), (C2H5)4N(+), (C3H7)4N(+), and (C4H9)4N(+) on the formation of bilayers was discussed. The stability of foam and emulsification properties were compared between bilayers and micelles, drawing the conclusion that bilayer structures possess a much stronger ability to foam and stronger emulsification properties than micelles do.

  4. The role of calcium ions in the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariquit, Eden G; Salim, Chris; Hinode, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are natural organic matter derived from the decomposition of plant, algal, and microbial materials. They belong to the group of the most predominant type of natural organic matter present in ground and surface waters. HAs affect the mobility and bioavailability of aquatic contaminants. However, if they are left unremoved from the water before water treatment processes, they can form carcinogenic disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and other halogenated disinfection by-products, that can pose a threat to human beings. An advanced oxidation process using UV light and a commercially available titanium dioxide was used to oxidize HA at a pH that is similar to that of natural water. The effect of adding calcium ions to the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HAs was studied. The effect of varying the TiO(2) load was also investigated. The experiment was done using a photochemical batch reactor equipped with a mercury lamp emitting light with wavelengths of 310-580 nm. The absorbances by the samples were determined at wavelengths of 254 nm and 436 nm, which represent the aromatic-compound content of and the color of the solution, respectively. Results indicated calcium ions have an effect on both the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HA at a pH within 8.0 +/- 0.5. Calcium ions facilitated adsorption of HA onto the surface of TiO(2) and resulted to faster photocatalytic oxidation. The data were plotted with respect to the normalized absorbances and irradiation time.

  5. A mathematical model of pH, based on the total stoichiometric concentration of acids, bases and ampholytes dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Mioni, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In chemistry and in acid-base physiology, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation plays a pivotal role in studying the behaviour of the buffer solutions. However, it seems that the general function to calculate the valence of acids, bases and ampholytes, N = f(pH), at any pH, has only been provided by Kildeberg. This equation can be applied to strong acids and bases, pluriprotic weak acids, bases and ampholytes, with an arbitrary number of acid strength constants, pKA, including water. By differentiating this function with respect to pH, we obtain the general equation for the buffer value. In addition, by integrating the titration curve, TA, proposed by Kildeberg, and calculating its Legendre transform, we obtain the Gibbs free energy of pH (or pOH)-dependent titratable acid. Starting from the law of electroneutrality and applying suitable simplifications, it is possible to calculate the pH of the buffer solutions by numerical methods, available in software packages such as Excel. The concept of buffer capacity has also been clarified by Urbansky, but, at variance with our approach, not in an organic manner. In fact, for each set of monobasic, dibasic, tribasic acids, etc., various equations are presented which independently fit each individual acid-base category. Consequently, with the increase in acid groups (pKA), the equations become more and more difficult, both in practice and in theory. Some examples are proposed to highlight the boundary that exists between acid-base physiology and the thermodynamic concepts of energy, chemical potential, amount of substance and acid resistance.

  6. Catchment biogeochemistry modifies long-term effects of acidic deposition on chemistry of mountain lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Bičárová, S.; Hejzlar, Josef; Hynštová, M.; Kaňa, Jiří; Mitošinková, M.; Porcal, Petr; Stuchlík, E.; Turek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 3 (2015), s. 315-335 ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09231S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alpine lakes * dissolved organic carbon * nitrogen * phosphorus * sulphate * chloride Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2015

  7. Computer simulation of immobilized pH gradients at acidic and alkaline extremes - A quest for extended pH intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Bier, Milan; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulations of the concentration profiles of simple biprotic ampholytes with Delta pKs 1, 2, and 3, on immobilized pH gradients (IPG) at extreme pH values (pH 3-4 and pH 10-11) show markedly skewed steady-state profiles with increasing kurtosis at higher Delta pK values. Across neutrality, all the peaks are symmetric irrespective of their Delta pK values, but they show very high contribution to the conductivity of the background gel and significant alteration of the local buffering capacity. The problems of skewness, due to the exponential conductivity profiles at low and high pHs, and of gel burning due to a strong electroosmotic flow generated by the net charges in the gel matrix, also at low and high pHs, are solved by incorporating in the IPG gel a strong viscosity gradient. This is generated by a gradient of linear polyacrylamide which is trapped in the gel by the polymerization process.

  8. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Wu, Bingde; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei

    2018-05-01

    Co-occurring invasive plant species (invaders hereafter) and natives receive similar or even the same environmental selection pressures. Thus, the differences in functional traits between natives and invaders have become widely recognized as a major driving force of the success of plant invasion. Meanwhile, increasing amounts of acid are deposited into ecosystems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the potential effects of acid deposition on the functional traits of invaders in order to better understand the potential mechanisms for the successful invasion. This study aims to address the differences in functional traits between native red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.; amaranth hereafter) and invasive redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.; pigweed hereafter) under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels. Pigweed was significantly taller than amaranth under most treatments. The greater height of pigweed can lead to greater competitive ability for resource acquisition, particularly for sunlight. Leaf shape index of pigweed was also significantly greater than that of amaranth under all treatments. The greater leaf shape index of pigweed can enhance the efficiency of resource capture (especially sunlight capture) via adjustments to leaf shape and size. Thus, the greater height and leaf shape index of pigweed can significantly enhance its competitive ability, especially under acid deposition. Acid deposition of pH 5.6 significantly increased amaranth leaf width in the co-cultivation due to added nutrients. The pH 4.5 acid deposition treatment significantly increased the specific leaf area of amaranth in the monoculture compared with the pH 5.6 acid deposition treatment and the control. The main mechanism explaining this pattern may be due to acid deposition mediating a hormesis effect on plants, promoting plant growth. The values of the relative competition intensity between amaranth and pigweed for most functional traits were lower than zero under most

  9. Alkali metals in addition to acidic pH activate the EvgS histidine kinase sensor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yoko; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2014-09-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) in bacteria perceive environmental stress and transmit the information via phosphorelay to adjust multiple cellular functions for adaptation. The EvgS/EvgA system is a TCS that confers acid resistance to Escherichia coli cells. Activation of the EvgS sensor initiates a cascade of transcription factors, EvgA, YdeO, and GadE, which induce the expression of a large group of acid resistance genes. We searched for signals activating EvgS and found that a high concentration of alkali metals (Na(+), K(+)) in addition to low pH was essential for the activation. EvgS is a histidine kinase, with a large periplasmic sensor region consisting of two tandem PBPb (bacterial periplasmic solute-binding protein) domains at its N terminus. The periplasmic sensor region of EvgS was necessary for EvgS activation, and Leu152, located within the first PBPb domain, was involved in the activation. Furthermore, chimeras of EvgS and PhoQ histidine kinases suggested that alkali metals were perceived at the periplasmic sensor region, whereas the cytoplasmic linker domain, connecting the transmembrane region and the histidine kinase domain, was required for low-pH perception. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Andrew W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1 low urine pH, or 2 acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a fragility fractures; and b five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651. Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk.

  11. Dissolution-modulating mechanism of pH modifiers in solid dispersion containing weakly acidic or basic drugs with poor water solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2010-05-01

    Although the solid dispersion method has been known to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs by dispersing them in hydrophilic carriers, one obstacle of the solid dispersion method is its limited solubilization capacity, especially for pH-dependent soluble drugs. pH-modified solid dispersion, in which pH modifiers are incorporated, may be a useful method for increasing the dissolution rate of weakly acidic or basic drugs. Sufficient research, including the most recent reports, was undertaken in this review. How could the inclusion of the pH the pH modifiers in the solid dispersion system change drug structural behaviors, molecular interactions, microenvironmental pH, and/or release rate of pH modifiers, relating with the enhanced dissolution of weakly acidic or weakly basic drugs with poor water solubility? These questions have been investigated to determine the dissolution-modulating mechanism of pH modifiers in solid dispersion containing weakly acidic or basic drugs. It is believed that step-by-step mechanistic approaches could provide the ultimate solution for solubilizing several poorly water-soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility from a solid dispersion system, as well as provide ideas for developing future dosage systems.

  12. Effects of Two Traditional Chinese Cooking Oils, Canola and Pork, on pH and Cholic Acid Content of Faeces and Colon Tumorigenesis in Kunming Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Qiong; Duan, Jia-Li; Zhou, Jin; Song, Zhong-Yu; Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pH and cholate are two important factors that can affect colon tumorigenesis, and can be modified by diet. In this study, the effects of two Chinese traditional cooking oils (pork oil and canola/rapeseed oil) on the pH and the cholic acid content in feces, in addition to colon tumorigenesis, were studied in mice. Kunming mice were randomized into various groups; negative control group (NCG), azoxymethane control group (ACG), pork oil group (POG), and canola oil Ggroup (COG). Mice in the ACG were fed a basic rodent chow; mice in POG and COG were given 10% cooking oil rodent chow with the respective oil type. All mice were given four weekly AOM (azoxymethane) i.p. injections (10 mg/kg). The pH and cholic acid of the feces were examined every two weeks. Colon tumors, aberrant crypt foci and organ weights were examined 32 weeks following the final AOM injection. The results showed that canola oil significantly decreased faecal pH in female mice (P0.05). Pork oil significantly increased the feces pH in both male and female mice (Pcooking oil effects faecal pH, but does not affect the faecal cholic acid content and thus AOM-induced colon neoplastic ACF is modified by dietary fat.

  13. Analysis of the relationship between the decrease in pH and accumulation of 3-phosphoglyceric acid in developing forespores of Bacillus species.

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, N G; Cowan, A E; Leyva-Vazquez, M A; Brown, M; Koppel, D E; Setlow, P

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the pH decrease and 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3PGA) accumulation in the forespore compartment of sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis showed that the pH decrease of 1 to 1.2 units at approximately 4 h of sporulation preceded 3PGA accumulation, as observed previously in B. megaterium. These data, as well as analysis of the forespore pH decrease in asporogenous mutants of B. subtilis, indicated that sigma G-dependent forespore transcription, but not sigma K-dependent mother cell tra...

  14. The Application of Stable Isotopes for Assessing the Hydrological, Sulfur, and Iron Balances of Acidic Mining Lake ML 111 (Lusatia, Germany) as a Basis for Biotechnological Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeller, K.; Strauch, G.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope (δ 18 O-H 2 O, δ 2 H-H 2 O δ 34 S-SO 4 2- ) and hydrochemical data (SO 4 2- , Fe-concentrations) have been used to estimate the annual groundwater inflow and outflow of mining lake ML 111 and to calculate the total amount of dissolved sulfate and iron that is carried into the lake by groundwater. The hydrological balance suggests an annual groundwater inflow of 23 700 m 3 and an annual groundwater outflow of 15 700 m 3 . The calculation of the sulfur and iron balances yielded an annual sulfate input of 37 800 kg and an annual iron input of 7000 kg with the groundwater inflow. Furthermore it was shown that significant fluxes of these elements go into the lake sediments which results in continuous release of acidity in the lake water

  15. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  16. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  17. Does road salting confound the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified lake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thomas Correll; Meland, Sondre; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Walseng, Bjørn

    2014-04-15

    Numerous boreal lakes across the Northern Hemisphere recovering from acidification are experiencing a simultaneous increase in chloride (Cl) concentrations from road salting. Increasing Cl may have profound effects on the lake ecosystem. We examine if an increase in Cl from road salting has modified the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified boreal lake undergoing chemical recovery (study lake). Results from the study lake were compared with an acidified "reference lake". The community changed during the study period in the study lake mainly driven by the reduction in acidification pressure. Despite the community changes and an increase in species richness, the absence of several acid sensitive species, previously occurring in the lake, indicates a delayed biological recovery relative to the chemical recovery. Moreover, changes in occurrence of acid sensitive and acid tolerant species indicated that the biological recovery was slower in the study lake compared to the "reference". Although recurrent episodes of high aluminum and low pH and decreasing Ca are likely important factors for the delay, these do not explain, for instance, the shift from Cyclops scutifer to Bosmina longispina in the study lake. Although the contribution of Cl was not significant, the correlation between Cl and the variation in microcrustacean community was twice as high in the study lake compared to the "reference". We argue that small, sheltered forest lakes may be especially sensitive to increased Cl levels, through changes in pattern of stratification, thus providing a mechanism for the shift from C. scutifer to B. longispina. The reduction of the acidification pressure seems to override the Cl effects on microcrustaceans at low Cl levels in salt-affected lakes recovering from acidification. However, prognoses for growing traffic and increasing road salting raise concern for many recovering lakes located in proximity to roads and urbanized areas. Copyright © 2014

  18. Cycling of acid and base cations in deciduous stands of Huntington Forest, New York, and Turkey Lakes, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, N W; Morrison, I K [Forestry Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Mitchell, M J [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (USA); Shepard, J P [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (USA)

    1992-01-01

    Annual nutrient fluxes within two forests exposed to acidic deposition were compared for a 1-year period. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) was the dominant cation in throughfall and soil solutions from tolerant hardwood dominated Spodosols (Podzols) at both Huntington Forest (HF), New York, and the Turkey Lakes watershed (TLW), Ontario. There was a net annual export of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} from the TLW soil, whereas base cation inputs in precipitation equalled outputs at HF. In 1986, leaching losses of base cations were five times greater at TLW than at HF. A higher percentage of the base cation reserves was leached from the soil at TLW (5%) than at HF (1%). Relative to throughfall, aluminum concentrations increased in forest-floor and mineral-soil solutions, especially at HF. The TLW soil appears more sensitive to soil acidification. Deposited atmospheric acidity, however, was small in comparison with native soil acidity (total and exchangeable) and the reserves of base cations in each soil. Soil acidity and base saturation, therefore, are likely only to change slowly. 57 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. PhTX-II a Basic Myotoxic Phospholipase A2 from Porthidium hyoprora Snake Venom, Pharmacological Characterization and Amino Acid Sequence by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huancahuire-Vega, Salomón; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A monomeric basic PLA2 (PhTX-II) of 14149.08 Da molecular weight was purified to homogeneity from Porthidium hyoprora venom. Amino acid sequence by in tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PhTX-II belongs to Asp49 PLA2 enzyme class and displays conserved domains as the catalytic network, Ca2+-binding loop and the hydrophobic channel of access to the catalytic site, reflected in the high catalytic activity displayed by the enzyme. Moreover, PhTX-II PLA2 showed an allosteric behavior and its enzymatic activity was dependent on Ca2+. Examination of PhTX-II PLA2 by CD spectroscopy indicated a high content of alpha-helical structures, similar to the known structure of secreted phospholipase IIA group suggesting a similar folding. PhTX-II PLA2 causes neuromuscular blockade in avian neuromuscular preparations with a significant direct action on skeletal muscle function, as well as, induced local edema and myotoxicity, in mice. The treatment of PhTX-II by BPB resulted in complete loss of their catalytic activity that was accompanied by loss of their edematogenic effect. On the other hand, enzymatic activity of PhTX-II contributes to this neuromuscular blockade and local myotoxicity is dependent not only on enzymatic activity. These results show that PhTX-II is a myotoxic Asp49 PLA2 that contributes with toxic actions caused by P. hyoprora venom. PMID:25365526

  20. PhTX-II a Basic Myotoxic Phospholipase A2 from Porthidium hyoprora Snake Venom, Pharmacological Characterization and Amino Acid Sequence by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Huancahuire-Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A monomeric basic PLA2 (PhTX-II of 14149.08 Da molecular weight was purified to homogeneity from Porthidium hyoprora venom. Amino acid sequence by in tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PhTX-II belongs to Asp49 PLA2 enzyme class and displays conserved domains as the catalytic network, Ca2+-binding loop and the hydrophobic channel of access to the catalytic site, reflected in the high catalytic activity displayed by the enzyme. Moreover, PhTX-II PLA2 showed an allosteric behavior and its enzymatic activity was dependent on Ca2+. Examination of PhTX-II PLA2 by CD spectroscopy indicated a high content of alpha-helical structures, similar to the known structure of secreted phospholipase IIA group suggesting a similar folding. PhTX-II PLA2 causes neuromuscular blockade in avian neuromuscular preparations with a significant direct action on skeletal muscle function, as well as, induced local edema and myotoxicity, in mice. The treatment of PhTX-II by BPB resulted in complete loss of their catalytic activity that was accompanied by loss of their edematogenic effect. On the other hand, enzymatic activity of PhTX-II contributes to this neuromuscular blockade and local myotoxicity is dependent not only on enzymatic activity. These results show that PhTX-II is a myotoxic Asp49 PLA2 that contributes with toxic actions caused by P. hyoprora venom.

  1. Effects of acidity and alkalinity on the stability of amidohydrolases in freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberger, W.T. Jr.; Page, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of acidity and alkalinity on the enzymatic hydrolysis of amide-N in the aquatic system was investigated by determining the stability of L-asparaginase (EC (Enzyme Commission) 3.5.1.1), L-glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.2), and amidase (EC 3.5.1.4), and urease (EC 3.5.1.5) with respect to pH in three freshwater lakes. The water samples were first incubated at the indicated buffer pH (1-13) for 24 h; then each enzyme was assayed at its optimal pH (pH/sub opt/) under standardized conditions. L-Asparaginase retained essentially 100% of its activity within the pH range of 6-7 in Lake Evans and Lake Matthews, and 5-7 in Lake Perris. L-Glutaminase was active between pH 6 and 7 in the water samples surveyed. Amidase remained completely active at pH ranges of 4-8 in Lake Evans, 4-7 in Lake Matthews, and 5-8 in Lake Perris. Urease remained active over a broad pH range of 5-9 in Lake Evans, 5-8 in Lake Matthews, and 4-8 in Lake Perris. There was a progressive loss in enzyme activity below and above these pH ranges. The results suggest that the decline in aquatic amidohydrolase activities in relation to the pH-profile near their pH/sub opt/ was caused by a reversible reaction involving the ionization or deionization of functional groups of the active center of the protein, but under highly acidic or alkaline conditions (pH <4 to >9) the reduced activitiy appears to be due to irreversible inactivation of the enzyme.

  2. Acidic digestion in a teleost: postprandial and circadian pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and pepsinogen and proton pump mRNAs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yúfera, Manuel; Moyano, Francisco J; Astola, Antonio; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices.

  3. Acidic digestion in a teleost: postprandial and circadian pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and pepsinogen and proton pump mRNAs expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Yúfera

    Full Text Available Two different modes for regulation of stomach acid secretion have been described in vertebrates. Some species exhibit a continuous acid secretion maintaining a low gastric pH during fasting. Others, as some teleosts, maintain a neutral gastric pH during fasting while the hydrochloric acid is released only after the ingestion of a meal. Those different patterns seem to be closely related to specific feeding habits. However, our recent observations suggest that this acidification pattern could be modified by changes in daily feeding frequency and time schedule. The aim of this study was to advance in understanding the regulation mechanisms of stomach digestion and pattern of acid secretion in teleost fish. We have examined the postprandial pattern of gastric pH, pepsin activity, and mRNA expression for pepsinogen and proton pump in white seabream juveniles maintained under a light/dark 12/12 hours cycle and receiving only one morning meal. The pepsin activity was analyzed according to the standard protocol buffering at pH 2 and using the actual pH measured in the stomach. The results show how the enzyme precursor is permanently available while the hydrochloric acid, which activates the zymogen fraction, is secreted just after the ingestion of food. Results also reveal that analytical protocol at pH 2 notably overestimates true pepsin activity in fish stomach. The expression of the mRNA encoding pepsinogen and proton pump exhibited almost parallel patterns, with notable increases during the darkness period and sharp decreases just before the morning meal. These results indicate that white seabream uses the resting hours for recovering the mRNA stock that will be quickly used during the feeding process. Our data clearly shows that both daily illumination pattern and feeding time are involved at different level in the regulation of the secretion of digestive juices.

  4. Microculture model studies on the effect of sorbic acid on Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirdal, I M; Eklund, T

    1993-02-01

    The minimum growth-inhibitory concentration of sorbic acid has been determined for Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at pH 4.1-7.6 by using a microculture technique. This technique had earlier been applied to bacteria and Candida albicans and gave very reliable minimum inhibitory values. This investigation has shown that it is suitable also for determination of mould growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were at the tested pH levels 1-230 mmol l-1 for P. chrysogenum, 0.3-18.0 mmol l-1 for C. cladosporioides and 0.2-33.0 mmol l-1 for U. atrum. A mathematical model for combined inhibition by dissociated and undissociated acid, which gave a good description of the minimum inhibitory concentration data earlier obtained for bacteria and Candida albicans, was suitable also for moulds. Both dissociated and undissociated acid contributed to growth inhibition.

  5. Acidic pH reduces VEGF-mediated endothelial cell responses by downregulation of VEGFR-2; relevance for anti-angiogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Seraina; Uldry, Emilie; Planche, Anne; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-12-27

    Anti-angiogenic treatments targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor or its receptors have shown clinical benefits. However, impact on long-term survival remains limited. Solid tumors display an acidic microenvironment that profoundly influences their biology. Consequences of acidity on endothelial cells and anti-angiogenic therapies remain poorly characterized and hence are the focus of this study. We found that exposing endothelial cells to acidic extracellular pH resulted in reduced cell proliferation and migration. Also, whereas VEGF increased endothelial cell proliferation and survival at pH 7.4, it had no effect at pH 6.4. Furthermore, in acidic conditions, stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF did not result in activation of downstream signaling pathways such as AKT. At a molecular level, acidity significantly decreased the expression of VEGFR-2 by endothelial cells. Consequently, anti-angiogenic therapies that target VEGFR-2 such as sunitinib and sorafenib failed to block endothelial cell proliferation in acidic conditions. In vivo, neutralizing tumor acidity with sodium bicarbonate increased the percentage of endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-2 in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, combining sodium bicarbonate with sunitinib provided stronger anti-cancer activity than either treatment alone. Histological analysis showed that sunitinib had a stronger anti-angiogenic effect when combined with sodium bicarbonate. Overall, our results show that endothelial cells prosper independently of VEGF in acidic conditions partly as a consequence of decreased VEGFR-2 expression. They further suggest that strategies aiming to raise intratumoral pH can improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments.

  6. In-Lake Processes Offset Increased Terrestrial Inputs of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color to Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Kothawala, Dolly; Futter, Martyn N.; Liungman, Olof; Tranvik, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Increased color in surface waters, or browning, can alter lake ecological function, lake thermal stratification and pose difficulties for drinking water treatment. Mechanisms suggested to cause browning include increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron concentrations, as well as a shift to more colored DOC. While browning of surface waters is widespread and well documented, little is known about why some lakes resist it. Here, we present a comprehensive study of Mälaren, the third largest lake in Sweden. In Mälaren, the vast majority of water and DOC enters a western lake basin, and after approximately 2.8 years, drains from an eastern basin. Despite 40 years of increased terrestrial inputs of colored substances to western lake basins, the eastern basin has resisted browning over this time period. Here we find the half-life of iron was far shorter (0.6 years) than colored organic matter (A420 ; 1.7 years) and DOC as a whole (6.1 years). We found changes in filtered iron concentrations relate strongly to the observed loss of color in the western basins. In addition, we observed a substantial shift from colored DOC of terrestrial origin, to less colored autochthonous sources, with a substantial decrease in aromaticity (-17%) across the lake. We suggest that rapid losses of iron and colored DOC caused the limited browning observed in eastern lake basins. Across a wider dataset of 69 Swedish lakes, we observed greatest browning in acidic lakes with shorter retention times (< 1.5 years). These findings suggest that water residence time, along with iron, pH and colored DOC may be of central importance when modeling and projecting changes in brownification on broader spatial scales. PMID:23976946

  7. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  8. Effect of acidic pH on flow cytometric detection of bacteria stained with SYBR Green I and their distinction from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, Daniel; Nocker, Andreas; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Bongaerts, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Unspecific background caused by biotic or abiotic particles, cellular debris, or autofluorescence is a well-known interfering parameter when applying flow cytometry to the detection of microorganisms in combination with fluorescent dyes. We present here an attempt to suppress the background signal intensity and thus to improve the detection of microorganisms using the nucleic acid stain SYBR ® Green I. It has been observed that the fluorescent signals from SYBR Green I are greatly reduced at acidic pH. When lowering the pH of pre-stained samples directly prior to flow cytometric analysis, we hypothesized that the signals from particles and cells with membrane damage might therefore be reduced. Signals from intact cells, temporarily maintaining a neutral cytosolic pH, should not be affected. We show here that this principle holds true for lowering background interference, whereas the signals of membrane-compromised dead cells are only affected weakly. Signals from intact live cells at low pH were mostly comparable to signals without acidification. Although this study was solely performed with SYBR ® Green I, the principle of low pH flow cytometry (low pH-FCM) might hold promise when analyzing complex matrices with an abundance of non-cellular matter, especially when expanded to non-DNA binding dyes with a stronger pH dependence of fluorescence than SYBR Green I and a higher pK a value. (paper)

  9. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-10-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  11. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  12. Zooplankton community response to experimental acidification in boreal shield lakes with different ecological histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derry, A.M.; Arnott, S.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-06-15

    This study investigated the adaptive response of crustacean zooplankton to widespread regional acidification at the Killarney Provincial Park in Ontario. Mesocosm experiments were conducted in 2 circumneutral lakes with different acidification histories. A reciprocal transplant field enclosure experiment was conducted to assess whether the zooplankton community within the acid-recovering boreal shield lake showed evidence of increased acid tolerance to historical acidification following a 6 year period in which the lake's pH was 6.0. The enclosures were filled with epilimnetic water from the lake. Zooplankton from other lakes in the area were used. Zooplankton and water samples were collected from the enclosures once a week. Shannon-Wiener indices, species richness, and total abundance of the zooplankton were calculated for each sample day. Repeated measures analyses of variance (RM-ANOVAs) were used to test for the effects of the incubation lake, the zooplankton source, and the pH. Species abundance data were log{sub 10} transformed to improve homogeneity of variances and normality. Principle components analysis was conducted on species abundances to infer the influence of treatments on zooplankton community composition. Zooplankton were also transferred from 1 lake to the other in order to determine if subtle differences in local water chemistry and food conditions were limiting the recovery of species in acid-recovering lakes. The study showed that 2 key species, H. gibberum and L. minutus, contributed to community-level differences to acid tolerance of zooplankton with different acidification histories. It was concluded that zooplankton with adaptable acid tolerances may monopolize resources in acidified and acid-recovering lakes, and may contribute to the delayed recolonization of other taxa. 62 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Arsenic scavenging by aluminum-substituted ferrihydrites in a circumneutral pH river impacted by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adra, Areej; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Menguy, Nicolas; Maillot, Fabien; Casiot, Corinne; Bruneel, Odile; Lebrun, Sophie; Juillot, Farid; Brest, Jessica

    2013-11-19

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxide involved in the retention of pollutants in natural systems and in water-treatment processes. The status and properties of major chemical impurities in natural Fh is however still scarcely documented. Here we investigated the structure of aluminum-rich Fh, and their role in arsenic scavenging in river-bed sediments from a circumneutral river (pH 6-7) impacted by an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge shows that Fh is the predominant mineral phase forming after neutralization of the AMD, in association with minor amount of schwertmannite transported from the AMD. TEM-EDXS elemental mapping and SEM-EDXS analyses combined with EXAFS analysis indicates that Al(3+) substitutes for Fe(3+) ions into the Fh structure in the natural sediment samples, with local aluminum concentration within the 25-30 ± 10 mol %Al range. Synthetic aluminous Fh prepared in the present study are found to be less Al-substituted (14-20 ± 5 mol %Al). Finally, EXAFS analysis at the arsenic K-edge indicates that As(V) form similar inner-sphere surface complexes on the natural and synthetic Al-substituted Fh studied. Our results provide direct evidence for the scavenging of arsenic by natural Al-Fh, which emphasize the possible implication of such material for scavenging pollutants in natural or engineered systems.

  14. 3-Nitropropionic acid production by the endophytic Diaporthe citri: Molecular taxonomy, chemical characterization, and quantification under pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Julio Cesar; Ribeiro, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos; Rhoden, Sandro Augusto; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2016-12-01

    3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain. The chemical analysis indicated that 3-NPA was the majority compound present in the crude extracts. The better extraction condition was at an initial pH of 7.0 for 22 d, yielding about 80 % of 3-NPA per mg of extract. It was observed that the concentration of 3-NPA increased after the initial consumption of reduction sugars, indicating that the compound is produced after the high energetic production phase of the fungus. These and other studies demonstrate the production of this compound by plants and endophytic fungi, indicating that 3-NPA may be involved in defence and nutrition systems of endophytes and host plants, and they also might participate in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  16. Influence of pH and lactic acid concentration on Clostridium tyrobutyricum during continuous growth in a pH-auxostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thylin, I; Schuisky, P; Lindgren, S; Gottschal, J.C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to establish the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactic acid for growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. A pH-auxostat was used to maintain a constant pH and to allow continuous growth at the highest possible rates at fixed, but adjustable concentrations of

  17. Removal of N-linked glycosylations at acidic pH by PNGase a facilitates hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis of N-Linked glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Comamala, Gerard; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    for analysis of the conformational dynamics of N-linked glycoproteins that utilizes the enzyme PNGase A for deglycosylation of labeled peptic N-linked glycopeptides at HDX quench conditions, i.e., acidic pH and low temperature. PNGase A-based deglycosylation is thus performed after labeling (post...

  18. Ecological ranges for the pH and NO3 of syntaxa: a new basis for the estimation of critical loads for acid and nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Goedhart, P.W.; Malinowska, A.H.; Frissel, J.Y.; Wegman, R.M.A.; Slim, P.A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Question: Can the abiotic ranges of syntaxonomic units (associations) in terms of pH and nitrate concentration be estimated and then in principle be used to estimate critical loads for acid and nitrogen deposition? Location: Europe. Methods: Using splines, abiotic ranges of syntaxonomic units were

  19. Transport and Retention of TiO2 Rutile Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Solution pH, Ionic Strength, and the Presence of Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of solution pH, ionic strength, and varying concentrations of the Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticle aggregates (nTiO2) in saturated porous media was investigated through systematically examining the tra...

  20. Stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid polymer microgels under various conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor H. Farooqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the colloidal stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] polymer microgels with different acrylic acid contents in aqueous medium under various conditions of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentrations. Three samples of multi-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AAc polymer microgels were synthesized using different amounts of acrylic acid by free radical emulsion polymerization. Dynamic laser light scattering was used to investigate the responsive behavior and stability of the prepared microgels under various conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength. The microgels were found to be stable at all pH values above the pKa value of acrylic acid moiety in the temperature range from 15 to 60 °C in the presence and absence of sodium chloride. Increase in temperature, salt concentration and decrease in pH causes aggregation and decreases the stability of microgels due to the decrease in hydrophilicity.

  1. The Effect of Level of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    Within high school chemistry the topic of acids, bases, and pH is particularly challenging because robust understanding of the topic depends heavily on the student possessing deep concepts of atoms, molecules, ions, and chemical reactions. Since knowledge is acquired and stored in a dynamic structure, it was investigated in this study how…

  2. Effect of Microenvironmental pH Modulation on the Dissolution Rate and Oral Absorption of the Salt of a Weak Acid - Case Study of GDC-0810.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hao Helen; Jia, Wei; Liu, Lichuan; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Li, Jane; Nauka, Ewa; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of microenvironmental pH modulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and oral absorption of GDC-0810, an oral anti-cancer drug, in human. The pH-solubility profile of GDC-0810 free acid and pH max of its N-Methyl-D-glucamine (NMG) salt were determined. Precipitation studies were conducted for GDC-0810 NMG salt at different pH values. GDC-0810 200-mg dose NMG salt tablet formulations containing different levels of sodium bicarbonate as the pH modifier were tested for dissolution under the dual pH-dilution scheme. Three tablet formulations were evaluated in human as a part of a relative bioavailability study. A 200-mg dose of GDC-0810 was administered QD with low fat food. Intrinsic solubility of GDC-0810 free acid was found to be extremely low. The pH max of the NMG salt suggested a strong tendency for form conversion to the free acid under GI conditions. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that the dissolution rate and extent of GDC-0810 increased with increasing the level of sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The human PK data showed a similar trend for the geometric mean of C max and AUC 0-t for formulations containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate, but the difference is not statistically significant. Incorporation of a basic pH modifier, sodium bicarbonate, in GDC-0810 NMG salt tablet formulations enhanced in vitro dissolution rate of GDC-0810 via microenvironmental pH modulation. The human PK data showed no statistically significant difference in drug exposure from tablets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate.

  3. Effect of amino acid sequence and pH on nanofiber formation of self-assembling peptides EAK16-II and EAK16-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yooseong; Legge, Raymond L; Zhang, S; Chen, P

    2003-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ASDA-P) were used to investigate the mechanism of self-assembly of peptides. The peptides chosen consisted of 16 alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, where the hydrophilic residues possess alternating negative and positive charges. Two types of peptides, AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK (EAK16-II) and AEAEAEAEAKAKAKAK (EAK16-IV), were investigated in terms of nanostructure formation through self-assembly. The experimental results, which focused on the effects of the amino acid sequence and pH, show that the nanostructures formed by the peptides are dependent on the amino acid sequence and the pH of the solution. For pH conditions around neutrality, one of the peptides used in this study, EAK16-IV, forms globular assemblies and has lower surface tension at air-water interfaces than another peptide, EAK16-II, which forms fibrillar assemblies at the same pH. When the pH is lowered below 6.5 or raised above 7.5, there is a transition from globular to fibrillar structures for EAK16-IV, but EAK16-II does not show any structural transition. Surface tension measurements using ADSA-P showed different surface activities of peptides at air-water interfaces. EAK16-II does not show a significant difference in surface tension for the pH range between 4 and 9. However, EAK16-IV shows a noticeable decrease in surface tension at pH around neutrality, indicating that the formation of globular assemblies is related to the molecular hydrophobicity.

  4. Sub-optimal pH Preadaptation Improves the Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and the Malic Acid Consumption in Wine-Like Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Coppola, Raffaele; Iorizzo, Massimo; Lombardi, Silvia Jane; Sorrentino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Forty-two oenological strains of Lb. plantarum were assessed for their response to ethanol and pH values generally encountered in wines. Strains showed a higher variability in the survival when exposed to low pH (3.5 or 3.0) than when exposed to ethanol (10 or 14%). The study allowed to individuate the highest ethanol concentration (8%) and the lowest pH value (4.0) for the growth of strains, even if the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) resulted significantly reduced by these conditions. Two strains (GT1 and LT11) preadapted to 2% ethanol and cultured up to 14% of ethanol showed a higher growth than those non-preadapted when they were cultivated at 8% of ethanol. The evaluation of the same strains preadapted to low pH values (5.0 and 4.0) and then grown at pH 3.5 or 3.0 showed only for GT1 a sensitive μ max increment when it was cultivated in MRS at pH 3 after a preadaptation to pH 5.0. The survival of GT1 and LT11 was evaluated in Ringer's solution at 14% ethanol after a long-term adaptation in MRS with 2% ethanol or in MRS with 2% ethanol acidified at pH 5.0 (both conditions, BC). Analogously, the survival was evaluated at pH 3.5 after a long-term adaptation in MRS at pH 5.0 or in MRS BC. The impact of the physiologic state (exponential phase vs stationary phase) on the survival was also evaluated. Preadapted cells showed the same behavior of non-preadapted cells only when cultures were recovered in the stationary phase. Mathematical functions were individuated for the description of the survival of GT1 and LT11 in MRS at 14% ethanol or at pH 3.5. Finally, a synthetic wine (SW) was used to assess the behavior of Lb. plantarum GT1 and LT11 preadapted in MRS at 2% ethanol or at pH 5.0 or in BC. Only GT1 preadapted to pH 5.0 and collected in the stationary phase showed constant values of microbial counts after incubation for 15 days at 20°C. In addition, after 15 days the L-malic acid resulted completely degraded and the pH value increased of about 0.3 units.

  5. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  6. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  7. Toxicity of fatty acid 18:5n3 from Gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi: II. Intracellular pH and K+ uptake in isolated trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossat, B; Porthé-Nibelle, J; Sola, F; Masoni, A; Gentien, P; Bodennec, G

    1999-01-01

    Effects of octadecapentaenoic acid 18:5n3 and other related polyunsaturated fatty acids present in gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi were tested in isolated trout hepatocytes. These exotoxins decreased intracellular pH followed by a slow recovery to initial value and alkalinization of acidic compartments, suggesting an inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases. Moreover, addition of 18:5n3 to the extracellular medium induced a decrease of K+ uptake into hepatocytes as a result of Na,K-ATPase inhibition. However, high concentrations (10(-5)-10(-3) M) are necessary to induce these effects.

  8. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhujian [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • G–Fe chelate molecules were well preserved into montmorillonite. • The product shows an excellent catalytic activity under sunlight at neutral pH value. • G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes. - Abstract: To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G–Fe–Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G–Fe–Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G–Fe–Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G–Fe–Mt under neutral pH. G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  9. Highly efficient treatment of aerobic vaginitis with simple acidic buffered gels: The importance of pH and buffers on the microenvironment of vaginas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Qiu, Haiying; Jin, Yiguang

    2017-06-15

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) leads to uterus deep infection or preterm birth. Antibacterial agents are not optimal therapeutics of AV. Here, we report a series of temperature-sensitive in situ forming acidic buffered gels for topical treatment of AV, involving lactate, acetate, and citrate gels at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. AV rat models were prepared following vaginal infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro/in vivo studies of the buffered gels were performed compared with ofloxacin gels and blank gels. All the buffered gels showed the lower in vitro antibacterial activities than ofloxacin gels but the better in vivo anti-S. aureus effects and similar anti-E. coli effects. The buffered gels improved Lactobacillus growth in the vaginas. Both the healthy rat vaginal pH and the pH of rat vaginas treated with the buffered gels were about 6.5 though the AV rat models or ones treated with ofloxacin gels still remained at the high pH more than 7.0. After treatments with the buffered gels, the vaginal smears changed to a clean state nearly without aerobic bacteria, the vaginal tissues were refreshed, and the immunoreactions were downregulated. The acidic buffered gels bring rapid decrease of local vaginal pH, high antibacterial activities, improvement of probiotics, and alleviation of inflammation. They are simple, highly efficient, and safe anti-AV formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  11. Heavy metals removal from acid mine drainage water using biogenic hydrogen sulphide and effluent from anaerobic treatment: Effect of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A.M.; Duran-Barrantes, M.M.; Borja, R.; Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F.; Raposo, F.

    2009-01-01

    Four alternatives (runs A, B, C and D) for heavy metals removal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Al) from acid mine drainage water (AMDW) produced in the mining areas of the Huelva Province, Spain, were evaluated. In run A, the anaerobic effluent from the treatment of acid mine drainage water (cheese whey added as a source of carbon) was mixed with the raw AMDW. The pH increased to 3.5 with the addition of KOH. In run B, biogas with around 30% of hydrogen sulphide obtained in the anaerobic reactor was sparged to the mixture obtained in run A, but in this case at a pH of 5.5. In run C, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 3.5 by the addition of KOH solution. Finally, in run D, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 5.5 by the addition of KOH solution and further biogas was sparged under the same conditions as in run A. It was found that heavy metal removal was a function of pH. At a pH of 3.5 most of the iron was removed while Zn and Cu were partially removed. At a pH of 5.5 the removal of all metals increased considerably. The best results were obtained in run B where the percentages of removal of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al achieved values of 91.3, 96.1, 79.0 and 99.0%, respectively. According to the experimental results obtained tentative schemas of the flow diagram of the processes were proposed.

  12. Calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the alumina/electrolyte interface from the ph dependence of the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Skvortsova, I. V.

    2011-05-01

    A procedure was proposed for the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface from experimental data on the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-) at various pH values. The calculated constants (p K {1/0}= 4.1, p K {2/0}= 11.9, p K {3/0}= 8.3, and p K {4/0}= 7.7) are shown to agree with the values obtained from an experimental pH dependence of the electrokinetic potential and the results of potentiometric titration of Al2O3 suspensions.

  13. Evaluation of buffers toxicity in tobacco cells: Homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid) is a suitable buffer for plant cells studies at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Lucélia

    2017-06-01

    Low pH is an important environmental stressor of plant root cells. Understanding the mechanisms of stress and tolerance to acidity is critical; however, there is no widely accepted pH buffer for studies of plant cells at low pH. Such a buffer might also benefit studies of Al toxicity, in which buffering at low pH is also important. The challenge is to find a buffer with minimal cellular effects. We examined the cytotoxicity and possible metabolic disturbances of four buffers that have adequate pK a values and potential use for studies in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. These were homopipes (homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid); pK a1 4.4), 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (pK a1 3.73), β-alanine (pK a1 3.70) and potassium biphthalate (pK a1 2.95; pK a2 5.41). First, tobacco BY-2 cells were grown in a rich medium containing 10 mM of each buffer or MES (2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid) as a control, with the pH initially adjusted to 5.7. β-alanine was clearly toxic and dimethylgluturate and biphthalate were found to be cytostatic, in which no culture growth occurred but cell viability was either unaffected or decreased only after 5 days. Only homopipes allowed normal culture growth and cell viability. Homopipes (10 mM) was then tested in cell cultures with an initial pH of 4.3 ± 0.17 in minimal medium to examine whether its undissociated species (H 2 A) displayed any cellular effects and no cytotoxic effects were observed. It is possible to conclude that among tested buffers, homopipes is the most suitable for studies at low pH, and may be especially useful for aluminum toxicity experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorption of Am(III) on attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic composites. Effect of pH, ionic strength and humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, T.; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi; Fan, Q.H.; Wu, W.S.; Lanzhou Univ., Gansu; Liu, S.P.; Pan, D.Q.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Li, P.

    2012-01-01

    Attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic (ATP/IOM) composites was prepared, and the sorption behavior of Am(III) on that composites was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V), contact time, and the concentration of Am(III) under ambient conditions using batch technique. The time to achieve the sorption equilibrium was less than 5 h. The sorption of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. Though ion exchange reaction contributed to Am(III) sorption over low pH range and low ionic strength, the sorption was mainly dominated by surface complexion (i.e., outer- and/or inner-sphere complexes) in the whole observed pH range. In the presence of humic acid (HA), the sorption edge of Am(III) on ATP/IOM composites obviously shifted to lower pH; but Am(III) sorption gradually became weak after pH exceeded 4, which may be mainly in terms of the soluble complexes of HA-Am(III). (orig.)

  15. Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with β-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Emil G.P.; Khan, Sanaullah; Ipsen, Richard

    2018-01-01

    to be fully explored. Particle formation of a high and a low molar mass alginate (ALG) with β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at pH 2-8 depends on the average DPn (HMW-ALG: 1.59·103; LMW-ALG: 0.23·103) and the mannuronic/guluronic acid ratio (1.0; 0.6) as supported by using ManA6 and GulA6 as models. Dynamic light...... scattering (DLS) showed that particles of BLG with either of the two ALGs have essentially the same hydrodynamic diameter (D H) at pH 3 and 2, while at pH 4 particles of LMW-ALG/BLG have larger D H than of HMW-ALG/BLG. At pH 5-8 no significant particle formation was observed. ManA6 did not form insoluble...... particles at pH 2-8, while GulA6 formed insoluble particles, albeit only at pH 4. K d was approximately 10-fold higher for LMW-ALG/BLG than HMW-ALG/BLG and 3 orders of magnitude higher for an alginate trisaccharide/BLG complexation as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The alginate...

  16. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  17. HU participates in expression of a specific set of genes required for growth and survival at acidic pH in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Sun, Lianle; Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    The major histone-like Escherichia coli protein, HU, is composed of alpha and beta subunits respectively encoded by hupA and hupB in Escherichia coli. A mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB grew at a slightly slower rate than the wild type at pH 7.5. Growth of the mutant diminished with a decrease in pH, and no growth was observed at pH 4.6. Mutants of either hupA or hupB grew at all pH levels tested. The arginine-dependent survival at pH 2.5 was diminished approximately 60-fold by the deletion of both hupA and hupB, whereas the survival was slightly affected by the deletion of either hupA or hupB. The mRNA levels of adiA and adiC, which respectively encode arginine decarboxylase and arginine/agmatine antiporter, were low in the mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB. The deletion of both hupA and hupB had little effect on survival at pH 2.5 in the presence of glutamate or lysine, and expression of the genes for glutamate and lysine decarboxylases was not impaired by the deletion of the HU genes. These results suggest that HU regulates expression of the specific set of genes required for growth and survival in acidic environments.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Cross-Linked Acrylic Acid/Gelatin Hydrogels: Effect of pH and Composition on Swelling and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Majid Hanif Bukhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work was aimed at synthesizing pH-sensitive cross-linked AA/Gelatin hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were used as initiator and as cross-linking agent, respectively. Different feed ratios of acrylic acid, gelatin, and EGDMA were used to investigate the effect of monomer, polymer, and degree of cross-linking on swelling and release pattern of the model drug. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel samples was studied in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values pH 1.2, pH 5.5, pH 6.5, and pH 7.5. The prepared samples were evaluated for porosity and sol-gel fraction analysis. Pheniramine maleate used for allergy treatment was loaded as model drug in selected samples. The release study of the drug was investigated in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer of varying pH values (1.2, 5.5, and 7.5 for 12 hrs. The release data was fitted to various kinetic models to study the release mechanism. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed formation of structure. Surface morphology of unloaded and loaded samples was studied by surface electron microscopy (SEM, which confirmed the distribution of model drug in the gel network.

  19. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  20. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  1. Effects of temperature, pH and nutrient concentration on branched GDGT distributions in East African lakes: Implications for paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Eggermont, H.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are membrane lipids found in soils and sediments and their relative abundance correlates with temperature and pH, enabling them to be used as proxies in reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions. However, the potential for

  2. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  3. Lake Lysevatten - A study of liming and reacidification effects in a forest lake ecosystem in southwestern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.I.; Hultberg, H.

    1997-02-01

    Long-term monitoring (1973 to 1987) of acidification and liming effects to a lake ecosystem is reported in this study. The liming intervention of Lake Lysevatten in spring 1974 resulted in neutralisation of lake water and positive alkalinity. Invasion and population expansion of new species started and proceeded for several years. Following the neutralisation Sphagnum was almost eradicated. The restocking with fish changed the predator-prey interactions, and the community composition gradually approached what would be expected to be within the normal range for an unacidified lake. Early signs of reacidification were: The appearance of filamentous algae; Decreased condition of Brown trout (Salmo trutta) caused by increased aluminium concentrations in connection with an acid event; Enhanced growth of Sphagnum surviving on profundal bottoms. Progressive reacidification to Ph 5.0 resulted in accelerated growth of Mougeotia reaching nuisance level. If implemented, liming should be prolonged by reinterventions before alkalinity and pH decrease to much. A stable circumneutral pH is a prerequisite to provide the timescale necessary for invasion and population growth of organisms with low dispersal capacity. Furthermore, the most sensitive organisms will be adversely affected already at pH-values around six. Extensive reacidification should by all means be prevented as development of a destabilized lake community could react rather unpredictably. 168 refs, 80 figs, 26 tabs

  4. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2004-01-01

    moisture sponge cake types (a(w) 0.80-0.95, pH 4.7-7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (a(w) 0.94-0.97 and pH 4.4-4.8) in combination with calcium propionate were investigated. Results showed that the highest concentration of propionate (0.3%) at all conditions apart from high a(w) (0.97) and high pH (4...... enhanced at high water activity levels. The effect of propionate on production of secondary metabolites (mycophenolic acid, rugulovasine, echinulin, flavoglaucin) was also studied, and variable or isolate dependent results were found. Subsequently, a screening experiment representing a wider range...

  5. Dural afferents express acid-sensing ion channels: a role for decreased meningeal pH in migraine headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Wei, Xiaomei; De Felice, Milena; Porreca, Frank; Dussor, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common neurological disorders. The pathological conditions that directly initiate afferent pain signaling are poorly understood. In trigeminal neurons retrogradely labeled from the cranial meninges, we have recorded pH-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Approximately 80% of dural-afferent neurons responded to a pH 6.0 application with a rapidly activating and rapidly desensitizing ASIC-like current that often exceeded 20nA in amplitude. Inward currents were observed in response to a wide range of pH values and 30% of the neurons exhibited inward currents at pH 7.1. These currents led to action potentials in 53%, 30% and 7% of the dural afferents at pH 6.8, 6.9 and 7.0, respectively. Small decreases in extracellular pH were also able to generate sustained window currents and sustained membrane depolarizations. Amiloride, a non-specific blocker of ASIC channels, inhibited the peak currents evoked upon application of decreased pH while no inhibition was observed upon application of TRPV1 antagonists. The desensitization time constant of pH 6.0-evoked currents in the majority of dural afferents was less than 500ms which is consistent with that reported for ASIC3 homomeric or heteromeric channels. Finally, application of pH 5.0 synthetic-interstitial fluid to the dura produced significant decreases in facial and hind-paw withdrawal threshold, an effect blocked by amiloride but not TRPV1 antagonists, suggesting that ASIC activation produces migraine-related behavior in vivo. These data provide a cellular mechanism by which decreased pH in the meninges following ischemic or inflammatory events directly excites afferent pain-sensing neurons potentially contributing to migraine headache. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FOAM-WASHING AGENT SPECIMENS AT ACIDIC pH VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strilets O. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well-known that any parapharmaceutical substance, in particular, foam-washing agents comprising water in combination with detergents, extracts, water-soluble vitamins, viscosity regulators, pH, etc., is the ideal environment for microbial growth. Therefore, it is indispensable to use preservatives to protect any foam-washing agent from possible contamination by microorganisms. Their main advantages are: presence of a single antimicrobial and antifungal effect, expanded range of effects, decrease in the risk of resistance of microorganisms and decrease in the toxicity and concentration of the preserving mixture. In this regard, the shelf life of parapharmaceutical substances is not provided through the use of large quantities of preservatives, but thanks to their rational combination. Materials and Methods. For this study, we have made a number of samples of foam washing bases with a number of preservatives, which are often used in developing foam-washing agents with acidic pH value, namely: sample number 1 – foam washing base + sodium benzoate; sample number 2 – foam washing base + «Euxyl K300» (phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, bulylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylaraben; sample number 3 – foam washing base + «Germaben II» (polypropylene glycol, diazolium dinomovine, methylparaben, propylparaben; sample number 4 – foam washing base + «Nipaquard CMB» (benzyl alcohol, triethylene glycol, chloromethylisothiazoline, methylisothiazoline. The concentration of preservative in each sample was 0.1% (average concentration that is recommended for developing foam-washing agents. The antimicrobial activity of prototype gels was studied in vitro by diffusion in agar (“wells” method. The antimicrobial activity was measured immediately after sample preparation. All the studies were performed in aseptic conditions using a laminar box (biological safety cabinet AS2-4E1 "Esco" Indonesia. Results. According to the

  7. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Ledin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH~8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >7) decreased their removal. The presence of both 20 and 100mg/L HA suppressed the heavy metal removal except for Cr, and the suppression was higher at the higher HA concentration. Geochemical simulations suggest that this is due to the formation of dissolved HA-metal complexes preventing effective metal sorption. In the case of Cr, the presence of HA increased the removal when using alumina or BCS, while hindering the removal when using GAC. The findings show that the pH-value of the stormwater to be treated must be in the range of 6-7 in order to achieve removal of the full spectrum of metals. The results also show that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads of natural organic acids during the pollen season in spring or during defoliation in autumn and early winter, and during mixing of runoff with snowmelt having a low pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty acid fouling of forward osmosis membrane: Effects of pH, calcium, membrane orientation, initial permeate flux and foulant composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pin; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Liu, Pan; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-08-01

    Octanoic acid (OA) was selected to represent fatty acids in effluent organic matter (EOM). The effects of feed solution (FS) properties, membrane orientation and initial permeate flux on OA fouling in forward osmosis (FO) were investigated. The undissociated OA formed a cake layer quickly and caused the water flux to decline significantly in the initial 0.5hr at unadjusted pH3.56; while the fully dissociated OA behaved as an anionic surfactant and promoted the water permeation at an elevated pH of 9.00. Moreover, except at the initial stage, the sudden decline of water flux (meaning the occurrence of severe membrane fouling) occurred in two conditions: 1. 0.5mmol/L Ca(2+), active layer facing draw solution (AL-DS) and 1.5mol/L NaCl (DS); 2. No Ca(2+), active layer-facing FS (AL-FS) and 4mol/L NaCl (DS). This demonstrated that cake layer compaction or pore blocking occurred only when enough foulants were absorbed into the membrane surface, and the water permeation was high enough to compact the deposit inside the porous substrate. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as a co-foulant. The water flux of both co-foulants was between the fluxes obtained separately for the two foulants at pH3.56, and larger than the two values at pH9.00. This manifested that, at pH3.56, BSA alleviated the effect of the cake layer caused by OA, and OA enhanced BSA fouling simultaneously; while at pH9.00, the mutual effects of OA and BSA eased the membrane fouling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Periphyton changes over 20 years of chemical recovery of Lake Orta, Italy: differential response to perturbation of littoral and pelagic communities

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe MORABITO; Gabriele TARTARI; Rosario MOSELLO; Michèle DE SÈVE; Antonella CATTANEO

    2011-01-01

    Lake Orta, a large Italian subalpine lake, has a long history of industrial pollution by acid, ammonia, and metals. A whole-lake liming treatment in 1989-1990 led to a gradual increase in pH (from 4.4 to 7) and a concomitant decline in ammonia (from 2.5 to 0.05 mg L-1) and metal concentrations (e.g., copper: from 35 to 3 μg L-1). In this study, we examine the response of the littoral zone, in terms of chemistry and periphyton assemblages, to contamination and recovery of Lake Orta. We co...

  10. Influence of the alloying elements vanadium, chromium and carbon on the electrochemical behavior of uranium in media with a pH 13 or a pH acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommier, Gerard; Jouve, Gerard; Lacombe, Paul.

    1976-06-01

    The electrochemical properties of uranium alloys with low vanadium and chromium contents were studied in aqueous medium for different pH values of the solution (pH between 0 and 5 in H 2 SO 4 medium and pH=13 in NaOH medium). In acid medium, the study of the behavior of the two types of alloys carried out by the potentiokinetic method is described. The specific role of chromium concerning the anodic process is demonstrated and the influence of vanadium in specimens of same nominal vanadium contents but different carbon contents is revealed by the modification of the reduction overvoltage of water. In basic medium, the electrochemical study was supported by an optical method of determining the relative growth kinetics of the films in situ and continuously. At lower values of potential, the growth of an oxide film of UO 2 with linear growth kinetics is demonstrated; at higher values of potential a system of two layers is observed and its evolution is followed kinematically. The film initially formed is constituted of an oxide UO 3 2H 2 O, and its growth is linear, then a film of UO 2 develops underneath. A structural evolution of the superficial film is then observed, an evolution which leads to its cracking after breakdown. These phenomena were followed by electron microscopy using a technic of two stage replicas [fr

  11. Exploring the selective lactic acid production from food waste in uncontrolled pH mixed culture fermentations using different reactor configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Yousef, Ahmed F; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2017-08-01

    Carboxylic acid production from food waste by mixed culture fermentation is an important future waste management option. Obstacles for its implementation are the need of pH control, and a broad fermentation product spectrum leading to increased product separation costs. To overcome these obstacles, the selective production of lactic acid (LA) from model food waste by uncontrolled pH fermentation was tested using different reactor configurations. Batch experiments, semi-continuously fed reactors and a percolation system reached LA concentrations of 32, 16 and 15gCOD LA /L, respectively, with selectivities of 93%, 84% and 75% on COD base, respectively. The semi-continuous reactor was dominated by Lactobacillales. Our techno-economic analysis suggests that LA production from food waste can be economically feasible, with LA recovery and low yields remaining as major obstacles. To solve both problems, we successfully applied in-situ product extraction using activated carbon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial variation of metals and acid volatile sulfide in floodplain lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Meijboom, E.W.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the immobilizing effect of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) on trace metals. The difference of AVS and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) gives an indication of metal availability. In floodplain sediments, where changing redox

  13. Application of static critical load models for acidity to high mountain lakes in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Curtis, C. J.; Barbieri, A.; Camarero, L.; Gabathuler, M.; Galas, J.; Hanselmann, K.; Kopáček, Jiří; Mosello, R.; Nickus, U.; Rose, N.; Stuchlík, E.; Thies, H.; Ventura, M.; Wright, R.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2002), s. 115-126 ISSN 1567-7230 Grant - others:EU(XE) MOLAR ENV4-CT95-0007; EU(XE) Environment and Climate Programme Keywords : acid deposition * critical loads Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  14. The effect of distribution of monomer moiety on the pH response and mechanical properties of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Anasuya; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    The pH response and mechanical properties of copolymer-based hydrogels such as poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) are usually attributed to their chemical composition. In this study, it has been shown that the architecture of the polymer chains, i.e. the distribution of comonomers in the macromolecules, also plays a major role in controlling these properties. A series of four poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acids) with fixed composition (i.e. ∼30 mol% acrylic acid moieties) were synthesized, where the block lengths of both AN (acrylonitrile) and AAc (acrylic acid) moieties in the copolymers were varied by controlling the feeding pattern of the monomers during free radical copolymerization. These copolymers were then converted into fine fibers of the same dimensions. The monomer distribution in the four copolymers was estimated using quantitative carbon 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related to the mechanical and pH response properties of the resultant fibers. The pH response of the fibers with similar composition increased dramatically as the block length of the AAc moiety was increased, while the mechanical properties increased as a direct function of the block length of the AN moieties. The fiber's response at pH 10 in terms of the change in length increased by ∼four times while its response rate increased by ∼50 times with the increase in block length of the AAc moiety. On the other hand, the tensile properties and retractive stress increased by ∼four times with the increase in the block length of the AN moiety

  15. The effect of distribution of monomer moiety on the pH response and mechanical properties of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Anasuya; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2010-02-01

    The pH response and mechanical properties of copolymer-based hydrogels such as poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) are usually attributed to their chemical composition. In this study, it has been shown that the architecture of the polymer chains, i.e. the distribution of comonomers in the macromolecules, also plays a major role in controlling these properties. A series of four poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acids) with fixed composition (i.e. ~30 mol% acrylic acid moieties) were synthesized, where the block lengths of both AN (acrylonitrile) and AAc (acrylic acid) moieties in the copolymers were varied by controlling the feeding pattern of the monomers during free radical copolymerization. These copolymers were then converted into fine fibers of the same dimensions. The monomer distribution in the four copolymers was estimated using quantitative carbon 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related to the mechanical and pH response properties of the resultant fibers. The pH response of the fibers with similar composition increased dramatically as the block length of the AAc moiety was increased, while the mechanical properties increased as a direct function of the block length of the AN moieties. The fiber's response at pH 10 in terms of the change in length increased by ~four times while its response rate increased by ~50 times with the increase in block length of the AAc moiety. On the other hand, the tensile properties and retractive stress increased by ~four times with the increase in the block length of the AN moiety.

  16. Lung disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is more strongly associated with impedance measures of bolus reflux than pH parameters of acid reflux alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Borges, L F; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Pathogenesis may be related to chronic micro-aspiration. We aimed to assess objective measures of GER on multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) and their relationship with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results, and to compare the performance of pH/acid reflux parameters vs corresponding MII/bolus parameters in predicting pulmonary dysfunction in IPF. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF patients undergoing prelung transplant evaluation with MII-pH off acid suppression, and having received PFT within 3 months. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Severe pulmonary dysfunction was defined using diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤40%. Six pH/acid reflux parameters with corresponding MII/bolus reflux measures were specified a priori. Multiva