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Sample records for acidic geothermal springs

  1. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jake; Bernstein, Hans C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, Mark; Jennings, Ryan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Inskeep, William P.

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous geobiological features on Earth and occur in extant acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA, and form as a result of microbial processes. The relative contribution of different organisms to the development of these mat ecosystems is of specific interest. We hypothesized that chemolithoautotrophic organisms contribute to the early development and production of Fe(III)-oxide mats, which could support later-colonizing heterotrophic microorganisms. Sterile glass slides were incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs in YNP, and spatiotemporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and abundance of relevant community members were measured. Lithoautotrophic Hydrogenobaculum spp. were first colonizers and the most abundant taxa identified during early successional stages (7 – 40 days). Populations of M. yellowstonensis colonized after ~ 7 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized after 30 days, and emerge as the dominant functional guild in mature iron oxide mats (1 – 2 cm thick) that form after 70 – 120 days. First-order rate constants of iron oxide accretion ranged from 0.05 – 0.046 day-1, and reflected the absolute amount of iron accreted. Micro- and macroscale microterracettes were identified during iron oxide mat development, and suggest that the mass transfer of oxygen limits microbial growth. This was also demonstrated using microelectrode measurements of oxygen as a function of mat depth, which showed steep gradients in oxygen from the aqueous mat interface to ~ 1 mm. The formation and succession of amorphous Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a predictable pattern of distinct stages and growth. The successional stages and microbial signatures observed in these extant Fe(III)-oxide mat communities may be relevant to other past or present Fe(III)-oxide mineralizing systems.

  2. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Beam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA, and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3 - 3.5; temperature = 68 - 75 °C in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4 - 40 d, and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 d, and reached steady-state levels within 14 - 30 d, corresponding to visible Fe(III-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 d, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 d and in mature Fe(III-oxide mats (1 - 2 cm thick. First-order rate constants of Fe(III-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 - 0.05 d-1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III-oxide mats are useful for understanding other Fe(II-oxidizing systems.

  3. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  4. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  5. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  6. Microbial Iron Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating Molecular Surveys, Geochemical Processes, and Isolation of Novel Fe-Active Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A Kozubal; Macur, Richard E.; Zack J Jay; Jake P Beam; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Susannah Green Tringe; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Thomas eBorch; Inskeep, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly si...

  7. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms.

  8. Arsenite-Oxidizing Hydrogenobaculum Strain Isolated from an Acid-Sulfate-Chloride Geothermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Donahoe-Christiansen, Jessica; D'Imperio, Seth; Jackson, Colin R.; Inskeep, William P.; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    An arsenite-oxidizing Hydrogenobaculum strain was isolated from a geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., that was previously shown to contain microbial populations engaged in arsenite oxidation. The isolate was sensitive to both arsenite and arsenate and behaved as an obligate chemolithoautotroph that used H2 as its sole energy source and had an optimum temperature of 55 to 60°C and an optimum pH of 3.0. The arsenite oxidation in this organism displayed saturation kinetics and ...

  9. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  10. Hydrogeologic and geothermal investigation of Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: geology; geophysical surveys; geothermal wells, springs, and heat flow; hydrology; drilling program, well testing, and mineralogical and petrographic studies of samples from geothermal wells. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  12. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  13. Microbial community structure and sulfur biogeochemistry in mildly-acidic sulfidic geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macur, R E; Jay, Z J; Taylor, W P; Kozubal, M A; Kocar, B D; Inskeep, W P

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal and hydrothermal waters often contain high concentrations of dissolved sulfide, which reacts with oxygen (abiotically or biotically) to yield elemental sulfur and other sulfur species that may support microbial metabolism. The primary goal of this study was to elucidate predominant biogeochemical processes important in sulfur biogeochemistry by identifying predominant sulfur species and describing microbial community structure within high-temperature, hypoxic, sulfur sediments ranging in pH from 4.2 to 6.1. Detailed analysis of aqueous species and solid phases present in hypoxic sulfur sediments revealed unique habitats containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfide, thiosulfate, and arsenite, as well as rhombohedral and spherical elemental sulfur and/or sulfide phases such as orpiment, stibnite, and pyrite, as well as alunite and quartz. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing show that these sediments are dominated by Crenarchaeota of the orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Numerous cultivated representatives of these lineages, as well as the Thermoproteales strain (WP30) isolated in this study, require complex sources of carbon and respire elemental sulfur. We describe a new archaeal isolate (strain WP30) belonging to the order Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota, 98% identity to Pyrobaculum/Thermoproteus spp. 16S rRNA genes), which was obtained from sulfur sediments using in situ geochemical composition to design cultivation medium. This isolate produces sulfide during growth, which further promotes the formation of sulfide phases including orpiment, stibnite, or pyrite, depending on solution conditions. Geochemical, molecular, and physiological data were integrated to suggest primary factors controlling microbial community structure and function in high-temperature sulfur sediments.

  14. Geochemistry of Geothermal Springs In Northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, S. R.; Smith, A. L.; Melchiorre, E. B.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles contains eight potentially active volcanoes, many of which are associated with geothermal springs. During the period 2003-2007 most of these springs were sampled and analyzed geochemically. The data presented here are for three groups of geothermal springs located in the northern part of the island. One group, the Penville Cold Soufrière, is located within the summit area of Morne Aux Diables volcano. The second group, Picard Warm Springs, is located on the northwestern flank of Morne Diablotins volcano. The third group is located in the Portsmouth area, including the adjacent Prince Rupert Bay, and consists of both subaerial and submarine springs. It is not known with which volcano these springs may be associated. The chemistry of each sample from the geothermal springs was compared to "reference standards" including three seawater samples (standard seawater and two surface samples from Prince Rupert Bay) and three fresh water samples (Emerald Pool and two rainwater samples). Of the more than 38 elements analyzed, 21 elements were consistently two or more orders of magnitude higher when compared to the "reference" standards. When these values were plotted on chemical variation diagrams, two trend lines were consistently developed. One included seawater and the submarine hot springs; the other, the fresh water samples and all the subaerial springs. The intersection of these trend lines is interpreted to represent the composition of a possible magmatic component prior to dilution with seawater and/or meteoric water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis of the springs for the whole island have also been undertaken. VSMOW graphs of δ 18O and δD indicate that all of the geothermal springs on Dominica lie on a trend between the meteoric water line (MWL) and a magmatic source. The compositions of the geothermal springs from northern Dominica are interpreted to represent mixing of variable amounts of freshwater or seawater with

  15. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sujay Paul; Yolanda Cortez; Nadia Vera; Villena, Gretty K.; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2016-01-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21′12″ S, 75°00′54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0–7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3–V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,5...

  16. Viruses in acidic geothermal environments of the Kamchatka Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bize, Ariane; Peng, Xu; Prokofeva, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    Screening for viruses in samples taken from acidic hot springs of Kamchatka (Russia) revealed a collection of morphotypes, including linear, spherical and complex fusiform shapes, which show partial similarity to those found in acidic geothermal environments in other geographical locations. One...

  17. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  18. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  19. Microbes in mercury-enriched geothermal springs in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesey, Gill G; Barkay, Tamar; King, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Because geothermal environments contain mercury (Hg) from natural sources, microorganisms that evolved in these systems have likely adapted to this element. Knowledge of the interactions between microorganisms and Hg in geothermal systems may assist in understanding the long-term evolution of microbial adaptation to Hg with relevance to other environments where Hg is introduced from anthropogenic sources. A number of microbiological studies with supporting geochemistry have been conducted in geothermal systems across western North America. Approximately 1 in 5 study sites include measurements of Hg. Of all prokaryotic taxa reported across sites with microbiological and accompanying physicochemical data, 42% have been detected at sites in which Hg was measured. Genes specifying Hg reduction and detoxification by microorganisms were detected in a number of hot springs across the region. Archaeal-like sequences, representing two crenarchaeal orders and one order each of the Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, dominated in metagenomes' MerA (the mercuric reductase protein) inventories, while bacterial homologs were mostly found in one deeply sequenced metagenome. MerA homologs were more frequently found in metagenomes of microbial communities in acidic springs than in circumneutral or high pH geothermal systems, possibly reflecting higher bioavailability of Hg under acidic conditions. MerA homologs were found in hot springs prokaryotic isolates affiliated with Bacteria and Archaea taxa. Acidic sites with high Hg concentrations contain more of Archaea than Bacteria taxa, while the reverse appears to be the case in circumneutral and high pH sites with high Hg concentrations. However, MerA was detected in only a small fraction of the Archaea and Bacteria taxa inhabiting sites containing Hg. Nevertheless, the presence of MerA homologs and their distribution patterns in systems, in which Hg has yet to be measured, demonstrates the potential for detoxification by Hg reduction

  20. Microbes in mercury-enriched geothermal springs in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesey, Gill G; Barkay, Tamar; King, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Because geothermal environments contain mercury (Hg) from natural sources, microorganisms that evolved in these systems have likely adapted to this element. Knowledge of the interactions between microorganisms and Hg in geothermal systems may assist in understanding the long-term evolution of microbial adaptation to Hg with relevance to other environments where Hg is introduced from anthropogenic sources. A number of microbiological studies with supporting geochemistry have been conducted in geothermal systems across western North America. Approximately 1 in 5 study sites include measurements of Hg. Of all prokaryotic taxa reported across sites with microbiological and accompanying physicochemical data, 42% have been detected at sites in which Hg was measured. Genes specifying Hg reduction and detoxification by microorganisms were detected in a number of hot springs across the region. Archaeal-like sequences, representing two crenarchaeal orders and one order each of the Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, dominated in metagenomes' MerA (the mercuric reductase protein) inventories, while bacterial homologs were mostly found in one deeply sequenced metagenome. MerA homologs were more frequently found in metagenomes of microbial communities in acidic springs than in circumneutral or high pH geothermal systems, possibly reflecting higher bioavailability of Hg under acidic conditions. MerA homologs were found in hot springs prokaryotic isolates affiliated with Bacteria and Archaea taxa. Acidic sites with high Hg concentrations contain more of Archaea than Bacteria taxa, while the reverse appears to be the case in circumneutral and high pH sites with high Hg concentrations. However, MerA was detected in only a small fraction of the Archaea and Bacteria taxa inhabiting sites containing Hg. Nevertheless, the presence of MerA homologs and their distribution patterns in systems, in which Hg has yet to be measured, demonstrates the potential for detoxification by Hg reduction

  1. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  2. Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Chan, Pak Yuen; Veysey, John

    2006-06-30

    We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution. PMID:16907308

  3. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  4. A biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs

    CERN Document Server

    Klales, Anna; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2008-01-01

    Recent field investigations of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems, with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than the expected single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution field data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of differe...

  5. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  6. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  7. Mathematical Model of the Geothermal Water Resources in the South Hot Spring System in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dongyan; Luo Yunju; Liu Xinrong

    2005-01-01

    The geothermal waters of south hot spring, small hot spring and Qiaokouba in Chongqing, are all part of the south hot spring geothermal water system. Exploitation has caused a decline in the water levels of the south and small hot springs, which have not flowed naturally for 15 years. Now, bores pump geothermal water to the springs. If the water level drops below the elevation of the rivers, river-water will replenish the geothermal water, destroying this resource. It is therefore an urgent task to model the geothermal water system, to enable sustainable development and continued use of the geothermal water in Qiaokouba. A numerical simulation of the geothermal water system was adopted and a quantitative study on the planning scheme was carried out. A mathematical model was set up to simulate the whole geothermal water system, based on data from the research sites. The model determined the maximum sustainable water yield in Qiaokouba and the two hot springs, and the south hot spring and small hot spring sustainable yields are 1 100 m3/d and 700 m3/d from 2006 to 2010, 1 300 m3/d and 1 000 m3/d from 2011 to 2015, and 1 500 m3/d and 1 200 m3/d from 2016 to 2036. The maximum exploitable yield is 3 300 m3/d from 2006 to 2036 in Qiaokouba. The model supplies a basis to adequately exploit and effectively protect the geothermal water resources, and to continue to develop the geothermal water as a tourist attraction in Chongqing.

  8. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms.

  9. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Cortez, Yolanda; Vera, Nadia; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21'12″ S, 75°00'54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,534 paired ends reads were generated which were assigned into 5434 numbers of OTUs. All the resulting 16S rRNA fragments were then classified into 58 bacterial phyla and 2 archaeal phyla. Proteobacteria (88.06%) was found to be the highest represented phyla followed by Thermi (6.43%), Firmicutes (3.41%) and Aquificae (1.10%), respectively. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the only 2 archaeal phyla detected in this study with low abundance. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX1809286. Functional categorization of the assigned OTUs was performed using PICRUSt tool. In COG analysis "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (8.5%) was found to be the highest represented category whereas among predicted KEGG pathways "Metabolism" (50.6%) was the most abundant. This is the first report of a high resolution microbial phylogenetic profile of an Amazonian hot spring. PMID:27408814

  10. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Cortez, Yolanda; Vera, Nadia; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21'12″ S, 75°00'54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,534 paired ends reads were generated which were assigned into 5434 numbers of OTUs. All the resulting 16S rRNA fragments were then classified into 58 bacterial phyla and 2 archaeal phyla. Proteobacteria (88.06%) was found to be the highest represented phyla followed by Thermi (6.43%), Firmicutes (3.41%) and Aquificae (1.10%), respectively. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the only 2 archaeal phyla detected in this study with low abundance. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX1809286. Functional categorization of the assigned OTUs was performed using PICRUSt tool. In COG analysis "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (8.5%) was found to be the highest represented category whereas among predicted KEGG pathways "Metabolism" (50.6%) was the most abundant. This is the first report of a high resolution microbial phylogenetic profile of an Amazonian hot spring.

  11. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  12. Evaluation of Current and Feasible Future Use of Geothermal Energy at Chinyunyu Hot Spring, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kapasa, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The main source of geothermal energy is the heat flow from the mantle beneath the Earth’s surface, generated by the gradual decay of radioactive isotopes in the Earth‘s crust. A hot spring is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater flowing out to the Earth’s surface. The Chinyunyu hot spring is located about 90km east of Lusaka, Zambia. Water from the spring has been artificially channeled into a large excavated pool which is used as a bathing place. Since the undiluted s...

  13. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Geochemical and isotope characterization of geothermal spring waters in Sri Lanka: Evidence for steeper than expected geothermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Subasinghe, N. D.; Merten, Dirk; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2013-01-01

    SummarySeven geothermal springs from the Precambrian high-grade metamorphic terrain of Sri Lanka were investigated to assess their formation processes and to determine reservoir temperatures based on their chemical compositions. Silica-based geothermometric calculations for the Marangala and Nelumwewa springs showed the highest average reservoir temperatures of 122 °C and 121 °C, respectively. Samples of low temperature (isotope ratios 2H/1H and 18O/16O (expressed as δ2HH2O and δ18OH2O). Discharge temperatures of the thermal waters varied from 39-62 °C. These waters showed low concentrations of selected trace elements (Fe Cu isotope compositions of geothermal waters ranged from -6.5 to -5.0‰ for δ18OH2O and between -39 ‰ to -28 ‰ for δ2HH2O. In the non-geothermal waters, the isotope values were almost identical within the analytical uncertainties of 0.1‰ and 1‰ for δ2HH2O and δ18OH2O, respectively. In addition, all isotope ratios of geothermal and non-geothermal water samples scattered around the local meteoric water lines for the dry and intermediate climatic regions of Sri Lanka, thus indicating origin from precipitation without further influences of evaporation or water rock interaction. This similarity to the local meteoric water lines also makes influences of seawater an unlikely factor. Close matches of geochemical and isotope data from geothermal and corresponding non-geothermal waters confirm the hypothesis of a common source. The proposed model for Sri Lanka subsurface waters is that rainfall from the dry and/or intermediate climatic zones percolates with little time delay downward through structurally weaker zones in high-grade metamorphic rocks. They are subsequently heated by steep or heterogeneous geothermal gradients that are most likely associated with the Highland-Vijayan thrust zone.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of Ranger Warm Spring, Colorado, Resources Series 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, T. G.; Pearl, R. H.; Ringrose, C. D.

    The delineation of the geological features controlling the occurrence of geothermal resources in Colorado are discussed. The program consists of literature search, reconnaissance geological and hydrogeologic mapping and geophysical and geochemistry surveys. During 1980 and 1981 geothermal resource assessment were conducted in the Cement Creek Valley south of Crested Butte. In this valley are two warm springs, Cement Creek and Ranger. The temperature of both springs is 77 to 790F and the discharge ranges from 60 to 195 gallons per minute. Electrical resistivity and soil mercury surveys were conducted at Ranger Warm Springs. The bedrock of the area consists of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from precambrian to recent. Several faults with displacements of up to 3000 ft are found and one of these faults passes close to the Ranger Warm Springs. The electrical resistivity survey indicates that the water of Ranger Warm Springs are moving up along a buried fault which parallels Cement Creek.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial and archaeal assemblages in the soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Bhatia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring was analyzed for bacterial and archaeal diversity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing which revealed the presence of 18 bacterial phyla distributed across 109 families and 219 genera. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group were the predominant bacterial assemblages with Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota as the main archaeal assemblages in this largely understudied geothermal habitat. Several metagenome sequences remained taxonomically unassigned suggesting the presence of a repertoire of hitherto undescribed microbes in this geothermal soil-mousse econiche.

  17. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  18. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  19. Metagenomic evaluation of bacterial and archaeal diversity in the geothermal hot springs of manikaran, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sonu; Batra, Navneet; Pathak, Ashish; Green, Stefan J; Joshi, Amit; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-02-19

    Bacterial and archaeal diversity in geothermal spring water were investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing. This revealed the dominance of Firmicutes, Aquificae, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group in this thermophilic environment. A number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in this unique habitat.

  20. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  1. Determining barriers to developing geothermal power generation in Japan: Societal acceptance by stakeholders involved in hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After many years of stagnant growth in geothermal power generation, development plans for new geothermal plants have recently emerged throughout Japan. Through a literature review, we investigated the relationships between the principal barriers to geothermal development and we thereby analyzed the deciding factors in the future success of such enterprises. The results show that the societal acceptance of geothermal power by local stakeholders is the fundamental barrier as it affects almost all other barriers, such as financial, technical, and political risks. Thus, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 stakeholders including developers, hot spring inn managers, and local government officials. Some hot spring inn managers and local government officials noted that they have always been strongly concerned about the adverse effects of geothermal power generation on hot springs; their opposition has delayed decision-making by local governments regarding drilling permits, prolonged lead times, and caused other difficulties. A key reason for opposition was identified as uncertainty about the reversibility and predictability of the adverse effects on hot springs and other underground structures by geothermal power production and reinjection of hot water from reservoirs. Therefore, we discuss and recommend options for improving the risk management of hot springs near geothermal power plants. - Highlights: • We clarify relationships between barriers to geothermal power development in Japan. • Local acceptance by hot spring managers is the most prominent barrier. • Uncertainty of reversibility and predictability induces low acceptance. • Risk transfer system and dialogue are needed to alleviate concerns

  2. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  3. Colorado: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 225 records for Colorado. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Colorado. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  4. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 314 records for Arizona. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Arizona. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  5. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  6. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  7. Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. was investigated. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

  8. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters : Evidence from the Geysir geothermal field, Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter Z.; Keller, Nicole S.; Gudbrandsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the extent and controls of silicon isotope fractionation in hot spring systems of the Geysir geothermal area (Iceland), a setting where sinter deposits are actively formed. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica measured in the spring water and sampling sites along outflowin

  9. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  10. Distribution and diversity of Verrucomicrobia methanotrophs in geothermal and acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christine E; Smirnova, Angela V; Graham, Jaime M; Stott, Matthew B; Khadka, Roshan; Moore, Tim R; Grasby, Stephen E; Strack, Maria; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    Recently, methanotrophic members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia have been described, but little is known about their distribution in nature. We surveyed methanotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs and acidic wetlands via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Putative methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia were found in samples covering a broad temperature range (22.5-81.6°C), but only in acidic conditions (pH 1.8-5.0) and only in geothermal environments, not in acidic bogs or fens. Phylogenetically, three 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters of putative methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia were observed. Those detected in high-temperature geothermal samples (44.1-81.6°C) grouped with known thermoacidiphilic 'Methylacidiphilum' isolates. A second group dominated in moderate-temperature geothermal samples (22.5-40.1°C) and a representative mesophilic methanotroph from this group was isolated (strain LP2A). Genome sequencing verified that strain LP2A possessed particulate methane monooxygenase, but its 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to 'Methylacidiphilum infernorum' strain V4 was only 90.6%. A third group clustered distantly with known methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia. Using pmoA-gene targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, two geothermal soil profiles showed a dominance of LP2A-like pmoA sequences in the cooler surface layers and 'Methylacidiphilum'-like pmoA sequences in deeper, hotter layers. Based on these results, there appears to be a thermophilic group and a mesophilic group of methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia. However, both were detected only in acidic geothermal environments.

  11. Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.

  12. Mantle-derived CO2 in Hot Springs of the Rehai Geothermal Field,Tengchong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jianguo; WANG Xianbin; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2005-01-01

    Gas concentrations and isotopic compositions of He and CO2 were determined on free gas samples from ten hot springs of the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, China. The results showed that hot-spring CO2 gas, together with He,was derived mainly from the mantle, indicating the accumulation of mantle-derived volatiles beneath the survey area. The δ13C values of CO2, higher than those of the typical mantle-derived carbon and the isotopic composition of hot-spring-free CO2 in unequilibrium with dissolved CO2, are recognized only in the Rehai geothermal field, suggesting that there seems to be a still-degassing magmatic intrusion at depths, which provides mantle-derived volatiles to the hydrothermal system above. The accumulation of those volatiles has probably played an important role in triggering earthquakes in this region.In addition, the isotopic characteristics of He and C also indicate that the magmatic intrusion seems to have been derived from the MORB source, and could be contaminated by crustal materials during its upwelling through the continental crust.

  13. Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition

  14. Geothermal investigations at Crystal Hot Springs, Salt Lake County, Utah. Report of Investigation No. 139

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.J.; Gwynn, J.W.

    1979-10-01

    The Crystal Hot Springs geothermal system is located in southern Salt Lake County, Utah 22.5 km (14 miles) south of Salt Lake City near the town of Draper. The system is immediately west of the Wasatch Mountains at the easternmost edge of the Basin and Range physiographic province within an active seismic zone referred to as the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The springs are located north of an east-west trending horst known as the Traverse Range. The range is intermediate in elevation between the Wasatch Range to the east and the valley grabens to the north and south. A series of northeast striking normal faults with a combined displacement of at least 90/sup 0/m (3000 ft) separate the horst from the Jordan Valley graben to the north. The spring system is located between two closely spaced range-front faults where the faults are intersected by a north-northeast striking fault. The fractured Paleozoic quartzite bedrock 25 m (80 ft) beneath the surface leaks thermal water into the overlying unconsolidated material and the springs issue along zones of weaknesses in the relatively impermeable confining zone that parallel the bedrock faults. Meteoric water from the Wasatch Range is warmed in the normal geothermal gradient of the province (approximately 32/sup 0/C/km) as the water circulates to a minimum depth of approximately 2.5 km (1.55 miles) via an undetermined path through aquifers and faults. Data collected at the Crystal Hot Springs system under the DOE state coupled program are presented for use by individuals interested in the system.

  15. Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, C.C.

    1978-07-01

    The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)

  16. Variations of Heavy Metals from Geothermal Spring to Surrounding Soil and Mangifera Indica–Siloam Village, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Durowoju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of seasonal variation in concentration of heavy metals–As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from the Siloam Geothermal Spring and their impacts on surface soils and Mangifera indica were undertaken during winter and summer seasons in South Africa. This was done to determine the environmental pollution status of surface soils and Mangifera indica around the geothermal spring. The geothermal spring water, surface soil (0–15 cm and Mangifera indica (bark and leaves samples were collected during 2014 winter and summer seasons. Soil and Mangifera indica samples were treated and digested using microwave and block digestion methods, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS (Agilent 7700. The result from this study showed that levels of heavy metals were higher in summer compared to winter season for geothermal spring water, surface soil, and Mangifera indica (barks and leaves. In two-tailed tests (Mann–Whitney U-test, geothermal spring water alone showed significant differences (Z = −2.1035, p < 0.05, whereas the surface soil and barks and leaves of Mangifera indica showed no significant differences (Z = 0.053; 0; −0.524, p > 0.05 in both seasons. Some heavy metals concentrations were above the standard guidelines for drinking water and typical soil, making the soil contaminated. This is a cause for concern as it can affect the environment and the health of the inhabitants of Siloam village, who depend on the geothermal spring as their source of domestic water, irrigation, and other uses. This study also showed that Mangifera indica has a phytoremediative property, which lessens the heavy metal concentrations absorbed from the contaminated soil.

  17. Anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs identified using stable isotope probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lee Brady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a potential energy and carbon source for thermophilic bacteria in geothermal environments. Geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 45–65°C were investigated for the presence and activity of anaerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria. Anaerobic CO oxidation potentials were measured at up to 48.9 µmoles CO day-1 g (wet weight-1 within 5 selected sites. Active anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria were identified using 13CO DNA stable isotope probing (SIP combined with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from labeled DNA. Bacterial communities identified in heavy DNA fractions were predominated by Firmicutes, which comprised up to 95% of all sequences in 13CO incubations. The predominant bacteria that assimilated 13C derived from CO were closely related (>98% to genera of known carboxydotrophs including Thermincola, Desulfotomaculum, Thermolithobacter and Carboxydocella, although a few species with lower similarity to known bacteria were also found that may represent previously unconfirmed CO-oxidizers. While the distribution was variable, many of the same OTUs were identified across sample sites from different temperature regimes. These results show that bacteria capable of using CO as a carbon source are common in geothermal springs, and that thermophilic carboxydotrophs are probably already quite well known from cultivation studies.

  18. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  19. Global metagenomic survey reveals a new bacterial candidate phylum in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A; Paez-Espino, David; Jarett, Jessica; Dunfield, Peter F; Hedlund, Brian P; Dekas, Anne E; Grasby, Stephen E; Brady, Allyson L; Dong, Hailiang; Briggs, Brandon R; Li, Wen-Jun; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex; Pati, Amrita; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Rubin, Edward M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N

    2016-01-27

    Analysis of the increasing wealth of metagenomic data collected from diverse environments can lead to the discovery of novel branches on the tree of life. Here we analyse 5.2 Tb of metagenomic data collected globally to discover a novel bacterial phylum ('Candidatus Kryptonia') found exclusively in high-temperature pH-neutral geothermal springs. This lineage had remained hidden as a taxonomic 'blind spot' because of mismatches in the primers commonly used for ribosomal gene surveys. Genome reconstruction from metagenomic data combined with single-cell genomics results in several high-quality genomes representing four genera from the new phylum. Metabolic reconstruction indicates a heterotrophic lifestyle with conspicuous nutritional deficiencies, suggesting the need for metabolic complementarity with other microbes. Co-occurrence patterns identifies a number of putative partners, including an uncultured Armatimonadetes lineage. The discovery of Kryptonia within previously studied geothermal springs underscores the importance of globally sampled metagenomic data in detection of microbial novelty, and highlights the extraordinary diversity of microbial life still awaiting discovery.

  20. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs. PMID:17995057

  1. Geochemical Characterization and Geothermometry of the Geothermal Springs of Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Klemperer, S. L.; Sastry, S. R.; Harinarayana, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan collision zone between India and Asia hosts an active geothermal province that spans the border from India into Tibet. Despite significant exploration, commercial development thus far in India is limited to modest use of hot water for heating greenhouses. We sampled nine hot springs in Northwest India, from the Karakoram Fault, across the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone, to the Main Central Thrust. We analyzed major cation and anion chemistry using ICP-OES. Calcium ranges from 1-220 ppm, potassium from 4-110 ppm, magnesium from 0-60 ppm and sodium from 70-440 ppm. These values are similar to samples analyzed by the Geological Survey of India in previous decades. Preliminary reservoir temperatures calculated using the Fournier & Potter Na-K-Ca-Mg geothermometer range from 100-260°C. No correlations with geologic structure or location across the Himalayan orogen are apparent, and springs located within a few tens of km of each other have apparent temperatures differing by a factor of two. However, these classical geothermometers are subject to large uncertainty in cases where gas has been lost or where there has been dilution of the waters from depth with surface waters. We will use Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's multicomponent geothermometry code, GeoT, to improve the temperature estimation for each geothermal site. Even if reservoir temperatures are not high enough for electricity generation, these springs have the potential to provide cheap heating and cooling for the local communities. We plan to collect additional water samples in neighboring Tibet in the future.

  2. Low-temperature geothermal potential of the Ojo Caliente warm springs area, northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.D.; Stix, J.; Goff, F.; Pearson, C.F.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 17 waters (thermal and cold, mineralized and dilute) was performed in the Ojo Caliente-La Madera area. Two types of thermomineral waters have separate and distinctive geologic, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics. The water from Ojo Caliente Resort emerges with temperatures less than or equal to 54/sup 0/C from a Precambrian metarhyolite. Its chemistry, typically Na-HCO/sub 3/, has a total mineralization of 3600 mg/l. Isotopic studies have shown that the thermal water emerges from the springs and a hot well without significant mixing with the cold shallow aquifer of the valley alluvium. However, the cold aquifer adjacent to the resort does contain varying amounts of thermal water that originates from the warm spring system. Geothermometry calculations indicate that the thermal water may be as hot as 85/sup 0/C at depth before its ascent toward surface. Thermodynamic computations on the reaction states of numerous mineral phases suggest that the thermal water will not cause major scaling problems if the hot water is utilized for direct-use geothermal applications. By means of a network of very shallow holes, temperature and electrical conductivity anomalies have been found elsewhere in the valley around Ojo Caliente, and resistivity soundings have confirmed the presence of a plume of thermal water entering the shallow aquifer. The group of lukewarm springs around La Madera, with temperatures less than or equal to 29/sup 0/C, chemical type of NaCaMg-HCO/sub 3/Cl and with a total mineralization less than or equal to 1500 mg/l behaves as a different system without any apparent relation to the Ojo Caliente system. Its temperature at depth is not believed to exceed 35 to 40/sup 0/C.

  3. Use of isotope techniques to trace the origin of acidic fluids in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realizing the potential contribution of stable isotopes of the water molecule and those of sulphur compounds in tracing the sources of acidic fluids, especially the sulphate type of acidity in geothermal well discharges, the IAEA organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) with the objectives of integrating isotope techniques, in particular the isotopes of sulphur compounds, into (1) identification of the origin of the water component in acidic fluids, (2) identification of the origin of sulphur compounds in acidic fluids and (3) study on mixing of waters from different sources to form acidic fluids. In addition to these objectives, the CRP was also to test isotope geothermometry based on sulphur compounds in geothermal fluids. In this CRP, isotopic composition of oxygen-18 and deuterium in waters sampled from acidic wells indicates that these waters are mixtures of meteoric and magmatic waters. Examples of this type of geothermal systems are Miravalles in Costa Rica, Onikobe in Japan, Los Humeros in Mexico and Several fields in the Philippines. It has further shown that acidic fluids are isotopically heavier in some systems, implying a larger fraction of magmatic inputs. This isotopic evidence confirms the hypothesis that some acidic fluids are un-neutralized magmatic water. The aqueous sulphate in geothermal well discharges of a volcanic geothermal system originates from either oxidation of H2S gas similar to that producing acidic hot springs and ponds at the surface, hydrolysis of magmatic SO2 gas or hydrolysis of native sulphur at shallow depth. Isotope geothermometry based on δ34S (H2S) provides estimates of reservoir temperatures that are compatible to measured temperature values for the acidic wells, but not for neutral pH wells. This suggests that fractionation equilibrium is more easily attained in acidic wells as compared to neutral pH wells. Isotope geothermometer based on δ18O in water and aqueous sulphate was found to be generally not applicable

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermus scotoductus Strain K1, Isolated from a Geothermal Spring in Karvachar, Nagorno Karabakh

    OpenAIRE

    Saghatelyan, Ani; Poghosyan, Lianna; Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2015-01-01

    The 2,379,636-bp draft genome sequence of Thermus scotoductus strain K1, isolated from geothermal spring outlet located in the Karvachar region in Nagorno Karabakh is presented. Strain K1 shares about 80% genome sequence similarity with T. scotoductus strain SA-01, recovered from a deep gold mine in South Africa.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermus scotoductus Strain K1, Isolated from a Geothermal Spring in Karvachar, Nagorno Karabakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Ani; Poghosyan, Lianna; Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2015-01-01

    The 2,379,636-bp draft genome sequence of Thermus scotoductus strain K1, isolated from geothermal spring outlet located in the Karvachar region in Nagorno Karabakh is presented. Strain K1 shares about 80% genome sequence similarity with T. scotoductus strain SA-01, recovered from a deep gold mine in South Africa. PMID:26564055

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermus scotoductus Strain K1, Isolated from a Geothermal Spring in Karvachar, Nagorno Karabakh

    OpenAIRE

    Saghatelyan, Ani; Poghosyan, Lianna; Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2015-01-01

    The 2,379,636-bp draft genome sequence of Thermus scotoductus strain K1, isolated from geothermal spring outlet located in the Karvachar region in Nagorno Karabakh is presented. Strain K1 shares about 80% genome sequence similarity with T. scotoductus strain SA-01, recovered from a deep gold mine in South Africa.

  7. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João,; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain.

  8. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  9. Aqueous Chemistry of Typical Geothermal Springs with Deep Faults in Xinyi and Fengshun in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Lu; Runfang Liu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated aqueous chemistry for two geothermal spring groups responsive and sensitive to flow fluctuations induced by earthquakes. Quake monitorings are favored for their be-ing in residential areas with well-preserved natural flow systems in Xinyi City’s Xijiang Hot Springs and Fengshun County’s Shihu Hot Spring. The hot springs are typical in temperatures and flow rates in southern China’s Guangdong Province. Physical and chemical conditions deep down in the heat sources are important constraints on earthquake, fluid flow, reactive solute transport and heat transfer, but re-main challenging to address via field observations and numerical experiments. In this paper, we made daily and annual observations on flow rates, temperature, and/or aqueous chemistry. We employed strontium isotopes as tracers for the water sources, equilibrium phase diagram for K-feldspar and albite stability, and Na-K-Mg diagram for heat reservoir temperatures. The abundant sulfite content in Xi-jiang Hot Springs is discussed. Our main finding are that the deep fault springs are characterized by low reduction-oxidation potential at around-200–-150 mV and relatively large daily flow variations. The re-sults provide scientific background features on the field sites regarding earthquake monitoring and pre-dictions and geothermal reservoir.

  10. Competition for ammonia influences the structure of chemotrophic communities in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs.

  11. Nevada: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    All chemical data for geothermal fluids in Nevada available as of December 1981 are maintained on GEOTHERM, a computerized information system. This report presents summaries and sources of records for Nevada. 7 refs. (ACR)

  12. Idaho: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    All chemical data for geothermal fluids in Idaho available as of December 1981 is maintained on GEOTHERM, computerized information system. This report presents summaries and sources of records for Idaho. 7 refs. (ACR)

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Environments and Potential Implications for Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesle, M.; Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Bodle, B.; Bogenschutz, E.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be produced in natural waters via photochemical reactions between dissolved oxygen, organic carbon and light. Other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are potentially formed in environments with high concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe(II), ~10-100 μM) by reaction between H2O2 and Fe(II) (i.e., Fenton chemistry). Thermophilic archaea and bacteria inhabiting acidic iron-oxide mats have defense mechanisms against both extracellular and intracellular peroxide, such as peroxiredoxins (which can degrade H2O2) and against other ROS, such as superoxide dismutases. Biological cycling of H2O2 is not well understood in geothermal ecosystems, and geochemical measurements combined with molecular investigations will contribute to our understanding of microbial response to oxidative stress. We measured H2O2 and other dissolved compounds (Fe(II), Fe(III), H2S, O2), as well as photon flux, pH and temperature, over time in surface geothermal waters of several acidic springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, WY (Beowulf Spring and One Hundred Spring Plain). Iron-oxide mats were sampled in Beowulf Spring for on-going analysis of metatranscriptomes and RT-qPCR assays of specific stress-response gene transcription (e.g., superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, and peroxidases). In situ analyses show that H2O2 concentrations are lowest in the source waters of sulfidic systems (ca. 1 μM), and increase by two-fold in oxygenated waters corresponding to Fe(III)-oxide mat formation (ca. 2 - 3 μM). Channel transects confirm increases in H2O2 as a function of oxygenation (distance). The temporal dynamics of H2O2, O2, Fe(II), and H2S in Beowulf geothermal waters were also measured during a diel cycle, and increases in H2O2 were observed during peak photon flux. These results suggest that photochemical reactions may contribute to changes in H2O2. We hypothesize that increases in H2O2 and O2

  14. Calcite Precipitation at an Arctic Geothermal Spring Leads to Endolith Colonization and Ecological Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, V.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.

    2012-12-01

    A critical question in microbial ecology concerns how environmental conditions affect community makeup. Troll Springs, a geothermal spring at 79°23'N, 13°26'E on Svalbard in the high Arctic, provides an opportunity to study microbial communities and succession along steep environmental gradients that impose strong selective pressures. At Troll, warm water is released into cold, dry climate conditions. Precipitation of calcite from the spring's waters has built terraces that host a range of microbial communities. Microorganisms exist in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll therefore has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping their microbial communities. We use microscopic and phylogeny-based molecular methods to study microbial community makeup at Troll Springs. Periphyton are entrapped by precipitation of calcite, becoming precursors for endolithic communities. Much of the pore space originally occupied by periphyton becomes inhabited either by organisms that were already present in minor quantities in the periphyton, or by new organisms that colonized an environment for which they were well suited. This process differs from most endolith colonization, where rock predates the communities that colonize it. In the aquatic environments, the strongest dependence of community makeup is on pH and temperature, with gradual changes in community makeup along a pH/temperature gradient among the pools. Illumination (as limited by calcite precipitation) and thermal stability also appear to exert influence. In contrast, in the granular and endolithic terrestrial environments, where water is scarce and therefore exerts selective pressure, there is a strong relationship between community makeup and water content. The richness, evenness, and diversity of microbial taxa are all strongly correlated at Troll Springs. These parameters all

  15. The Co-Distribution of Nitrifying Archaea and Diazotrophic Bacteria in Geothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Jewell, T. N. M.; de la Torre, J. R.; Boyd, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial processes that regulate availability of nutrients play key roles in shaping community composition. All life requires fixed nitrogen (N), and its bioavailability is what often limits ecosystem productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation, or the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is a keystone process in N limited ecosystems, providing nitrogen for members of the community. N2 fixing organisms likely represent a 'bottom up control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. N2 fixation is catalyzed by a limited number of metabolically diverse bacteria and some methanogenic archaea and occurs in a variety of physically and geochemically diverse environments. Nitrification, or the sequential oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite (NO2-) and ultimately nitrate (NO3-), is catalyzed by several lineages of Proteobacteria at temperatures of < 62°C and by members of the Thaumarcheota at temperatures up to 90°C. Nitrification can thus be considered a 'top down control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. Our research in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) reveals a strong correspondence between the distribution of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrogen fixing aquificae (NFA) in nitrogen-limited geothermal hot springs over large environmental gradients. Based on the physiology of AOA and NFA, we propose that the strong co-distributional pattern results from interspecies interactions, namely competition for bioavailable ammonia. Our recent work has shown that in springs where the niche dimension of AOA and NFA overlap (e.g., Perpetual Spouter; pH 7.1, 86.4°C), the dissimilar affinities for NH4 result in AOA metabolism maintaining a low NH4(T) pool and selecting for inclusion of NFA during the assembly of these communities. Here, we examine in situ physiological interactions of AOA and NFA, tracking changes in transcript levels of key genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation of

  16. Precipitation of silicic acid from geothermal water by addition of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsuki, Harumi; Yokoyama, Takushi; Shimada, Kanichi; Yamanaka, Chiho; Nishu, Keisuke; Shimizu, Shin; Tarutani, Toshikazu

    1986-01-25

    Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to sodium silicate solution and geothermal hot water (Ohtake Geothermal Power Plant and Hatchobaru Geo-thermal Power Plant) to precipitate silica. 1) CTA ions do not react with monosilicic acid, but only the polymerization among the polysilicic acids proceeds and causes silica to precipitate. Optimum pH for the silica precipitation is 6 - 7 and the higher concentration of polysilicic acid will cause more precipitation. 2) When added to geothermal hot water, the silica precipita-tion increases with the increase of CTAB concentration within the range of 10/sup -7/ - 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ concentration. Almost all poly-silicic acid precipitated at 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ when measured for silica precipitation after 5 minutes. Total concentration of silicic acid was higher in the Hatchobaru geothermal water than that of the Ohtake geothermal water. (10 figs, 14 refs)

  17. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

  18. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  19. Cultivation and characterization of thermophilic Nitrospira species from geothermal springs in the US Great Basin, China, and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tara A; Calica, Nicole A; Huang, Dolores A; Manoharan, Namritha; Hou, Weiguo; Huang, Liuqin; Panosyan, Hovik; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-08-01

    Despite its importance in the nitrogen cycle, little is known about nitrite oxidation at high temperatures. To bridge this gap, enrichment cultures were inoculated with sediment slurries from a variety of geothermal springs. While nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were successfully enriched from seven hot springs located in US Great Basin, south-western China, and Armenia at ≤ 57.9 °C, all attempts to enrich NOB from > 10 hot springs at ≥ 61 °C failed. The stoichiometric conversion of nitrite to nitrate, chlorate sensitivity, and sensitivity to autoclaving all confirmed biological nitrite oxidation. Regardless of origin, all successful enrichments contained organisms with high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (≥ 97%) with Nitrospira calida. In addition, Armenian enrichments also contained close relatives of Nitrospira moscoviensis. Physiological properties of all enrichments were similar, with a temperature optimum of 45-50 °C, yielding nitrite oxidation rates of 7.53 ± 1.20 to 23.0 ± 2.73 fmoles cell(-1) h(-1), and an upper temperature limit between 60 and 65 °C. The highest rates of NOB activity occurred with initial NO2 - concentrations of 0.5-0.75 mM; however, lower initial nitrite concentrations resulted in shorter lag times. The results presented here suggest a possible upper temperature limit of 60-65 °C for Nitrospira and demonstrate the wide geographic range of Nitrospira species in geothermal environments. PMID:23528039

  20. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  1. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State

  2. Geochemical Patterns of Geothermal Elements in Southern Italian Fumaroles and Thermal Springs in Relation with Mantle Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Minissale, A.; Donato, A.; Procesi, M.; Pizzino, L.; Giammanco, S.

    2015-12-01

    The review of published data together with some new data specifically made to fill gaps, to make a database of chemical and isotopic data for thermal emergences (springs, fumaroles and gas vents) in southern Italy, to be used for the publication of a Geothermal Atlas, has hallowed the re-interpretation of all the geochemical data gathered. The main conclusions are as follows. All active volcanic areas (Solfatara, Vesuvius, Ischia Isle, Mt Etna, Aeolian Islands and Pantelleria Isle) have i) high 3He/4He rations coupled with ii) high CO2 emissions and iii) geo-thermometric (isotopic) signatures that suggest the presence of active geothermal systems in all places at shallow depth. In spite of this, no one of these areas, is exploited for geothermal power generation. There are three further Quaternary volcanic areas at: Iblei Mts in Sicily, Vulture volcano in Basilicata region and Logudoro area in Sardinia Island that also have CO2-rich gas emissions, high in 3He/4He ratio, but they are not associated to any relevant thermal emission nearby. In terms of regional patterns, apart from the Calabria subduction arc area (Calabria region), the stable flat cratonic areas of Apulia in SE Italy, the Iblean Platform in SE Sicily, and most of Sardinia, the latter not involved in the Apennine Orogeny, the remaining southern Italy along the Tyrrhenian sector has huge emission of hydrothermally generated CO2 crossed, in counterflow, by descending topographically driven N2 solubilized in recharge meteoric water from the main Apennine belt. Iso-distribution maps of several of the parameters investigated even more clearly show the sectors of southern Italy affected by the intrusion of mantle magma and therefore the areas where the geothermal heat-flow is maximized by active tectonics.

  3. DYNAMIC MIXING MODEL OF THE CHIGNAHUAPAN THERMAL SPRING IN THE GEOTHERMAL ZONE OF THE ACOCULCO CALDERA, PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Cirlos, A.; Torres-Rodriguez, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Acoculco Caldera, of Pliocenic age, is located within the limits of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (CVT) and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMOr). The Acoculco geothermal zone consists of a 790m thick igneous sequence, related to a volcanic complex formed by andesites and rhyolitic domes emplaced in an 18 Km diameter annular fracture. It unconformably overlies a 5000 m thick section of folded and faulted Jurassic-Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The Chignahuapan Spring, located in the extreme eastern part of the Geothermal Zone of the Acoculco Caldera, yields temperatures of 49°C and discharges an estimated of 98 lps from the karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone. Both major and trace element geochemical analysis were carried out, and results were interpreted using Piper and Stiff diagrams, as well as geothermometry. The results indicate that water belongs to the calcium-bicarbonate type and yield temperatures in a range of 70-80°C at depth, which suggest an extensive lateral flow from the main reservoir and mixing with shallow groundwaters. The spring suffers significant variations in its temperature throughout the year, especially during the rainy season, when water temperature decreases up to 10°C. Analyzing the hot spring water temperature data from of the last 10 years and comparing it with the precipitation and air temperature curves of the region, we expect to develop a dynamic mixing model which depicts the relation between these factors and the importance of each one in the water temperature variation. We also look forward to be able to forecast water temperature trends for the next several years and correlate it with climate change in the area.

  4. Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov., a thiosulfate-oxidizing, autotropic thermophile isolated from a geothermal spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Ong, John C.; Williams, Amanda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2015-12-12

    An obligately thermophilic, chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic bacterium, designated strain GBS1T, was isolated from the water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada, USA. Thiosulfate was required for growth. Although capable of autotrophy, growth of GBS1T was enhanced in the presence of acetate, peptone, or Casamino acids. Growth occurred at 70-85 °C with an optimum at 80 °C, at pH 6.5-7.75 with an optimum at pH 7.25, at 0.5-8% oxygen with an optimum at 1-2%, and at ≤200 mM sodium chloride. The doubling time under optimal growth conditions was 1.3 hrs, with a final cell density of 6.2±0.5 x 107 cells/mL. Non-motile, rod-shaped cells 1.4-2.4 x 0.4-0.6 µm occurred singly or in pairs. Major cellular fatty acids (>5% of total) were C20:1ω9c (44.8%), C18:0 (26.0%), C16:0 (9.9%) and C20:0 (5.4%). Phylogenetic analysis of the GBS1T 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated an affiliation with Thermocrinis ruber and other Thermocrinis spp., but comparisons of 16S rRNA gene identity (≤97.10%) and in silico estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values (≤18.4%) with Thermocrinis spp. indicate that his strain is distinct from described species. Based on phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the name Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov. is proposed, with GBS1T (= JCM 19133T = DSM 27162T) as the type strain.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a new CO-utilizing strain, Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans, isolated from a geothermal spring in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Stams, A.J.M.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J.S.; Vos, de W.M.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and sugar-fermenting bacterium (strain TLO) was isolated from a geothermal spring in Aya¿, Turkey. The cells were straight to curved rods, 0.4-0.6 mum in diameter and 3.5-10 mum in length. Spores were terminal and round. The temperature

  6. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-02-25

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche.

  7. Effectiveness of acidizing geothermal wells in the South German Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S.; Schulz, R.

    2013-10-01

    In Germany, many hydro-geothermal plants have been constructed in recent years, primarily in the region of Munich. As the host formation here mainly consists of carbonates, nearly all recently drilled wells have been acidized in order to improve the well yield. In this study, the effectiveness of these acid treatments is analyzed with respect to the amount of acid used and the number of acid treatments carried out per well. The results show that the first acid treatment has the largest effect, while subsequent acidizing improves the well only marginally. Data also indicate that continued acidizing can lead to degradation of the well. These findings may not only be important for geothermal installations in Germany but also for projects, for example, in Austria, France or China where geothermal energy is produced from carbonate formations as well.

  8. Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov., a thiosulfate-oxidizing, autotropic thermophile isolated from a geothermal spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ong, John C; Williams, Amanda J; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Hedlund, Brian P

    2015-12-01

    An obligately thermophilic, chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic bacterium, designated strain GBS1T, was isolated from the water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada, USA. Thiosulfate was required for growth. Although capable of autotrophy, growth of GBS1T was enhanced in the presence of acetate, peptone or Casamino acids. Growth occurred at 70-85 °C with an optimum at 80 °C, at pH 6.50-7.75 with an optimum at pH 7.25, with 0.5-8 % oxygen with an optimum at 1-2 % and with ≤ 200 mM NaCl. The doubling time under optimal growth conditions was 1.3 h, with a final mean cell density of 6.2 ± 0.5 × 107 cells ml- 1. Non-motile, rod-shaped cells 1.4-2.4 × 0.4-0.6 μm in size occurred singly or in pairs. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 % of the total) were C20 : 1ω9c, C18 : 0, C16 : 0 and C20 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBS1T 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated an affiliation with Thermocrinis ruber and other species of the genus Thermocrinis, but determination of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ( ≤ 97.10 %) and in silico estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values ( ≤ 18.4 %) with the type strains of recognized Thermocrinis species indicate that the novel strain is distinct from described species. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, a novel species, Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov., is proposed, with GBS1T ( = JCM 19133T = DSM 27162T) as the type strain. PMID:26419502

  9. Geothermal investment analysis with site-specific applications to Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1978-12-01

    The analysis and modeling of investment behavior in the development of hydrothermal electric power facilities are reported. This investment behavior reflects a degree of sensitivity to public policy alternatives concerning taxation and regulation of the resource and its related energy conversion facilities. The objective of the current research is to provide a realistic and theoretically sound means for estimating the impacts of such public policy alternatives. A stochastic simulation model was developed which offers an efficient means for site-specific investment analysis of private sector firms and investors. The results of the first year of work are discussed including the identification, analysis, quantification and modeling of: a decision tree reflecting the sequence of procedures, timing and stochastic elements of hydrothermal resource development projects; investment requirements, expenses and revenues incurred in the exploration, development and utilization of hydrothermal resources for electric power generation; and multiattribute investment decision criteria of the several types of firms in the geothermal industry. An application of the investment model to specific resource sites in the state of Utah is also described. Site specific data for the Known Geothermal Resource Areas of Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale are given together with hypothesized generation capacity growth rates.

  10. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  11. Geology and surface geochemistry of the Roosevelt Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovell, J.S.; Meyer, W.T.; Atkinson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Available data on the Roosevelt area were synthesized to determine the spatial arrangement of the rocks, and the patterns of mass and energy flow within them. The resulting model lead to a new interpretation of the geothermal system, and provided ground truth for evaluating the application of soil geochemistry to exploration for concealed geothermal fields. Preliminary geochemical studies comparing the surface microlayer to conventional soil sampling methods indicated both practical and chemical advantages for the surface microlayer technique, which was particularly evident in the case of As, Sb and Cs. Subsequent multi-element analyses of surface microlayer samples collected over an area of 100 square miles were processed to produce single element contour maps for 41 chemical parameters. Computer manipulation of the multi-element data using R-mode factor analysis provided the optimum method of interpretation of the surface microlayer data. A trace element association of As, Sb and Cs in the surface microlayer provided the best indication of the leakage of geothermal solutions to the surface, while regional mercury trends may reflect the presence of a mercury vapour anomaly above a concealed heat source.

  12. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  13. Initial characterization of carbon flows through microbial communities in Beowulf spring, an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-12-01

    Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive

  14. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. The rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anita J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kemp, Anthony J.

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm; their chondite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg -1 (≥ 162 ppm), and ΣREE concentrations in sinter are ≥ 181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Normalisation of REE concentrations in altered Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) from Y-12 drill core to REE concentrations in fresh LCT indicate that the REE overall have been depleted with the exception of Eu, which has been decoupled from the REE series and concentrated in the altered rocks. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu 2+ is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in

  16. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  17. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion research report on the environmental impact in Akinomiya district. Hot spring, water level, spring water fluctuation; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho. Onsen, suii, yusui hendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This research was made for investigating the impact of geothermal development on hot spring, ground water level and spring water by drilling 3 investigation wells N9-AY-3, N9- AY-4 and N9-AY-5 in Akinomiya district. Some research items for hot spring showed slight fluctuation until 1997, however, those showed no fluctuation due to drilling of the 3 investigation wells in fiscal 1998. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on the spring and quality of hot water in Akinomiya district. Drilling of N9-AY-4 well is carrying out continuously after Sept. 1998. Fluctuation of ground water levels was dependent on precipitations, however, drilling of the 3 investigation wells has no effect on the ground water level. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on the spring of hot water in Akinomiya district. Every research item for spring water showed relatively slight fluctuation stably. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on spring water in Akinomiya district. (NEDO)

  18. Structure, mineralogy and microbial diversity of geothermal spring microbialites associated with a deep oil drilling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eComan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern mineral deposits play an important role in evolutionary studies by providing clues to the formation of ancient lithified microbial communities. Here we report the presence of microbialite-forming microbial mats in different microenvironments at 32ºC, 49ºC and 65ºC around the geothermal spring from an abandoned oil drill in Ciocaia, Romania. The mineralogy and the macro- and microstructure of the microbialites were investigated, together with their microbial diversity based on a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach. The calcium carbonate is deposited mainly in the form of calcite. At 32ºC and 49ºC, the microbialites show a laminated structure with visible microbial mat-carbonate crystal interactions. At 65ºC, the mineral deposit is clotted, without obvious organic residues. Partial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the relative abundance of the phylum Archaea was low at 32ºC (1%. The dominant bacterial groups at 32ºC were Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Thermi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Defferibacteres. At 49ºC, there was a striking dominance of the Gammaproteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Armantimonadetes. The 65ºC sample was dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, [OP1], Defferibacteres, Thermi, Thermotogae, [EM3] and Nitrospirae. Several groups from Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, together with Halobacteria and Melainabacteria were described for the first time in calcium carbonate deposits. Overall, the spring from Ciocaia emerges as a valuable site to probe microbes-minerals interrelationships along thermal and geochemical gradients.

  19. Investigation of origin, subsurface processes and reservoir temperature of geothermal springs around Koh-i-Sultan volcano, Chagai, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chagai area, seven springs with maximum surface temperature of 32.2 deg. C located in the vicinity of Miri Crater of Koh-i-Sultan Volcano were investigated using isotope and chemical techniques. Two springs of Padagi Kaur are MgSO/sub 4/ type, while all the other springs at Batal Kaur, Miri Kaur and Chigin Dik are Na-Cl type. Alteration of water to SO/sub 4/ type takes place by absorption of magmatic H/sub 2/S and the acidic solution is further responsible to dissolve rock salt and carbonate minerals. EC increases from Padagi springs (4940 and 8170 S/cm) to Chigin Dik springs (45600 S/cm). Chagai thermal manifestations receive recharge from meteoric waters in the vicinity of Padagi Kaur (east side of Miri Crater), which is heated by the hot magma chamber of Koh-i-Sultan most probably through deep circulation. Movement of the thermal water is from Miri Crater towards Chigin Dik area. Residence time is more than 60 years. The thermal waters do not have any contribution of shallow young groundwater and they have high 1/sup 8/O-shift (6 to 8%) due to rock-water interaction. Reservoir temperatures estimated by different chemical geo thermometers like Na-K, Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg 1/2 (triangular plot) are quite high (200-300 deg. C), while the silica and (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometers give relatively low temperature ranges (107-144 deg. C and 112-206 deg. C respectively). (author)

  20. Microbial diversity in an Armenian geothermal spring assessed by molecular and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phyla, and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the dominant group, representing 52% of the bacterial clones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments also indicated the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria populations. Most of the sequences were most closely related to uncultivated microorganisms and shared less than 96% similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, indicating that this spring harbors a unique community of novel microbial species or genera. The majority of the sequences of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene library, generated from a methanogenic enrichment, were close relatives of members of the genus Methanoculleus. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria mainly belonging to Bacillus and Geobacillus were detected only by culture-dependent methods. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 99, 96, and 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Arcobacter sp., Methylocaldum sp., and Methanoculleus sp., respectively. PMID:24740751

  1. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  2. Biogeophysical interactions control the formation of iron oxide microbial biofilms in acidic geothermal outflow channels of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Berstein, H. C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, M. A.; Jennings, R. D.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Amorphous iron oxyhydroxide microbial mats in acidic (pH ~ 3) geothermal outflow channels of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are habitats for diverse populations of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms from the domains Archaea and Bacteria. These systems have been extensively characterized with regards to geochemical, physical, and microbiological (e.g., metagenomics) analyses; however, there is minimal data describing the formation of these iron oxide microbial mats. A conceptual model of Fe(III)-oxide microbial mat development was created, which includes four distinct stages. Autotrophic archaea (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis) and bacteria (Hydrogenobaculum spp.) are the first colonizers (Stage I) that provide pools of organic carbon for heterotrophic thermophiles (Stage II). M. yellowstonensis is an autotrophic Sulfolobales that is responsible for the oxidation of Fe(II) and can thus be defined as the mat 'architect' creating suitable habitats for microbial niches (e.g., anaerobic microorganisms) (Stage III). The last phase of mat formation (Stage IV) represents a pseudo-steady state mature microbial mat, which has been the subject of all previous microbial surveys of these systems. The conceptual model for Fe(III)-oxide microbial mat development was tested by inserting glass (SiO2) microscope slides into the main flow channels of two acidic geothermal springs in YNP. Slides were removed at various time intervals and analyzed for total iron accretion, microbial community structure (i.e., 16S rRNA gene abundance), and mRNA expression of community members. Routine geochemical and physical (e.g., flow) parameters were also measured to decipher their relative contribution to mat development. Initial and previous results show that autotrophic microorganisms (e.g, M. yellowstonensis) are often the first to colonize the glass slides and their activity was confirmed by mRNA expression of genes related to iron oxidation and carbon fixation. Heterotrophs are rare

  3. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs.

  4. Reactive geothermal transport simulation to study the formation mechanism of impermeable barrier between acidic and neutral fluid zones in the Onikobe Geothermal Field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todaka, Norifumi; Akasaka, Chitosi; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-09

    Two types of fluids are encountered in the Onikobe geothermal reservoir, one is neutral and the other is acidic (pH=3). It is hypothesized that acidic fluid might be upwelling along a fault zone and that an impermeable barrier might be present between the acidic and neutral fluid zones. We carried out reactive geothermal transport simulations using TOUGHREACT (Xu and Pruess, 1998 and 2001) to test such a conceptual model. Mn-rich smectite precipitated near the mixing front and is likely to form an impermeable barrier between regions with acidic and neutral fluids.

  5. Multiple sulfur isotopes fractionations associated with abiotic sulfur transformations in Yellowstone National Park geothermal springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The paper presents a quantification of main (hydrogen sulfide and sulfate), as well as of intermediate sulfur species (zero-valent sulfur (ZVS), thiosulfate, sulfite, thiocyanate) in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hydrothermal springs and pools. We combined these measurements with the measurements of quadruple sulfur isotope composition of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide and zero-valent sulfur. The main goal of this research is to understand multiple sulfur isotope fractionation in the system, which is dominated by complex, mostly abiotic, sulfur cycling. Results Water samples from six springs and pools in the Yellowstone National Park were characterized by pH, chloride to sulfate ratios, sulfide and intermediate sulfur species concentrations. Concentrations of sulfate in pools indicate either oxidation of sulfide by mixing of deep parent water with shallow oxic water, or surface oxidation of sulfide with atmospheric oxygen. Thiosulfate concentrations are low (<6 μmol L-1) in the pools with low pH due to fast disproportionation of thiosulfate. In the pools with higher pH, the concentration of thiosulfate varies, depending on different geochemical pathways of thiosulfate formation. The δ34S values of sulfate in four systems were close to those calculated using a mixing line of the model based on dilution and boiling of a deep hot parent water body. In two pools δ34S values of sulfate varied significantly from the values calculated from this model. Sulfur isotope fractionation between ZVS and hydrogen sulfide was close to zero at pH < 4. At higher pH zero-valent sulfur is slightly heavier than hydrogen sulfide due to equilibration in the rhombic sulfur–polysulfide – hydrogen sulfide system. Triple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S) fractionation patterns in waters of hydrothermal pools are more consistent with redox processes involving intermediate sulfur species than with bacterial sulfate reduction. Small but resolved differences in ∆33S among

  6. Arsenic and mercury contamination of sediments of geothermal springs, mangrove lagoon and the Santispac bight, Bahía Concepción, Baja California peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Acosta, María Luisa; Shumilin, Evgueni; Mirlean, Nicolai; Sapozhnikov, Dmitry; Gordeev, Vyacheslav

    2010-12-01

    In order to find out the environmental impact on the coastal zone, the composition of sediments of the intertidal geothermal hot spring zone and adjacent area of Playa Santispac in the pristine Bahía Concepción (Baja California peninsula) was studied. High concentrations of As (13-111 mg kg⁻¹) and Hg (0.55-25.2 mg kg⁻¹) were found in the sediments of the geothermal sources. Arsenic and Hg concentrations decrease rapidly in the adjacent small mangrove lagoon sediments and reach background levels (0.7-2.6 mg kg⁻¹ and 6-60 μg kg⁻¹ respectively) in the marine sediments collected in front of Playa Santispac.

  7. Chronic gamma radiation-induced changes in the content of fatty acids in spring rape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic gamma irradiation of spring rape plants having no erucic acid and eicosanoic acid in seed oil induced changes both in the growth and in the morphological composition of the plants. The contents of erucic acid and eicosanoic acid did not increase. The greatest changes occurred in unsaturated acids, especially in macromutants resulting from irradiated plants located in the closest proximity of the radiation source or in places with the most significant plant growth inhibition. Nutants with a low, or a high, content of linolenic acid were obtained. (author)

  8. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  9. Review of methods for long term monitoring of the environmental effects of geothermal development (hot spring). part 2. Chinetsu kaihatsu ni kakawaru choki kankyo monitoring donyu chosa. 2 (chikasui onsen(center dot)suishitsukei). ; Data sheet shu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Pertaining to the geothermal development, this is a data sheet collection of domestic and foreign review documentation to establish environmental monitoring system. Global chemistry and physics review comprise examples in Shikano Hot Spring in Tottori Prefecture, deep portion in Shimosuwa region, etc. Hydrologic fluidization study of geothermal water system explained Kakkonda, Matsukawa, Sengan region, Asaseishikawa fault, Tateshina highland, Hakone Yumot, Beppu, etc. Apart, simulation is being made by geothermal structure model. As for the content of hot spring water, there are review results from Noboribetsu, Izu/Hakone, Shimabara, Beppu, etc. Relation between the discharge flow rate of hot spring and rainfall quantity comprises examples in Onikobe, Kusatsu, etc. As for the influence of hot spring development, secular statistic is made of the dynamic water level, temperature and quality of hot spring in Aomori, Bunpi, etc. Influence review of power generation plant installation comprises reports from Hatchobaru, Onikobe, Onuma, Mori, etc. Regarding the geothermal development and environmental assessment, study is made of the scenery, water quality, atmospheric pollution, land subsidence, hot spring exhaustion, change in hydrothermal system, etc. Foreign examples were also explained. 121 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in acidic to circumneutral hot springs in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng; Solis, Ramonito; Arcilla, Carlo A; Abrajano, Teofilo; Dong, Hailiang

    2013-09-01

    The microbial diversity was investigated in sediments of six acidic to circumneutral hot springs (Temperature: 60-92 °C, pH 3.72-6.58) in the Philippines using an integrated approach that included geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Both bacterial and archaeal abundances were lower in high-temperature springs than in moderate-temperature ones. Overall, the archaeal community consisted of sequence reads that exhibited a high similarity (nucleotide identity > 92%) to phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and unclassified Archaea. The bacterial community was composed of sequence reads moderately related (nucleotide identity > 90%) to 17 phyla, with Aquificae and Firmicutes being dominant. These phylogenetic groups were correlated with environmental conditions such as temperature, dissolved sulfate and calcium concentrations in spring water, and sediment properties including total nitrogen, pyrite, and elemental sulfur. Based on the phylogenetic inference, sulfur metabolisms appear to be key physiological functions in these hot springs. Sulfobacillus (within phylum Firmicutes) along with members within Sulfolobales were abundant in two high-temperature springs (> 76 °C), and they were hypothesized to play an important role in regulating the sulfur cycling under high-temperature conditions. The results of this study improve our understanding of microbial diversity and community composition in acidic to circumneutral terrestrial hot springs and their relationships with geochemical conditions.

  11. Expression of Genes Involved in Iron and Sulfur Respiration in a Novel Thermophilic Crenarchaeon Isolated from Acid-Sulfate-Chloride Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, M.; Macur, R.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2007-12-01

    Acidic geothermal springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an excellent opportunity to study microbial populations and their relationship with geochemical processes such as redox cycling and biomineralization of iron. Fourteen acid-sulfate-chloride (ASC) and acid-sulfate (AS) geothermal springs located in (YNP) have been extensively characterized for aqueous chemistry, solid phase mineral deposition and microbial diversity and distribution. The oxidation of Fe(II) with oxygen as an electron acceptor is exergonic under these conditions, consequently, Fe(II) may be an important electron donor driving primary production in ASC and AS habitats, and products of biomineralization (e.g. Fe[III]-oxides of varying crystallinity and structure, as well as jarosite in some cases) are common in the outflow channels of these environments. Recently, we isolated a novel Metallosphaera-like microorganism (Metallosphaera strain MK1) from an ASC spring in Norris Geyser Basin, YNP. Clone libraries (16S rRNA gene) from multiple sites suggest that microorganisms closely related to strain MK1 (between 98-100 percent similarity) dominate many spring locations between 55-80 C. The in situ abiotic oxidation rate of Fe(II) has been shown to be very slow in these systems and Metallosphaera strain MK1 has been directly implicated in biotic Fe(II) oxidation. Metallosphaera strain MK1 has been submitted for full genome sequencing and is yielding gene sequences related to the terminal oxidases SOXABC and SOXM super-complex. In addition, sequences from a recently characterized terminal oxidase FOX complex involved in Fe(II) and pyrite oxidation from Sulfolobus metallicus have been found in Metallosphaera strain MK1. A protein complex analogous to Metallosphaera sedula has been identified in strain MK1 and this complex has also been expressed in cells grown on pyrite and Fe(II). Other sequences identified in Metallosphaera strain MK1 that are involved in respiration are the TQO

  12. [Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of lake water and geothermal spring water in arid area of south Tibet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Shen, Li-Cheng; Wang, Peng

    2014-08-01

    The condition of water cycles in Tibet Plateau is a complex process, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes contain important information of this process. Based on the analysis of isotopic composition of freshwater lake, saltwater lake and geothermal water in the southern Tibetan Plateau, this study investigated water cycling, composition and variation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and the influencing factors in the study area. The study found that the mean values of delta18O and deltaD in Daggyaima lake water (-17.0 per thousand for delta18O and -138. 6 per thousand for deltaD), Langcuo lake water (-6.4 per thousand for delta18O and -87.4 per thousand for deltaD) and Dagejia geothermal water (-19.2 per thousand for delta18 and -158.2 per thousand for deltaD) all showed negative delta18O and deltaD values in Tibetan Plateau by the influence of altitude effects. Lake water and geothermal water were influenced by evaporation effects in inland arid area, and the slope of evaporation line was less than 8. Deuterium excess parameters of lake water and geothermal water were all negative. The temperature of geothermal reservoirs in Dagejia geothermal field was high,and oxygen shift existed in the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes.

  13. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  14. An evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations from passive degassing of the Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia geothermal system: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Beckles, Denise M.; Cox, Leonette; Jackson, Viveka B.; Alexander, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a site of energetic geothermal activity associated with the potentially active Soufrière Volcanic Centre. The Park is one of Saint Lucia's most important tourist attractions, and is marketed as the 'world's only drive-in volcano'. It has an on-site staff of tour guides and vendors, as well as over 200,000 visitors annually. There are also a number of residents living in the areas bordering the Park. Recreational use is made of the geothermal waters for bathing, application of mud masques, and in some cases drinking. As part of the University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre's (UWI-SRC's) overall volcano monitoring programme for Saint Lucia, the volcanic emissions at Sulphur Springs (hot springs, mud pools and fumaroles) have been regularly monitored since 2001. In recent years, visitors, staff, and management at the Park have expressed concern about the health effects of exposure to volcanic emissions from the hydrothermal system. In response to this, SRC has expanded its regular geothermal monitoring programme to include a preliminary evaluation of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in and around the Park, to assess the possible implications for human health. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure the atmospheric SO2 concentrations at various sites in Sulphur Springs Park (SSP), in the town of Soufrière and in the capital of Castries. Measurements of average monthly ambient SO2 with the passive samplers indicated that during the dry season period of April to July 2014 concentration at sites closest to the main vents at SSP (Group 1), which are routinely used by staff and visitors, frequently exceeded the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3. However, for sites that were more distal to the main venting area (Groups 2 and 3), the average monthly ambient SO2 did not exceed the WHO 10-minute AQG for SO2 of 500 μg/m3 during the entire monitoring period. The measured concentrations and dispersion

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  16. Characteristic Solutes in Geothermal Water from the Rehai Hydrothermal System, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang Liu; Qinghai Guo; Xiaobo Zhang; Yanxin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Rehai, a high-temperature hydrothermal system located in the southern part of the Tengchong volcanic geothermal area of Yunnan Province, is characterized by intensive hydrothermal activities. The hot springs at Rehai that have been sampled so far are Na-HCO3-Cl or Na-HCO3 springs except for the one at Diretiyanqu (experience geothermal area) which is an acid sulfate spring. As typi-cal characteristic solution constituents in high-temperature hydrothermal systems with magma as heat source, Cl, B and As in the Rehai geothermal waters originate mainly from the addition of magmatic fluid. However, both the mixing of magmatic fluid and the dissolution of reservoir hostrocks contribute to the enrichment of fluoride in the Rehai geothermal waters, although their fluoride concentrations are primarily controlled by the solubility of fluorite as indicated by a clear negative relation between solu-tion fluoride and calcium concentrations. The much higher concentration of SO42- in the Diretiyanqu Spring as compared to the other springs outcropping at Rehai implies a quite different geochemical genesis for this spring. The H2S-rich vapor, separated from the deep geothermal fluid during boiling process (i.e., adiabatic cooling), can ascend to shallow aquifers where it is mixed with cold groundwa-ters and oxidized. Acid sulfate-rich hot springs are generally formed in this manner although only one spring of this type has been sampled during the field investigation of this study.

  17. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  18. Hydrogen-isotopic variability in fatty acids from Yellowstone National Park hot spring microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Spear, John R.

    2011-09-01

    We report the abundances and hydrogen-isotopic compositions (D/H ratios) of fatty acids extracted from hot-spring microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park. The terrestrial hydrothermal environment provides a useful system for studying D/H fractionations because the numerous microbial communities in and around the springs are visually distinct, separable, and less complex than those in many other aquatic environments. D/H fractionations between lipids and water ranged from -374‰ to +41‰ and showed systematic variations between different types of microbial communities. Lipids produced by chemoautotrophic hyperthermophilic bacteria, such as icosenoic acid (20:1), generally exhibited the largest and most variable fractionations from water (-374‰ to -165‰). This was in contrast to lipids characteristic of heterotrophs, such as branched, odd chain-length fatty acids, which had the smallest fractionations (-163‰ to +41‰). Mats dominated by photoautotrophs exhibited intermediate fractionations similar in magnitude to those expressed by higher plants. These data support the hypothesis that variations in lipid D/H are strongly influenced by central metabolic pathways. Shifts in the isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids across known ecological boundaries show that the isotopic signature of specific metabolisms can be recognized in modern environmental samples, and potentially recorded in ancient ones. Considering all sampled springs, the total range in D/H ratios is similar to that observed in marine sediments, suggesting that the trends observed here are not exclusive to the hydrothermal environment.

  19. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (hot spring/water level/spring water, No. C-3 Akinomiya area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen suii yusui, No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    As a part of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the results were summed up of the environmental effect survey conducted at the Akinomiya area of Ogachi-gun, Akita prefecture. In the survey, the drilling of N9-AY-4 exploration well and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 were carried out in the area. The survey was made aiming at grasping the effects on hot spring/ground water level/spring water in the area. The methods used for survey were surveys of hot spring variation, ground water level variation, precipitation, rivers, all spring sources, and analyses of hot spring water/spring water in the Akinomiya area. As a result of the survey, in hot spring/ground water level/spring water, no variations were recognized which were caused by the drilling of N9-AY-3/N9-AY-4/N9-AY-5 exploration wells and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 exploration wells. Moreover, since few changes of spring water quality were seen also in the result of the survey of all spring sources, it was judged that the drilling and short-term injection tests of the exploration wells described above have no effects on the hot spring, ground water level and spring water in the Akinomiya area. (NEDO)

  20. Bacterial and archaeal diversities in Yunnan and Tibetan hot springs, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Feng-Ping; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Dong, Hailiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of hot springs are located in the north-eastern part of the Yunnan-Tibet geothermal zone, which is one of the most active geothermal areas in the world. However, a comprehensive and detailed understanding of microbial diversity in these hot springs is still lacking. In this study, bacterial and archaeal diversities were investigated in 16 hot springs (pH 3.2-8.6; temperature 47-96°C) in Yunnan Province and Tibet, China by using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. Aquificae, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Bacteroidetes comprised the large portion of the bacterial communities in acidic hot springs. Non-acidic hot springs harboured more and variable bacterial phyla than acidic springs. Desulfurococcales and unclassified Crenarchaeota were the dominated groups in archaeal populations from most of the non-acidic hot springs; whereas, the archaeal community structure in acidic hot springs was simpler and characterized by Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmata. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota were predominant in the investigated springs and possessed many phylogenetic lineages that have never been detected in other hot springs in the world. Thus findings from this study significantly improve our understanding of microbial diversity in terrestrial hot springs.

  1. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: minissa@igg.cnr.it; Mattash, Mohamed A. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Vaselli, Orlando [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Al-Ganad, Ismail N. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Selmo, Enrico [Department of Earth Sciences, Parco Area delle Scienze 157A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Shawki, Nasr M. [Department of Geology, University of Ta' iz, P.O. Box 5679, Ta' iz (Yemen); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchinson Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Hazzae, Mohammad K. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2007-04-15

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO{sub 3}-composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO{sub 2} deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO{sub 2} also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO{sub 2} infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO{sub 2}-rich gas samples have a {delta} {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} signature that falls in the range of mantle CO{sub 2} (-3 < {delta} {sup 13}C < -7 per mille V-PDB). The relatively high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He (1 < R/R {sub a} < 3.2) ratios measured in all the CO{sub 2}-rich springs and also some mixed N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy

  2. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Ohlsson, J Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Swingley, Wesley D

    2015-12-04

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This "microbial dark matter" represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum "Calescamantes" (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs.

  3. Time-Dependent Deformation at Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Field (Nevada) Measured With Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Modeled with Multiple Working Hypotheses of Coupled Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K. L.; Ali, S. T.; Akerley, J.; Baluyut, E.; Cardiff, M. A.; Davatzes, N. C.; Foxall, W.; Fratta, D.; Kreemer, C.; Mellors, R. J.; Lopeman, J.; Spielman, P.; Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014 by five satellite missions, including: ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting maps of deformation show an elliptical subsiding area that is ~4 km by ~1.5 km. Its long axis coincides with the strike of the dominant normal-fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, that are probably associated with damaged regions where faults interact via thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing high-permeability conduits to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We explore first-order models to calculate the time-dependent deformation fields produced by coupled processes, including: thermal contraction of rock (T-M coupling), decline in pore pressure (H-M coupling), and dissolution of minerals over time (H-C-M coupling). These processes are related to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological and material properties at the site. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo) http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo.

  4. Taxonomic and functional characteristics of microbial communities and their correlation with physicochemical properties of four geothermal springs in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata K Das

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes microbial diversity in four tropical hot springs representing moderately thermophilic environments (temperature range: 40-58 °C; pH: 7.2-7.4 with discrete geochemistry. Metagenome sequence data showed a dominance of Bacteria over Archaea; the most abundant phyla were Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria, although other phyla were also present, such as Acetothermia, Nitrospirae, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota, Verrucomicrobia, Ignavibacteriae, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Armatimonadetes, Crenarchaeota, and Aquificae. The distribution of major genera and their statistical correlation analyses with the physicochemical parameters predicted that the temperature, aqueous concentrations of ions (such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate, total hardness, dissolved solids and conductivity were the main environmental variables influencing microbial community composition and diversity. Despite the observed high taxonomic diversity, there were only little variations in the overall functional profiles of the microbial communities in the four springs. Genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and carbon fixation were the most abundant functional class of genes present in these hot springs. The distribution of genes involved in carbon fixation predicted the presence of all the six known autotrophic pathways in the metagenomes. A high prevalence of genes involved in membrane transport, signal transduction, stress response, bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were observed along with genes involved in the pathways of xenobiotic degradation and metabolism. The analysis of the metagenomic sequences affiliated to the candidate phylum Acetothermia from spring TB-3 provided new insight into the metabolism and physiology of yet-unknown members of this lineage of bacteria.

  5. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    OpenAIRE

    Hongming WANG; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated read...

  6. δD values of escaped H2 from hot springs at the Tengchong Rehai geothermal area and its origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Here we give the δD values of escaped H2 from hot springs at the Tengchong Rehai and adjacent regions,and deal with a genetic correlation between the increment H2in escaped gases from middle-shallow reservoirs and the H2S,CH4 derived from deep sources. Isotopic compositions of H2indicate that the generation of increment H2 may be related to recent strong activity of N-W trending fault at the Rehai area. Trace monitoring the H2 release could be significant in order to keep watch on present activity of that fault.``

  7. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  8. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  9. Isolation and characterization of a new CO-utilizing strain, Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans, isolated from a geothermal spring in Turkey.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2009-08-23

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and sugar-fermenting bacterium (strain TLO) was isolated from a geothermal spring in Ayaş, Turkey. The cells were straight to curved rods, 0.4-0.6 microm in diameter and 3.5-10 microm in length. Spores were terminal and round. The temperature range for growth was 40-80 degrees C, with an optimum at 70 degrees C. The pH optimum was between 6.3 and 6.8. Strain TLO has the capability to ferment a wide variety of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides and proteinaceous substrates, producing mainly lactate, next to acetate, ethanol, alanine, H(2), and CO(2). Remarkably, the bacterium was able to grow in an atmosphere of up to 25% of CO as sole electron donor. CO oxidation was coupled to H(2) and CO(2) formation. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the DNA-DNA hybridization data, this bacterium is most closely related to Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (99% similarity for both). However, strain TLO differs from Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus in important aspects, such as CO-utilization and lipid composition. These differences led us to propose that strain TLO represents a subspecies of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus, and we therefore name it Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus subsp. carboxydovorans.

  10. Contributions of modern and dead organic carbon to individual fatty acid homologues in spring aerosols collected from northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Matsumoto, Kohei; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) have been used as proxies to evaluate the contributions of modern/fossil carbon and marine/terrestrial organic matter, respectively, in geochemical samples. However, there are few such studies in atmospheric aerosols. Here, we measured 14C contents and δ13C of individual n-fatty acids in an aerosol sample collected from northern Japan in spring 2001 during Asian dust season. Our results show that the distribution of fatty acids in the spring aerosols was characterized by a strong even/odd carbon number predominance with two maxima at C16 and C26. Their δ13C (range: -30.6 to -20.5‰) showed higher values (average: -24.5‰) for lower molecular weight (LMW) fatty acids (C16 - C19) and lower values (average: -29.7‰) for higher MW (HMW) fatty acids (C20 - C32). This difference suggests that LMW acids are mainly derived from lacustrine and/or marine algal sources whereas HMW acids are predominantly from terrestrial C3 higher plants. Δ14C values of fatty acids were found to range from -96.9 to +122.9‰ with lower values for HMW acids and higher values for LMW acids. LMW acids in the aerosols contain only modern carbon. In contrast, HMW acids ≥C24 were found to contain up to 9.7 wt% dead carbon, although their major portion (up to 92.3%) is composed of modern carbon. Backward trajectory analyses indicated that the source regions of the spring aerosols were dominated by central and north China (62%). This study suggests that the old fatty acids in the spring aerosols are most likely originated from the loess deposits in China via long-range atmospheric transport over the western North Pacific, although their contribution to the aerosols was relatively small.

  11. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems.

  12. Archaeal community structures in the solfataric acidic hot springs with different temperatures and elemental compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tomoko; Watanabe, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA gene compositions and environmental factors of four distinct solfataric acidic hot springs in Kirishima, Japan were compared. The four ponds were selected by differences of temperature and total dissolved elemental concentration as follows: (1) Pond-A: 93°C and 1679 mg L(-1), (2) Pond-B: 66°C and 2248 mg L(-1), (3) Pond-C: 88°C and 198 mg L(-1), and (4) Pond-D: 67°C and 340 mg L(-1). In total, 431 clones of 16S rRNA gene were classified into 26 phylotypes. In Pond-B, the archaeal diversity was the highest among the four, and the members of the order Sulfolobales were dominant. The Pond-D also showed relatively high diversity, and the most frequent group was uncultured thermoacidic spring clone group. In contrast to Pond-B and Pond-D, much less diverse archaeal clones were detected in Pond-A and Pond-C showing higher temperatures. However, dominant groups in these ponds were also different from each other. The members of the order Sulfolobales shared 89% of total clones in Pond-A, and the uncultured crenarchaeal groups shared 99% of total Pond-C clones. Therefore, species compositions and biodiversity were clearly different among the ponds showing different temperatures and dissolved elemental concentrations.

  13. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems. PMID:26125684

  14. Direct use geothermal energy utilization for ethanol production and commercial mushroom growing at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Technical feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The report is concerned with the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating two geothermally cascaded facilities, a bio-mass fuel ethanol production facility and a mushroom growing facility, where Geothermal Food Processors presently operates the world's largest direct-use geothermal vegetable dehydration facility. A review and analysis of the data generated from the various project tasks indicates that existing, state-of-the-art, ethanol production and mushroom growing technologies can be successfully adapted to include the use of geothermal energy. Additionally, a carefully performed assessment of the geothermal reservoir indicates that this resource is capable of supporting the yearly production of 10 million gallons of fuel ethanol and 1.5 million pounds of mushrooms, in addition to the demands of the dehydration plant. Further, data indicates that the two facilities can be logistically supported from existing agricultural and commerce sources located within economical distances from the geothermal source.

  15. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  16. Experiences from the acid stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants; Erfahrungen bei der Saeurestimulation geothermaler Aquifere und Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfgramm, Markus; Birner, Johannes; Lenz, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Frank; Rinke, Manfred [Geothermie Neubrandenburg GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-16

    In the course of the exploration of geothermal aquifers up to the operation of geothermal power plants, the utilization of acids and other substances such as inhibitors or powerful oxidants to secure enhanced productivities are of great significance. At the molasses basin, drillings which explore the carbonates of the Malm are stimulated repeatedly by means of hydrochloric acid after the sinking. Information from the drilling operation such as mud losses and cutting analyses are the basis for the design of stimulations. The subsequent implementation of test operations (cleaning lift, casing-lift-test in several stages) is used to estimate the short production run and the efficiency of the specific acidification. It also can be decided whether further acidifications are reasonable. Within the operation of geothermal power plants, different failures occur in the drillings as well as in the aboveground facility components. Failures can be minimized by means of the production management and inhibitors. Nevertheless, not all reasons of the scaling can be excluded fully so that regular measures are necessary in order to eliminate the failures. These measures range from mechanical methods through the combined utilization of mechanical-chemical procedures up to different methods of acidification. Beside the so-called soft acidification, stimulations via 'coiled tubing' or via utilization of acid threads with 'packer' also are possible. The investigation of the causes of the operational disturbances as well as the correct planning of the measures are significant for the application of the said stimulation processes.

  17. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Dini Andreote, Fernando; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads us

  18. Controls on the microbial utilization of carbon monoxide and formic acid in Acidic Hydrothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, M.; Kubo, M. W.; Hoehler, T. M.; Boyd, E. S.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    In hydrothermal systems, dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of reduced iron-bearing minerals, such as those found in basalt, can be reduced to form formic acid (HCOOH). HCOOH can then be dehydrated in a side reaction, resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), which forms an equilibrium with HCOOH. HCOOH can also be further reduced to methane, and longer chain hydrocarbons. Geochemical measurements have demonstrated the presence of elevated concentrations of HCOOH, dissolved CO, and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, H2CO3), in high temperature, low pH springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Likewise, a number of compounds that could potentially serve as electron acceptors (e.g. S0, SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+) in the oxidation of CO or formic acid have been detected in many of these systems. We hypothesized that the utilization of CO and HCOOH as carbon and/or energy sources is a broadly-distributed metabolic strategy in high temperature, low pH springs in YNP. To test this hypothesis, radiolabeled CO (14CO) and HCOOH (H14COOH) were used to determine rates of CO and formate oxidation activity in three hot springs in YNP ranging in temperature from 53 °C to 89 °C and pH from 2.5 to 5.3. In parallel, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and enrichment isolation techniques were employed to identify the microorganisms responsible for these activities. Our results indicate that CO and HCOOH are important sources of carbon and/or energy in high temperature, low pH hydrothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Rates of CO oxidation appear to be orders of magnitude lower than those of HCOOH oxidation. One possible explanation for this result is that HCOOH is preferentially utilized, consistent with thermodynamic calculations indicating that HCOOH liberates approximately 215 kJ/mol more Gibbs energy (under standard conditions) than CO when oxidized with oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. Redox couples of HCOOH oxidation with other electron acceptors (e.g. SO4

  19. Spring flood pH decline in northern Sweden: Towards an operational model separating natural acidity from anthropogenic acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, H.

    1999-10-01

    The spring flood is a defining feature of the ecosystem in northern Sweden. In this region, spring flood is an occasion for dramatic hydrochemical changes that profoundly effect the biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem. Spring flood is also the period most susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. A belief in the anthropogenic component to pH decline during spring flood has been an important factor in spending over half a billion crowns to lime surface waters in Northern Sweden during the last decade. The natural component of episodic pH decline during spring flood, however, has received less attention. The main objective of this work is to present an operational model for separating and quantifying the anthropogenic and natural contributions of episodic acidification during high flow events in Northern Sweden. The key assumptions in this model are that baseflow ANC has not been affected by anthropogenic acidification, that DOC has not changed due to modern land-use practice and that natural dilution during hydrological episodes can be quantified. The limited data requirements of 10-15 stream water samples before and during spring flood make the model suitable for widespread use in environmental monitoring programs. This makes it possible to distinguish trends of human impact as well as natural pH decline in space and time. Modeling results from northern Sweden demonstrate that the natural driving mechanisms of dilution and organic acidity were the dominant factors in the episodic acidification of spring flood in the region. The anthropogenic contribution to spring pH decline was similar in size to the natural contribution in only two of the more than 30 events where this model was applied. Natural factors alone were found to cause pH values below 4.5 in some streams. Anthropogenic sources of acidity can be superimposed on this natural dynamics. In the sites studied, the magnitude of the anthropogenic ANC decline was correlated to the winter deposition of

  20. Search for geothermal water according to tracer elements in Paoshouying hot spring area%依据示踪元素寻找炮守营温泉区地热水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文明

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal water in high-temperature and high-pressure environments slowly infiltrates and migrates through fissured rocks to achieve a new thermal and dynamical balance conducive to dissolution, resulting in wall rock alteration. In the surrounding rocks, new substances are dissolved in the water, which enables the chemical indicators of geothermal water to be different from those of the surrounding environmental water, as shown by the fact that the values of F, SiO2 , and pH are much larger in geothermal water than in environmental water. We used the three indicators mentioned above as tracer elements to search for geothermal water in the Paoshouying hot spring area, in Dandong City. The results show that this method can explicitly define the boundaries of geothermal regions, narrow down the investigation targets, and reduce the original workload and capital investment.%地热水在高温高压的环境下,在岩石的裂隙中缓慢地渗透、运移,达到了有利溶解的新热动力平衡,致使围岩发生蚀变,围岩中有新的物质溶入水中,使地热水化学指标与周围环境水有明显的区分特征,表现为F-、SiO2、pH值3项指标明显高于环境水。以上述3项指标作为示踪元素,在丹东市炮守营温泉区寻找地热水,结果显示,该方法可明确界定地热区域的范围,缩小勘查目标,降低原有的工作量和资金投入。

  1. Salicylic acid induces differential antioxidant response in spring maize under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Palak; Kaur, Kamaljit; Gupta, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    High temperature is one of the important stress factors that affect crops in tropical countries. Plants do evolve or adopt different mechanisms to overcome such stress for survival. It is an interesting subject and has attracted many researchers to work upon. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on seedling growth and antioxidative defense system in two spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes viz., CML-32 (relatively heat tolerant) and LM-11 (relatively heat susceptible), under high temperature stress. High temperature induced greater reduction in dry biomass of LM-1 1 seedlings as compared to those of CML-32. There was a parallel increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the roots of CML-32 seedlings. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased and the contents of H202, proline and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) increased in seedlings of both the genotypes. Application of SA (400 µM) led to increased dry biomass in heat stressed CML-32 seedlings. It improved the efficiency of Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots of CML-32 seedlings as was evidenced by the enhanced ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in both the tissues of LM-11 seedlings, whereas in CML-32, it was only in shoots, after SA application. Peroxidase activity increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, though the increase was comparatively higher in CML-32. The contents of H₂O₂ and MDA decreased and that of proline increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, under stress conditions. It may be concluded that SA induced differential antioxidant response by upregulating Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots and attaining high POX activity in both the tissues of CML-32 seedlings, under high temperature stress. PMID:27468465

  2. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured and found to be generally <5 ppm. Chloride concentrations remained constant with time, but sulfate and nitrate concentrations decreased, suggesting a nearby industrial source. A mixing model for Cl-, SO42-, and ??34S also suggested an industrial source for the rainwater sulfur.

  3. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  4. Boron isotope variations in geothermal systems on Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Budi Joko; Pichler, Thomas; You, Chen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents δ11B data for hot springs, hot acid crater lakes, geothermal brines and a steam vent from Java, Indonesia. The processes that produce a large range of the δ11B values were investigated, including the possible input of seawater as well as the contrast δ11B compositions of acid sulfate and acid chloride crater lakes. The δ11B values of hot springs ranged from - 2.4 to + 28.7‰ and acid crater lakes ranged from + 0.6 to + 34.9‰. The δ11B and Cl/B values in waters from the Parangtritis and Krakal geothermal systems confirmed seawater input. The δ11B values of acid sulfate crater lakes ranged from + 5.5 to + 34.9‰ and were higher than the δ11B of + 0.6‰ of the acid chloride crater lake. The heavier δ11B in the acid sulfate crater lakes was caused by a combination of vapor phase addition and further enrichment due to evaporation and B adsorption onto clay minerals. In contrast, the light δ11B of the acid chloride crater lake was a result of acid water-rocks interaction. The correlations of δ11B composition with δ18O and δ2H indicated that the B isotope corresponded to their groundwater mixing sources, but not for J21 (Segaran) and J48 (Cikundul) that underwent 11B isotope enrichment by B adsorption into minerals.

  5. Geothermal system 'Toplec' and geothermal potential of Dojran Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Toplec geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well cis the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts from 15 to 28oC during the year that is much higher compared with the temperatures of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  6. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  7. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  8. Structural and functional insights from the metagenome of an acidic hot spring microbial planktonic community in the Colombian Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    Full Text Available A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC. A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation, and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ, associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment.

  9. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)].

  10. Investigation of geothermal resources in Korea (Geothermal Resources Maps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Ung; Lee, Seung Gu; Yum, Byoung Woo; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula forms a part of the stable foreland of Far East Asia and is a part of Sino-Korean Craton, where, hence, is not associated with high potential geothermal resources. Nevertheless, there are several geothermal springs, of which water temperature ranges from 23 to 76 deg. C. This study was aimed to draw various geothermal base maps in the Korean Peninsula, such as thermal conductivity map, heat flow map, geothermal gradient map, depth contour map of 25 deg. C and various geochemical figures of geothermal waters. In this study, the thermal springs was surveyed for well inventory, the determination of thermal conductivities of rocks, and chemical analyses of geothermal waters. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope values ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) of geothermal waters were also calculated, which would be useful to evaluate the origin of water. Map of geothermal gradient distribution illustrates geothermally anomalous areas - such as Deoksan, Dogo, Onyang and Yusong areas in ChungNam district, Jungwon area in Chungbuk district, Pocheon area in Gyeonggi district, Gosung area in Gwangwon district, Deokgu, Baekam, and Pohang areas in Gyeongbuk district and Busan, Mageumsan and Bugok area in Gyeongnam district. Heat flow map also shows similar features to geothermal anomalies. Most of thermal waters form the Korean Peninsula are alkaline and belongs to Na-HCO{sub 3} type. Their contents are characterized of low total dissolved solids and high contents of fluoride and sodium, of which results are same as those of the researches which was conducted before. (author). 21 refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Scythe (57% pelargonic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although previous studies yielded important information concerning use of pelargonic acid as a potential organic herbicide, further research is indicated to increase the understanding of the relationship among application volumes, weed species, and weed maturity on herbicidal efficacy and crop injur...

  12. 基于温泉地热能利用的动力循环系统研究%Study on power cycle system of hot springs geothermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁泽德; 王树杰

    2013-01-01

    Three systems of this article described all use water vapor as the working fluid, which characteristics were analyzed and compared, respectively. Analysis found that, when the demand was only for power generation and non-condensable gas content in hot springs geothermal water was not too high, given the relatively simple structure and the larger actual power generation of a single-stage flash power generation system, the single-stage flash evaporation electrical system was more favorable. Because of hot springs primarily for leisure travel and medical care function, and the demand for air conditioning and refrigeration was large, view of the single effect lithium bromide absorption power generation and refrigeration combined system not only to generate electricity but also refrigeration, the combined system was more favorable.%文章分别对3种以水蒸气为工作介质的发电系统的特点进行了分析和比较.通过分析发现:当仅有发电需求,并且温泉地热水不凝性气体含量不算太高时,鉴于单级闪蒸发电系统结构相对简单和实际发电功率较大的特点,采用单级闪蒸发电系统较为有利;由于温泉地热主要为休闲旅游及医疗保健功能,空调制冷的需求很大,鉴于单效溴化锂吸收式发电制冷联合系统即可发电又能制冷的特点,采用单效溴化锂吸收式发电制冷联合系统较为有利.

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  14. Fluids acidity in Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Puebla, Mexico: Mineralogical evaluation; Acidez de los fluidos del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico: Evaluacion mineralogica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez, Ignasio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The occurrence of the acidity in fluids from Los Humeros geothermal reservoir has been noticeable due to the accelerated corrosion of pipes lines of wells located mainly in the area known as Collapse Central and wells along the East direction of the field. On the base of the evaluation of all available chemical and mineralogical information for Los Humeros geothermal field the main objective of this work was to recognize evidences on the origin of geothermal fluids acidity. Considering the occurrence of HCl in other geothermal systems, no relation to the available information from Los Humeros was found. It is possible that the geothermal fluids acidity would be recent. It could be generated when the deep reservoir was reached by drilling wells. However, the occurrence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is evident due to the advance argillic alteration of surface rocks in some areas of the field. It is probable that the model proposed by D' Amore, may be valid for the geothermal field of Los Humeros. Considering that the origin of the vapor phase from the deep reservoir would be a fluid (of very high salinity) that favored the formation of the HCl gas; which moved to the vapor zone when exploitation began being transported in the vapor phase toward the upper reservoir forming aqueous HCl. [Spanish] La presencia de acidez en los fluidos producidos por el yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros se ha evidenciado por la acelerada corrosion de las tuberias de algunos pozos localizados principalmente en la zona conocida como Colapso central y en direccion Este del campo. Con el objeto de identificar evidencias que permitan establecer el origen de la acidez en los fluidos geotermicos, se llevo a cabo la evaluacion de la informacion quimica y mineralogica existente para el campo geotermico de Los Humeros. Empleando los criterios conocidos sobre la presencia de HCl en otros sistemas geotermicos no se encontro relacion con la informacion evaluada. Por lo que se sugiere que la acidez en

  15. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  16. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  17. Geothermal hydrology of Valles Caldera and the southwestern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Frank W.; Rogers, Robert J.; Sorey, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico are volcanic in origin and have a large central caldera known as Valles Caldera. The mountains contain the Valles geothermal system, which was investigated during 1970-82 as a source of geothermal energy. This report describes the geothermal hydrology of the Jemez Mountains and presents results of an earlier 1972-75 U.S. Geological Survey study of the area in light of more recent information. Several distinct types of thermal and nonthermal ground water are recognized in the Jemez Mountains. Two types of near-surface thermal water are in the caldera: thermal meteoric water and acid sulfate water. The principal reservoir of geothermal fluids is at depth under the central and western parts of the caldera. Nonthermal ground water in Valles Caldera occurs in diverse perched aquifers and deeper valley-fill aquifers. The geothermal reservoir is recharged by meteorically derived water that moves downward from the aquifers in the caldera fill to depths of 6,500 feet or more and at temperatures reaching about 330 degrees Celsius. The heated geothermal water rises convectively to depths of 2,000 feet or less and mixes with other ground water as it flows away from the geothermal reservoir. A vapor zone containing steam, carbon dioxide, and other gases exists above parts of the liquid-dominated geothermal zone. Two subsystems are generally recognized within the larger geothermal system: the Redondo Creek subsystem and the Sulphur Creek subsystem. The permeability in the Redondo Creek subsystem is controlled by stratigraphy and fault-related structures. Most of the permeability is in the high-angle, normal faults and associated fractures that form the Redondo Creek Graben. Faults and related fractures control the flow of thermal fluids in the subsystem, which is bounded by high-angle faults. The Redondo Creek subsystem has been more extensively studied than other parts of the system. The Sulphur Springs subsystem is not as well

  18. Isotope study in geothermal fields in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study in two geothermal fields, Dieng and Kamojang, in Java island by utilizing isotope technique has been carried out. Isotopic data of wells, springs and other geothermal manifestations providing informations on the recharge area of precipitation contributed to geothermal resources, flow paths and origin of geothermal fluids. The data of oxygen shift has also provided information on the characteristic the fields. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  20. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  1. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  2. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  3. Geothermal resources of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  4. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  5. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  6. Validation of Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry at Four Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Jeffrey S Baum; Earl D Mattson; Gregory L Mines; Carl D Palmer; Robert W Smith

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates our ability to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures using water compositions measured from surface hot springs or shallow subsurface wells at four geothermal sites prior to the startup of geothermal energy production using RTEst, a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometer we have developed and are testing. The estimated reservoir temperatures of these thermal expressions are compared to measured bottom-hole temperatures of production wells at Raft River, ID; Neal Hot Springs, OR; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; and Steamboat Springs, NV geothermal sites. In general, temperatures of the producing reservoir estimated from the composition of water from surface expressions/shallow wells using RTEst are similar to the measured bottom-hole temperatures. For example, estimates for the Neal Hot Springs system are within ±10 ºC of the production temperatures. However, some caution must be exercised in evaluating RTEst predictions. Estimated temperature for a shallow Raft River well (Frazier well) is found to be slightly lower (ca. 15 ºC) than the bottom-hole temperatures from the geothermal plant production wells. For the Raft River system, local geology and fluid mixing model indicate that the fluid source for this shallow well may not have originated from the production reservoir. Similarly, RTEst results for Roosevelt Hot springs and Steamboat Springs geothermal areas were found consistent with the reservoir temperatures obtained from deep wells. These results suggest that the RTEst could be a valuable tool for estimating temperatures and evaluation geothermal resources.

  7. 搭格架温泉水化学特征及其约束因素研究%Hydrochemical Characteristics and Constraints of Hot Springs in Dagejia Geothermal Field, Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香桂; 伍乾富; 伍坤宇; 沈立成

    2011-01-01

    hot springs in Dagejia geothermal field are constrained by the regional geological background.

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  11. Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffel, C.S., Jr.; Eisenberg, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    This handbook is intended to assist the physicist, chemist, engineer, and geologist engaged in discovering and developing geothermal energy resources. This first section contains a glossary of the approximately 500 most frequently occurring geological, physical, and engineering terms, chosen from the geothermal literature. Sections 2 through 8 are fact sheets that discuss such subjects as geothermal gradients, rock classification, and geological time scales. Section 9 contains conversion tables for the physical quantities of interest for energy research in general and for geothermal research in particular.

  12. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  13. Lessons from geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Hurwitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    The magma-hydrothermal system of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field encompasses over ten thousand individual springs, seeps, and fumaroles spread out over >9000 square kilometers, and produces a range of acid, neutral and alkaline waters. A prominent model (Fournier, 1989 and related papers) concludes that many neutral and alkaline fluids found in hot springs and geysers are derived from a uniform, high-enthalpy parent fluid through processes such as deep boiling and mixing with dilute meteoric groundwater. Acid waters are generally condensates of gas-bearing steam that boils off of subsurface geothermal waters. Our recent studies of gases at Yellowstone (Lowenstern et al., 2015 and references therein) are compatible with such a model, but also reveal that gases are largely decoupled from thermal waters due to open-system addition of abundant deep gas to (comparatively) shallow circulating thermal waters. Fumarole emissions at Yellowstone range from gas-rich (up to 15 mol%) composed of deeply derived CO2, He and CH4, to steam-rich emissions (Yellowstone fits into two general categories: 1) mantle-derived CO2 with a hotspot He isotope signature (>16 RA) and low CH4 and He concentrations and 2) mantle-derived CO2 with much higher CH4 and/or He concentrations and abundant radiogenic He picked up from crustal degassing. Individual thermal areas have distinct CH4/He. It remains unclear whether some gas ratios mainly reflect subsurface geothermal temperatures. Instead, they may simply reflect signatures imparted by local rock types and mixing on timescales too fast for reequilibration. Overall, the gas chemistry reflects a broader view of mantle-crust dynamics than can be appreciated by studies of only dissolved solutes in the neutral and alkaline waters from Yellowstone geysers. Fournier (1989) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. v. 17, p. 13-53. Lowenstern et al. (2015) JVGR, v. 302, 87-101.

  14. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  15. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  17. A peculiar case of coastal springs and geogenic saline groundwater: the Santa Cesarea Terme thermal springs (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Polemio; P. P. Limoni; Liotta, D; Palladino, G; Santaloia, F.; Zuffianò, L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers, located in foreland tectonic settings, could represent important thermal water resources outside the volcanic areas, supplying spas or geothermal installations. Thermal springs constitute the discharge areas of deep marine and continental groundwaters flowing within these carbonate aquifers whose hydraulic conductivity and the relevant geothermal fluid migration are strictly controlled by both the discontinuity network and the karst processes involving the foreland environ...

  18. Geothermal system 'Toplets' and geothermal potential of Dojran region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Toplets geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well as the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts 15°C to 28°C during the year that is mach higher compared with the temperature of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  19. Geothermal energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Glassley, William E; Nelson, Vaughn

    2010-01-01

    Historically, cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, use of geothermal energy has been limited to areas where obvious surface features pointed to the presence of a shallow local heat source, such as hot springs and volcanoes. However, recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as modular power generation, home heating, and other applications that can use heat directly. These recent developments have greatly expanded opportunities for utilizing geothermal energy. Reflecting cu

  20. Mercury Methylation and Detoxification by Novel Microorganisms in Mercury Enriched Mesothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M.; Wick, R. R.; Schultz, M. B.; Holt, K. E.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have looked at the microbial underpinnings of mercury transformations in geothermal settings. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques, such as ultra-high-throughput sequencing, allow us to delve deeply into the functional and phylogenetic make-up of these extreme environments. Here we present results from deep metagenomic sequencing of geothermal microbial communities cycling mercury, focussing on the connections between putative metabolisms and mercury methylation, and the evolution of the mer-operon. Presented are data from two adjacent, acidic (pHNew Zealand), extremely enriched in total mercury (>1000 ng L-1), and varying methylmercury concentrations (1-10 ng L-1). Microbial communities of both springs are dominated by mercury resistant acidophilic, sulfur- and iron-cycling microbes: Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Thermoplasma. Mercury methylation genes (hgcAB) were only detected in the cooler spring (∆T~10 °C), with an order of magnitude greater methylmercury (10 ng L-1). The hgcAB genes have no known closest relatives (40°C), and methylmercury concentration. We conclude that the relative amount of mercury methylation in each hot spring is controlled by the presence of methylating bacteria and archaea, the release of bioavailable mercury species from sulfide minerals, counterbalanced by microbial mercury demethylation and reduction and mercury sulfide mineralization.

  1. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  2. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  3. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  4. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  5. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  8. Hydraulic fracturing aids geothermal field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Ott, W.K.; Nutley, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to stimulate steam production or improve brine injectivity has helped Dohan Geothermal Energy Co., Ltd. more economically develop Nigorikawa Field in SW Hokkaido, Japan. To make these wells commercial, fracturing treatments were performed in lieu of redrilling. To date, several wells have been treated in 2 separate projects. Seven were treated during fall 1978. In Spring 1980, 4 were retreated and several additional wells were treated for the first time. Although these frac jobs are the first known in geothermal wells, the enhanced production or injectivity that resulted in some cases has encouraged similar applications in other geothermal areas.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  11. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  12. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  13. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  15. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  16. Spring Spending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing housewife Jian An and her family spent 8,563 yuan($1,260)during the Spring Festival holiday(February 13-19),which was even higher than her monthly earnings.And half of the spending went on a new digital camera."It is reasonable because the Spring Festival-the Chinese Lunar New Year-is the most important festival of the year,"Jian said.

  17. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  18. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111059 Gao Jinghong(Engineering Group Co.Ltd.of the Second Institute of China Railway,Chengdu 610031,China);Tong Tiegang A Magnetotelluric Study of Geothermal Resources in Kaifeng Depression,Henan Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(4),2010,p.440-443,6 illus.,12 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,telluric electromagnetic sounding,Henan Province Kaifeng Depression,located in the southeast corner of the Jiyuan-Kaifeng Depression,is enriched with deep-seated groundwater sources.The rich geothermal water rock(thermal reservoir)commonly has lower resistivity than the in-situ rock,and the reduction degree of its resistivity is related to the extent of water content,water temperature and mineralization.Based on geo-electrical anomaly,the authors inferred the distribution of the thermal reservoirs.A study of the magnetotelluric sounding method(MT)shows that the resistivity values of the basement are lowest in most surveying points north of F1 fault,implying the existence of the relationship with the geothermal water in the strata.According to the distribution of geo-electrical anomalies in the survey area,the authors locate the relatively enriched area of geothermal water in the basement of this area,thus providing an important basis

  20. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  1. The Socorro Geothermal System: A Low Temperature Geothermal Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Owens, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    The State of New Mexico is endowed with relatively high background heat flow and permeable, fractured crystalline and sedimentary rocks. This combination has given rise to numerous low temperature geothermal systems throughout the state. In many instances, hot springs associated with these systems are located within gaps in regional confining units (a.k.a. hydrologic windows) caused either by fault block rotation or the emplacement of volcanic dikes. The Socorro Geothermal Area (SGA) is a prime example of this type of a forced convection geothermal system. The Socorro geothermal area (SGA) lies 2 miles to the west of the NM Tech Campus near the base of the Socorro Mountain Block and will be assessed for production by drilling a 1500ft test well in September 2009. Published shallow temperature gradient measurements in fractured, permeable (3000 Darcy) granites indicate peak heat flow values as high as 490 mW/m^2 but decreases to 25 mW/m^2 about 10 km to the west within the La Jencia Basin near the foothills of the Magdalena Mountains. Silica and Cation based geothermometers suggest that deep geothermal reservoir reaches temperatures of 80 to 112 deg. C. Carbon14 age dating of shallow groundwater within the discharge area are about 20,000 years old. Hydrothermal models we constructed indicates that Mountain front recharge penetrates to depths of 4.5 km below the La Jencia Basin sedimentary pile into fractured, crystalline rocks. Discharge occurs through a hydrologic window to the east within a breached playa deposit at the western edge of the Socorro Basin. The hydrologic window was caused by fault block rotation. Warm springs which produce several hundred gpm of 32 deg. C water at the surface several miles to the south of the proposed drilling area also attest to the presence of a significant hydrothermal system. This low temperature resource could potentially heat the Campus of NM Tech.

  2. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  3. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  4. Analysis on origin and recharge mechanism of geothermal water-A case study of Beiwenquan hot spring in Chongqing,China%地下热水的来源与补给机制分析--以重庆北温泉为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琼; 沈立成; 杨雷

    2015-01-01

    Source research of the hot spring is very important to do the geothermal resources evaluating, and has a guidance for sustainable exploitation and utilization with geothermal resources.Beiwenquan hot springs in Chongqing is selected to be study area,and hydrochemical method,D,O isotope and on-line monitoring system are used to do this study.It is found that,Beiwenquan hot spring in Chongqing is the medium-low temperature,shallow,neutral geothermal water,and the hydrochemical style is SO4-Ca.The value of the δ18 O of Beiwenquan is -8.48‰~-7.09‰,and δD is -55.46‰~-53.26‰.The recharge of this geothermal water is rain water and the recharge area is the karst outcropping area of 641 ~1 206 m altitude.Marshall and CDTP300 slot-line monitoring system are used to do high resolution real-time online monitoring for the North hot springs and found some results.1)The hydrogeochemical features have little change over the long term,which means the hydrochemical features and the water-rock interaction in thermal aquifer is stable.2)However,the discharge and rainfall in the study area is a lag relationship,the discharge of hot spring is almost 6 month delete response on rainfall,the discharge of the hot spring is lower in rainy season,while higher during the dry season.Hydrological features of the hot spring have a certain changes after a rain.About 20 days after rainfall,temperature and electric conductivity will be some decline and the discharge will increase.The origin of these geothermal water is precipitation and its recharge is not only the long-term and long-time geothermal aquifer but also the water supply from the shallow underground water and rain water in the process of thermal water rising.%地下热水的来源研究对地下热水资源量评价和可持续开发利用有重要意义。选取重庆市北温泉作为研究对象,采用水化学分析、D、O 同位素以及实时在线监测对其热水来源进行了研究。研究认为:重庆市北

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  7. Extreme environments in the critical zone: Linking acidification hazard of acid sulfate soils in mound spring discharge zones to groundwater evolution and mantle degassing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Paul; Gotch, Travis; Love, Andrew; Raven, Mark; Priestley, Stacey; Grocke, Sonia

    2016-10-15

    A decrease in flow from the iconic travertine mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in South Australia has led to the oxidation of hypersulfidic soils and extreme soil acidification, impacting their unique groundwater dependent ecosystems. The build-up of pyrite in these systems occurred over millennia by the discharge of deep artesian sulfate-containing groundwaters through organic-rich subaqueous soils. Rare iron and aluminium hydroxysulfate minerals form thick efflorescences due to high evaporation rates in this arid zone environment, and the oxidised soils pose a significant risk to local aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The distribution of extreme acidification hazard is controlled by regional variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. Geochemical processes fractionate acidity and alkalinity into separate parts of the discharge zone allowing potentially extreme environments to form locally. Differences in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer along flow pathways towards the spring discharge zone are related to a range of processes including mineral dissolution and redox reactions, which in turn are strongly influenced by degassing of the mantle along deep crustal fractures. There is thus a connection between shallow critical zone ecosystems and deep crustal/mantle processes which ultimately control the formation of hypersulfidic soils and the potential for extreme geochemical environments.

  8. Extreme environments in the critical zone: Linking acidification hazard of acid sulfate soils in mound spring discharge zones to groundwater evolution and mantle degassing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Paul; Gotch, Travis; Love, Andrew; Raven, Mark; Priestley, Stacey; Grocke, Sonia

    2016-10-15

    A decrease in flow from the iconic travertine mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in South Australia has led to the oxidation of hypersulfidic soils and extreme soil acidification, impacting their unique groundwater dependent ecosystems. The build-up of pyrite in these systems occurred over millennia by the discharge of deep artesian sulfate-containing groundwaters through organic-rich subaqueous soils. Rare iron and aluminium hydroxysulfate minerals form thick efflorescences due to high evaporation rates in this arid zone environment, and the oxidised soils pose a significant risk to local aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The distribution of extreme acidification hazard is controlled by regional variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. Geochemical processes fractionate acidity and alkalinity into separate parts of the discharge zone allowing potentially extreme environments to form locally. Differences in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer along flow pathways towards the spring discharge zone are related to a range of processes including mineral dissolution and redox reactions, which in turn are strongly influenced by degassing of the mantle along deep crustal fractures. There is thus a connection between shallow critical zone ecosystems and deep crustal/mantle processes which ultimately control the formation of hypersulfidic soils and the potential for extreme geochemical environments. PMID:27256909

  9. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T B K; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems also exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species.

  10. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi;

    2012-01-01

    growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth......A novel anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ug1(T), was isolated from a volcanic acidic hot spring in southern Kyushu Island, Japan. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped (1.0-3.0 µm long) and motile due to peritrichous flagella. Strain Ug1(T...... oxidation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and unique physiological features, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Carboxydothermus for which the name Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of the novel species is Ug1(T) (=DSM 23698(T)=NBRC 107576(T))....

  11. A novel thermoalkalostable esterase from Acidicaldus sp. strain USBA-GBX-499 with enantioselectivity isolated from an acidic hot springs of Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gina; Chow, Jennifer; Bongen, Patrick; Lauinger, Benjamin; Pietruszka, Jörg; Streit, Wolfgang R; Baena, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Several thermo- and mesoacidophilic bacterial strains that revealed high lipolytic activity were isolated from water samples derived from acidic hot springs in Los Nevados National Natural Park (Colombia). A novel lipolytic enzyme named 499EST was obtained from the thermoacidophilic alpha-Proteobacterium Acidicaldus USBA-GBX-499. The gene estA encoded a 313-amino-acid protein named 499EST. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (58 %) with a putative α/β hydrolase from Acidiphilium sp. (ZP_08632277.1). Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicated that 499EST is a new member of the bacterial esterase/lipase family IV. The esterase reveals its optimum catalytic activity at 55 °C and pH 9.0. Kinetic studies showed that 499EST preferentially hydrolyzed middle-length acyl chains (C6-C8), especially p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) caproate (C6). Its thermostability and activity were strongly enhanced by adding 6 mM FeCl3. High stability in the presence of water-miscible solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was observed. This enzyme also exhibits stability under harsh environmental conditions and enantioselectivity towards naproxen and ibuprofen esters, yielding the medically relevant (S)-enantiomers. In conclusion, according to our knowledge, 499EST is the first thermoalkalostable esterase derived from a Gram-negative thermoacidophilic bacterium.

  12. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  15. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To put it simply, geothermal power is the utilization of the earth's natural heat. At many locations around the world, heat from the earth's mantle approaches close to the surface, chiefly in volcanically and or seismically active zones. Magnificent examples include the Big Island of Hawaii, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, Yellowstone, and Mt. St. Helens. Commercially viable sources of geothermal energy exist when the heat is close to the surface, a source of water can act as a heat transfer medium, and a geologic setting exists that contains the heat so it concentrates and doesn't dissipate. In addition, the heat must be adequate to provide temperatures at least above 290 degrees F to take advantage of currently available energy conversion technologies. This paper is directed toward the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation. It describes the industry today, the author's view of the benefits of geothermal power, and some measures that could increase the beneficial use of this power source

  16. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  17. Geothermal resources in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Macedonia is situated in the central part of the Balcan Peninsula and covers a surface of 25. 713 km2 Its territory is found in one of the most significant geothermal zones in this part of Balkans. The earths crust in this region suffers poli phase structural deformations, which as a result gives different structural features. The geothermal explorations in the Republic of Macedonia intensively started to conduct after 1970, after the first effects of the energy crisis. As a result of these explorations, more than 50 springs of mineral and thermo mineral waters with a total yield of more than 1.400 I./sec. And proved exploitation reservoirs of more than 1.000 I./sec. with temperatures higher than the medium year seasons hesitations for this part of the Earth in the boundaries of 20-75oC with significant quantities of geothermal energy. This paper will shortly present the available geothermal resources and classification, according the type of geothermal energy, hydro geothermal, lithogeothermal and according the way of transport of the geothermal energy, convective and conductive systems. The next will present short descriptions of the resources, the degree of exploitation and the prognosis dimensions of the reservoirs. (Original)

  18. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  19. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  20. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110367 Cheng Jian(College of Energy Resources,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Duoyi Research on the Wenchuan Earthquake "Endpoint Effect":On the Geothermal Anomaly in Longquanyi,Chengdu,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.155-159,4 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:seismic effects,thermal

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  4. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  5. 藏南干旱区湖泊及地热水体氢氧同位素研究%Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Lake Water and Geothermal Spring Water in Arid Area of South Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖可; 沈立成; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    青藏高原水循环过程情况复杂,水体氢氧同位素包含了其重要信息.选取西藏南部干旱区淡水湖、咸水湖及地热水水体为研究对象,分析研究区内不同水体氢氧同位素组成、变化特征、影响因素及水循环过程.结果表明,3种水体均表现出了高海拔地区氢氧同位素组成偏负的特点,淡水湖打加芒错δ18O平均值为-17.0‰,δD 平均值为-138.6‰,咸水湖朗错δ18O平均值为-6.4‰,δD 平均值为-87.4‰,搭格架地热区热水δ18O平均值为-19.2‰,δD 平均值为-158.2‰;受内陆干旱区强烈的蒸发作用影响,湖泊及地热水蒸发线斜率均小于8,氘过量 d 值均为负值;搭格架地热区热储温度较高,氢氧同位素关系存在氧漂移现象.%The condition of water cycles in Tibet Plateau is a complex process, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes contain important information of this process. Based on the analysis of isotopic composition of freshwater lake, saltwater lake and geothermal water in the southern Tibetan Plateau, this study investigated water cycling, composition and variation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and the influencing factors in the study area. The study found that the mean values of δ18O and δD in Daggyaima lake water ( - 17. 0‰ for δ18O and - 138. 6‰ for δD), Langcuo lake water ( - 6. 4‰ for δ18O and - 87. 4‰ for δD) and Dagejia geothermal water ( - 19. 2‰ forδ18O and - 158. 2‰ for δD) all showed negative δ18O and δD values in Tibetan Plateau by the influence of altitude effects. Lake water and geothermal water were influenced by evaporation effects in inland arid area, and the slope of evaporation line was less than 8. Deuterium excess parameters of lake water and geothermal water were all negative. The temperature of geothermal reservoirs in Dagejia geothermal field was high,and oxygen shift existed in the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes.

  6. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located. Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 2008 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  7. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  8. Results of investigation at the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica; Parte 2, Muestreo de fluidos pozo abajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.A.; Dennis, B.; Kolar, J.; Corrales, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

    1989-10-01

    Samples of the geothermal fluids in the Miravalles, Costa Rica, geothermal system were collected from production wellbores using downhole fluid samplers, from flowing wellheads using miniseparators, and from hot springs that discharge in the area. The reservoir fluid at Miravalles is a neutral-chloride-type water, but fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs are present within the main thermal area, and there are bicarbonate-rich hot springs that are clearly related to the neutral-chloride reservoir fluids. Dissolved gases are primarily a mixture of CO{sub 2} with air, but samples collected in the fumarolic areas also contain H{sub 2}S. Water-stable isotope analyses suggest local meteoric recharge, and the reservoir fluid shows oxygen isotopic shifts of about 2.5% due to high-temperature oxygen exchange between water and rock. Chemical geothermometer temperatures are consistent with the measured downhole temperature of 220{degrees} to 255{degrees}C. This pattern of neutral-chloride reservoir fluids with acid-sulfate springs near the source region and bicarbonate-rich chloride hot springs at the periphery of the system suggests a lateral outflow type of hydrothermal system. In addition to the geochemical evidence, temperature profiles from several of the wells show temperature reversals that are characteristic of lateral outflow plumes. We find no evidence for the underlying, higher temperature (300{degrees}C) system, which has been suggested by other investigators. 24 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  10. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  11. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  12. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous thermal springs. This study presents new stratigraphic, structural, volcanological, geochemical and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field.

  13. Fault controlled geochemical properties in Lahendong geothermal reservoir Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Maren; Deon, Fiorenza; Haase, Christoph; Wiegand, Bettina; Kamah, Yustin; Sauter, Martin; Regenspurg, Simona

    2016-03-01

    Rock and fluid geochemical data from Lahendong, Indonesia, were analyzed to evaluate the influence of fault zones on reservoir properties. It was found that these properties depend on fault-permeability controlled fluid flow. Results from measurements of spring and well water as well as rocks and their hydraulic properties were combined with hydrochemical numerical modeling. The models show that the geothermal field consists of two geochemically distinct reservoir sections. One section is characterized by acidic water, considerable gas discharge and high geothermal-power productivity—all related to increased fault zone permeability. The other section is characterized by neutral water and lower productivity. Increased fluid flow in the highly fractured and permeable areas enhances chemical reaction rates. This results in strong alteration of their surrounding rocks. Numerical models of reactions between water and rock at Lahendong indicate the main alteration products are clay minerals. A geochemical conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and permeability and their distribution within the area. Our conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and fault-zone permeability within the Lahendong area. Further mapping of fault-related permeability would support sustainable energy exploitation by avoiding low-productive wells or the production of highly corroding waters, both there and elsewhere in the world.

  14. Geothermal Monitoring in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasler, H. P.; Jaworowski, C.; Susong, D. D.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    When the first exploring parties surveyed the Yellowstone region in the late 19th Century, it was the geologic wonders - geysers, hot springs, mudpots, fumaroles - that captured their imaginations. Because of these treasures, the U.S. Congress set aside and dedicated this land of "natural curiosities" as the world's first "public pleasuring ground". Protection of Yellowstone's unique geothermal features is a key mission of Yellowstone National Park as mandated by U. S. Congressional law. In response to that mandate, the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program developed a peer-reviewed, Geothermal Monitoring Plan in 2003. With partial Congressional funding of the Plan in 2005, implementation of a scientific monitoring effort began. Yellowstone's scientific geothermal monitoring effort includes the acquisition of time-temperature data using electronic data loggers, basic water quality data, chloride flux data, estimates of radiative heat flux using airborne, thermal infrared imagery, geothermal gas monitoring, and the monitoring of groundwater wells. Time- temperature data are acquired for geysers, hot springs, steam vents, wells, rivers, and the ground. Uses of the time-temperature data include public safety, calibrating airborne thermal infrared-imagery, monitoring selected thermal features for potential hydrothermal explosions, and determining the spatial and temporal changes in thermal areas. Since 2003, upgrades of Yellowstone's stream gaging network have improved the spatial and temporal precision of the chloride flux, water quality, and groundwater components of the Geothermal Monitoring Plan. All of these methods serve both for geothermal monitoring and volcano monitoring as part of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. A major component of the Geothermal Monitoring Plan is remote sensing of the Yellowstone volcano and its active hydrothermal areas at various scales. The National Center for Landscape Fire Analysis at the University of Montana and the USDA

  15. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  16. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  17. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  18. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-01-01

    "Hidden" geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates ...

  19. Geochemical characteristics of modern hot springs from northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张景荣; 胡桂兴; 杨帆; 许祖鸣

    1995-01-01

    The studies of chemical compositions of modern hot spring water and gases,isotopiccompositions of H2O,He,Ar,CH4,CO2 in northwest Hunan show that the chemical characteristics of springwater are markedly different,which indicates the difference of background value of country rocks and the dif-ference of the effect of water-rock reaction.The geothermal systems in the studied regions are middle-hightemperature geothermal systems.The distributions of springs are controlled by the press and press-shearfaults that do not dissect deeply to the mantle.The hot spring water is of meteoric water.The origin of ma-terials in the hot springs is correlated with the sedimentary rocks.

  20. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  1. Prefeasibility geothermal assessment of Platanares, Department of Copan, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Laughlin, A.W.; Flores, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Platanares geothermal system is located in a region of active Quaternary tectonism in western Honduras. Although the geothermal area is partially blanketed by Miocene ignimbrites (14.5 m.y.), there are no nearby Quaternary volcanic rocks to act as a young magmatic heat source. No acid-sulfate waters, indicative of vapor-dominated conditions, exist in the area. Hot spring activity is most vigorous along a 2 km stretch of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente fault zone. Natural discharge is high (/approximately/3300 l/min), temperatures range from 35 to 100/degree/C, pH ranges from 7 to 9, and totally dissolved solids are low (/approximately/1100 mg/kg). Chemical geothermometers indicate a subsurface reservoir temperature of about 225/degree/C. Three exploration core holes (7.8 cm diameter) have been drilled to a maximum depth of 680 m and maximum temperature of 165/degree/C. Two holes produce copious amounts of water under artesian conditions (/approximately/500 l/min max; 5 bars flowing) from fractured red beds of Cretaceous to Eocene age (Valle de Angeles Group). Maximum power output is /approximately/4.5 MW (thermal) but CO/sub 2/ released during flashing formed some aragonite scale in one hole. The third core hole has an ''apparent'' conductive gradient of 139/degree/C/km at 400 m. Downward continuation of this gradient implies that the minimum depth to the geothermal resource (225/degree/C) is 1.5 to 2.0 km. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Geothermal energy from theoretical models to exploration and development

    CERN Document Server

    Stober, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy. This form of energy, known as geothermal energy has been utilized throughout human history in the form of hot water from hot springs. Modern utilization of geothermal energy includes direct use of the heat and its conversion to other forms of energy, mainly electricity. Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy and its use is associated with very little or no CO2-emissions and its importance as an energy source has greatly increased as the effects of climate change become more prominent. Becaus

  3. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  4. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  5. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  6. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  7. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  8. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  9. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Faye Bywaters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems- in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011;Bird et al., 2012. Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 368 to 3246 mg C L-1 d-1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production ranged from zero to 38.74 mg free fatty acids and triacylglycerols L-1 d-1, the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment – all results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  10. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  11. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  12. Characteristics and Origins of Hot Springs in the Tatun Volcano Group in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically surveyed distribution and field occurrences of 13 hot springs as well as geochemical investigation on the geothermal area of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG. According to Piper diagrams, pH values, field occurrences and water-rock interactions, these hot springs can be classified into three types: (1 Type I, SO42- acidic water where the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2 Type II, HCO3- a near neutral spring where waters originate from the volcanic terrane (andesite; and (3 Type III, Cl- -rich acidic water where waters emanate from shallower Wuchishan Formation. In terms of isotopic ratio, δD and δ18O values, two groups of hot spring can be recognized. One is far away from the meteoric water line of the Tatun area with values ranging between -26.2‰ and -3.5‰, and from -3.2‰ to 1.6‰, respectively. However, another close to the meteoric water line of the Tatun area is between -28.4‰ and -13.6‰, and from -5.5‰ to -4.2‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal waters can also be distinguished into two groups, one ranging from 26.1‰ to 28.5‰, and the other between 0.8‰ and 7.8‰. Based on field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been proposed to illustrate the origin of these hot springs.

  13. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain

  14. Geothermal reservoir at Tatapani Geothermal field, Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, IN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitale, U.L.; Sarolkar, P.B.; Rawat, H.S.; Shukia, S.N.

    1996-01-24

    The Tatapani Geothermal field, located on the Son-Narmada mega lineament is one of the most intense geothermal manifestation, with hot spring temperature of 98°c. in Central India. 21 Exploratory and thermal gradient boreholes followed by 5 production wells for proposed 300 KWe binary cycle power plant, have revealed specific reservoir parameters of shallow geothermal reservoir of 110°c in upper 350 m of geothermal system and their possible continuation to deeper reservoir of anticipated temperature of 160 ± 10°c. Testing of five production wells done by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation concurrently with drilling at different depths and also on completion of drilling, have established feeder zones of thermal water at depth of 175-200 m, 280-300 m, maximum temperature of 112.5°c and bottom hole pressure of 42 kg/cm². Further interpretation of temperature and pressure profiles, injection test, well head discharges and chemical analysis data has revealed thermal characteristics of individual production wells and overall configuration of .thermal production zones with their permeability, temperature, and discharge characteristics in the shallow thermal reservoir area. Well testing data and interpretation of reservoir parameters therefrom, for upper 350 m part of geothermal system and possible model of deeper geothermal reservoir at Tatapani have been presented in the paper.

  15. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  16. Noble-gas evidence for geothermal activity in a karstic terrain: Rocky Mountains, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Van Everdingen, R.O.; Krouse, H.R.

    1983-06-01

    Geothermally heated fluids are identified as a component in warm (up to 54/sup 0/C) springs in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains. High concentrations of radiogenic He (10/sup -3/ ccSTP/cc gas) and atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the gases that vigorously bubble at the Fairmont Hot Spring, assign the latter to be a ''drowned'' fumarole, fed by geothermal steam. Up to 75% depletions in the atmospheric noble gases in several warm springs indicate contributions of residual geothermal water. On the other hand, in a few cases noble gases were found in excess (W) over the expected concentrations in air-equilibrated recharge water. The observed ''reversed'' pattern of W/sub Ne/ > W/sub Ar/ > W/sub Kr/ > W/sub Xe/ is interpreted as excess air, incorporated during recharge through karstic conduits. The mixing ratios of geothermal and karstic waters can be deduced.

  17. Isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of southern Jiangxi geothermal systems, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern Jiangxi is a geothermally active region, especially in Hengjing area. According to the work plan of IAEA Regional Collaboration in the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources and Environment Management through Isotope Techniques in East Asia and the Pacific (RAS-8-075), field investigation was carried out in Hengjing, southern Jiangxi Province, to demonstrate the use of isotope and geochemical techniques in low to medium temperature geothermal system. During the field investigation, 19 samples were taken from cold springs, hot springs and surface water in the area to determine their hydrochemical and gas compositions, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and helium isotopes. The results of the study have shown that the geothermal waters in the studying region are of the same characteristics with the local meteoric water in oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition, indicating the geothermal waters are mainly derived from the local precipitation, while the gas composition and carbon and helium isotopes reveal that some gases in the geothermal waters have mantle origin. (author)

  18. Temperature and pH control on lipid composition of silica sinters from diverse hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W; Stott, Matthew B; Hopmans, Ellen C; Pancost, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Microbial adaptations to environmental extremes, including high temperature and low pH conditions typical of geothermal settings, are of interest in astrobiology and origin of life investigations. The lipid biomarkers preserved in silica deposits associated with six geothermal areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone were investigated and variations in lipid composition as a function of temperature and pH were assessed. Lipid analyses reveal highly variable abundances and distributions, reflecting community composition as well as adaptations to extremes of pH and temperature. Biomarker profiles reveal three distinct microbial assemblages across the sites: the first in Champagne Pool and Loop Road, the second in Orakei Korako, Opaheke and Ngatamariki, and the third in Rotokawa. Similar lipid distributions are observed in sinters from physicochemically similar springs. Furthermore, correlation between lipid distributions and geothermal conditions is observed. The ratio of archaeol to bacterial diether abundance, bacterial diether average chain length, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices typically increase with temperature. At lower pH, the ratio of archaeol to bacterial diethers, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices are typically higher. No trends in fatty acid distributions with temperature or pH are evident, likely reflecting overprinting due to population influences.

  19. A preliminary conceptual geothermal model of the geothermal system of Kibiro, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The most relevant results obtained through the present study, carried out in the frame of a cooperation project 'Isotope Hydrology for Exploring Geothermal Resources - UGA/8/003' between GSMD and IAEA are as follows: Hot springs, cold ground waters, surface waters and the lone precipitation water all plot on the local water meteoric line, confirming the meteoric origin of the water circulating in the geothermal system. The source of recharge is tentatively taken to be the high ground comprising the fault-controlled Mukihani-Waisembe ridge, 20km east of Kibiro. However, the hot springs and a lone warm spring at Kibiro geothermal system show δ18O enrichment of about 1 per mille, which is indicative of water-rock interaction, consequent upon high-temperature conditions prevalent in the reservoir. Limited δ18O enrichment is observed in a few ground water boreholes, also as a result of water-rock interaction due to the influence of the hydrothermal system. This is corroborated by geology, where the escarpment zone rocks are found to be relatively more altered than those farther away. The warm spring (T=39.5 deg. C) plots differently from the rest of the hot springs for it presents the highest values for SiO2 (135mg/l), but still shows an oxygen shift of about the same magnitude. This may be explained by conductive cooling without loosing silica. The chemical composition of the hot springs at Kibiro geothermal area are dominated by sodium chloride, which is likely to be hydrothermal in origin, making the application of conventional geothermometers to the geochemical evaluation of the geothermal system possible. There is evidence that a little gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) is present at Kibiro. Relatively high fluoride and the geothermal conservative species (Cl, B, Li) concentrations in the hot springs are related to the underground temperature (SiO2 content), suggesting that their source is likely hydrothermal. The 1993 geochemistry indicates a mixing process in

  20. The Yijiahe Hot Spring's Geothermal Geological Features and The Model of Contributing Factor%江西永修县易家河温泉地热地质特征及成因模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙西安; 谢德芳

    2009-01-01

    永修易家河温泉为上升泉,其热水化学类型为HCO3-Na和HCO3-Ca型,热储为隐伏的燕山晚期侵入的云山复式花岗岩残余热及挽近地质年代活动性断裂深循环热.热水循环周期在21a以上,其成因模式为大气降水补给的花岗岩残余热和活动性断裂深循环型地热系统.%Yijiahe Hot Spring at Yongxiu County is an ascending one. Its chemical type is HCO3-Na and HCO3-Ca.The thermal energy storage is the insidious Yunshan double granite residual intruding into at late Yanshan and the active fractures' deep recycling heat taking place in the late geochronology. The hot water recycling period is over 21a.The model of contributing factor is the granite residual heat from atmosphere precipitation and the active fracture's deep recycling mold's geothemal system.

  1. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation

  2. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  3. Geothermal development plan: Cochise-Santa Cruz counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    A total of five hot springs and 25 thermal wells are located within the combined counties. The water discharged from these hot springs and wells may be suitable for applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Within Cochise county there are two large firms which are capable of using 70/sup 0/C (158/sup 0/F) geothermal water for their process heat requirements but the potential use of geothermal energy in Santa Cruz county is limited due to the absence of industry within the county. The amount of geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development is also predicted using a computer simulation model.

  4. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  5. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  6. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  7. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  8. The indication of geothermal events by helium and carbon isotopes of hydrothermal fluids in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium and carbon isotopes are important indicators for identifying the origin of volatiles dissolved in groundwater. Four thermal springs and another twelve normal springs are hosted by local deep faults in south China, which are considered to have significant connection to deep geothermal activity. Between 4% and 6% mantle He in thermal springs reveals that significant mantle He migration in deep faults can bring a certain amount of energy, along with thermal volatiles, and contribute to thermal spring formation according to 3He/4He. While δ13C reveals that dissolved inorganic carbon in thermal springs is from rock metamorphism that occurred in certain deep crust as geothermal activity, which is potentially the main energy source of the thermal springs. (authors)

  9. Geothermal resources in California: the problems and the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    The report is presented under the following section headings: introduction; conclusions and recommendations; legislative activity in 1973; United Nations Geothermal Conference; International Geothermal Conference--1975; National Conference on Geothermal Energy, May 10--11, Palm Springs, Calif.; Imperial Valley field trip and joint interim hearing October 16--17, 1973 (Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife on Senate Bill 577 in San Diego); hearing of the Subcommittee on Geothermal Resources and the Senate Committee on Public Utilities and Corporations, Nov. 12, 1973 in San Francisco (public access to steam at The Geysers); hearing of the Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife on the continued availability of natural gas and other sources of energy, Nov. 15, 1973, in Martinez, Calif; and Appendix. (JGB)

  10. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    California's geographic and end-use markets which could directly use low and moderate temperature geothermal resources are ranked and described, as well as those which have the highest potential for near-term commercial development of these resources. Building on previous market surveys, the assessment determined that out of 38 geothermal resource areas with characteristics for direct use development, five areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development: Susanville, Litchfield, Ontario Hot Springs, Lake Elsinore, and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Twenty-nine applications were compared with previously selected criteria to determine their near-term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Seven categories were found to have the least impediments to development; agriculture and district heating applications are considered the highest. Ten-year projections were conducted for fossil fuel displacement from the higher rated applications. It is concluded that greenhouses have the greatest displacement of 18 x 10/sup 6/ therms per year.

  11. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  12. Thermal history of the Acoculco geothermal system, eastern Mexico: Insights from numerical modeling and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Carles; Trillaud, Frederic; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; González-Hernández, Galia; Peláez, Berenice; Hernández-Cruz, Berenice; Sánchez-Córdova, María M.

    2015-10-01

    Acoculco is a geothermal prospective area hosted by a volcanic caldera complex in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Surface manifestations are scarce and consist of gas discharges (CO2-rich) and acid-sulfate springs of low temperature, whereas hydrothermal explosive activity is profusely manifested by meter-scale craters and mounds of hydrothermal debris and breccias. Silicic alteration extends for several square kilometers around the zone with gas manifestations and explosive features, affecting surficial volcanic rocks, primarily tuffs and breccias. In the subsurface, an argillic alteration zone (ammonium illite) extends down to a depth of ∼ 600 m, and underneath it a propylitic zone (epidote-calcite-chlorite) occurs down to ∼ 1000 m. Thermal logs from an exploratory borehole (EAC-1, drilled in 1995 down to 1810 m) showed a conductive heat transfer regime under high geothermal gradient (∼ 140 °C/1000 m). In contrast, the thermal profile established from temperatures of homogenization of fluid inclusions-measured on core samples from the same drill hole-suggests that convection occurred in the past through the upper ~ 1400 m of the geothermal system. A drop in permeability due to the precipitation of alteration minerals would have triggered the cessation of the convective heat transfer regime to give place to a conductive one. With the purpose of determining when the transition of heat transfer regime occurred, we developed a 1D model that simulates the time-depth distribution of temperature. According to our numerical simulations, this transition happened ca. 7000 years ago; this date is very recent compared to the lifespan of the geothermal system. In addition, radiocarbon chronology indicates that the hydrothermal explosive activity postdates the end of the convective heat transfer regime, having dated at least three explosive events, at 4867-5295, 1049-1417 and 543-709 y cal. BP. Therefore, hydrothermal explosions arise from the self-sealing of

  13. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  14. Structural Controls of the Geothermal System at Gerlach, Washoe County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, Lyndsay A.

    Detailed geologic mapping, spring and two-meter temperature data, and gravity and magnetic data constrain the structural controls of the high-temperature (>175°C) geothermal system at Gerlach. The system lies along the termination of a major normal fault at the southern end of the Granite Range in the southern Black Rock Desert, a known favorable setting for geothermal activity. Mapping of Quaternary deposits documents Holocene movement on the north-northeast-striking, east-dipping Gerlach fault. Dominant orientations of geothermal veins in exposed fossil geothermal systems parallel this active, terminating range-front fault, suggesting that it does provide a major control on the current geothermal system. Locally, there are two areas of geothermal upwelling with separate sets of structural controls. The two areas are expressed by outflow as two sets of springs, Great Boiling Springs and Mud Springs, as well as by separate altered bedrock fossil systems above the springs. The areas are topographically distinct (neither could represent outflow from the other), are separated by relatively lower shallow temperature measurements, and are associated with different orientations of the gravity gradient. Prominent northwest-striking fractures provide areas of enhanced permeability and parallel the secondary set of veins in the altered bedrock uphill of Great Boiling Springs. These northwest-striking veins are not observed in the area above Mud Springs, but there is an east-northeast-striking set that is not present above Great Boiling Springs. The presence of east-northeast-striking structures is supported in the gravity data. These structures could represent an ever broader-scale structural connection between the southern termination of the Gerlach fault and the northern termination of the Fox Range fault to the south.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  16. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Miller-Coleman

    Full Text Available Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes. PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1 wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB, Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C

  17. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ross, Christian A; Shock, Everett L; Williams, Amanda J; Hartnett, Hilairy E; McDonald, Austin I; Havig, Jeff R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM) trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to

  18. Corrosion Properties of a Volcanic Hot Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Lichti, K. L.; Braham, V. J.; Engelberg, D.; Sanada, N.; Kurata, J.; Nanjo, H.; Ikeuchi, J.; Christenson, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanic hot pools on White Island, New Zealand provide ready access to acidic fluids at atmospheric pressure. These hot pools can be used to study the corrosion properties of construction materials that might be used for energy production from deep-seated and magma-ambient geothermal systems, or from shallow resources producing acidic fluids. corrosion results for a 1,hot pool are presented. A select group of moderate and high alloy materials appear suitable for energy plant applications. Ch...

  19. Improvements in geothermal electric power and silica production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.H.; Fulk, M.M.

    Electricity is generated from hot geothermal solution by extracting heat therefrom, mineral solids which form in a so cooled geothermal solution are separated to recover minerals and facilitate reinjection of the solution into the ground. The separated solids are treated to recover silica by addition of an acid (amorphous silica precipitates) or a base (other minerals precipitate and soulble silicates are formed which are subsequently precipitated by acid neutralization). If desired, after silica is separated, other minerals can be separated and recovered.

  20. 温泉旅游产业带动阜新经济转型%Impetus of thermal spring tourism to Fuxin economic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦鸿

    2013-01-01

    To promote Fuxin economic transformation, based on the guidance of industrial structure adjustment, analyses were made of the reserves, quality, and development condi-tions of thermal spring in Fuxin. Findings confirmed that the thermal spring of Fuxin be-longs to medium temperature, medium-sized geothermal field. Tests show that Fuxin geo-thermal thermal spring is a weak alkaline thermal spring and rich in multiple minerals such as borate, silica acid, lithium, selenium and trace elements. In order to drive the Fux-in economic transformation, measures of developing thermal spring industry are offered in planning and designing of high quality, steady construction of the infrastructure facilities, and quickly propelling the construction of zone-entering projects.%  针对阜新经济转型问题,以产业结构理论调整为指导,分析了阜新温泉储量、品质、开发条件等,确定阜新温泉属于中温、中型地热田,阜新地热温泉中含有丰富的偏硼酸、偏硅酸、锂、硒等多种矿物质和微量元素,属于弱碱性温泉,提出高标准规划设计、扎实作好温泉城基础设施建设、加快推进入园项目建设等措施发展温泉产业,带动阜新经济转型。

  1. Ecological characteristics and management of geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothroyd, Ian K.G. [Golder Associates Ltd., P.O. Box 33849, Takapuna, and School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    New Zealand has an array of geothermal systems with distinctive ecological features, with many occurring in the Taupo Volcanic Zone in the Central North Island. Associated with these geothermal features are characteristic geophysical and geochemical components, and distinctive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with many attributes that are common across a range of the biotic groups. Zonation amongst vegetation communities is closely related to soil temperature and these associations generally occur in a predictable sequence along the soil temperature gradient. Similarly, clear distinctions in aquatic flora and fauna occur longitudinally downstream from the source of thermal springs and vertically on geyser mounds. The characteristic vegetation communities associated with geothermal fields and the invertebrate and algal communities found in geothermally influenced springs and streams are described, in particular the features of the Wairakei geothermal field. At this field four plant associations are recognized (non-vegetated soilfield, prostrate kanuka shrubland, prostrate kanuka scrub, mixed fernland), but all the major aquatic macroinvertebrate groups are represented and commonly found in natural freshwaters throughout New Zealand. The current management of geothermal ecosystems is reviewed with particular reference to the Waikato region of New Zealand. Management of geothermal resources in New Zealand aims to balance development with the protection of highly valued surface features via a series of regional policies, rules and regulations. Geothermal habitats, ecological gradients, and at-risk geothermal plants are included in the definition of geothermal systems for management purposes. With the recognition of the unique ecological diversity and function of geothermal ecosystems, knowledge and understanding of their ecological characteristics will be critical to the ability to utilize and sustain geothermal resources into the future. (author)

  2. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  3. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  4. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  5. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  6. Geothermal Drilling Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

  7. Geothermal Today - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  8. Slavia goes geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investment company Slavia Capital signed a memorandum of understanding with the mayors of Presov and Teriakovce concerning a geothermal project. According to Slavia's plans, the geothermal source near Teriakovce, which contains water measuring 125 degrees Celsius, will be used for Presov's heating system. The 30 million eur project will create roughly 400 jobs. There is also a plan to build a power plant using geothermal water. (author)

  9. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  10. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  11. Hydrogeochemistry of high-temperature geothermal systems in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    elements. Since local drinking water sources may be mixed with geothermal water, and irrigation with water containing geothermally-derived harmful elements, possibly leading to accumulation in crops consumed by human beings, the natural geothermal spring discharge or anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage of these fields poses a threat to the environment and human health. Future research work should focus on estimation of stable O and H isotope compositions of magmatic water related to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in China, which is of significance for the quantitative source study of geothermal fluid recharged by degassed magmatic waters. Attention should also be paid to some constituent species in geothermal fluid of strong environmental significance, such as thioarsenate that is crucial for the fate of As discharged from geothermal springs, especially sulfidic hot springs.

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  13. Investigation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in the Sonoma Valley Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, Leslie G.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Bezore, Stephen P.; Majmundar, Hasu H.

    1983-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley area contains low-temperature geothermal resources (20 C {le} T {le} 90 C) having the potential for useful development. Sonoma Valley residents, local governments and institutions, private developers, and manufacturers may be able to utilize the geothermal resources as an alternate energy source. Historically, there have been at least six geothermal spring areas developed in the Sonoma Valley. Four of these (Boyes Hot Springs, Fetter's Hot Springs, Agua Caliente Springs, and the Sonoma State Hospital warm spring) lie on a linear trend extending northwestward from the City of Sonoma. Detailed geophysical surveys delineated a major fault trace along the east side of the Sonoma Valley in association with the historic geothermal areas. Other fault traces were also delineated revealing a general northwest-trending structural faulting fabric underlying the valley. Water wells located near the ''east side'' fault have relatively high boron concentrations. Geochemical evidence may suggest the ''east side'' fault presents a barrier to lateral fluid migration but is a conduit for ascending fluids. Fifteen of the twenty-nine geothermal wells or springs located from literature research or field surveys are located along or east of this major fault in a 10 km (6.2 miles) long, narrow zone. The highest recorded water temperature in the valley appears to be 62.7 C (145 F) at 137.2 meters (450 feet) in a well at Boyes Hot Springs. This is consistent with the geothermal reservoir temperature range of 52-77 C (126-171 F) indicated by geothermometry calculations performed on data from wells in the area. Interpretation of data indicates a low-temperature geothermal fluid upwelling or ''plume'', along the ''east side'' fault with subsequent migration into permeable aquifers predominantly within volcanic strata. It is quite likely other geothermal fluid &apos

  14. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  15. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  16. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  17. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  18. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.

    1984-07-01

    Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

  19. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  20. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-17

    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  1. Idaho Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gay Davis; Esposito, Louis; Montgomery, Martin

    1979-07-01

    Idaho's energy problems have increased at alarming rates due to their dependency on imports of gas and oil. The large hydroelectric base developed in Idaho has for years kept the electric rates relatively low and supplied them with energy on a consumer demand basis. However, this resource cannot be 4expected to meet their growing demands in the years to come. Energy alternatives, in whatever form, are extremely important to the future welfare of the State of Idaho. This handbook addresses the implications, uses, requirements and regulations governing one of Idaho's most abundant resources, geothermal energy. The intent of the Idaho Geothermal Handbook is to familiarize the lay person with the basis of geothermal energy in Idaho. The potential for geothermal development in the State of Idaho is tremendous. The authors hope this handbook will both increase your knowledge of geothermal energy and speed you on your way to utilizing this renewable resource.

  2. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  3. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  4. Community structure and function of high-temperature chlorophototrophic microbial mats inhabiting diverse geothermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, Christian G.; Inskeep, William P.; Herrgard, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    Six phototrophic microbial mat communities from different geothermal springs (YNP) were studied using metagenome sequencing and geochemical analyses. The primary goals of this work were to determine differences in community composition of high-temperature phototrophic mats distributed across...... the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem, and to identify metabolic attributes of predominant organisms present in these communities that may correlate with environmental attributes important in niche differentiation. Random shotgun metagenome sequences from six phototrophic communities (average 53Mbp/site) were...

  5. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  6. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the State of Washington from 1978 to 1983. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Project activity is summarized with references to the publications produced. Project findings are reported as they relate to specific geothermal resource target areas. Some major projects of the goethermal exploration program are: thermal and mineral spring chemistry, heat flow drilling, temperature gradient measurements, Cascade Range regional gravity, geohydrology study of the Yakima area, low temperature geothermal resources, geology, geochemistry of Cascade Mountains volcanic rocks, and soil mercury studies. (MHR)

  7. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  8. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain

    OpenAIRE

    Aria DOLATABADIAN; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-01-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid...

  9. Thioarsenates in geothermal waters of yellowstone National Park: Determination, preservation, and geochemical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planer-Friedrich, B.; London, J.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Wallschlager, D.

    2007-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrathioarsenate, as well as methylated arsenic oxy- and thioanions, were determined besides arsenite and arsenate in geothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park using anion-exchange chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Retention time match with synthetic standards, measured S:As ratios, and molecular electrospray mass spectra support the identification. Acidification was unsuitable for arsenic species preservation in sulfidic waters, with HCl addition causing loss of total dissolved arsenic, presumably by precipitation of arsenic-sulfides. Flash-freezing is preferred for the preservation of arsenic species for several weeks. After thawing, samples must be analyzed immediately. Thioarsenates occurred over a pH range of 2.1 to 9.3 in the geothermal waters. They clearly predominated under alkaline conditions (up to 83% of total arsenic), but monothioarsenate also was detected in acidic waters (up to 34%). Kinetic studies along a drainage channel showed the importance of thioarsenates for the fate of arsenic discharged from the sulfidic hot spring. The observed arsenic speciation changes suggest three separate reactions: the transformation of trithioarsenate to arsenite (major initial reaction), the stepwise ligand exchange from tri- via di- and monothioarsenate to arsenate (minor reaction), and the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, which only becomes quantitatively important after thioarsenates have disappeared. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  10. Structural Controls of the Tuscarora Geothermal Field, Elko County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dering, Gregory M.

    Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and well data have been integrated to elucidate the stratigraphic framework and structural setting of the Tuscarora geothermal area. Tuscarora is an amagmatic geothermal system that lies in the northern part of the Basin and Range province, ˜15 km southeast of the Snake River Plain and ˜90 km northwest of Elko, Nevada. The Tuscarora area is dominated by late Eocene to middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks, all overlying Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. A geothermal power plant was constructed in 2011 and currently produces 18 MWe from an ˜170°C reservoir in metasedimentary rocks at a depth of 1740 m. Analysis of drill core reveals that the subsurface geology is dominated to depths of ˜700-1000 m by intracaldera deposits of the Eocene Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera, including blocks of basement-derived megabreccia. Furthermore, the Tertiary-Paleozoic nonconformity within the geothermal field has been recognized as the margin of this Eocene caldera. Structural relations combined with geochronologic data from previous studies indicate that Tuscarora has undergone extension since the late Eocene, with significant extension in the late Miocene-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Kinematic analysis of fault slip data reveal an east-west-trending least principal paleostress direction, which probably reflects an earlier episode of Miocene extension. Two distinct structural settings at different scales appear to control the geothermal field. The regional structural setting is a 10-km wide complexly faulted left step or relay ramp in the west-dipping range-bounding Independence-Bull Run Mountains normal fault system. Geothermal activity occurs within the step-over where sets of east- and west-dipping normal faults overlap in a northerly trending accommodation zone. The distribution of hot wells and hydrothermal surface features, including boiling springs, fumaroles, and siliceous sinter, indicate that the geothermal

  11. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of Changal thermal springs, Zagros region, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Z.; Bagheri, R.; Jahanshahi, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    This study addresses the hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs that emerge from the Asmari limestone in a gorge at Changal Anticline in the vicinity of the Salman-Farsi dam. The Changal thermal springs vary in temperature between 28 and 40 C. Chemical and isotopic compositions of the thermal waters suggest two distinct hydrogeological systems: a deep, moderate-temperature ({proportional_to}40 C) geothermal system recharged by deeply circulating meteoric waters, and a shallow cold aquifer system related to local groundwater. The source geothermal fluid temperature was calculated using different geothermometers and mineral saturation indexes. Based on chemical and isotopic data, it is hypothesized that: (1) mixing occurs between the ascending geothermal water and shallow cold water; (2) the resulting thermal waters reaching surface are a mixture of 80% local, shallow meteoric water and 20% geothermal water; and (3) the circulation depth of the meteoric water is about 1500 m. The thermal reservoir temperature is estimated to be between 70 and 80 C according to calculations using different geothermometers and computation of saturation indices for different solid phases. (author)

  12. A preliminary analysis of the formation of travertine and travertine cones in the Jifei hot spring, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaping; Zhou, Xun; Fang, Bin; ZHOU, HAIYAN; Yamanaka, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    The Jifei hot spring emerges in the form of a spring group in the Tibet–Yunnan geothermal zone, southwest of Yunnan Province, China. The temperatures of spring waters range from 35 to 81°C and are mainly of HCO3–Na·Ca type. The total discharge of the hot spring is about 10 L/s. The spring is characterized by its huge travertine terrace with an area of about 4,000 m2 and as many as 18 travertine cones of different sizes. The tallest travertine cone is as high as 7.1 m. The travertine formation...

  13. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines

  14. Geothermal: surface geothermal, low temperature geothermal, high temperature geothermal, stimulation-based high temperature geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the different geothermal energy technologies (as a whole, surface, low temperature, high temperature, and stimulated high temperature), this document proposes: brief definitions and descriptions of principle and operation, challenges and stakes regarding energy production, major actors in the World in terms of installed power and in France in terms of committed organisations, measurement units and key figures, typical locations, past and present exploitation, and future perspectives. Thus technologies like heat pumps or Canadian well among others, their strengths and weaknesses, and their use in electricity production are evoked

  15. Modeling research in low-medium temperature geothermal field, Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Kun(王坤); LI; Chunhua(李春华)

    2002-01-01

    The geothermal reservoir in Tianjin can be divided into two parts: the upper one is the porous medium reservoir in the Tertiary system; the lower one includes the basement reservoir in Lower Paleozoic and Middle-Upper Proterozoic. Hot springs are exposed in the northern mountain and confined geothermal water is imbedded in the southern plain. The geothermal reservoir is incised by several fractures. In recent years, TDS of the geothermal water have gone up along with the production rate increasing, along the eastern fracture zone (Cangdong Fracture and West Baitangkou Fracture). This means that the northern fracture system is the main seepage channel of the deep circulation geothermal water, and the reservoir has good connection in a certain area and definite direction. The isotopic research about hydrogen and carbon chronology indicates that the main recharge period of geothermal water is the Holocene Epoch, the pluvial and chilly period of 20 kaBP. The karst conduits in weathered carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic and the northeast regional fracture system are the main feeding channels of Tianjin geothermal water. Since the Holocene epoch, the geothermal water stayed at a sealed warm period. The tracer test in WR45 doublet system shows that the tracer test is a very effective measure for understanding the reservoir's transport nature and predicting the cooling time and transport velocity during the reinjection. 3-D numerical simulation shows that if the reinjection well keeps a suitable distance from the production well, reinjection will be a highly effective measure to extract more thermal energy from the rock matrix. The cooling of the production well will not be a problem.

  16. Seismic and magneto-telluric imaging for geothermal exploration at Jemez pueblo in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albrecht, Michael [LOS ALAMOS GEOTHERMAL

    2011-01-25

    A shallow geothermal reservoir in the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico may indicate a commercial-scale geothermal energy potential in the area. To explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, seismic surveys are conducted along three lines for the purpose of imaging complex subsurface structures near the Indian Springs fault zone. A 3-D magneto-telluric (MT) survey is also carried out in the same area. Seismic and MT imaging can provide complementary information to reveal detailed geologic formation properties around the fault zones. The high-resolution seismic images will be used together with MT images, geologic mapping, and hydrogeochemistry, to explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, and to determine whether a conunercial-scale geothermal resource exists for power generation or direct use applications after drilling and well testing.

  17. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  18. Assessment of geothermal development in Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamins, R.M.; Tinning, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed: the district of Puna prior to geothermal development, socioeconomic conditions, alternative modes of geothermal development, social benefits and costs of geothermal development, and geothermal development policy and its direction. (MHR)

  19. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  20. Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is part of the Bruneau-Grandview thermal anomaly, the largest geothermal area in the western US. This part of Owyhee County is the driest part of Idaho. The KGRA is associated with the southern boundary fault zone of the Snake River Plain. Thermal water, produced from numerous artesian wells in the region, is supplied from two major aquifers. Ecological concerns include the threatened Astragalus mulfordiae and the numerous birds of prey nesting in the Snake River canyon northwest of the KGRA. Extensive geothermal development may strain the limited health care facilities in the county. Ethnographic information suggests that there is a high probability of prehistoric cultural materials being remnant in the Hot Spring locality.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project: reservoir selection task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project has prepared a two-year program to develop and field test methods of stimulating geothermal wells. The program provides for six field experiments which progress in difficulty from low temperature reservoirs using current technology to high temperature reservoirs using advanced types of stimulation treatments. The process used to select the six field experiment locations and stimulation treatments is described. Tentatively, the following reservoirs are proposed: Raft River, East Mesa, Baca and Westmorland (two experiments), and Brawley and The Geysers or Roosevelt Hot Springs (two experiments). The program will be reviewed after each field treatment to select a specific well candidate for the next experiment and to determine whether alteration of the sequence will be beneficial to the overall success of the project and the geothermal industry.

  2. Eukaryotic microbial diversity of phototrophic microbial mats in two Icelandic geothermalhot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Rendueles, Olaya; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    The composition of the eukaryotic community and the three-dimensional structure of diverse phototrophic microbial mats from two hot springs in Iceland (Seltun and Hveradalir geothermal areas) were explored by comparing eukaryotic assemblages from microbial mats. Samples were collected in July 2007 from 15 sampling stations along thermal and pH gradients following both hot springs. Physicochemical data revealed high variability in terms of pH (ranging from 2.8 to 7), with high concentrations of heavy metals, including up to 20 g Fe/l, 80 mg Zn/l, 117 mg Cu/l, and 39 mg Ni/l at the most acidic sampling points. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA genes revealed a diversity of sequences related to several taxa, including members of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta, and Euglenophyta phyla as well as ciliates, amoebae, and stramenopiles. The closest relatives to some of the sequences detected came from acidophilic organisms, even when the samples were collected at circumneutral water locations. Electron microscopy showed that most of the microecosystems analyzed were organized as phototrophic microbial mats in which filamentous cyanobacteria usually appeared as a major component. Deposits of amorphous minerals rich in silica, iron, and aluminium around the filaments were frequently detected.

  3. Coil spring venting arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  4. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  5. Geothermal assessment of a portion of the Escalante Valley, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.; Gourley, C.

    1983-12-01

    In February 1981, the Utah geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS) contracted with the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the geothermal potential of an area proposed for a possible Missile Experimental (MX) operations base in the Escalante Valley region of Utah. Exploration techniques employed included a temperature survey, chemical analysis of springs and wells, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. The highest water temperatures recorded in the area, with the exceptions of a 60/sup 0/C (140/sup 0/F) geothermal exploration hole and Thermo Hot Springs (42 to 78/sup 0/C or 108 to 172/sup 0/F), were 27 and 28/sup 0/C (81 and 82/sup 0/F) at two wells located northwest of Zane, Utah.

  6. An approach for geochemical assessment of Chipilapa geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva, D.; Verma, M.P.; Portugal, E.; Torres, V.

    1993-01-28

    It presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of Chipilapa- Ahuachapan geothermal field through the highly diluted natural manifestations (springs and domestic wells) in its surroundings. The manifestations are classified in three main groups according to their mechanism of formation: high salinity water (HSW), medium salinity water (MSW), and Sulfated Water (SW). The reservoir temperature at Chipilapa geothermal field is around 220°C which is estimated with application of various chemical geothermometers. The isotopic studies indicate that the heating of local meteoric water with the separated steam of deep reservoir fluids is a dominating process in the formation of springs and domestic wells fluids. The process of formation of primary and secondary vapor explains the isotopic composition of fumaroles.

  7. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  8. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  9. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  10. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  11. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  12. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  13. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  14. Geothermal Power Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Перемитин, Д. В.; Воробьёва, Виктория Владимировна

    2015-01-01

    Our world is changing and it becomes more and more real to replace traditional sources of energy by new ones. Alternative sources of energy have a lot of pluses and minuses. Alternative energy seems to be really ef183 fective and geothermal energy as a type of alternative energy looks effective too. This paper deals with geothermal energy, its advantages and disadvantages, prospects of using this kind of energy.

  15. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  16. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970's study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may

  17. Overview of geothermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1978-05-01

    The technology of geothermal resource development includes the technologies associated with finding the resource, defining it well enough to invest in its development, plumbing it to move the heat from the earth to where it will be used, using it, and finally disposing of it. The base of earth sciences experience needed to adequately project limited data so as to discover and define a geothermal resource is growing rapidly as new resources are developed and elucidated. Technologies for moving the fluid are improving as new challenges are faced, e.g., the development of downhole pumps in order to increase flow rates from costly wells. Although a wide variety of applications of geothermal resources exist, still to be evaluated commercially are the use of binary cycles in electric power production and the possibility of using geothermal energy in the production of heavy water and in sugar milling and refining. Disposal of spent geothermal fluid underground (in contrast to surface disposal) is receiving increasing favor, both because of its greater acceptability from an environmental point of view and because of its beneficial effects on minimizing subsidence and recovering additional heat stored in rock framework of a geothermal reservoir.

  18. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  19. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  20. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 - 61 °C/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  2. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, Earl D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Energy Studies; Palmer, Carl D. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert W. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Podgorney, Robert K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL) and Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  3. Geothermal absorption refrigeration for food processing industries. Final report, December 13, 1976--November 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.L.; Olson, G.K.; Mah, C.S.; Bujalski, J.H.

    1977-11-01

    The first step in the economic analysis of the integration of geothermally powered absorption refrigeration into a food processing plant was an evaluation of the potential geothermal sites in the Western United States. The evaluation covered availability of raw materials, transportation, adequate geothermal source, labor, and other requirements for food processing plants. Several attractive geothermal sites were identified--Raft River, Idaho; Sespe Hot Springs, California; Vale Hot Springs, Oregon; Weisler-Crane Creek, Idaho; Cosco Hot Springs, California; and the Imperial Valley, California. The most economically attractive food processing industry was then matched to the site based on its particular energy, raw material, and transportation requirements. The more promising food processors identified were for frozen potato or vegetable products, freeze-dried products, and meat processing. For the refrigeration temperature range of +32/sup 0/F to -40/sup 0/F and geothermal temperature range of 212/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F, an absorption refrigeration system had to be identified, designed, and evaluated. Both the conventional ammonia/water and an organic absorption refrigeration system using monochlorodifluoromethane (R-22) as the refrigerant and dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the absorbent were studied. In general, only a 60/sup 0/F to 100/sup 0/F temperature drop would be effectively used for refrigeration leaving the remainder of the allowable temperature drop available for other use. The economic evaluation of the geothermal system installed in a food processing plant required the comparison of several principal alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated for three different food processing plants located at their optimum geothermal site: a forzen potato product processing plant located at Raft River, Idaho; a freeze-dried product plant located at Sespe Hot Springs, California; a beef slaughter operation located in the Imperial Valley of California. (JGB)

  4. 云南大理州洱源盆地温泉分布特征及成因分析%Study on Distribution Characteristics and Cause Analysis of the Eryuan Basin Geothermal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房艳国; 李茂华; 付调金; 邵玉冰; 董建辉

    2015-01-01

    对洱源盆地及周缘温泉的分布及其成因进行了初步研究, 研究表明: 洱源牛街—三营区及洱源—炼城区地热水水化学类型以HCO3 · SO4—Na· Ca型水为主, 中性, 含氡; 下山口—西湖温水村区内地热水为弱碱性, 富含偏硅酸、 锶、 锂、 偏硼酸、 钙等多种元素. 大气降水、 浅表岩溶水、 基岩裂隙水及深部循环地下水为各温泉井的补给来源, 断裂破碎带为地下热水、 浅层地下水及地表水提供了良好的循环交换通道. 热源主要由岩浆余热扩散、 放射性元素蜕变热 (氡是放射性元素铀、 镭等衰变的结果)、 正常地热增温及断裂活动摩擦生热等热源来源.%According to previous research,combined with field surveys,sampling and analysis,the authors preliminarily analyze the distributions and causes of the hot springs .Geothermal water chemistry type of the Eryuan Niujie-Sanying、Eryuan-Liancheng hot springs strip districts is HCO 3 · SO4—Na· Ca containing radon .The Geothermal water chemistry type of Xiashankou-Xihu geothermal hot springs strip district is alkalescent ,rich in silicic acid,strontium,lithium,borate, calcium and other elements .Atmospheric precipitation ,superficial karst water ,bedrock fracture water and deep groundwa-ter are the recharge sources of the hot springs ,Fracture zone provides a good circulation exchange channel between the underground water ,shallow groundwater and surface water .The heat source of hot springs include magma heat diffusion , radioactive decay heat ,normal geothermal warming and faulting friction heat .

  5. Geothermal handbook. Geothermal project, 1976. [Ecological effects of geothermal resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The geothermal program of Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior, aims to develop ecologically sound practices for the exploration, development, and management of geothermal resources and the identification of the biological consequences of such development so as to minimize adverse effects on fish and wildlife resources. This handbook provides information about the ecological effects of geothermal resource development. Chapters are included on US geothermal resources; geothermal land leasing; procedures for assessing the effects on fish and game; environmental impact of exploratory and field development operations; and wildlife habitat improvement methods for geothermal development.

  6. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  7. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  8. Geochemistry of the geothermal system of Paipa, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most relevant results obtained through the present study, carried out in the frame of a co-operation project between INGEOMINAS (The Colombian Geological Survey) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), are: The chemical composition of the most cold and hot springs at Paipa geothermal area are dominated by a sodium sulfate source, which 'masks' their chemical and isotopical compositions, preventing the application of the conventional geochemical evaluation of the geothermal system. Warm and hot waters at Paipa geothermal area show a high δ18O enrichment, which could not be explained by evaporation. Likely the most probable process justifying such an enrichment is the contribution from hydration water (highly δ18O enriched), from miralbilite (Na2SO4 · 10H2O,) a non-marine evaporitic deposit. Geothermal conservative species (Cl, B, Li) do not follow a correlation with temperature (the geothermal system) but they seem to be controlled by the contribution of the saline bank in both cold and hot waters. On the other hand, high fluoride concentrations are related to the underground temperature (SiO2 content) but not to the salt source, suggesting that its source is likely hydrothermal. A mixing process between high and low salinity waters is register in the Paipa system, which involves cold and hot waters. From the aqueous geothermometer only silica can be applied at Paipa springs, indicating at least 120 deg. C in the reservoir. However from the Enthalpy-silica mixing model, it probably is a high temperature system (160-230 deg.). A preliminary hydrological conceptual model of the system is proposed integrating the geochemical and isotopical composition: Recharge about 3500 masl, assuming it from the recharge of cold and low salinity waters, infiltration of precipitation water to the proximity of the heat source where the fluid is heated up at more than 120 deg. C, mixing along the upflow with high salinity groundwater and an aligned discharge zone, which

  9. In situ ecophysiology of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Tringe, S. G.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Rusch, D.; Schmid, M.; Wagner, M.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    The candidate phylum Aigarchaeota contains thermophilic archaea from terrestrial, subsurface, and marine geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, an accurate description of their metabolism, potential ecological interactions, and role in biogeochemical cycling is lacking. Here we report possible ecological interactions and the in situ metabolism of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, terrestrial hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community (Octopus Spring, pH = 8; T = 78 - 84 °C, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was combined with detailed genomic and transcriptomic reconstruction to elucidate the ecophysiological role of Aigarchaeota in these streamer communities. This novel population of Aigarchaeota are filamentous (~500 nm diameter by ~10-30 μm length), which is consistent with the morphology predicted by the presence and transcription of a single actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganotroph. A single heme copper oxidase complex was identified in de novo genome assemblies, and was highly transcribed in environmental samples. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, sugars, peptides, and aromatic compounds. Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this population of Aigarchaeota likely utilizes a broad range of reduced carbon substrates. Potential electron donors for this population may include extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms in close proximity. Flagellum genes were also highly transcribed, which suggests a potential mechanism for motility and/or cell-cell attachment

  10. Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wespes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O3 together with HNO3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O3 and HNO3 into the Arctic (north of 60° N. The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15%, but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O3 with HNO3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses.

    Based on model simulations of O3 and HNO3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressures greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer.

    Additional analysis of tropospheric O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made

  11. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  12. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  13. National Geothermal Data System: A Geothermal Data System for Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Patten, Kim [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Love, Diane [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Coleman, Celia [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Chen, Genhan [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Data System (GDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. A growing set of more than thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define standardized interchange formats for: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, seismic event hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature description data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal characterization, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed based on existing community datasets to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate content quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other GDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, Southern Methodist University, Oregon Institute of Technology, Stanford University, the University of Utah) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to

  14. Geology and hydrogeochemistry of the Jungapeo CO 2-rich thermal springs, State of Michoacán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Claus; Goff, Fraser; Armienta, María Aurora; Counce, Dale; Poreda, Robert; Chipera, Steve

    2007-06-01

    We present the first geothermal assessment of the Jungapeo CO 2-rich mineral springs, which are located in the eastern part of Michoacán State (central Mexico) at the southern limit of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. All but one of the > 10 springs occur at the lower contact of the distal olivine-bearing basaltic andesite lavas of the Tuxpan shield, a 0.49- to 0.60-Ma-old cluster of monogenetic scoria cones and lava flows. The Tuxpan shield has a maximum radius of 6 km and was constructed on top of a folded and faulted Cretaceous basement consisting largely of marine limestones, marls, and shales. The mineral waters are characterized by moderate temperatures (28 to 32 °C), mild acidity (pH from 5.5 to 6.5), relatively high discharge rates, effervescence of CO 2 gas, clarity at emergence and abundant subsequent precipitation of hydrous iron, silica oxides, and carbonates around pool margins and issuing streamlets. Chemical and isotopic (deuterium, oxygen, and tritium) analyses of water and gas samples obtained during the period 1991-1997 indicate that the springs are largely composed of meteoric water from a local source with relatively short residence times (water ages of 7 to 25 years). Spring waters are chemically characterized by moderate SiO 2, Ca + Mg nearly equal to Na + K, high HCO 3, moderate to low Cl, low F and SO 4, high B, moderate Li, while Br and As are low. In contrast, Fe + Mn is exceptionally high. Thus, the Jungapeo waters cannot be regarded as high-temperature geothermal fluids. Instead, they resemble soda spring waters similar to other low-to-medium temperature soda waters in the world. Gas samples are extremely rich in CO 2 with no detectable geothermal H 2S or H 2 and very low contents of CH 4 and NH 3, indicating the gases are not derived from a high-temperature resource. Carbon-13 analyses of CO 2 show a narrow range (- 6.7‰ and - 7.2‰) that falls within the range for MORB CO 2. Thus, most CO 2 seems to originate from the mantle but

  15. Geothermal resources, present and future demand for power and legislation in the State of Wyoming. Public information series 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, E.R.

    1976-03-01

    Data on thermal springs and wells in Wyoming, exclusive of Yellowstone Park, are summarized. The presentation includes a map showing general spring and well locations outside the Park and lands in Wyoming that have been classified as being prospectively of geothermal value. Locations and geothermal data on the springs and wells are tabulated and a short table of chemical analyses of spring waters is also presented. Although thermal data constitute most of the material presented, the present and future demands for electrical energy in Wyoming are also summarized, and state legislation pertaining to exploration near thermal springs is reviewed. A list of state and federal agencies is included so that interested parties may obtain copies of pertinent legislation and information on the status of land.

  16. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  18. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  19. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  20. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  1. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  2. Multicolored Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIWEN

    2005-01-01

    Far and away the most important holiday in China is Spring Festival, also known as Chinese New Year. It has the same significance for the Chinese people as Christmas has for people in the West. Spring Festival traditionally calls for a thorough house cleaning before pasting up Spring couplets, images of Gate-Gods, New Year Paintings and papercuts. Sacrifices are also offered to various gods and ancestors,and everyone dresses in their best clothes to see in the new year. All this is done in the hope of good fortune for the coming year.But would you prefer to experience Spring Festival with a difference? The following four destinations offer something for everyone.

  3. Springs of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. B. W.

    1996-03-01

    Predictably, in a country such as Britain, with its preponderance of consolidated, sedimentary, mainly fissure-flow aquifers, there is a very large number of springs, many of which are, or have been, used for public supply. Migratory springs are a feature of the British (Ur. Cretaceous) Chalk, the most important British aquifer. The Chalk's low specific yield and high capillary moisture retention together give rise to very considerable fluctuations (more than 33 m in some areas) of the unconfined water table. Along the gentle dip slopes of the Chalk (North and South Downs of southern and southeastern England) springs may migrate laterally for several miles, giving rise to seasonal streams locally known as “bournes” or “lavants”. However, springs such as at Duncton, West Sussex, at the base of the much steeper scarp slopes of the Chalk, form point sources, the flows from which tend to be relatively steady; such springs commonly supply and are the original reason for the existence of many of the small towns and villages which nestle along the bases of the chalk scarps of Sussex and Kent. Where the Chalk forms coastal cliffs, a number of springs break out at the base of the cliff between high and low tide levels; there are major chalk coastal springs, for instance, at St. Margaret's Bay (Kent) and at Arish Mells, east of Lulworth Cove, Dorset. Such springs are not used for direct supply (their salinity is usually too high) but are indicators of the presence of local reserves of groundwater for possible future development.

  4. Geothermal energy program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  5. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  6. Project Financial Summary Report Concerning Financing Surface Facilities for a 50 Megawatt Geothermal Electric Power Plant Facility in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-23

    This report summarizes the economic and financial conditions pertaining to geothermal electric power plant utilization of geothermal fluids produced from the Roosevelt Hot springs area of Utah. The first year of electric power generation is scheduled to be 1982. The non-resource facilities will be called ''surface facilities'' and include the gathering system, the power plant, the substation, and the injection system.

  7. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  8. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  9. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  10. Effect of Film Mulching on Fruit Quality and Components of Sugars and Organic Acids of Luxing Nectarine and Spring Snow Peach%覆膜对鲁星油桃和春雪桃果实品质和糖酸组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 杨建明; 李慧峰; 刘伟; 李林光

    2013-01-01

    以鲁星油桃和春雪桃为试材,采用果园覆膜处理研究其对果实品质和糖酸组分的影响.结果表明:覆膜处理鲁星的果实单果重、纵径、横径、侧径、可滴定酸和维生素C含量较对照均显著升高,可溶性固形物和可溶性糖含量显著降低;覆膜处理对春雪果实的影响趋势与鲁星类似,但程度较小,各项指标均未达到显著水平.在鲁星和春雪果实中分别检测到4种糖组分:葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖和山梨醇;3种有机酸组分:苹果酸、柠檬酸和琥珀酸.2个品种糖酸组分均以蔗糖和苹果酸含量最高.苹果酸和柠檬酸含量较高是造成鲁星果实酸含量显著高于春雪果实的主要原因.覆膜鲁星和春雪果实蔗糖含量均显著低于对照,苹果酸含量均显著高于对照.%The effects of film mulching on fruit quality, components of sugars and organic acids were analyzed with Luxing nectarine and Spring Snow peach as materials. The results showed that film mulching could significantly increase the single fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, side diameter, titrat-able acid and vitamin C contents of Luxing nectarine, but significantly decrease the contents of soluble solid and soluble sugar. The influence of film mulching on Spring Snow peach was similar to Luxing, but the level was not significant. Four soluble sugars and three organic acids in fruit flesh of Luxing and Spring Snow were detected as sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol and malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid. In which, sucrose and malic acid were the dominant constituents. The higher malic and citric acid was the main factor caused the acid content of Luxing higher than Spring Snow significantly. Film mulching resulted in lower sucrose but higher malic acid of Luxing and Spring Snow compared to the control.

  11. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  12. Linking microbial oxidation of arsenic with detection and phylogenetic analysis of arsenite oxidase genes in diverse geothermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, N; Macur, R E; Korf, S; Ackerman, G; Taylor, W P; Kozubal, M; Reysenbach, A-L; Inskeep, W P

    2009-02-01

    The identification and characterization of genes involved in the microbial oxidation of arsenite will contribute to our understanding of factors controlling As cycling in natural systems. Towards this goal, we recently characterized the widespread occurrence of aerobic arsenite oxidase genes (aroA-like) from pure-culture bacterial isolates, soils, sediments and geothermal mats, but were unable to detect these genes in all geothermal systems where we have observed microbial arsenite oxidation. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to measure arsenite-oxidation rates in geochemically diverse thermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) ranging in pH from 2.6 to 8, and to identify corresponding 16S rRNA and aroA genotypes associated with these arsenite-oxidizing environments. Geochemical analyses, including measurement of arsenite-oxidation rates within geothermal outflow channels, were combined with 16S rRNA gene and aroA functional gene analysis using newly designed primers to capture previously undescribed aroA-like arsenite oxidase gene diversity. The majority of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences found in acidic (pH 2.6-3.6) Fe-oxyhydroxide microbial mats were closely related to Hydrogenobaculum spp. (members of the bacterial order Aquificales), while the predominant sequences from near-neutral (pH 6.2-8) springs were affiliated with other Aquificales including Sulfurihydrogenibium spp., Thermocrinis spp. and Hydrogenobacter spp., as well as members of the Deinococci, Thermodesulfobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria. Modified primers designed around previously characterized and newly identified aroA-like genes successfully amplified new lineages of aroA-like genes associated with members of the Aquificales across all geothermal systems examined. The expression of Aquificales aroA-like genes was also confirmed in situ, and the resultant cDNA sequences were consistent with aroA genotypes identified in the same environments. The aroA sequences

  13. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  14. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  15. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  16. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.

  17. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two

  18. Hawaii Geothermal Resource Assessment Program: western state cooperative direct heat resource assessment, Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A regional geothermal resource assessment has been conducted for the major islands in the Hawaiian chain. The assessment was made through the compilation and evaluation of the readily accessible geological, geochemical, and geophysical data for the Hawaiian archipelago which has been acquired during the last two decades. The geologic criteria used in the identification of possible geothermal reservoirs were: age and location of most recent volcanism on the island and the geologic structure of each island. The geochemical anomalies used as traces for geothermally altered ground water were: elevated silica concentrations and elevated chloride/magnesium ion ratios. Geophysical data used to identify subsurface structure which may have geothermal potential were: aeromagnetic anomalies, gravity anomalies, and higher than normal well and basal spring discharge temperatures. Geophysical and geochemical anomalies which may be the result of subsurface thermal effects have been identified on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai and Oahu.

  19. Potential geothermal resources in Hawaii: a preliminary regional survey. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.; Cox, M.; Erlandson, D.; Kajiwara, L.

    1979-06-01

    A regional geothermal resource assessment has been conducted for the major islands in the Hawaiian chain. The assessment was made through the compilation and evaluation of the readily accessible geological, geochemical, and geophysical data for the Hawaiian Archipelago that have been acquired during the last two decades. The geologic criteria used in the identification of possible geothermal reservoirs were age and location of most recent volcanism on the island and the geologic structure of each island. The geochemical anomalies used as traces for geothermally altered groundwater were elevated silica concentrations and elevated chloride/magnesium ion ratios. Geophysical data used to identify subsurface structure with possible geothermal potential were aeromagnetic anomalies, gravity anomalies, and higher-than-normal well and basal spring discharge temperatures. Geophysical and geochemical anomalies that may be the result of subsurface thermal effects have been identified on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu.

  20. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  1. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  2. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  3. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  4. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  5. Geothermal Systems for School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  6. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  7. Geothermal energy in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the extent of exploitation of geothermal resources in France as of 1975. The first section deals with the geothermal resource potential of the country, as determined from data drawn from exploratory and petroleum research drilling. In the regions of Paris and Alsace which are characterized by highly regular geological structure, geothermal reservoirs are successively described according to their stratigraphic order. The tectonic structure of Aquitaine and the South of France is complicated; consequently, it is less well understood. Isotherms and the areal extent of various aquiferous layers are mapped for each region. The Paris basin has several reservoirs suited for exploitation, whereas the thermal waters of Aquitaine are extensive but not conveniently recoverable. The second section reviews the economic and technical aspects of thermal water utilization. The drilling techniques used are similar to those employed in the petroleum industry. Reinjection of waste water generally allows more efficient operation. The duration of production can be estimated using graphic or numerical calculations. A general description is provided of the utilization of geothermal energy for space heating. Methods of optimizing this application are presented and discussed.

  8. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  9. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  10. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings; Der Geothermiekongress 2012. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-16

    ); (15) GEOGRUND*: Transfer of the TCS process into the borehole (David Sauer); (16) 'Heat-in-place-density' - An example for the evaluation of the geothermal potential in Saarland (Hagen Deckert); (17) Experiences of the acidity stimulation of geothermal aquifers and plants (Markus Wolfgramm); (18) Geothermal Atlas for the depiction of possible utilization competitions between CCS and deep geothermy - Methodology and results (E. Suchi); (19) Development of a cooling system for geothermal bore hole probes (Benedict Holbein); (20) Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations (Sebastian Feige); (21) Innovative treatment of groundwater as a condition of an efficient air conditioning in buildings by utilization of near-surface geothermal energy (C. Meyer); (22) Preparation of planning maps for the utilization of near-surface geothermal energy with geo-physical methods (Reinhard Kirsch); (23) Deep geothermal probe Heubach - Progress of the project and facility planning by using an application example (David Kuntz); (24) Realistic numeric models for the simulation of potential geothermal reservoirs in the north-west German basin (Dorothea Reyer); (25) Monobore tracer test sensitivity compared with crack parameters and rock parameter: Lection Horstberg (Iulia Ghergut); (26) Infrastructure of fault zones in red sandstone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Johanna F. Bauer); (27) Characterization of fault zones in shell limestone of the Upper Rhine basin - Digestion analogue studies (Silke Meier).

  11. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  12. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  13. Recent exploration and development of geothermal energy resources in the Escalante desert region, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, Robert E.; Ross, Howard P.

    1994-01-01

    Development of geothermal resources in southwest Utah's Sevier thermal area continued in the early 1990s with expansion of existing power-generation facilities. Completion of the Bud L. Bonnett geothermal power plant at the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area brought total power generation capacity of the facility to 13.5 MWe (gross). At Cove Fort-Sulphurdate, recent declines in steam pressures within the shallow, vapor-dominated part of the resource prompted field developers to complete additional geothermal supply wells into the deeper, liquid-dominated portion of the resource. At Roosevelt Hot Springs near Milford, Intermountain Geothermal Company completed an additional supply well for Utah Power and Light Company's single-flash, Blundell plant. with the increased geothermal fluid supply from the new well, the Blundell plant now produces about 26 MWe (gross). The authors conducted several geothermal resource studies in undeveloped thermal areas in southwest Utah. Previous studies at Newcastle revealed a well-defined, self-potential minimum coincident with the intersection of major faults and the center of the heatflow anomaly. A detailed self-potential survey at Wood's Ranch, an area in northwest Iron County where thermal water was encountered in shallow wells, revealed a large (5,900 ?? 2,950 feet [1,800 ?? 900 m]) northeast-oriented self-potential anomaly which possibly results from the flow of shallow thermal fluid. Chemical geothermometry applied to Wood's Ranch water samples suggest reservoir temperatures between 230 and 248??F (110 and 120??C). At the Thermo Hot Springs geothermal area near Minersville, detailed self-potential surveys have also revealed an interesting 100 mV negative anomaly possibly related to the upward flow of hydrothermal fluid.

  14. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 1500C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  15. Geothermal energy; L'energie geothermique. Un grand potentiel et de nombreuses applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-07-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW{sub el}. Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW{sub th}. The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power.

  16. Geothermal gradients map of Hokkaido; Hokkaido no chion kobaizu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, F.; Matsunami, T.; Wakahama, H. [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    This paper outlines the newly prepared geothermal gradient map (GGM) of Hokkaido which is important for survey on geothermal and hot spring resources. The temperature data of 687 wells were compiled by data collection and field survey. The geothermal gradient was calculated from the ratio of the temperature difference between the bottom (deepest well log) and the ground surface (10degC) to a bottom depth. GGM was prepared using data of 85 wells which show real geothermal temperatures through conductive temperature profiles, or SBHT (static bottom hole temperature) calculation is possible. Geological profiles were classified into three types based on base rocks. The thermal structure of GGM was clearly divided into a high geothermal gradient over 10degC/100m, and a low one within 3degC/100m. The former showed active volcano and high geothermal areas, while the latter showed a volcanic front arc area. This underground temperature structure relates to the formation process of volcanos and the origin of magma, and is also similar to the trend of a crust thermal flow rate. The geothermal gradient increases with a decrease in Curie point depth. 26 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Application of isotope and geochemical techniques to geothermal exploration in Southeast China - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot springs that are widely distributed in the SE coastal area of China and there have been a subject of dispute on their genesis and origin. Since mid 80's, with the support of the IAEA Research Contracts, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in the region. The techniques have proven to be very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. 2H and 18O have been employed to study the origin and recharge of the systems, while 3H and 14C have been used to determine the age of the geothermal fluids. Fluid/mineral equilibrium modelling is also useful for the calibration and use of conventional chemical geothermometers and makes reservoir temperature prediction more reliable. Different geothermal systems from Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan Provinces were selected for the study. Results show that the geothermal systems in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature geothermal systems of convective type, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with magmatic heat sources underneath. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  18. Swiss statistics on the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland for the years 2000 and 2001; Statistik Geothermische Nutzung der Schweiz fuer die Jahre 2000 und 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, T.; Andenmatten, N.; Rybach, L.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project that involved the collection of data on the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland. Two categories of use are looked at: firstly, the thermal use of geothermal heat sources for heating purposes with the help of heat pumps and, secondly, the direct use of geothermal energy, mostly in thermal spas. Data is given on geothermal heat extraction using bore-hole heat-exchangers, buried ground-loops, ground-water, geothermal structures, deep bore-holes, tunnel drainage, deep heat aquifers and thermal springs. Recommendations are made on how data collection and reporting can be improved. Also, changes in the use of geothermal energy noted during the reporting period are commented on.

  19. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the exploration of an anomalous site near Marysville, Montana, where the geothermal heat flow is about 10 times the regional average. The site arouses scientific interest because there are no surface manifestations such as young volcanics, hot springs, geysers, etc., within 20 miles of it. Also, there is significant economic interest in exploring the source of heat as a potential for the generation of electricity. Included herein are independent sections prepared by each contractor. Consequently, there is some overlapping information, generally presented from different viewpoints. The project consists of geophysical surveys in 1973 and 1974, the drilling of the deep well in the summer of 1974 to a depth of 6790 feet, the coring and logging of the well, the supporting scientific studies, and the data analysis. Since so much data are available on the Marysville system, it can serve as a testing and research area to help locate and understand similar systems. (GRA)

  20. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  1. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  2. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  3. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  4. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  5. Assessment of the geothermal potential of southwestern New Mexico. Final report, July 1, 1978-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Results are reported of geologic mapping of geothermal anomalies in the Gila Hot Springs KGRA/Mimbres Hot Springs area, Grant County. They suggest that both hot-spring occurrences are structurally controlled by the intersection of a major Basin and Range fault and the disturbed margin of an ash-flow tuff cauldron. Hydrothermal alteration in both areas is related to mid-Tertiary volcanism, not to modern hot springs. At Gila Hot Springs, the geothermal aquifer is a zone at the contact between the unwelded top of a major ash-flow tuff sheet (Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff) and a succession of interlayered vesicular basaltic andesite flows and thin sandstone beds (Bearwallow Mountain Formation). Scattered groups of natural hot springs occur at intersections of this zone and the faults bordering the northeastern side of the Gila Hot Springs graben. Hydrothermal alteration of Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff near major faults seems to have increased its permeability. At Mimbres Hot Springs, a single group of hot springs is controlled by the intersection of the Mimbres Hot Springs fault and a fractured welded ash-flow tuff that fills the Emory cauldron (Kneeling Nun Tuff). Gila Hot Springs and Mimbres Hot Springs do not seem to be connected by throughgoing faults. At both localities, hot spring water is used locally for space heating and domestic hot water; at Gila Hot Springs, water of 65.6/sup 0/C (150/sup 0/F) is used to generate electricity by means of a 10 kw freon Rankine Cycle engine. This is the first such application in New Mexico.

  6. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  7. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  8. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  9. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  10. Estimating the Prospectivity of Geothermal Resources Using the Concept of Hydrogeologic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Blackwell, David; Harp, Dylan; Karra, Satish; Kelley, Richard; Kelley, Shari; Middleton, Richard; Person, Mark; Sutula, Glenn; Witcher, James

    2016-04-01

    In this Geothermal Play Fairways Analysis project we sought to develop new ways to analyze geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data to reduce the risk and increase the prospects of successful geothermal exploration and development. We collected, organized, and analyzed data from southwest New Mexico in the context of an integrated framework that combines the data for various signatures of a geothermal resource into a cohesive analysis of the presence of heat, fluid, and permeability. We incorporated data on structural characteristics (earthquakes, geophysical logs, fault location and age, basement depth), topographic and water table elevations, conservative ion concentrations, and thermal information (heat flow, bottom hole temperature, discharge temperature, and basement heat generation). These data were combined to create maps that indicate structural analysis, slope, geothermometry, and heat. We also mapped discharge areas (to constrain elevations where groundwater may be discharged through modern thermal springs or paleo-thermal springs) and subcrops: possible erosionally- or structurally-controlled breaches in regional-scale aquitards that form the basis of our hydrogeologic windows concept. These two maps were particularly useful in identifying known geothermal systems and narrowing the search for unknown geothermal prospects. We further refined the "prospectivity" of the areas within the subcrops and discharge areas by developing and applying a new method for spatial association analysis to data on known and inferred faults, earthquakes, geochemical thermometers, and heat flow. This new methodology determines the relationships of the location and magnitudes of observations of these data with known geothermal sites. The results of each of the six spatial association analyses were weighted between 0 and 1 and summed to produce a prospectivity score between 0 and 6, with 6 indicating highest geothermal potential. The mean value of prospectivity for all

  11. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  12. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  13. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海霞

    2008-01-01

    The Spring Festival(the Lunar New Year)is one of the most traditional(传统的)Chinese folk(民间的)festivals.Do you know the history of it?Do you know how the Chinese people celebrate(庆祝的)it?Do you know the English expressions(英语表达)about it?

  14. Spring Festival Cauplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times,Chnese peoplecustomarily hung peach wood to warnagmnst evil on their gates on lunar NewYear’s Eve—a pair of rectangular peachwood tablets inscribed with statues ofgods,and later on with a poetic couplet.and that was the beginning of SpringFestival couplets(also called

  15. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  16. HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF ORTAKÇI HOT AND MINERALIZED SPRING (BUHARKENT-AYDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KAYA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and discharge of the Ortakçı hot and mineralized water are 48.1 °C and 2.4 l/s, respectively. The spring has being formed as a result of ascending geothermal fluid due to the tectonic activity of the region. The geothermal fluid within joints has not been reached to chemical equilibrium with host rock which consists of gneiss, quartzite and schist. Ortakçı thermal water is the type of Na-SO4-HCO3 and subsurface temperature calculated using chemical geothermometers is about 80 °C.

  17. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  18. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  19. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  20. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  1. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  2. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings, the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly

  3. Dark horse : long in the shadows of clean energies such as wind and solar power, geothermal energy may be coming to Alberta's oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2008-05-15

    The growth of the geothermal energy industry in Alberta was discussed. Geothermal energy can be captured by drilling into the earth in order to mine its inherent heat, which is then converted into electricity by generating turbines driven by natural steam or binary fluids heated by hot geothermal water. Drilling costs are typically constitute a huge part of the costs associated with using geothermal energy. In Alberta, attempts are now being made to convert deep abandoned oil and gas wells with high temperature water to geothermal power generation in order to reduce the capital costs of standard geothermal projects. A research program is currently testing wells drilled below 2500 metres with bottomhole temperatures higher than 120 degrees C. The aim of the project was to create 2 to 3 MW of power for a new industrial park. Geothermal energy is also being used to provide base-load electricity generation. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) technologies can be deployed commercially on timescales that will produce more than 100,000 MW by 2050. The United States currently has 3200 MW of installed geothermal electricity generation. New Canadian prospects for geothermal electricity may be developed at sites in British Columbia located near hot springs. 1 fig.

  4. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  5. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  6. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  7. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  8. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  9. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  10. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  11. Unlocking Indonesia's Geothermal Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    This report was produced jointly by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank and is based on a series of technical assistance activities conducted during 2013-2014. The study documents key issues that have constrained the development of Indonesia's geothermal power development sector, including tari?s, tendering processes, financial considerations, permitting, and inter-agency coordination. The report then makes a set of comprehensive recommendations to unlock the potential of the sector...

  12. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  13. Stanford Geothermal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  14. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  16. Outlook on principles for designing integrated and cascade use of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5oC. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and

  17. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  18. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  19. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  20. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    CERN Document Server

    Serna, Juan D

    2010-01-01

    Springs are used for any imaginable purpose and all sort of things in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of its most common uses is to study the real nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify the Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only a single spring is presented. The easy setup and accurate results makes this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  1. Geothermal exploration in Trans-Pecos, Texas/New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.; Taylor, B.; Miklas, M.P. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Interest in alternative energy has encouraged the investigation of possible geothermal resources in Trans Pecos, Texas/New Mexico in an area of extensive Cenozoic volcanism with several hot springs. Geochemical analysis of groundwater samples resulted in the definition of two major areas of geothermal interest: the Hueco Bolson in northeastern El Paso County, and the Presidio Bolson. Regional temperature gradient measurements also supported the existence of anomalies in these places, and showed another smaller anomaly in the Finlay Mountains, Hudspeth County. Detailed geophysical and geochemical studies were conducted on these three targets.

  2. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  3. Geothermal characteristics in Korean peninsula for the disposal concept of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Han, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik

    2001-04-01

    In order to review the state-of-the-art of geothermal conditions and to supply the references for the concept development of high level radioactive waste disposal at deep geological formation in Korea. The existing data for the heat flow and geothermal gradient were evaluated and summarized over 300m in depth, which are mainly of the hot spring area. The heat flow in Korean peninsula is recorded as about 69mW/m{sup 2} and has no significant differences, in general. This value is regarsed as similar as the average value over Korean peninsula, of 71mW/m{sup 2}. This means The high geothermal anomalies are distributed around the south-western part of Korea and mainly covered with volcanic rocks. And, this value is within the range of the heat flow in Korean peninsula, as 50-80mW/m{sup 2}. The geothermal gradient in each rock type are also shown a similar pattern by depth in Korea as belows. The sedimentary rock area: 25.34 deg C/km The plutonic rock area: 25.24 deg C/km (mainly granites) The metamorphic rock area: 23.56 deg C/km And, the geothermal gradient was measured as about 30 deg C/km around north- eastern part of Korea in 1996, where is distributed with granites. These values has been evaluated according to the existing data, which were mainly from the records of hot spring, in general. However, these properties would be abe to a propper references consideration with the low geothermal and areal characteristics of Korean peninsular. In the following stages, it is suggested that geothermal characteristics should be evaluated for the preferred host rocks.

  4. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  5. The Beijing Spring 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The climax of China's spring 1989 student protest movement is well known, at least outside of China. Troops acting to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters and enforce martial law succeeded in their charge, firing automatic assault weapons on unarmed citizens and sometimes wildly into neighboring buildings. People were crushed under the tracks of armored personnel carriers as they moved in to smash the statue of the "Goddess of Democracy" that had come almost overnight to symbolize the movemen...

  6. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H-43, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H-43, campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    The well H-43 was drilled in Los Humeros Geothermal Field, Pue., in 2007 and 2008. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H-43 fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. This is a basic substance used to neutralize mainly the acid groups H+, and the goal was to raise the pH of the fluids to minimize its corrosive features. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of 244.4 mm (9 5/8 in) against corrosion and then all the surface installations. It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5.2 up to 6.8 without altering the steam production, thus demonstrating the neutralization procedure is feasible. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer (NaOH), and drilling the well are about 71.4 million pesos (around 5.5 million USD). We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 and a return on investment in five years, considering the income from energy sales at present value. [Spanish] El pozo H-43 fue perforado en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., en 2007-2008, y al evaluar su produccion se encontro que producia fluidos acidos de alto potencial corrosivo. Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esta es una sustancia basica que neutraliza principalmente los grupos acidos H+, con lo que se buscaba aumentar el pH del fluido lo necesario para reducir al maximo su caracter corrosivo. La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de 244.4 mm (9 5/8 pulgadas), y posteriormente a todos los equipos superficiales. Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5.2 a un maximo de 6

  7. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jessie [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States); Spaziani, Gina [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  8. Compilation of geothermal information: exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The Database for Geothermal Energy Exploration and Evaluation is a printout of selected references to publications covering the development of geothermal resources from the identification of an area to the production of elecric power. This annotated bibliography contains four sections: references, author index, author affiliation index, and descriptor index.

  9. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  10. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  11. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  12. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  13. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  14. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  15. FINITE ELEMENT NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR THE HYDRODYNAMIC FIELD EVOLUTION OF GEOTHERMAL WATER IN THE NANWENQUAN ANTICLINE IN CHONGQING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-ju; LIU Dong-yan; LIU Xin-rong

    2006-01-01

    The Nanwenquan (South Hot Spring) and Xiao quan (Small Hot Spring) in the Nanwenquan anticline are well-known attraction for their geothermal water, but currently, the two natural hot springs have hot flow naturally. In order to protect the geothermal water resource, the evolution of hydrodynamic field must be researched for the causation of the hydrodynamic field destroyed. The finite element numerical simulation was adopted and quantitative study on the geothermal water hydrodynamic field. The finite element model was set up to simulate the research sites, the simulated water level was compared with the actual water level, the feasibility of this model was proved when the simulated water level is approximate to actual one, and an applicable finite element model was obtained. The finite element model was used to simulate the evolution of the hydrodynamic field. This paper supplies a basis to exploit adequately and protect effectively the geothermal water resource, at the same time it is proved feasible in practice to apply finite element numerical simulation to quantitative study of the geothermal water.

  16. Geothermal resource assessment of the New England states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    With the exception of Sand Springs in Williamstown, Massachusetts, there are no identifiable hydrothermal geothermal resources in the New England region. The radioactive plutons of the White Mountains of New Hampshire do not, apparently, contain sufficient stored heat to make them a feasible target for an induced hydrothermal system such as exists at Fenton Hill near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The only potential source of low grade heat is the large volume of ground water contained within the unconsolidated sediments related to the Pleistocene glaciation of the region. During the course of the survey an unusual and unexplained thermal anomaly was discovered in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, which is described.

  17. Geobotanical characterization of a geothermal system using hyperspectral imagery: Long Valley Caldera, CA; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed hyperspectral Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging System (AVIRIS) imagery taken in September of 1992 in Long Valley Caldera, CA, a geothermally active region expressed surficially by hot springs and fumaroles. Geological and vegetation mapping are attempted through spectral classification of imagery. Particular hot spring areas in the caldera are targeted for analysis. The data is analyzed for unique geobotanical patterns in the vicinity of hot springs as well as gross identification of dominant plant and mineral species. Spectra used for the classifications come from a vegetation spectral library created for plant species found to be associated with geothermal processes. This library takes into account the seasonality of vegetation by including spectra for species on a monthly basis. Geological spectra are taken from JPL and USGS mineral libraries. Preliminary classifications of hot spring areas indicate some success in mineral identification and less successful vegetation species identification. The small spatial extent of individual plants demands either sub-pixel analysis or increased spatial resolution of imagery. Future work will also include preliminary analysis of a hyperspectral thermal imagery dataset and a multitemporal air photo dataset. The combination of these remotely sensed datasets for Long Valley will yield a valuable product for geothermal exploration efforts in other regions

  18. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  19. Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of the 'Canton de Vaud', Switzerland; Evaluation du potentiel geothermique du canton de Vaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J. [Jules Wilhelm, Pully (Switzerland); Bianchetti, G. [ALPGEO, Sierre (Switzerland); Vuataz, F.-D. [University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of the geothermal energy potential in the provincial state of Vaud in western Switzerland. According to the authors the prospect for the three current main technologies: low-temperature surface water, deep hot water springs and advanced geothermal systems, is good. In about 10 years it would be possible to extract some 3.6x10{sup 6} MJ per year from low-temperature surface water while the energy production from deep hot springs could be near to 2x10{sup 4} MJ. Finally, in the forthcoming 20 years the construction of 3 advanced geothermal power plants ('Deep Heat Mining', i.e. the extraction of deep-rock thermal energy by water circulation) could produce about 30 MW electricity in a cogeneration operation mode. Recommendations are given regarding measures needed at the political level to promote geothermal power plants.

  20. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  1. Structure of the geothermal industry through 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, W.D.

    1975-07-01

    The four topics covered are: the technical and institutional conditions that shape geothermal development, the factors that determine the value of a geothermal lease, patterns of bidding for geothermal leases offered by the Federal government, and the emerging structure of the geothermal industry.

  2. Geothermal electricity production at Azores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo da Ponte, C. [SOGEO-Sociedade Geotermica dos Acores, SA, Sao Muguel (Portugal)

    2000-09-01

    The fact of been located in the Middle Atlantic Ridge, the condition of its volcanic origin and all actual and passed volcanic activities shown in the Azores Islands raise the idea to exploit the geothermal for electricity production. The development of that idea starts around three decades ago and the first milestone was the start up of Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant (1980) feed by PV1 well. The second one was the successful operation of Ribeira Grande Geothermal Power Plant considering the of production CL1 and CL2 wells. Evaluation studies of geothermal resources of the Azorean islands tend to the conclusion that every islands has more potential geothermal resources able to satisfy its energy needs except S. Maria Island. (orig.)

  3. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  4. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  5. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  6. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Approach for Establishing Geothermal Play Fairways and Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin Region, Western USA: A Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Shevenell, Lisa A.; Siler, Drew L.; dePolo, Craig M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corne; Oppliger, G.; Wannamaker, P.; Queen, John H.; Visser, Charles

    2015-09-02

    We have undertaken an integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical study of a broad 240-km-wide, 400-km-long transect stretching from west-central to eastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western USA. The main goal of this study is to produce a comprehensive geothermal potential map that incorporates up to 11 parameters and identifies geothermal play fairways that represent potential blind or hidden geothermal systems. Our new geothermal potential map incorporates: 1) heat flow; 2) geochemistry from springs and wells; 3) structural setting; 4) recency of faulting; 5) slip rates on Quaternary faults; 6) regional strain rate; 7) slip and dilation tendency on Quaternary faults; 8) seismologic data; 9) gravity data; 10) magnetotelluric data (where available); and 11) seismic reflection data (primarily from the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins). The transect is respectively anchored on its western and eastern ends by regional 3D modeling of the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins, which will provide more detailed geothermal potential maps of these two promising areas. To date, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets have been assembled into an ArcGIS platform and combined into a preliminary predictive geothermal play fairway model using various statistical techniques. The fairway model consists of the following components, each of which are represented in grid-cell format in ArcGIS and combined using specified weights and mathematical operators: 1) structural component of permeability; 2) regional-scale component of permeability; 3) combined permeability, and 4) heat source model. The preliminary model demonstrates that the multiple data sets can be successfully combined into a comprehensive favorability map. An initial evaluation using known geothermal systems as benchmarks to test interpretations indicates that the preliminary modeling has done a good job assigning relative ranks of geothermal potential. However, a major challenge is defining

  7. Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

  8. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  9. Energy from the Earth's core. Using geothermal power efficiently; Heisse Energiequellen. Erdwaerme effizient nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    The heat stored and flowing beneath the surface of the Earth is an endless source of natural energy. It powers volcanoes, hot springs and geysers - and could supply the world with warmth and power. Linde engineers are using innovative technologies to help capture this geothermal energy efficiently. (orig.)

  10. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  11. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced

  12. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  13. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  14. Hidden resources - power from geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update of the status of geothermal energy is given. The article presents a case for an increase in the use of environmentally-friendly geothermal energy for generation of electric power: at present, less than 0.25% of the world potential is used. In addition, there is potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. The article explains what is meant by 'geothermal energy,' utilization and production, environmental considerations, and the worldwide potential for geothermal energy

  15. Environmental constraints underpin the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of nifH in the Yellowstone geothermal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W

    2011-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a keystone process in many ecosystems, providing bioavailable forms of fixed nitrogen for members of the community. In the present study, degenerate primers targeting the nitrogenase iron protein-encoding gene (nifH) were designed and employed to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that underpin the distribution and diversity of nifH as a proxy for nitrogen-fixing organisms in the geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. nifH was detected in 57 of the 64 YNP springs examined, which varied in pH from 1.90 to 9.78 and temperature from 16°C to 89°C. This suggested that the distribution of nifH in YNP is widespread and is not constrained by pH and temperature alone. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis of nifH recovered from 13 different geothermal spring environments indicated that the phylogeny exhibits evidence for both geographical and ecological structure. Model selection indicated that the phylogenetic relatedness of nifH assemblages could be best explained by the geographic distance between sampling sites. This suggests that nifH assemblages are dispersal limited with respect to the fragmented nature of the YNP geothermal spring environment. The second highest ranking explanatory variable for predicting the phylogenetic relatedness of nifH assemblages was spring water conductivity (a proxy for salinity), suggesting that salinity may constrain the distribution of nifH lineages in geographically isolated YNP spring ecosystems. In summary, these results indicate a widespread distribution of nifH in YNP springs, and suggest a role for geographical and ecological factors in constraining the distribution of nifH lineages in the YNP geothermal complex.

  16. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  17. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  18. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  19. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  20. Copahue Geothermal System: A Volcanic Environment with Rich Extreme Prokaryotic Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sofía Urbieta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Copahue geothermal system is a natural extreme environment located at the northern end of the Cordillera de los Andes in Neuquén province in Argentina. The geochemistry and consequently the biodiversity of the area are dominated by the activity of the Copahue volcano. The main characteristic of Copahue is the extreme acidity of its aquatic environments; ponds and hot springs of moderate and high temperature as well as Río Agrio. In spite of being an apparently hostile location, the prokaryotic biodiversity detected by molecular ecology techniques as well as cultivation shows a rich and diverse environment dominated by acidophilic, sulphur oxidising bacteria or archaea, depending on the conditions of the particular niche studied. In microbial biofilms, found in the borders of the ponds where thermal activity is less intense, the species found are completely different, with a high presence of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species. Our results, collected during more than 10 years of work in Copahue, have enabled us to outline geomicrobiological models for the different environments found in the ponds and Río Agrio. Besides, Copahue seems to be the habitat of novel, not yet characterised autochthonous species, especially in the domain Archaea.

  1. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  2. Experiment at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, T; Ejiri, H; Fujiwara, M; Hotta, T; Matsuoka, N; Matsumura, T; Mibe, T; Nomachi, M; Toki, H; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Iwata, T; Miyachi, Y; Toyama, T; Wakai, A; Hicks, K; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, Y; Daté, S; Kumagai, N; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Imai, K; Yosoi, M; Ichikawa, A; Kishimoto, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sumihama, M; Makino, S; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon will be above 3 GeV, and the beam intensity will be 10 sup 7 photons/sec. Polarization of the photon beam will be 100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the outline of the quark nuclear physics project with this high-quality high-intensity beam.

  3. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  4. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  5. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  6. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  7. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  8. Geothermal development and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy, particularly for power generation, is usually poorly understood by the large majority of the populace. Unfamiliarity leads to mistrust and, in a nation with escalating environmental concerns, it can generate conflict. The news media commonly focus upon conflict and may even act as a catalyst to instigate controversy. In attempting to introduce geothermal exploration and the possibility of field development into a new area, it is prudent to facilitate public awareness. This paper is intended to illustrate the importance of effectively dealing with the news media and offers insights on avoidance of pitfalls by relating experiences of conducting geothermal exploration in Oregon

  9. Geologic setting and geochemistry of thermal water and geothermal assessment, Trans-Pecos Texas. Final report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Hot springs and wells in West Texas and adjacent Mexico are manifestations of active convective geothermal systems, concentrated in a zone along the Rio Grande between the Quitman Mountains and Big Bend National Park. Maximum temperatures are 47/sup 0/ and 72/sup 0/C for hot springs and wells in Texas and 90/sup 0/C for hot springs in Mexico within 5 km of the border. Existing information is summarized and the results of a 1-year intensive study of the area are presented. The study includes several overlapping phases: (1) compilation of existing geologic information, both regional studies of geology, structure and geophysics, and more detailed local studies of individual hot spring areas; (2) detailed geologic mapping of hot spring areas to understand the origin and geologic controls of hot springs; (3) field measurement and sampling of hot spring or well waters for geochemical analysis; and (4) synthesis and interpretation of the data.

  10. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.

  11. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

  12. A Hydrologic monitoring program to detect potential impacts of geothermal development in Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Long Valley caldera is a tectonically active area in east-central California that contains a high-temperature geothermal system currently being explored and developed for electric power production. Concerns expressed by public agencies and private citizens over the potential impacts of geothermal development on thermal springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek gorge have resulted in the establishment of a Hydrologic Advisory Committee. The committee includes representatives from development projects and regulatory agencies. Its role is to formulate and oversee a hydrologic monitoring program capable of detecting such impacts before they become significant. The advisory committee and the monitoring program provide effective mechanisms with which to proceed with geothermal development in areas such as Long Valley, where the level of environmental risk cannot be determined a-priori because the relevant geo-hydrologic parameters are not adequately delineated.

  13. Geothermal power plants of the United States: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-04-01

    The development of geothermal energy as a source of electric power in the United States is reviewed. A thorough description is given of The Geysers geothermal power project in northern California. The recent efforts to exploit the hot-water resources of the Mexicali-Imperial Rift Valley are described. Details are given concerning the geology of the several sites now being used and for those at which power plants will soon be built. Attention is paid to the technical particulars of all existing plants, including wells, gathering systems, energy conversion devices, materials, environmental impacts, economics and operating characteristics. Specifically, plants which either exist or are planned for the following locations are covered: The Geysers, CA; East Mesa, CA; Heber, CA; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; Valles Caldera, NM; Salton Sea, CA; Westmorland, CA; Brawley, CA; Desert Peak, NV; and Raft River, ID. The growth of installed geothermal electric generating capacity is traced from the beginning in 1960 and is projected to 1984.

  14. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  15. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Dunn, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  16. Groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of the Puna Geothermal Venture Power Plant, Hawai‘i, after two decades of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W.C.; Bergfeld, D.; Sutton, A.J.; Lee, R.C.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    We report chemical data for selected shallow wells and coastal springs that were sampled in 2014 to determine whether geothermal power production in the Puna area over the past two decades has affected the characteristics of regional groundwater. The samples were analyzed for major and minor chemical species, trace metals of environmental concern, stable isotopes of water, and two organic compounds (pentane and isopropanol) that are injected into the deep geothermal reservoir at the power plant. Isopropanol was not detected in any of the groundwaters; confirmed detection of pentane was restricted to one monitoring well near the power plant at a low concentration not indicative of source. Thus, neither organic compound linked geothermal operations to groundwater contamination, though chemical stability and transport velocity questions exist for both tracers. Based on our chemical analysis of geothermal fluid at the power plant and on many similar results from commercially analyzed samples, we could not show that geothermal constituents in the groundwaters we sampled came from the commercially developed reservoir. Our data are consistent with a long-held view that heat moves by conduction from the geothermal reservoir into shallow groundwaters through a zone of low permeability rock that blocks passage of geothermal water. The data do not rule out all impacts of geothermal production on groundwater. Removal of heat during production, for example, may be responsible for minor changes that have occurred in some groundwater over time, such as the decline in temperature of one monitoring well near the power plant. Such indirect impacts are much harder to assess, but point out the need for an ongoing groundwater monitoring program that should include the coastal springs down-gradient from the power plant.

  17. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  18. Applications of stable isotopes and radioisotopes in the exploration and reservoir management of Philippine geothermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of indigenous geothermal energy resources is currently one of the primary thrusts of the country's energy program. Presently, the Philippines has a total of geothermal generating capacity of about 1400 MWe. This comprises about 20% of the total energy mix and electricity requirements of the country. By 1998, an additional capacity of about 500 MWe will be commissioned, and the PHilippines would be generating 1900 MWe of electricity from geothermal energy resources. From 1990 to 1993, PNOC EDC (Philippine National Oil Company, Energy Development Corporation) has been granted a research contract by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Company has also been a recipient since 1991 of an IAEA Technical Assistance on the use of stable isotope techniques in geothermal hydrology. Stable isotopes, particularly 18O and 2H, in conjunction with other geochemical parameters and geological and geophysical data, have been used to: a) establish the local meteoric water line; b) determine the origin of geothermal fluids; c) delineate the elevation of recharge of geothermal and ground water systems; d) confirm pre-exploitation hydrochemical models; e) identify physical and chemical processes due to exploitation of the geothermal resource (i.e. reinjection fluid returns, incursion of cold meteoric water, boiling due to pressure drawdown and mixing with acidic steam condensates); and, f) estimate reservoir temperatures. Techniques using radioisotopes, such as 14C, have also been used for the age-dating of charred wood samples collected from some of our geothermal exploration areas. The detection of 3H has also been used as an indicator for the incursion of recent cold meteoric water into the geothermal system. Tracer studies using 131I, have also been previously carried out, in coordination with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, to determine local hydrology and flow paths of reinjected water in some of our geothermal fields

  19. Geohydrology model of the geothermal reservoirs at Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Modelo hidrogeologico de los yacimientos geotermicos de los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedillo Rodriguez, Fidel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Petrology, geochemical studies of water and gases, and reservoir engineering studies of geothermal wells at Los Humeros geothermal field confirm the presence of two geothermal reservoirs. This finding is verified by petrological and structural correlation and the study of casing conditions in the production intervals of reworked wells and deviated wells. These confirm the presence of two reservoirs separated by a layer of vitric tuffs (Toba Vitrea Humeros): the upper, formed by units of Augite Andesite, has a neutral pH and is noncorrosive; the lower, formed by basalts and hornblende Andesites has a very high temperatures and acid pH. The large differences in elevations among the potentiometric levels in the wells do not let us infer the flow direction of deep geothermal fluids. Lithology, hydrogeochemical and piezometric results from gradient wells drilled inside Los Humeros caldera showed two shallow aquifers, one relatively cold and another with higher temperatures. Due to the great distances between wells and to the geologic environment, it was not possible to infer the direction of the fluid flow in either the cold or the warm water reservoir. Regional studies of hydrology, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry and structural geology confirm that the shallow groundwater (cold and warm aquifers) has no hydraulic communication or any geochemical or geological relationship with the geothermal wells, water wheels or springs in the areas surrounding Los Humeros caldera. Therefore, the recharge of the cold and warm shallow aquifers must occur inside the closed basin of Los Humeros caldera, which is topographically well defined. These aquifers recharge the geothermal reservoir through faults and fractures inside the limits of Los Humeros collapsed area. Sections of the regional structural geology show that the granitic and argillaceous limestone outcrops located outside the caldera at the same topographic level, at which these rocks are observed in geothermal wells, impede

  20. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated