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Sample records for acidianus filamentous virus

  1. Structure of the acidianus filamentous virus 3 and comparative genomics of related archaeal lipothrixviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae....... The structures of the approximately 2-mum-long virions are similar, and one of them, AFV3, was studied in detail. It consists of a cylindrical envelope containing globular subunits arranged in a helical formation that is unique for any known double-stranded DNA virus. The envelope is 3.1 nm thick and encases...... structural proteins; (iii) multiple overlapping open reading frames, which may be indicative of gene recoding; (iv) putative 12-bp genetic elements; and (v) partial gene sequences corresponding closely to spacer sequences of chromosomal repeat clusters....

  2. Chaperone role for proteins p618 and p892 in the extracellular tail development of Acidianus two-tailed virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Urte; Erdmann, Susanne; Ungewickell, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The crenarchaeal Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) undergoes a remarkable morphological development, extracellularly and independently of host cells, by growing long tails at each end of a spindle-shaped virus particle. Initial work suggested that an intermediate filament-like protein, p800...... the interactions observed between the different protein and DNA components and to explain their possible structural and functional roles in extracellular tail development....

  3. AFV1, a novel virus infecting hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus acidianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettstetter, Marcus; Peng Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel virus, AFV1, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. Filamentous virions are covered with a lipid envelope and contain at least five different proteins with molecular masses in the range of 23-130 kDa and a 20.8-kb-long linear double-stranded DNA. The virus has been assigned to the family Lipothrixviridae on the basis of morphotypic characteristics. Host range is confined to several strains of Acidianus and the virus persists in its hosts in a stable carrier state. The latent period of virus infection is about 4 h. Viral DNA was sequenced and sequence similarities were found to the lipothrixvirus SIFV, the rudiviruses SIRV1 and SIRV2, as well as to conjugative plasmids and chromosomes of the genus Sulfolobus. Exceptionally for the linear genomes of archaeal viruses, many short direct repeats, with the sequence TTGTT or close variants thereof, are closely clustered over 300 bp at each end of the genome. They are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes

  4. Genomic analysis of Acidianus hospitalis W1 a host for studying crenarchaeal virus and plasmid life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, X. Y.; Liu, Chao; Wang, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Acidianus hospitalis W1 genome consists of a minimally sized chromosome of about 2.13 Mb and a conjugative plasmid pAH1 and it is a host for the model filamentous lipothrixvirus AFV1. The chromosome carries three putative replication origins in conserved genomic regions and two large regions ...

  5. Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights into the replication and packaging mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Basta, Tamara; Häring, Monika

    2007-01-01

    of the bacteriophage varphi29 and the human adenovirus. The region contains the genes for a putative protein-primed DNA polymerase, and a small putative RNA with a predicted secondary structure closely similar to that of the prohead RNA of bacteriophage varphi29. The apparent similarities in the putative mechanisms...... of DNA replication and packaging of ABV to those of bacterial and eukaryal viruses are most consistent with the concept of a primordial gene pool as a source of viral genes....

  6. Avian influenza a virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous?

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    Most strains of influenza A virus (IAV) can produce long (µm length) filamentous virus particles as well as ~100 nm diameter spherical virions. The function of the filamentous particles is unclear but is hypothesized to facilitate transmission within or from the respiratory tract. In mammalian IAVs,...

  7. A novel rudivirus, ARV1, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Virus ARV1, the first member of the family Rudiviridae infecting hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Acidianus, was isolated from a hot spring in Pozzuoli, Italy. The rod-shaped virions, 610 +/- 50 nm long and 22 +/- 3 nm wide, are non-enveloped and carry a helical nucleoprotein core, with thr...

  8. Viral Diversity in Hot Springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and Characterization of a Unique Archaeal Virus, Acidianus Bottle-Shaped Virus, from a New Family, the Ampullaviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häring, M.; Rachel, R.; Peng, Xu

    2005-01-01

    not involved in adsorption. ABV virions contain six proteins in the size range 15 to 80 kDa and a 23.9-kb linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Virus replication does not cause lysis of host cells. On the basis of its unique morphotype and structure, we propose to assign ABV to a new viral family...

  9. Buckling Causes Nonlinear Dynamics of Filamentous Viruses Driven through Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Angus; de Haan, Hendrick W; Tang, Jay X; Stein, Derek

    2018-02-16

    Measurements and Langevin dynamics simulations of filamentous viruses driven through solid-state nanopores reveal a superlinear rise in the translocation velocity with driving force. The mobility also scales with the length of the virus in a nontrivial way that depends on the force. These dynamics are consequences of the buckling of the leading portion of a virus as it emerges from the nanopore and is put under compressive stress by the viscous forces it encounters. The leading tip of a buckled virus stalls and this reduces the total viscous drag force. We present a scaling theory that connects the solid mechanics to the nonlinear dynamics of polyelectrolytes translocating nanopores.

  10. Remarkable morphological diversity of viruses and virus-like particles in hot terrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, R; Bettstetter, M; Hedlund, B P; Häring, M; Kessler, A; Stetter, K O; Prangishvili, D

    2002-12-01

    Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in Yellowstone National Park revealed particles with twelve different morphotypes. This diversity encompassed known viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea, filamentous Lipothrixviridae, rod-shaped Rudiviridae, and spindle-shaped Fuselloviridae, and novel morphotypes previously not observed in nature. Two virus types resembled head-and-tail bacteriophages from the families Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, and constituted the first observation of these viruses in a hydrothermal environment. Viral hosts in the acidic spring were members of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus.

  11. Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.

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    George G Daaboul

    Full Text Available Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm, while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm. Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.

  12. Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, David; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Häring, Monika

    2006-01-01

    A novel virus, ATV, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus has the unique property of undergoing a major morphological development outside of, and independently of, the host cell. Virions are extruded from host cells as lemon-shaped tail-less particles, after which they develop long...... tails at each pointed end, at temperatures close to that of the natural habitat, 85 degrees C. The extracellularly developed tails constitute tubes, which terminate in an anchor-like structure that is not observed in the tail-less particles. A thin filament is located within the tube, which exhibits...... can be interrupted by different stress factors....

  13. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannen, E.J. van; Zwart, G.; Agterveld, M.P. van; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles,

  14. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Zwart, G.; Van Agterveld, M.P.; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles, we

  15. Lake viruses lyse cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, enhances filamentous-host dispersal in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter C.; Young, Loretta M.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, cyanobacterial blooms are increasing along with observations of the controlling influence of viruses. Our aim here was to test whether viruses from an Australian freshwater lake could lyse the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya and Subba Raju. C. raciborskii was selectively isolated from Lake Samsonvale southeast Queensland Australia using a Modified Jaworski Medium (without any form of inorganic nitrogen). Microscopy confirmed the resulting culture of a single cyanobacterial species. Natural viral-like particles (VLPs) were incubated with C. raciborskii cells, the host abundance decreased by 86% in 5 days, while the number of VLPs increased stepwise. As a cell lysed, the filaments of cells split into smaller, but viable, fragments. This process may help disperse the cyanobacterium in the wild. Hence the use of this virus to control blooms may inadvertently encourage the dispersal of toxic filamentous cyanobacteria. The cyanophage (virus infecting cyanobacteria) replication time was 21 h, with an average burst size of 64 viruses cell -1. Transmission Electron Microscopy showed this cyanophage for C. raciborskii, with its long, non-contractile tail and a capsid diameter of 70 nm, belongs to the Siphoviridae family of viruses. This cyanophage can affect the abundance and distribution of the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii in this Australian freshwater lake.

  16. Nanopore Measurements of Filamentous Viruses Reveal a Sub-nanometer-Scale Stagnant Fluid Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Angus J; Tang, Jay X; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-28

    We report measurements and analyses of nanopore translocations by fd and M13, two related strains of filamentous virus that are identical except for their charge densities. The standard continuum theory of electrokinetics greatly overestimates the translocation speed and the conductance associated with counterions for both viruses. Furthermore, fd and M13 behave differently from one another, even translocating in opposite directions under certain conditions. This cannot be explained by Manning-condensed counterions or a number of other proposed models. Instead, we argue that these anomalous findings are consequences of the breakdown of the validity of continuum hydrodynamics at the scale of a few molecular layers. Next to a polyelectrolyte, there exists an extra-viscous, sub-nanometer-thin boundary layer that has a giant influence on the transport characteristics. We show that a stagnant boundary layer captures the essential hydrodynamics and extends the validity of the electrokinetic theory beyond the continuum limit. A stagnant layer with a thickness of about half a nanometer consistently improves predictions of the ionic current change induced by virus translocations and of the translocation velocity for both fd and M13 over a wide range of nanopore dimensions and salt concentrations.

  17. Filament-producing mutants of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1 virus have higher neuraminidase activities than the spherical wild-type.

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    Jill Seladi-Schulman

    Full Text Available Influenza virus exhibits two morphologies - spherical and filamentous. Strains that have been grown extensively in laboratory substrates are comprised predominantly of spherical virions while clinical or low passage isolates produce a mixture of spheres and filamentous virions of varying lengths. The filamentous morphology can be lost upon continued passage in embryonated chicken eggs, a common laboratory substrate for influenza viruses. The fact that the filamentous morphology is maintained in nature but lost in favor of a spherical morphology in ovo suggests that filaments confer a selective advantage within the infected host that is not necessary for growth in laboratory substrates. Indeed, we have recently shown that filament-producing variant viruses are selected upon passage of the spherical laboratory strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1 [PR8] in guinea pigs. Toward determining the nature of the selective advantage conferred by filaments, we sought to identify functional differences between spherical and filamentous particles. We compared the wild-type PR8 virus to two previously characterized recombinant PR8 viruses in which single point mutations within M1 confer a filamentous morphology. Our results indicate that these filamentous PR8 mutants have higher neuraminidase activities than the spherical PR8 virus. Conversely, no differences were observed in HAU:PFU or HAU:RNA ratios, binding avidity, sensitivity to immune serum in hemagglutination inhibition assays, or virion stability at elevated temperatures. Based on these results, we propose that the pleomorphic nature of influenza virus particles is important for the optimization of neuraminidase functions in vivo.

  18. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Caroline; Wirth, Jennifer F; Suttle, Curtis A

    2016-06-14

    Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages. Filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc are widespread and ecologically important in freshwater, yet little is known about the genomic content of their viruses. Here we report the first genomic analysis of cyanophages infecting

  19. Magic-angle spinning NMR of a class I filamentous bacteriophage virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Gili; Morag, Omry; Goldbourt, Amir

    2011-08-11

    The fd bacteriophage is a filamentous virus that is widely used for bio- and nanotechnology applications ranging from phage display to battery materials. The possibility of obtaining a detailed description of its structural properties regardless of its state is therefore essential not only for understanding its physical arrangement and its bacterial infection process but also for many other applications. Here we present a study of the fd phage by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR. While current structures rely on a Y21M mutant, experiments performed on a strain bearing a wild-type capsid report on high symmetry of the phage and lack of explicit subunit polymorphism. Chemical shift analysis confirmed that the coat protein mostly consists of a rigid right-handed curved α-helix (residues 6-47 of 50), preceded by a flexible loop-structured N-terminus. We were able to qualitatively assign the resonances belonging to the DNA, including the deoxyribose sugars and the thymine bases. These chemical shifts are consistent with base stacking and a C2'-endo/C3'-exo sugar pucker. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chénard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages.

  1. Influence of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans on Initial Attachment and Pyrite Leaching by Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Acidianus sp. DSM 29099

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    Jing Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the industrial scale, bioleaching of metal sulfides includes two main technologies, tank leaching and heap leaching. Fluctuations in temperature caused by the exothermic reactions in a heap have a pronounced effect on the growth of microbes and composition of mixed microbial populations. Currently, little is known on the influence of pre-colonized mesophiles or moderate thermophiles on the attachment and bioleaching efficiency by thermophiles. The objective of this study was to investigate the interspecies interactions of the moderate thermophile Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans DSM 9293T and the thermophile Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 during initial attachment to and dissolution of pyrite. Our results showed that: (1 Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 interacted with S. thermosulfidooxidansT during initial attachment in mixed cultures. In particular, cell attachment was improved in mixed cultures compared to pure cultures alone; however, no improvement of pyrite leaching in mixed cultures compared with pure cultures was observed; (2 active or inactivated cells of S. thermosulfidooxidansT on pyrite inhibited or showed no influence on the initial attachment of Acidianus sp. DSM 29099, respectively, but both promoted its leaching efficiency; (3 S. thermosulfidooxidansT exudates did not enhance the initial attachment of Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 to pyrite, but greatly facilitated its pyrite dissolution efficiency. Our study provides insights into cell-cell interactions between moderate thermophiles and thermophiles and is helpful for understanding of the microbial interactions in a heap leaching environment.

  2. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites.

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    Hartmann, Ulrike; Forsgren, Eva; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-05-22

    Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV) is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75%) and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies.

  3. The Bipolar Filaments Formed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 SSB/Recombination Protein (ICP8) Suggest a Mechanism for DNA Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhov, A.M.; Simon, M.; Sen, A.; Yu, X.; Griffith, J. D.; Egelman, E. H.

    2009-02-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a multifunctional protein, ICP8, which serves both as a single-strand binding protein and as a recombinase, catalyzing reactions involved in replication and recombination of the viral genome. In the presence of divalent ions and at low temperature, previous electron microscopic studies showed that ICP8 will form long left-handed helical filaments. Here, electron microscopic image reconstruction reveals that the filaments are bipolar, with an asymmetric unit containing two subunits of ICP8 that constitute a symmetrical dimer. This organization of the filament has been confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The pitch of the filaments is {approx} 250 {angstrom}, with {approx} 6.2 dimers per turn. Docking of a crystal structure of ICP8 into the reconstructed filament shows that the C-terminal domain of ICP8, attached to the body of the subunit by a flexible linker containing {approx} 10 residues, is packed into a pocket in the body of a neighboring subunit in the crystal in a similar manner as in the filament. However, the interactions between the large N-terminal domains are quite different in the filament from that observed in the crystal. A previously proposed model for ICP8 binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), based upon the crystal structure, leads to a model for a continuous strand of ssDNA near the filament axis. The bipolar nature of the ICP8 filaments means that a second strand of ssDNA would be running through this filament in the opposite orientation, and this provides a potential mechanism for how ICP8 anneals complementary ssDNA into double-stranded DNA, where each strand runs in opposite directions.

  4. A ΩXaV motif in the Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Normand; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Lecoq, Lauriane; Guendel, Irene; Chabot, Philippe R; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Omichinski, James G

    2015-05-12

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus capable of inducing fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. A key component of RVFV virulence is its ability to form nuclear filaments through interactions between the viral nonstructural protein NSs and the host general transcription factor TFIIH. Here, we identify an interaction between a ΩXaV motif in NSs and the p62 subunit of TFIIH. This motif in NSs is similar to ΩXaV motifs found in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors and transcription factors known to interact with p62. Structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that NSs binds to p62 in a similar manner as these other factors. Functional studies in RVFV-infected cells show that the ΩXaV motif is required for both nuclear filament formation and degradation of p62. Consistent with the fact that the RVFV can be distinguished from other Bunyaviridae-family viruses due to its ability to form nuclear filaments in infected cells, the motif is absent in the NSs proteins of other Bunyaviridae-family viruses. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that p62 binding to NSs through the ΩXaV motif is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and enhancing RVFV virulence. In addition, these results show how the RVFV incorporates a simple motif into the NSs protein that enables it to functionally mimic host cell proteins that bind the p62 subunit of TFIIH.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of protein 14 from Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus (SIFV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, Adeline; Spinelli, Silvia; Campanacci, Valérie; Porciero, Sophie; Blangy, Stéphanie; Garrett, Roger A.; Tilbeurgh, Herman van; Leulliot, Nicolas; Basta, Tamara; Prangishvili, David; Cambillau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of S. islandicus filamentous virus (SIFV) protein 14 have been grown at 293 K. Crystals belong to space group P6 2 22 or P6 4 22 and diffract to a resolution of 2.95 Å. A large-scale programme has been embarked upon aiming towards the structural determination of conserved proteins from viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea. Here, the crystallization of protein 14 from the archaeal virus SIFV is reported. This protein, which contains 111 residues (MW 13 465 Da), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal His 6 tag and purified to homogeneity. The tag was subsequently cleaved and the protein was crystallized using PEG 1000 or PEG 4000 as a precipitant. Large crystals were obtained of the native and the selenomethionine-labelled protein using sitting drops of 100–300 nl. Crystals belong to space group P6 2 22 or P6 4 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 68.1, c = 132.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum acceptable resolution of 2.95 and 3.20 Å for the SeMet-labelled and native protein, respectively

  6. A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses

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    Rui eZhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10 of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1. A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs: a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORF. Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1. Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1and FgV1.

  7. Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangishvili, David; Vestergaard, Gisle; Häring, Monika; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara; Rachel, Reinhard; Garrett, Roger A

    2006-06-23

    A novel virus, ATV, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus has the unique property of undergoing a major morphological development outside of, and independently of, the host cell. Virions are extruded from host cells as lemon-shaped tail-less particles, after which they develop long tails at each pointed end, at temperatures close to that of the natural habitat, 85 degrees C. The extracellularly developed tails constitute tubes, which terminate in an anchor-like structure that is not observed in the tail-less particles. A thin filament is located within the tube, which exhibits a periodic structure. Tail development produces a one half reduction in the volume of the virion, concurrent with a slight expansion of the virion surface. The circular, double-stranded DNA genome contains 62,730 bp and is exceptional for a crenarchaeal virus in that it carries four putative transposable elements as well as genes, which previously have been associated only with archaeal self-transmissable plasmids. In total, it encodes 72 predicted proteins, including 11 structural proteins with molecular masses in the range of 12 to 90 kDa. Several of the larger proteins are rich in coiled coil and/or low complexity sequence domains, which are unusual for archaea. One protein, in particular P800, resembles an intermediate filament protein in its structural properties. It is modified in the two-tailed, but not in the tail-less, virion particles and it may contribute to viral tail development. Exceptionally for a crenarchaeal virus, infection with ATV results either in viral replication and subsequent cell lysis or in conversion of the infected cell to a lysogen. The lysogenic cycle involves integration of the viral genome into the host chromosome, probably facilitated by the virus-encoded integrase and this process can be interrupted by different stress factors.

  8. Key Role of Cysteine Residues in Catalysis and Subcellular Localization of Sulfur Oxygenase-Reductase of Acidianus tengchongensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Z. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; She, Qunxin

    2005-01-01

    ). The thio-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide and Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activities of the SORs of A. tengchongensis, suggesting that cysteine residues are important. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct four mutant SORs with cysteines replaced by serine or alanine. The purified mutant......Analysis of known sulfur oxygenase-reductases (SORs) and the SOR-like sequences identified from public databases indicated that they all possess three cysteine residues within two conserved motifs (V-G-P-K-V-C31 and C101-X-X-C104; numbering according to the Acidianus tengchongensis numbering system...... proteins were investigated in parallel with the wild-type SOR. Replacement of any cysteine reduced SOR activity by 98.4 to 100%, indicating that all the cysteine residues are crucial to SOR activities. Circular-dichroism and fluorescence spectrum analyses revealed that the wild-type and mutant SORs have...

  9. Crystal structure of AFV3-109, a highly conserved protein from crenarchaeal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevillon-Cheruel Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend have no related sequences in the extent databases. However, a small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of these viruses, and the most conserved gene, exemplified by the ORF109 of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3, AFV3, is present on genomes of members of three viral familes, the Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, and "Bicaudaviridae", as well as of the unclassified Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus, STIV. We present here the crystal structure of the protein (Mr = 13.1 kD, 109 residues encoded by the AFV3 ORF 109 in two different crystal forms at 1.5 and 1.3 Å resolution. The structure of AFV3-109 is a five stranded β-sheet with loops on one side and three helices on the other. It forms a dimer adopting the shape of a cradle that encompasses the best conserved regions of the sequence. No protein with a related fold could be identified except for the ortholog from STIV1, whose structure was deposited at the Protein Data Bank. We could clearly identify a well bound glycerol inside the cradle, contacting exclusively totally conserved residues. This interaction was confirmed in solution by fluorescence titration. Although the function of AFV3-109 cannot be deduced directly from its structure, structural homology with the STIV1 protein, and the size and charge distribution of the cavity suggested it could interact with nucleic acids. Fluorescence quenching titrations also showed that AFV3-109 interacts with dsDNA. Genomic sequence analysis revealed bacterial homologs of AFV3-109 as a part of a putative previously unidentified prophage sequences in some Firmicutes.

  10. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  11. Partial characterization of the lettuce infectious yellows virus genomic RNAs, identification of the coat protein gene and comparison of its amino acid sequence with those of other filamentous RNA plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, V A; Boeshore, M; Dolja, V V; Falk, B W

    1994-07-01

    Purified virions of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), a tentative member of the closterovirus group, contained two RNAs of approximately 8500 and 7300 nucleotides (RNAs 1 and 2 respectively) and a single coat protein species with M(r) of approximately 28,000. LIYV-infected plants contained multiple dsRNAs. The two largest were the correct size for the replicative forms of LIYV virion RNAs 1 and 2. To assess the relationships between LIYV RNAs 1 and 2, cDNAs corresponding to the virion RNAs were cloned. Northern blot hybridization analysis showed no detectable sequence homology between these RNAs. A partial amino acid sequence obtained from purified LIYV coat protein was found to align in the most upstream of four complete open reading frames (ORFs) identified in a LIYV RNA 2 cDNA clone. The identity of this ORF was confirmed as the LIYV coat protein gene by immunological analysis of the gene product expressed in vitro and in Escherichia coli. Computer analysis of the LIYV coat protein amino acid sequence indicated that it belongs to a large family of proteins forming filamentous capsids of RNA plant viruses. The LIYV coat protein appears to be most closely related to the coat proteins of two closteroviruses, beet yellows virus and citrus tristeza virus.

  12. Distinct symmetry and limited peptide refolding activity of the thermosomes from the acidothermophilic archaea Acidianus tengchongensis S5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Hu, Zhong-jun; Luo, Yuan-ming; Huo, Yan-wu; Ma, Qing; He, Yong-zhi; Zhang, Yu-ying; Sun, Fei; Dong, Zhi-yang

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant thermosomes from the Acidianus tengchongensis strain S5 T were purified to homogeneity and assembled in vitro into homo-oligomers (rATcpnα or rATcpnβ) and hetero-oligomers (rATcpnαβ). The symmetries of these complexes were determined by electron microscopy and image analysis. The rATcpnα homo-oligomer was shown to possess 8-fold symmetry while both rATcpnβ and rATcpnαβ oligomers adopted 9-fold symmetry. rATcpnαβ oligomers were shown to contain the α and β subunits in a 1:2 ratio. All of the complexes prevented the irreversible inactivation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase at 55 o C and completely prevented the formation of aggregates during thermal inactivation of citrate synthase at 45 o C. All rATcpn complexes showed trace ATP hydrolysis activity. Furthermore, rATcpnβ sequestered fully chemically denatured substrates (GFP and thermophilic malic dehydrogenase) in vitro without refolding them in an ATP-dependent manner. This property is similar to previously reported properties of chaperonins from Sulfolobus tokodaii and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. These features are consistent with the slow growth rates of these species of archaea in their native environment.

  13. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  14. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, S.; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea.

  15. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  16. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  17. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  18. Structure and genome organization of AFV2, a novel archaeal lipothrixvirus with unusual terminal and core structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häring, Monika; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Brügger, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A novel filamentous virus, AFV2, from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus shows structural similarity to lipothrixviruses but differs from them in its unusual terminal and core structures. The double-stranded DNA genome contains 31,787 bp and carries eight open reading frames homologous...

  19. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  20. Evolution of Filament Barbs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes only one overlay a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward and then departed ...

  1. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  2. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  3. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  4. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  5. Filament Substructures and their Interrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Martin, S. F.; Engvold, O.

    The main structural components of solar filaments, their spines, barbs, and legs at the extreme ends of the spine, are illustrated from recent high-resolution observations. The thread-like structures appear to be present in filaments everywhere and at all times. They are the fundamental elements of solar filaments. The interrelation of the spines, barbs and legs are discussed. From observations, we present a conceptual model of the magnetic field of a filament. We suggest that only a single physical model is needed to explain filaments in a continuous spectrum represented by active region filaments at one end and quiescent filaments at the other end.

  6. Evolution of filament barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Y.; Wang, H.

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within periods as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes, only one overlays a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward, and then departed from, each other in Halpha , with the barb endpoints migrating as far as ˜ 10 arcsec. We conclude that the evolution of the barbs was driven by flux emergence and cancellation of small bipolar units at the EFC border.

  7. Filaments in Lupus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Rodon, J.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Plunkett, A.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms behind the formation of sub-stellar mass sources are key to determine the populations at the low-mass end of the stellar distribution. Here, we present mapping observations toward the Lupus I cloud in C18O(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) obtained with APEX. We have identified a few velocity-coherent filaments. Each contains several substellar mass sources that are also identified in the 1.1mm continuum data (see also SOLA catalogue presentation). We will discuss the velocity structure, fragmentation properties of the identified filaments, and the nature of the detected sources.

  8. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  9. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  10. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  11. Filament heater current modulation for increased filament lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.D.; Williams, H.E. III.

    1996-01-01

    The surface conversion H-minus ion source employs two 60 mil tungsten filaments which are approximately 17 centimeters in length. These filaments are heated to approximately 2,800 degrees centigrade by 95--100 amperes of DC heater current. The arc is struck at a 120 hertz rate, for 800 microseconds and is generally run at 30 amperes peak current. Although sputtering is considered a contributing factor in the demise of the filament, evaporation is of greater concern. If the peak arc current can be maintained with less average heater current, the filament evaporation rate for this arc current will diminish. In the vacuum of an ion source, the authors expect the filaments to retain much of their heat throughout a 1 millisecond (12% duty) loss of heater current. A circuit to eliminate 100 ampere heater currents from filaments during the arc pulse was developed. The magnetic field due to the 100 ampere current tends to hold electrons to the filament, decreasing the arc current. By eliminating this magnetic field, the arc should be more efficient, allowing the filaments to run at a lower average heater current. This should extend the filament lifetime. The circuit development and preliminary filament results are discussed

  12. Filament wound structure and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, W.S.; Gerth, H.L.; Knight, C.E. Jr.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A filament wound spherical structure is described comprising a plurality of filament band sets disposed about the surface of a mandrel with each band of each set formed of a continuous filament circumferentially wound about the mandrel a selected number of circuits and with each circuit of filament being wound parallel to and contiguous with an immediate previously wound circuit. Each filament band in each band set is wound at the same helix angle from the axis of revolution of the mandrel and all of the bands of each set are uniformly distributed about the mandrel circumference. The pole-to-equator wall thickness taper associated with each band set, as several contiguous band sets are wound about the mandrel starting at the poles, is accumulative as the band sets are nested to provide a complete filament wound sphere of essentially uniform thickness

  13. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  14. Soliton on thin vortex filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-12-01

    Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)

  15. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  16. Modern filaments for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivelli-Viskonti, I.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of modern state and ways to improve properties of different filaments for the forecast of the filament application in composite materials has been conducted. In the near future as before the greatest attention will be paid to fibre glass, as this material is widely used in the reinforcing of organic matrices. Carbon and kevlar filaments are the most prospective ones. For the service at medium, high or superhigh temperatures selection of matrix material is more significant than selection of filament. Organic matrices can not be used at temperatures > 250 deg C: this is already the range of metal matrix application. Though at temperatures above room one many filaments can be used, boron filaments and metal wire are the only reinforcing materials, inspite of the fact that carbon filaments are successfully used for metal matrix reinforcing. At very high temperatures only carbon filaments or silicon carbide ones can be used, but their cost is very high and besides economical problems there are many difficulties of technical character

  17. Filaments and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1987-01-01

    A statistical test to investigate filaments of galaxies is performed. Only particular form of filaments is considered, viz. filaments connecting Abell clusters of galaxies. Relative position of triplets ''cluster - field object - cluster'' is analysed. Though neither cluster sample nor field object sample are homogeneous and complete only peculiar form of selection effects could affect the present statistics. Comparison of observational data with simulations shows that less than 15 per cent of all field galaxies is concentrated in filaments connecting rich clusters. Most of the field objects used in the analysis are not normal galaxies and it is possible that this conclusion is not in conflict with apparent filaments seen in the Lick counts and in some nearby 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. 26 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  18. Rift Valley fever phlebovirus NSs protein core domain structure suggests molecular basis for nuclear filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Michal; Brennan, Benjamin; Miller, Ona K; Potter, Jane A; Vijayakrishnan, Swetha; Bhella, David; Naismith, James H; Elliott, Richard M; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2017-09-15

    Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a clinically and economically important pathogen increasingly likely to cause widespread epidemics. RVFV virulence depends on the interferon antagonist non-structural protein (NSs), which remains poorly characterized. We identified a stable core domain of RVFV NSs (residues 83-248), and solved its crystal structure, a novel all-helical fold organized into highly ordered fibrils. A hallmark of RVFV pathology is NSs filament formation in infected cell nuclei. Recombinant virus encoding the NSs core domain induced intranuclear filaments, suggesting it contains all essential determinants for nuclear translocation and filament formation. Mutations of key crystal fibril interface residues in viruses encoding full-length NSs completely abrogated intranuclear filament formation in infected cells. We propose the fibrillar arrangement of the NSs core domain in crystals reveals the molecular basis of assembly of this key virulence factor in cell nuclei. Our findings have important implications for fundamental understanding of RVFV virulence.

  19. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  20. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  1. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  2. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  3. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multilamellar structures and filament bundles are found on the cell surface during bunyavirus egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sanz-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Inside cells, viruses build specialized compartments for replication and morphogenesis. We observed that virus release associates with specific structures found on the surface of mammalian cells. Cultured adherent cells were infected with a bunyavirus and processed for oriented sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. Imaging of cell basal regions showed sophisticated multilamellar structures (MLS and extracellular filament bundles with attached viruses. Correlative light and electron microscopy confirmed that both MLS and filaments proliferated during the maximum egress of new viruses. MLS dimensions and structure were reminiscent of those reported for the nanostructures on gecko fingertips, which are responsible for the extraordinary attachment capacity of these lizards. As infected cells with MLS were more resistant to detachment than control cells, we propose an adhesive function for these structures, which would compensate for the loss of adherence during release of new virus progeny.

  5. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  6. Various Barbs in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Interest to lateral details of the solar filament shape named barbs, motivated by their relationship to filament chirality and helicity, showed their different orientation relative to the expected direction of the magnetic field. While the majority of barbs are stretched along the field, some barbs seem to be transversal to it and are referred to as anomalous barbs. We analyse the deformation of helical field lines by a small parasitic polarity using a simple flux rope model with a force-free field. A rather small and distant source of parasitic polarity stretches the bottom parts of the helical lines in its direction creating a lateral extension of dips below the flux-rope axis. They can be considered as normal barbs of the filament. A stronger and closer source of parasitic polarity makes the flux-rope field lines to be convex below its axis and creates narrow and deep dips near its position. As a result, the narrow structure, with thin threads across it, is formed whose axis is nearly perpendicular to the field. The structure resembles an anomalous barb. Hence, the presence of anomalous barbs does not contradict the flux-rope structure of a filament.

  7. Star-forming Filament Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  8. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  9. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  10. Star-forming Filament Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    New models of star-forming filamentary clouds are presented in order to quantify their properties and to predict their evolution. These 2D axisymmetric models describe filaments that have no core, one low-mass core, and one cluster-forming core. They are based on Plummer-like cylinders and spheroids that are bounded by a constant-density surface of finite extent. In contrast to 1D Plummer-like models, they have specific values of length and mass, they approximate observed column density maps, and their distributions of column density ( N -pdfs) are pole-free. Each model can estimate the star-forming potential of a core-filament system by identifying the zone of gas dense enough to form low-mass stars and by counting the number of enclosed thermal Jeans masses. This analysis suggests that the Musca central filament may be near the start of its star-forming life, with enough dense gas to make its first ∼3 protostars, while the Coronet filament is near the midpoint of its star formation, with enough dense gas to add ∼8 protostars to its ∼20 known stars. In contrast, L43 appears to be near the end of its star-forming life, since it lacks enough dense gas to add any new protostars to the two young stellar objectsalready known.

  11. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  12. Filament Winding. A Unified Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have presented an overview and comprehensive treatment of several facets of the filament winding process. With the concepts of differential geometry and the theory of thin anisotropic shells of revolution, a parametric shape generator has been formulated for the design

  13. Ultraviolet treatment on high performance filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Huang

    2005-01-01

    Quartz, Kevlar, carbon, and glass filaments were irradiated by ultraviolet ray with various periods. Tensile strength of the treated fibres was tested and analyzed, and the outward appearance of the treated filaments was shown

  14. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  15. Positrusion Filament Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  16. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  17. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, H.C.; Scharmer, G.B.; Löfdahl, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward

  18. Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

  19. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  20. Temperature distributions of a conductively heated filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1999-07-01

    Temperature distributions of a heated filament were measured. A W-Re(5%) filament (0.25 mm in diameter, 24.7 mm in length) was conductively heated by currents between 5A and 7A with a DC power supply, and the surface of the filament was imaged with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera through a monochromatic filter. The spectral radiation intensity at the filament center region was almost uniform. Since the temperature distribution was also uniform and the energy loss by thermal conduction was negligible, temperature in this region was determined from the energy balance between applied power and radiation loss. Temperature distribution of the filament was determined based on the Planck's law of radiation from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the filament surface using obtained temperature as a reference. It was found that temperature distribution of a filament was easily measured by this method. (author)

  1. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  2. Lighting the universe with filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2007-09-14

    The first stars in the universe form when chemically pristine gas heats as it falls into dark-matter potential wells, cools radiatively because of the formation of molecular hydrogen, and becomes self-gravitating. Using supercomputer simulations, we demonstrated that the stars' properties depend critically on the currently unknown nature of the dark matter. If the dark-matter particles have intrinsic velocities that wipe out small-scale structure, then the first stars form in filaments with lengths on the order of the free-streaming scale, which can be approximately 10(20) meters (approximately 3 kiloparsecs, corresponding to a baryonic mass of approximately 10(7) solar masses) for realistic "warm dark matter" candidates. Fragmentation of the filaments forms stars with a range of masses, which may explain the observed peculiar element abundance pattern of extremely metal-poor stars, whereas coalescence of fragments and stars during the filament's ultimate collapse may seed the supermassive black holes that lurk in the centers of most massive galaxies.

  3. The Mysterious Case of the Missing Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections, or CMEs, are large solar eruptions that can have major debilitating impacts on society. Typically, these eruptions have the three following key structures: the leading edge, the empty chamber known as the cavity, and the filament which often is the brightest part of the CME. When we can see all three structures clearly with a coronagraph, it is called a classic three-part CME, also referred to as a 'lightbulb' CME. According to current knowledge, when a CME erupts, a filament should also erupt or lift off the Sun in order to have the bright center within the CME. However, we do not always see a filament erupt at the surface, and yet we still get a 'filament' within the coronagraph CME. To better understand what might be occurring with these missing filaments, we looked at three-part CMEs using the SOHO LASCO CME Catalog and filaments from the SDO AIA Filament Catalog in order to create a list of 50 CMEs without a listed filament erupting at the surface. For those CMEs without filaments in the list we closely inspected the AIA images for evidence of filament eruption. To ensure that there were no filaments past the limb of the Sun, we used data from the STEREO-A and STEREO-B spacecraft's to look at the Sun from other angles. We have found numerous events where no filament erupts from the surface, but we still see the classic three-part CME. We believe this may be due to an optical illusion occurring from the twisting of the flux rope.

  4. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  5. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  6. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  7. Prediction of Solar Eruptions Using Filament Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashna; Schanche, Nicole; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal

    2018-05-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of erupting and non-erupting solar filaments to determine the properties related to the eruption potential. In order to perform this study, we correlate filament eruptions documented in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) with HEK filaments that have been grouped together using a spatiotemporal tracking algorithm. The HEK provides metadata about each filament instance, including values for length, area, tilt, and chirality. We add additional metadata properties such as the distance from the nearest active region and the magnetic field decay index. We compare trends in the metadata from erupting and non-erupting filament tracks to discover which properties present signs of an eruption. We find that a change in filament length over time is the most important factor in discriminating between erupting and non-erupting filament tracks, with erupting tracks being more likely to have decreasing length. We attempt to find an ensemble of predictive filament metadata using a Random Forest Classifier approach, but find the probability of correctly predicting an eruption with the current metadata is only slightly better than chance.

  8. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  9. Helical beating of an actuated elastic filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coq, Nais; Roure, Olivia du; Fermigier, Marc; Bartolo, Denis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the propulsive force resulting from the rotation of a flexible filament in the low Reynolds number regime. Using a simple linear model, we establish the nonlinear torque-force relations for two torque-driven actuation modes. When the rotation of the filament is induced by two perpendicular transverse oscillating torques, the propulsive force increases monotonically with the torque amplitude. Conversely, when a constant axial torque is applied, the torque-force characteristics displays an unstable branch, related to a discontinuous transition in the shape of the filament. We characterize this shape transition using two geometrical parameters, quantifying the wrapping around and the collapse on the axis of the filament. The proposed theoretical description correctly accounts for our experimental observations and reveals a strong dependence of the filament dynamics on the anchoring conditions.

  10. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  11. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, A.

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed

  12. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, A.

    2015-07-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  13. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  14. Actin filaments as tension sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Vitold E; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H

    2012-02-07

    The field of mechanobiology has witnessed an explosive growth over the past several years as interest has greatly increased in understanding how mechanical forces are transduced by cells and how cells migrate, adhere and generate traction. Actin, a highly abundant and anomalously conserved protein, plays a large role in forming the dynamic cytoskeleton that is so essential for cell form, motility and mechanosensitivity. While the actin filament (F-actin) has been viewed as dynamic in terms of polymerization and depolymerization, new results suggest that F-actin itself may function as a highly dynamic tension sensor. This property may help explain the unusual conservation of actin's sequence, as well as shed further light on actin's essential role in structures from sarcomeres to stress fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Virus-membrane interactions : spectroscopic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A

  16. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  17. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, Stefan; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-03-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle.

  18. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  19. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  20. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  1. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, H. C.; Scharmer, G. B.; Löfdahl, M. G.

    2010-10-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward propagating striations with inclination angles suggesting that they are aligned with the local magnetic field. We interpret it as the equivalent of the striations seen in the walls of small isolated magnetic structures. Their origin is then a corrugation of the boundary between an overturning convective flow inside the filament and the magnetic field wrapping around it. The outward propagation is a combination of a pattern motion due to the downflow observed along the sides of bright filaments, and the Evershed flow. The observed short wavelength of the striation argues against the existence of a dynamically significant horizontal field inside the bright filaments. Its intensity contrast is explained by the same physical effect that causes the dark cores of filaments, light bridges and “canals”. In this way striation represents an important clue to the physics of penumbral structure and its relation with other magnetic structures on the solar surface. We put this in perspective with results from the recent 3-D radiative hydrodynamic simulations. 4 movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.

    1981-01-01

    Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating

  3. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  4. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  5. Mutation-specific effects on thin filament length in thin filament myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josine M de; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A; Pappas, Christopher T; Gregorio, Carol C; Stienen, Ger J M; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B; Engelen, Baziel G van; Voermans, Nicol C; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C G; Clarke, Nigel F; Beggs, Alan H; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2016-06-01

    Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force-sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin-thick filament overlap. These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. Ann Neurol 2016;79:959-969. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  6. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available extensively used for the deposition of various materials, including diamond [1], polymers [2], silicon thin films [3], boron-carbon-nitride layers [4] and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [5]. The process relies on the catalytic decomposition of precursor gases... (Ho) twice as efficient as a W filament during the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films [6]. Reactions between the precursor gases and the heated filament result in changes of the structural properties of the filaments; a process...

  7. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  8. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they resu...

  9. Control of multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ilan, Boaz; Zigler, Arie

    2004-08-01

    In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism. We also show that the number, pattern, and spatial stability of the filaments can be controlled by varying the angle that a focusing lens makes with the axial direction of propagation. This new methodology can be useful for applications involving atmospheric propagation, such as remote sensing.

  10. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  11. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  12. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations. (paper)

  13. Dimensional quantization effects in the thermodynamics of conductive filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; Grice, C. R.; Karpov, V. G.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the physical effects of dimensional quantization in conductive filaments that underlie operations of some modern electronic devices. We show that, as a result of quantization, a sufficiently thin filament acquires a positive charge. Several applications of this finding include the host material polarization, the stability of filament constrictions, the equilibrium filament radius, polarity in device switching, and quantization of conductance.

  14. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  15. Terahertz waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Hai-Wei; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Otani, Chiko, E-mail: otani@riken.jp [Terahertz Sensing and Imaging Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Midorikawa, Katsumi [Attosecond Science Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-11-23

    Terahertz (THz) waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments with a crossing angle of 25° are investigated. The irradiated THz waves from the crossing filaments show a small THz pulse after the main THz pulse, which was not observed in those from single-filament scheme. Since the position of the small THz pulse changes with the time-delay of two filaments, this phenomenon can be explained by a model in which the small THz pulse is from the second filament. The denser plasma in the overlap region of the filaments changes the movement of space charges in the plasma, thereby changing the angular distribution of THz radiation. As a result, this schematic induces some THz wave from the second filament to propagate along the path of the THz wave from the first filament. Thus, this schematic alters the direction of the THz radiation from the filamentation, which can be used in THz wave remote sensing.

  16. Life Cycle Characterization of Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1, an Extremophilic Spindle-Shaped Virus with Extracellular Tail Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldahl, Kristine B; Jensen, Signe B; Bhoobalan-Chitty, Yuvaraj; Martínez-Álvarez, Laura; Papathanasiou, Pavlos; Peng, Xu

    2016-06-15

    We provide here, for the first time, insights into the initial infection stages of a large spindle-shaped archaeal virus and explore the following life cycle events. Our observations suggest that Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) exhibits a high adsorption rate and that virions adsorb to the host cells via three distinct attachment modes: nosecone association, body association, and body/tail association. In the body/tail association mode, the entire virion, including the tail(s), aligns to the host cell surface and the main body is greatly flattened, suggesting a possible fusion entry mechanism. Upon infection, the intracellular replication cycle lasts about 8 h, at which point the virions are released as spindle-shaped tailless particles. Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. Once released from the host and at temperatures resembling that of its natural habitat, SMV1 starts developing one or two tails. This exceptional property of undergoing a major morphological development outside, and independently of, the host cell has been reported only once before for the related Acidianus two-tailed virus. Here, we show that SMV1 can develop tails of more than 900 nm in length, more than quadrupling the total virion length. Very little is known about the initial life cycle stages of viruses infecting hosts of the third domain of life, Archaea This work describes the first example of an archaeal virus employing three distinct association modes. The virus under study, Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1, is a representative of the large spindle-shaped viruses that are frequently found in acidic hot springs. The results described here will add valuable knowledge about Archaea, the least studied domain in the virology field. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  18. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  19. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical model for filament buckling and growth by phase ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Alejandro D; Abukhdeir, Nasser M

    2008-02-05

    A mechanical model of open filament shape and growth driven by phase ordering is formulated. For a given phase-ordering driving force, the model output is the filament shape evolution and the filament end-point kinematics. The linearized model for the slope of the filament is the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal decomposition, where the buckling corresponds to concentration fluctuations. Two modes are predicted: (i) sequential growth and buckling and (ii) simultaneous buckling and growth. The relation among the maximum buckling rate, filament tension, and matrix viscosity is given. These results contribute to ongoing work in smectic A filament buckling.

  1. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  2. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  3. Analytical Core Mass Function (CMF) from Filaments: Under Which Circumstances Can Filament Fragmentation Reproduce the CMF?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabrier, Gilles, E-mail: yueh-ning.lee@cea.fr [École normale supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2017-10-01

    Observations suggest that star formation in filamentary molecular clouds occurs in a two-step process, with the formation of filaments preceding that of prestellar cores and stars. Here, we apply the gravoturbulent fragmentation theory of Hennebelle and Chabrier to a filamentary environment, taking into account magnetic support. We discuss the induced geometrical effect on the cores, with a transition from 3D geometry at small scales to 1D at large ones. The model predicts the fragmentation behavior of a filament for a given mass per unit length (MpL) and level of magnetization. This core mass function (CMF) for individual filaments is then convolved with the distribution of filaments to obtain the final system CMF. The model yields two major results. (i) The filamentary geometry naturally induces a hierarchical fragmentation process, first into groups of cores, separated by a length equal to a few filament Jeans lengths, i.e., a few times the filament width. These groups then fragment into individual cores. (ii) Non-magnetized filaments with high MpL are found to fragment excessively, at odds with observations. This is resolved by taking into account the magnetic field (treated simply as additional pressure support). The present theory suggests two complementary modes of star formation: although small (spherical or filamentary) structures will collapse directly into prestellar cores, according to the standard Hennebelle–Chabrier theory, the large (filamentary) ones, the dominant population according to observations, will follow the aforedescribed two-step process.

  4. Myosin binding protein-C activates thin filaments and inhibits thick filaments in heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Yan, Ziqian; Gautel, Mathias; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-12-30

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) is a key regulatory protein in heart muscle, and mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are frequently associated with cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism of action of MyBP-C remains poorly understood, and both activating and inhibitory effects of MyBP-C on contractility have been reported. To clarify the function of the regulatory N-terminal domains of MyBP-C, we determined their effects on the structure of thick (myosin-containing) and thin (actin-containing) filaments in intact sarcomeres of heart muscle. We used fluorescent probes on troponin C in the thin filaments and on myosin regulatory light chain in the thick filaments to monitor structural changes associated with activation of demembranated trabeculae from rat ventricle by the C1mC2 region of rat MyBP-C. C1mC2 induced larger structural changes in thin filaments than calcium activation, and these were still present when active force was blocked with blebbistatin, showing that C1mC2 directly activates the thin filaments. In contrast, structural changes in thick filaments induced by C1mC2 were smaller than those associated with calcium activation and were abolished or reversed by blebbistatin. Low concentrations of C1mC2 did not affect resting force but increased calcium sensitivity and reduced cooperativity of force and structural changes in both thin and thick filaments. These results show that the N-terminal region of MyBP-C stabilizes the ON state of thin filaments and the OFF state of thick filaments and lead to a novel hypothesis for the physiological role of MyBP-C in the regulation of cardiac contractility.

  5. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: ynsu@pmo.ac.cn [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  6. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo-metabolome...

  7. Nonlinear Binormal Flow of Vortex Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott; Carr, Lincoln

    2015-11-01

    With the current advances in vortex imaging of Bose-Einstein condensates occurring at the Universities of Arizona, São Paulo and Cambridge, interest in vortex filament dynamics is experiencing a resurgence. Recent simulations, Salman (2013), depict dissipative mechanisms resulting from vortex ring emissions and Kelvin wave generation associated with vortex self-intersections. As the local induction approximation fails to capture reconnection events, it lacks a similar dissipative mechanism. On the other hand, Strong&Carr (2012) showed that the exact representation of the velocity field induced by a curved segment of vortex contains higher-order corrections expressed in powers of curvature. This nonlinear binormal flow can be transformed, Hasimoto (1972), into a fully nonlinear equation of Schrödinger type. Continued transformation, Madelung (1926), reveals that the filament's square curvature obeys a quasilinear scalar conservation law with source term. This implies a broader range of filament dynamics than is possible with the integrable linear binormal flow. In this talk we show the affect higher-order corrections have on filament dynamics and discuss physical scales for which they may be witnessed in future experiments. Partially supported by NSF.

  8. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  9. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  10. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie

    2012-01-01

    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living...

  11. Ponderomotive and thermal filamentation of laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    As targets are irradiated with longer, more energetic pulses of laser light, longer-scalelength plasmas are produced. Filamentation is a potentially important process in such plasmas. In this instability, perturbations in the intensity profile of an incident light beam grow in amplitude, causing the beam to break up into intense filaments. The instability arises when a local increase in the light intensity creates a depression in plasma density either directly, via the ponderomotive force, or indirectly, via enhanced collisional absorption and subsequent plasma expansion. The density depression refracts the light into the lower-density region, enhancing the intensity perturbations. The instability is termed either ponderomotive or thermal filamentation, depending on which mechanism generates the density depression. The analogous process involving the entire beam is called self-focusing. Filamentation can significantly affect laser-plasma coupling. Intensity enhancements can introduce or modify other instabilities, change the location of the energy deposition, and possibly aggravate deleterious collective effects such as hot-electron generation

  12. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    and filament eruptions, then, one might hope to discover important properties of the .... reasoning would lead to an estimated average field of 23 G in the corona, in ... paradigm relies heavily on the concept of twisted flux ropes as agents of ...

  13. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments. Pavel Ambrož, Astronomical Institute of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, CZ-25165. Ondrejov, The Czech Republic. e-mail: pambroz@asu.cas.cz. Alfred Schroll, Kanzelhöehe Solar Observatory of the University of Graz, A-9521 Treffen,. Austria. e-mail: schroll@solobskh.ac.at.

  14. Evolution of genetic systems in filamentous ascomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    A great variety of genetic systems exist in filamentous ascomycetes. The transmission of genetic material does not only occur by (sexual or asexual) reproduction, but it can also follow vegetative fusion of different strains. In this thesis the evolution of this variability is studied,

  15. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A symplectic integration method for elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Tony; Misra, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    Elastic rods are a ubiquitous coarse-grained model of semi-flexible biopolymers such as DNA, actin, and microtubules. The Worm-Like Chain (WLC) is the standard numerical model for semi-flexible polymers, but it is only a linearized approximation to the dynamics of an elastic rod, valid for small deflections; typically the torsional motion is neglected as well. In the standard finite-difference and finite-element formulations of an elastic rod, the continuum equations of motion are discretized in space and time, but it is then difficult to ensure that the Hamiltonian structure of the exact equations is preserved. Here we discretize the Hamiltonian itself, expressed as a line integral over the contour of the filament. This discrete representation of the continuum filament can then be integrated by one of the explicit symplectic integrators frequently used in molecular dynamics. The model systematically approximates the continuum partial differential equations, but has the same level of computational complexity as molecular dynamics and is constraint free. Numerical tests show that the algorithm is much more stable than a finite-difference formulation and can be used for high aspect ratio filaments, such as actin. We present numerical results for the deterministic and stochastic motion of single filaments.

  17. Filament Channel Formation, Eruption, and Jet Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism behind filament-channel formation is a longstanding mystery, while that underlying the initiation of coronal mass ejections and jets has been studied intensively but is not yet firmly established. In previous work, we and collaborators have investigated separately the consequences of magnetic-helicity condensation (Antiochos 2013) for forming filament channels (Zhao et al. 2015; Knizhnik et al. 2015, 2017a,b) and of the embedded-bipole model (Antiochos 1996) for generating reconnection-driven jets (Pariat et al. 2009, 2010, 2015, 2016; Wyper et al. 2016, 2017). Now we have taken a first step toward synthesizing these two lines of investigation. Our recent study (Karpen et al. 2017) of coronal-hole jets with gravity and wind employed an ad hoc, large-scale shear flow at the surface to introduce magnetic free energy and form the filament channel. In this effort, we replace the shear flow with an ensemble of local rotation cells, to emulate the Sun’s ever-changing granules and supergranules. As in our previous studies, we find that reconnection between twisted flux tubes within the closed-field region concentrates magnetic shear and free energy near the polarity inversion line, forming the filament channel. Onset of reconnection between this field and the external, unsheared, open field releases stored energy to drive the impulsive jet. We discuss the results of our new simulations with implications for understanding solar activity and space weather.

  18. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  19. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-19

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  20. Solar filament material oscillations and drainage before eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Hong, Junchao; Li, Haidong; Yang, Dan; Yang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Both large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations and material drainage in a solar filament are associated with the flow of material along the filament axis, often followed by an eruption. However, the relationship between these two motions and a subsequent eruption event is poorly understood. We analyze a filament eruption using EUV imaging data captured by the Atmospheric Imaging Array on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Hα images from the Global Oscillation Network Group. Hours before the eruption, the filament was activated, with one of its legs undergoing a slow rising motion. The asymmetric activation inclined the filament relative to the solar surface. After the active phase, LAL oscillations were observed in the inclined filament. The oscillation period increased slightly over time, which may suggest that the magnetic fields supporting the filament evolve to be flatter during the slow rising phase. After the oscillations, a significant amount of filament material was drained toward one filament endpoint, followed immediately by the violent eruption of the filament. The material drainage may further support the change in magnetic topology prior to the eruption. Moreover, we suggest that the filament material drainage could play a role in the transition from a slow to a fast rise of the erupting filament.

  1. Architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, perna perna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available attention was paid to filament architecture, enervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphotogy and cilia ultra structure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chitin...

  2. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  3. Characterization of a Latent Virus-Like Infection of Symbiotic Zooxanthellae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Jayme; Munn, Colin B.; Wilson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    A latent virus-like agent, which we designated zooxanthella filamentous virus 1 (ZFV1), was isolated from Symbiodinium sp. strain CCMP 2465 and characterized. Transmission electron microscopy and analytical flow cytometry revealed the presence of a new group of distinctive filamentous virus-like particles after exposure of the zooxanthellae to UV light. Examination of thin sections of the zooxanthellae revealed the formation and proliferation of filamentous virus-like particles in the UV-induced cells. Assessment of Symbiodinium sp. cultures was used here as a model to show the effects of UV irradiance and induction of potential latent viruses. The unique host-virus system described here provides insight into the role of latent infections in zooxanthellae through environmentally regulated viral induction mechanisms. PMID:17351090

  4. Characterization of a latent virus-like infection of symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Jayme; Munn, Colin B; Wilson, William H

    2007-05-01

    A latent virus-like agent, which we designated zooxanthella filamentous virus 1 (ZFV1), was isolated from Symbiodinium sp. strain CCMP 2465 and characterized. Transmission electron microscopy and analytical flow cytometry revealed the presence of a new group of distinctive filamentous virus-like particles after exposure of the zooxanthellae to UV light. Examination of thin sections of the zooxanthellae revealed the formation and proliferation of filamentous virus-like particles in the UV-induced cells. Assessment of Symbiodinium sp. cultures was used here as a model to show the effects of UV irradiance and induction of potential latent viruses. The unique host-virus system described here provides insight into the role of latent infections in zooxanthellae through environmentally regulated viral induction mechanisms.

  5. Fabrication of PLA Filaments and its Printable Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhou, Jianping; Ma, Yuming; Wang, Jie; Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a typical 3D printing technology and preparation of qualified filaments is the basis. In order to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) filaments suitable for personalized FDM 3D printing, this article investigated the effect of factors such as extrusion temperature and screw speed on the diameter, surface roughness and ultimate tensile stress of the obtained PLA filaments. The optimal process parameters for fabrication of qualified filaments were determined. Further, the printable performance of the obtained PLA filaments for 3D objects was preliminarily explored.

  6. Filamentous phages as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Filamentous bacteriophages such as fd-like viruses are monodisperse rod-like colloids that have well defined properties of diameter, length, rigidity, charge and chirality. Engineering these viruses leads to a library of colloidal rods, which can be used as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly. Their condensation in an aqueous solution with additive polymers, which act as depletants to induce attraction between the rods, leads to a myriad of fluid-like micronic structures ranging from isotropic/nematic droplets, colloid membranes, achiral membrane seeds, twisted ribbons, π-wall, pores, colloidal skyrmions, Möbius anchors, scallop membranes to membrane rafts. These structures, and the way that they shape-shift, not only shed light on the role of entropy, chiral frustration and topology in soft matter, but also mimic many structures encountered in different fields of science. On the one hand, filamentous phages being an experimental realization of colloidal hard rods, their condensation mediated by depletion interactions constitutes a blueprint for the self-assembly of rod-like particles and provides a fundamental foundation for bio- or material-oriented applications. On the other hand, the chiral properties of the viruses restrict the generalities of some results but vastly broaden the self-assembly possibilities.

  7. Simultaneous Detection of Mixed Infection of Onion yellow dwarf virus and an Allexivirus in RT-PCR for Ensuring Virus Free Onion Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Baranwal, V K; Joshi, Subodh; Arya, Meenakshi; Majumder, S

    2010-06-01

    Reduced seed production in onion is associated with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), a filamentous Potyvirus. Onion is also infected with other filamentous virus particles suspected to be Allexivirus. RT-PCR was used to detect mixed infection of both the viruses in leaves and bulbs. A duplex RT-PCR was developed, which simultaneously detected the presence of these two viruses in winter (Rabi) onion bulb. In summer (Kharif) onion bulbs only Allexivirus was detected. The absence of OYDV in summer crop is discussed. The sequencing of RT-PCR amplified products confirmed the identity of OYDV and Allexivirus, the latter showing closer identity to Garlic virus C (GVC)/Garlic mite-borne mosaic virus. This makes the first detection of an Allexivirus in onion crop in India. The duplex RT-PCR to detect these viruses (OYDV and Allexivirus) would be an improvement for indexing of viruses in onion bulbs for seed production.

  8. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  9. Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678

  10. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii , Borrelia miyamotoi , and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined.

  11. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  12. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  13. Filament supply circuit for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.C. Jr.; Malone, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    In a particle accelerator of the type employing ac primary power and a voltage multiplication apparatus to achieve the required high dc accelerating voltage, a filament supply circuit is powered by a portion of the ac primary power appearing at the last stage of the voltage multiplier. This ac power is applied across a voltage regulator circuit in the form of two zener diodes connected back to back. The threshold of the zeners is below the lowest peak-to-peak voltage of the ac voltage, so that the regulated voltage remains constant for all settings of the adjustable acceleration voltage. The regulated voltage is coupled through an adjustable resistor and an impedance-matching transformer to the accelerator filament. (auth)

  14. Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, D. A., E-mail: dgeorgieva@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovachev, L. M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradcko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.

  15. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  16. Filamented plasmas in laser ablation of solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, J.R.; Fajardo, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), 035013/1-035013/12 ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Grant - others:FCT(PT) POCI/FIS/59563/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : magneto-hydrodynamic modelling * perturbation * filaments * x-ray * plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2009

  17. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  18. Cold Milky Way HI Gas in Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Haud, U.; Winkel, B.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Flöer, L.; Lenz, D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate data from the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn H I Survey, supplemented with data from the third release of the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS III) observed at Parkes. We explore the all-sky distribution of the local Galactic H I gas with | {v}{{LSR}}| \\lt 25 km s-1 on angular scales of 11‧-16‧. Unsharp masking is applied to extract small-scale features. We find cold filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission and conclude that the cold neutral medium (CNM) is mostly organized in sheets that are, because of projection effects, observed as filaments. These filaments are associated with dust ridges, aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures by Planck at 353 GHz. The CNM above latitudes | b| \\gt 20^\\circ is described by a log-normal distribution, with a median Doppler temperature TD = 223 K, derived from observed line widths that include turbulent contributions. The median neutral hydrogen (H I) column density is NH I ≃ 1019.1 cm-2. These CNM structures are embedded within a warm neutral medium with NH I ≃ 1020 cm-2. Assuming an average distance of 100 pc, we derive for the CNM sheets a thickness of ≲0.3 pc. Adopting a magnetic field strength of Btot = (6.0 ± 1.8) μG, proposed by Heiles & Troland, and assuming that the CNM filaments are confined by magnetic pressure, we estimate a thickness of 0.09 pc. Correspondingly, the median volume density is in the range 14 ≲ n ≲ 47 cm-3. The authors thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for support under grant numbers KE757/11-1, KE757/7-3, KE757/7-2, KE757/7-1, and BE4823/1-1.

  19. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  20. The Magnetic Structure of Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jongchul; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Young-Deuk

    2005-06-01

    There is a controversy about how features protruding laterally from filaments, called barbs, are magnetically structured. On 2004 August 3, we observed a filament that had well-developed barbs. The observations were performed using the 10 inch refractor of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. A fast camera was employed to capture images at five different wavelengths of the Hα line and successively record them on the basis of frame selection. The terminating points of the barbs were clearly discernable in the Hα images without any ambiguity. The comparison of the Hα images with the magnetograms taken by SOHO MDI revealed that the termination occurred above the minor polarity inversion line dividing the magnetic elements of the major polarity and those of the minor polarity. There is also evidence that the flux cancellation proceeded on the polarity inversion line. Our results together with similar other recent observations support the idea that filament barbs are cool matter suspended in local dips of magnetic field lines, formed by magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere.

  1. OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-10

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  2. A first approach to filament dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P E S; De Abreu, F Vistulo; Dias, R G; Simoes, R

    2010-01-01

    Modelling elastic filament dynamics is a topic of high interest due to the wide range of applications. However, it has reached a high level of complexity in the literature, making it unaccessible to a beginner. In this paper we explain the main steps involved in the computational modelling of the dynamics of an elastic filament. We first derive equations governing the dynamics of an elastic lament suitable for a computer simulation implementation. The derivation starts from the relation between forces and potential energy in conservative systems in order to derive the equation of motion of any bead in the filament. Only two-dimensional movements are considered, but extensions to three dimensions can follow similar lines. Suggestions for computer implementations are provided in Matlab as well as an example of application related to the generation of musical sounds. This example allows a critical analysis of the numerical results obtained using a cross-disciplinary perspective. Since derivations start from basic physics equations, use simple calculus and computational implementations are straightforward, this paper proposes a different approach to introduce simple molecular dynamics simulations or animations of real systems in undergraduate elasticity or computer modelling courses.

  3. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  4. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  5. On the fragmentation of filaments in a molecular cloud simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, R.-A.; Kainulainen, J.; Ibáñez-Mejía, J. C.; Henning, Th.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The fragmentation of filaments in molecular clouds has attracted a lot of attention recently as there seems to be a close relation between the evolution of filaments and star formation. The study of the fragmentation process has been motivated by simple analytical models. However, only a few comprehensive studies have analysed the evolution of filaments using numerical simulations where the filaments form self-consistently as part of large-scale molecular cloud evolution. Aim. We address the early evolution of parsec-scale filaments that form within individual clouds. In particular, we focus on three questions: How do the line masses of filaments evolve? How and when do the filaments fragment? How does the fragmentation relate to the line masses of the filaments? Methods: We examine three simulated molecular clouds formed in kiloparsec-scale numerical simulations performed with the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic code. The simulations model a self-gravitating, magnetised, stratified, supernova-driven interstellar medium, including photoelectric heating and radiative cooling. We follow the evolution of the clouds for 6 Myr from the time self-gravity starts to act. We identify filaments using the DisPerSe algorithm, and compare the results to other filament-finding algorithms. We determine the properties of the identified filaments and compare them with the predictions of analytic filament stability models. Results: The average line masses of the identified filaments, as well as the fraction of mass in filamentary structures, increases fairly continuously after the onset of self-gravity. The filaments show fragmentation starting relatively early: the first fragments appear when the line masses lie well below the critical line mass of Ostriker's isolated hydrostatic equilibrium solution ( 16 M⊙ pc-1), commonly used as a fragmentation criterion. The average line masses of filaments identified in three-dimensional volume density cubes

  6. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  7. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  8. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Dawson, J. R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Novak, G. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Fissel, L. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”.

  9. Plasma Brightenings in a Failed Solar Filament Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-03-20

    Failed filament eruptions are solar eruptions that are not associated with coronal mass ejections. In a failed filament eruption, the filament materials usually show some ascending and falling motions as well as generating bright EUV emissions. Here we report a failed filament eruption (SOL2016-07-22) that occurred in a quiet-Sun region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . In this event, the filament spreads out but gets confined by the surrounding magnetic field. When interacting with the ambient magnetic field, the filament material brightens up and flows along the magnetic field lines through the corona to the chromosphere. We find that some materials slide down along the lifting magnetic structure containing the filament and impact the chromosphere, and through kinetic energy dissipation, cause two ribbon-like brightenings in a wide temperature range. There is evidence suggesting that magnetic reconnection occurs between the filament magnetic structure and the surrounding magnetic fields where filament plasma is heated to coronal temperatures. In addition, thread-like brightenings show up on top of the erupting magnetic fields at low temperatures, which might be produced by an energy imbalance from a fast drop of radiative cooling due to plasma rarefaction. Thus, this single event of a failed filament eruption shows the existence of a variety of plasma brightenings that may be caused by completely different heating mechanisms.

  10. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.-E.; Dawson, J. R.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  11. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Dawson, J. R.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  12. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  13. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  14. The THMIS-MTR observation of a active region filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.

    We present some THMIS-MTR observations of a active region filament on September 4, 2002. The full stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα, CaII 8542 and FeI 6302. By use of the data with high spatial resolution(0.44" per pixel), we probed the fine structure of the filament and gave out the parameters at the barbs' endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Comparing the quiescent filament which we have discussed before, we find that: 1)The velocities of the barbs' endpoints are much bigger in the active region filament, the values are more than one thousand meters per second. 2)The barbs' endpoints terminate at the low logitudinal magnetic field in the active region filament, too.

  15. A filament supported by different magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

    2011-08-01

    A nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation of vector magnetogram data obtained by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27 suggests the simultaneous existence of different magnetic configurations within one active region filament: one part of the filament is supported by field line dips within a flux rope, while the other part is located in dips within an arcade structure. Although the axial field chirality (dextral) and the magnetic helicity (negative) are the same along the whole filament, the chiralities of the filament barbs at different sections are opposite, i.e., right-bearing in the flux rope part and left-bearing in the arcade part. This argues against past suggestions that different barb chiralities imply different signs of helicity of the underlying magnetic field. This new finding about the chirality of filaments will be useful to associate eruptive filaments and magnetic cloud using the helicity parameter in the Space Weather Science.

  16. Dynamics and mechanics of motor-filament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, K.; Jülicher, F.

    2006-08-01

    Motivated by the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells, we develop a general framework for describing the large-scale dynamics of an active filament network. In the cytoskeleton, active cross-links are formed by motor proteins that are able to induce relative motion between filaments. Starting from pair-wise interactions of filaments via such active processes, our framework is based on momentum conservation and an analysis of the momentum flux. This allows us to calculate the stresses in the filament network generated by the action of motor proteins. We derive effective theories for the filament dynamics which can be related to continuum theories of active polar gels. As an example, we discuss the stability of homogenous isotropic filament distributions in two spatial dimensions.

  17. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  18. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  19. Observations of the Growth of an Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    We present observations of the growth of an active region filament caused by magnetic interactions among the filament and its adjacent superpenumbral filament (SF) and dark thread-like structures (T). Multistep reconnections are identified during the whole growing process. Magnetic flux convergence and cancellation occurring at the positive footpoint region of the filament is the first step reconnection, which resulted in the filament bifurcating into two sets of intertwined threads. One set anchored in situ, while the other set moved toward and interacted with the SF and part of T. This indicates the second step reconnection, which gave rise to the disappearance of the SF and the formation of a long thread-like structure that connects the far ends of the filament and T. The long thread-like structure further interacted with the T and then separated into two parts, representing the third step reconnection. Finally, another similar long thread-like structure, which intertwined with the fixed filament threads, appeared. Hαobservations show that this twisted structure is a longer sinistral filament. Based on the observed photospheric vector magnetograms, we performed a non-linear force-free field extrapolation to reconstruct the magnetic fields above the photosphere and found that the coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament consists of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. These results suggest that magnetic interactions among filaments and their adjacent SFs and T could lead to the growth of the filaments, and the filament is probably supported in a flux rope.

  20. Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.

  1. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  2. Statistical Study of the Magnetic Field Orientation in Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We have carried out a statistical study of the average orientation of the magnetic field in solar filaments with respect to their axes for more than 400 samples, based on data taken with daily full-Sun, full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations using the He I 1083.0 nm line. The major part of the samples are the filaments in the quiet areas, but those in the active areas are included as well. The average orientation of the magnetic field in filaments shows a systematic property depending on the hemisphere; the direction of the magnetic field in filaments in the northern (southern) hemisphere mostly deviates clockwise (counterclockwise) from their axes, which run along the magnetic polarity inversion line. The deviation angles of the magnetic field from the axes are concentrated between 10° and 30°. This hemispheric pattern is consistent with that revealed for chirality of filament barbs, filament channels, and for other solar features found to possess chirality. For some filaments, it was confirmed that their magnetic field direction is locally parallel to their structure seen in Hα images. Our results for the first time confirmed this hemispheric pattern with the direct observation of the magnetic field in filaments. Interestingly, the filaments which show the opposite magnetic field deviation to the hemispheric pattern, are in many cases found above the polarity inversion line whose ambient photospheric magnetic field has the polarity alignment being opposite to that of active regions following the Hale–Nicholson law.

  3. Probabilities of filaments in a Poissonian distribution of points -I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancort-Rijo, J.

    1989-01-01

    Statistical techniques are devised to assess the likelihood of a Poisson sample of points in two and three dimensions, containing specific filamentary structures. For that purpose, the expression of Otto et al (1986. Astrophys. J., 304) for the probability density of clumps in a Poissonian distribution of points is generalized for any value of the density contrast. A way of counting filaments differing from that of Otto et al. is proposed, because at low density contrast the filaments counted by Otto et al. are distributed in a clumpy fashion, each clump of filaments corresponding to a distinct observed filament. (author)

  4. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  5. Numerical simulation of laser filamentation in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lichun; Chen Zhihua; Tu Qinfen

    2000-01-01

    Developing process of filamentation and effect of characteristic parameters in underdense plasma have been studied using numerical simulation method. Production and development of two-dimensional cylinder filamentation instability were presented clearly. The results indicate incidence laser intensity and plasma background density are important factors affecting convergent intensity. At the same time, it was showed that different laser wavelength or different electron background density could affect filamentation process. The results are consistent with theory and experiments of alien reports. It can provide reference for restraining filamentation

  6. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  7. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: From coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David; Goldman, Robert D.; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These “rod” particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, i.e. bending and stretching to a considerable degree, bo...

  8. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  9. Laser filament-induced aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saathoff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA, we investigated the laser filament induced particle formation in ambient air, humid synthetic air, humid nitrogen, argon–oxygen mixture, and pure argon in order to simulate the particle formation under realistic atmospheric conditions as well as to investigate the influence of typical gas-phase atmospheric constituents on the particle formation. Terawatt laser plasma filaments generated new particles in the size range 3 to 130 nm with particle production rates ranging from 1 × 107 to 5 × 109 cm−3 plasma s−1 for the given experimental conditions. In all cases the particle formation rates increased exponentially with the water content of the gas mixture. Furthermore, the presence of a few ppb of trace gases like SO2 and α-pinene clearly enhanced the particle yield by number, the latter also by mass. Our findings suggest that new particle formation is efficiently supported by oxidized species like acids generated by the photoionization of both major and minor components of the air, including N2, NH3, SO2 and organics.

  10. Mass motions in a quiescent filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.; Mein, P.; Schmieder, B.

    1982-01-01

    Observations are presented of the sudden disappearance of a filament (N2O, E35) above an active region with the Multichannel Substractive Double Pass Spectrograph operating on the Meudon Solar Tower, France, from 10:45 UT to 13:30 UT on June 22, 1981. Measurements of the velocity fields and intensity fluctuations were obtained. It was found that the sudden disappearance did not take place simultaneously in all parts of the filament: thin threads with upward radial velocities reaching about 50 km/s were successively observed inside the prominence from the south to north regions. It is suggested that these motions corresponded to the rise of material along magnetic loops closely related to the prominence structure. An investigation of the dynamics inside such a magnetic loop shows a strongly accelerated high speed flow and a deformation of the flux tube, probably due to the centrifugal forces exerted by the flow on the magnetic lines. In addition, it is shown that the present theoretical models cannot account for the prominence structure as a cold H-alpha loop system and the acceleration process of material inside such loops

  11. Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.

    2018-03-01

    The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  12. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments from a pilot search field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)×104 Msun, and beam-averaged (28", or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)x1022 cm-2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K due to local star formation activities. All the filaments are located within spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scale height and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade. These giant filaments, which often contain regularly spaced pc-scale clumps, are much larger than the filaments found in the Herschel Gould's Belt Survey, and they form the upper ends in the filamentary hierarchy. Full operational ALMA and NOEMA will be able to resolve and characterize similar filaments in nearby spiral galaxies, allowing us to compare the star formation in a uniform context of spiral arms.

  13. Topology of interaction between titin and myosin thick filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Miklós; Sziklai, Dominik; Papp, Zsombor; Decker, Brennan; Lakatos, Eszter; Mártonfalvi, Zsolt

    2018-05-05

    Titin is a giant protein spanning between the Z- and M-lines of the sarcomere. In the A-band titin is associated with the myosin thick filament. It has been speculated that titin may serve as a blueprint for thick-filament formation due to the super-repeat structure of its A-band domains. Accordingly, titin might provide a template that determines the length and structural periodicity of the thick filament. Here we tested the titin ruler hypothesis by mixing titin and myosin at in situ stoichiometric ratios (300 myosins per 12 titins) in buffers of different ionic strength (KCl concentration range 100-300 mM). The topology of the filamentous complexes was investigated with atomic force microscopy. We found that the samples contained distinct, segregated populations of titin molecules and myosin thick filaments. We were unable to identify complexes in which myosin molecules were regularly associated to either mono- or oligomeric titin in either relaxed or stretched states of the titin filaments. Thus, the electrostatically driven self-association is stronger in both myosin and titin than their binding to each other, and it is unlikely that titin functions as a geometrical template for thick-filament formation. However, when allowed to equilibrate configurationally, long myosin thick filaments appeared with titin oligomers attached to their surface. The titin meshwork formed on the thick-filament surface may play a role in controlling thick-filament length by regulating the structural dynamics of myosin molecules and placing a mechanical limit on the filament length. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  15. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Thomas C T; Liu, Lucie X; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes. (topical review)

  16. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  17. Filament bundle location influence on coupling losses in superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Koizumi, Misao; Hamajima, Takataro; Nakane, Fumoto.

    1983-01-01

    The ac losses in multifilamentary superconducting composites with different superconducting filament bundle positions have been measured using the magnetization method in order to reveal the relation between filament bundle position and coupling losses. Loss components depending on dB/dt in a mixed matrix superconducting composite, whose filament bundle is located in a central region surrounded by an outer stabilizing copper sheath, has been compared with another superconducting composite whose stabilizing copper is located in a central region surrounded by an outer filament bundle. In both conductors, key parameters, such as filament twistpitch, wire diameter and amount of copper stabilizer, were almost the same. Applied magnetic field is 2 Tesla with 0.05-2 Tesla/sec field change rate. Experimental results indicate that coupling losses between filaments in the composite with the filament bundle located in the central region is smaller than the composite with the filament bundle located in the outer region. A similar conclusion was reached theoretically by B. Truck. Coupling loss values obtained by the experiment show good agreement with calculated values with the equations proposed by B. Truck. It is also pointed out that a copper stabilizer, divided by the CuNi barrier into small regions, like a honeycomb, causes anomalous increasing in the copper resistivity due to Ni diffusion during heat treatment. (author)

  18. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  19. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  20. Accurate simulation dynamics of microscopic filaments using "caterpillar" Oseen hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.G.; Lowe, C.P.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic semiflexible filaments suspended in a viscous fluid are widely encountered in biophysical problems. The classic example is the flagella used by microorganisms to generate propulsion. Simulating the dynamics of these filaments numerically is complicated because of the coupling between the

  1. Process for the production of superconductor containing filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Candler, NC); Hoyt, Matthew B. (Arden, NC); Mitchell, David F. (Asheville, NC); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Roberts, Clyde Gordon (Asheville, NC); Tyler, Robert A. (Canton, NC)

    2002-01-01

    Superconductor containing filaments having embedments of superconducting material surrounded by a rayon matrix are formed by preparing a liquid suspension which contains at least 10 weight percent superconducting material; forming a multicomponent filament having a core of the suspension and a viscose sheath which contains cellulose xanthate; and thereafter, regenerating cellulose from the cellulose xanthate to form a rayon matrix.

  2. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  3. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Liu, Lucie X.; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2017-04-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes.

  4. Hydrodynamic interaction induced spontaneous rotation of coupled active filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2014-12-14

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of active filaments with long range hydrodynamic interactions (HI). Remarkably, we find that filaments can rotate spontaneously under the same conditions in which a single filament alone can only move in translation. Detailed analysis reveals that the emergence of coupled rotation originates from an asymmetric flow field associated with HI which breaks the symmetry of translational motion when filaments approach. The breaking is then further stabilized by HI to form self-sustained coupled rotation. Intensive simulations show that coupled rotation forms easily when one filament tends to collide with the front-half of the other. For head-to-tail approaching, we observe another interesting HI-induced coupled motion, where filaments move together in the form of one following the other. Moreover, the radius of coupled rotation increases exponentially as the rigidity of the filament increases, which suggests that HI are also important for the alignment of rigid-rod-like filaments which has been assumed to be solely a consequence of direct collisions.

  5. Thick Filament Protein Network, Functions, and Disease Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Geist, Janelle; Grogan, Alyssa; Hu, Li-Yen R; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2018-03-13

    Sarcomeres consist of highly ordered arrays of thick myosin and thin actin filaments along with accessory proteins. Thick filaments occupy the center of sarcomeres where they partially overlap with thin filaments. The sliding of thick filaments past thin filaments is a highly regulated process that occurs in an ATP-dependent manner driving muscle contraction. In addition to myosin that makes up the backbone of the thick filament, four other proteins which are intimately bound to the thick filament, myosin binding protein-C, titin, myomesin, and obscurin play important structural and regulatory roles. Consistent with this, mutations in the respective genes have been associated with idiopathic and congenital forms of skeletal and cardiac myopathies. In this review, we aim to summarize our current knowledge on the molecular structure, subcellular localization, interacting partners, function, modulation via posttranslational modifications, and disease involvement of these five major proteins that comprise the thick filament of striated muscle cells. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:631-709, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  6. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  7. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mu-Jie, E-mail: mjhuang@chem.utoronto.ca; Kapral, Raymond, E-mail: rkapral@chem.utoronto.ca [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-06-28

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  8. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  9. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  10. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  11. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments

  12. Beam wandering of femtosecond laser filament in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Lie; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-10-05

    The spatial wandering of a femtosecond laser filament caused by the filament heating effect in air has been studied. An empirical formula has also been derived from the classical Karman turbulence model, which determines quantitatively the displacement of the beam center as a function of the propagation distance and the effective turbulence structure constant. After fitting the experimental data with this formula, the effective turbulence structure constant has been estimated for a single filament generated in laboratory environment. With this result, one may be able to estimate quantitatively the displacement of a filament over long distance propagation and interpret the practical performance of the experiments assisted by femtosecond laser filamentation, such as remote air lasing, pulse compression, high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.

  13. Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen

    2017-10-03

    Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  15. Bursting of filaments in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.L.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the current sheath of (low energy) plasma focus show a disruption of the filaments. This phenomenon is interpreted as a vortex breakdown. Physical parameters which support this hypothesis are obtained from measurements, from the theoretical thickness of the current sheath given by Nardi and from some models of the plasma flow. The widening of a vortex due to axial velocity increase is analyzed by means of magnetohydrodynamic collinear models. The main results are: (1) the existence of a limit separating supercritical from subcritical regimes (their character changes with the ratio between kinetic and magnetic energy); (2) the existence of flow regimes where the vortex radius remains approximately constant for moderate increments of the external velocity; (3) the structure of the vortex may change substantially for a sufficiently large increment of the external velocity, even in subcritical states; (4) the possibility that a burst of the vortex may occur when the external velocity suffers a slowdown

  16. Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.

    2009-01-01

    gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events......Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... measured in a reversed field pinch plasma and in the magnetosheath are detected and compared. Evidence of current filaments occurring during ELMs in an H-mode tokamak plasma is displayed....

  17. Filament wound data base development, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. Scott; Braddock, William F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to update the present Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) baseline reentry aerodynamic data base and to develop a new reentry data base for the filament wound case SRB along with individual protuberance increments. Lockheed's procedures for performing these tasks are discussed. Free fall of the SRBs after separation from the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle is completely uncontrolled. However, the SRBs must decelerate to a velocity and attitude that is suitable for parachute deployment. To determine the SRB reentry trajectory parameters, including the rate of deceleration and attitude history during free-fall, engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center are using a six-degree-of-freedom computer program to predict dynamic behavior. Static stability aerodynamic coefficients are part of the information required for input into this computer program. Lockheed analyzed the existing reentry aerodynamic data tape (Data Tape 5) for the current steel case SRB. This analysis resulted in the development of Data Tape 7.

  18. Natural Fiber Filament Wound Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ansari Suriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent development, natural fibers have attracted the interest of engineers, researchers, professionals and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites. This is due to its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics. In this point of view, natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residue from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. This is a comprehensive review discussing about natural fiber reinforced composite produced by filament winding technique.

  19. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  20. Intermediate filament protein evolution and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Harald; Habicht, Jörn; Garg, Sriram G; Gould, Sven B

    2018-03-23

    Metazoans evolved from a single protist lineage. While all eukaryotes share a conserved actin and tubulin-based cytoskeleton, it is commonly perceived that intermediate filaments (IFs), including lamin, vimentin or keratin among many others, are restricted to metazoans. Actin and tubulin proteins are conserved enough to be detectable across all eukaryotic genomes using standard phylogenetic methods, but IF proteins, in contrast, are notoriously difficult to identify by such means. Since the 1950s, dozens of cytoskeletal proteins in protists have been identified that seemingly do not belong to any of the IF families described for metazoans, yet, from a structural and functional perspective fit criteria that define metazoan IF proteins. Here, we briefly review IF protein discovery in metazoans and the implications this had for the definition of this protein family. We argue that the many cytoskeletal and filament-forming proteins of protists should be incorporated into a more comprehensive picture of IF evolution by aligning it with the recent identification of lamins across the phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic supergroups. This then brings forth the question of how the diversity of IF proteins has unfolded. The evolution of IF proteins likely represents an example of convergent evolution, which, in combination with the speed with which these cytoskeletal proteins are evolving, generated their current diversity. IF proteins did not first emerge in metazoa, but in protists. Only the emergence of cytosolic IF proteins that appear to stem from a nuclear lamin is unique to animals and coincided with the emergence of true animal multicellularity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  2. Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz; Syme, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chira......A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity...... (top component) of cowpea mosaic virus from those of the intact middle and bottom-upper components separated by means of a caesium chloride density gradient, the ROA spectrum of the viral RNA was obtained, which revealed that the RNA takes up an A-type single-stranded helical conformation...... and that the RNA conformations in the middle and bottom-upper components are very similar. This information is not available from the X-ray crystal structure of cowpea mosaic virus since no nucleic acid is visible....

  3. Footpoint detection and mass-motion in chromospheric filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Aparna; Hardersen, P. S.; Martin, S. F.

    2013-07-01

    A quiescent region on the Sun containing three filaments is used to study the properties of mass motion. This study determines if the footpoints or end-points of the filaments are the locations from where mass gets injected into the filaments. Several hypotheses have been put forth in the past to determine how a filament acquires mass. Trapping of coronal mass in the filament channel due to condensation (Martin, 1996) and injection of mass into the filaments during magnetic reconnection (Priest, et al., 1995) are some of the speculations. This study looks for indications for injection of mass via chromospheric footpoints. The data consists of blue (Hα-0.5 Å) and red (Hα+0.5 Å) wing high resolution Hα images of the W29N37 region of the Sun taken on Oct 30, 2010, from 1200 - 1600 UT. The Dutch Open Telescope was used to obtain the data. The images are aligned and animated to see Doppler motion in the fibrils. Smaller fibrils merge to form longer ones; barbs appear and disappear in one of the long filaments and is seen moving along the length of the filament. A region with no typical filament-like absorption feature is observed to be continuously receiving mass. Fibrils appear to be converging from opposite sides along what appears to be a neutral line; mass motion is seen in these fibrils as well. An eruption occurs in a region of fibrils lumped together at the end of the first hour (1300 UT) followed by plage brightening at 1430 UT near one of the filament regions. Helioviewer (Panasenco, et al., 2011) is used for aligning the images; GIMP is used for precision alignment and animation. Each frame in the sequence is studied carefully to note changes in the filament regions. The footpoints of the filaments are determined by the changes observed in the position of the filament ‘legs’ in each frame. Variations in the magnetic polarity corresponding to changes observed in the chromosphere are analyzed using HMI magnetograms. Bright and dark points on the

  4. Microwave structure of quiescent solar filaments at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution very low altitude maps of a quiescent filament at three frequencies are presented. The spatial resolution (approx. 15'' at 1.45 GHz, approx. 6'' at 4.9 GHz, and approx. 2'' at 15 GHz) is several times better than previously attained. At each frequency, the filament appears as a depression in the quiet Sun background. The depression is measurably wider and longer in extent than the corresponding H alpha filament at 1.45 GHz and 4.9 GHz, indicating that the depression is due in large part to a deficit in coronal density associated with the filament channel. In contrast, the shape of the radio depression at 15 CHz closely matches that of the H alpha filament. In addition, the 15 GHz map shows enhanced emission along both sides of the radio depression. A similar enhancement is seen in an observation of a second filament 4 days later, which suggests that the enhancement is a general feature of filaments. Possible causes of the enhanced emission are explored

  5. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  7. Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales throughout the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large-scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e. as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the nine most prominent Herschel filaments, including six identified from a pilot search field plus three from outside the field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3) × 104 M⊙, and beam-averaged (28 arcsec, or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)× 1022 cm- 2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K. All the filaments are located within ≲60 pc from the Galactic mid-plane. Comparing the filaments to a recent spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scaleheight and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade.

  8. Post-filament self-trapping of ultrashort laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Pugžlys, A; Fedotov, A B; Mikhailova, J M; Panchenko, V Ya; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-08-15

    Laser filamentation is understood to be self-channeling of intense ultrashort laser pulses achieved when the self-focusing because of the Kerr nonlinearity is balanced by ionization-induced defocusing. Here, we show that, right behind the ionized region of a laser filament, ultrashort laser pulses can couple into a much longer light channel, where a stable self-guiding spatial mode is sustained by the saturable self-focusing nonlinearity. In the limiting regime of negligibly low ionization, this post-filamentation beam dynamics converges to a large-scale beam self-trapping scenario known since the pioneering work on saturable self-focusing nonlinearities.

  9. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...

  10. Pyrene degradation by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Cristina; Salvioli, Mónica L; Cazau, M Cecilia; Arambarri, A M

    2002-01-01

    The saprotrophic soil fungi Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Cylindrocarpon didymum (Hartig) Wollenw, Penicillium variabile Sopp. and the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresenius) Harrison and Rhodotorula minuta (Saito) Harrison were cultured in mineral medium with pyrene. The remaining pyrene concentrations were periodically determined during 20 incubation days, using HPLC. To assess the metabolism of pyrene degradation we added 0.1 microCi of [4,5,9,10] 14C-pyrene to each fungi culture and measured the radioactivity in the volatile organic substances, extractable, aqueous phase, biomass and 14CO2 fractions. The assays demonstrated that F. solani and R. glutinis metabolized pyrene as a sole source of carbon. Differences in their activities at the beginning of the cultures disappeared by the end of the experiment, when 32 and 37% of the original pyrene concentration was detected, for the soil fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the filamentous fungi, F. solani was highly active and oxidized pyrene; moreover, small but significant degradation rates were observed in C. didymum and P. variahile cultures. An increase in the 14CO2 evolution was observed at the 17th day with cosubstrate. R. glutinis and R. minuta cultures showed similar ability to biotransform pyrene, and that 35% of the initial concentration was consumed at the end of the assay. The same results were obtained in the experiments with or without glucose as cosubstrate.

  11. Polymer dynamics driven by a helical filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Andrew; Shendruk, Tyler; Zoettl, Andreas; Yeomans, Julia

    Microbial flagellates typically inhabit complex suspensions of extracellular polymeric material which can impact the swimming speed of motile microbes, filter-feeding of sessile cells, and the generation of biofilms. There is currently a need to better understand how the fundamental dynamics of polymers near active cells or flagella impacts these various phenomena. We study the hydrodynamic and steric influence of a rotating helical filament on suspended polymers using Stokesian Dynamics simulations. Our results show that as a stationary rotating helix pumps fluid along its long axis, nearby polymers migrate radially inwards and are elongated in the process. We observe that the actuation of the helix tends to increase the probability of finding polymeric material within its pervaded volume. At larger Weissenberg numbers, this accumulation of polymers within the vicinity of the helix is greater. Further, we have analysed the stochastic work performed by the helix on the polymers and we show that this quantity is positive on average and increases with polymer contour length. Our results provide a basis for understanding the microscopic interactions that govern cell dynamics in complex media. This work was supported through funding from the ERC Advanced Grant 291234 MiCE and we acknowledge EMBO funding to TNS (ALTF181-2013).

  12. A virulence-associated filamentous bacteriophage of Neisseria meningitidis increases host-cell colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bille

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal of human nasopharynx. In some circumstances, this bacteria can invade the bloodstream and, after crossing the blood brain barrier, the meninges. A filamentous phage, designated MDAΦ for Meningococcal Disease Associated, has been associated with invasive disease. In this work we show that the prophage is not associated with a higher virulence during the bloodstream phase of the disease. However, looking at the interaction of N. meningitidis with epithelial cells, a step essential for colonization of the nasopharynx, we demonstrate that the presence of the prophage, via the production of viruses, increases colonization of encapsulated meningococci onto monolayers of epithelial cells. The analysis of the biomass covering the epithelial cells revealed that meningococci are bound to the apical surface of host cells by few layers of heavily piliated bacteria, whereas, in the upper layers, bacteria are non-piliated but surrounded by phage particles which (i form bundles of filaments, and/or (ii are in some places associated with bacteria. The latter are likely to correspond to growing bacteriophages during their extrusion through the outer membrane. These data suggest that, as the biomass increases, the loss of piliation in the upper layers of the biomass does not allow type IV pilus bacterial aggregation, but is compensated by a large production of phage particles that promote bacterial aggregation via the formation of bundles of phage filaments linked to the bacterial cell walls. We propose that MDAΦ by increasing bacterial colonization in the mucosa at the site-of-entry, increase the occurrence of diseases.

  13. Interfering with the wake of cylinder by flexible filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Alfredo; Omidyeganeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    This work is the very first attempt to understand and optimize the configuration of flexible filaments placed on the lee side of a bluff body to manipulate flow transitions and bifurcations. It is found that the presence of a sparse set of flexible filaments on the lee side of a cylinder can interfere with the 2D-3D transition process resulting in elongation of recirculation bubble, inhibition of higher order unstable modes, and narrowing the global energy content about a particular shedding frequency. Filaments become effective when spacing between them is smaller than the dominant unstable mode at each particular Reynolds number, i.e. A and B modes. In another study, by a particular arrangement the reconfigured filaments can reduce pressure fluctuations in the wake and drop lift flluctuations significantly (~= 80 %).

  14. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  15. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special attention was paid to filament architecture, ennervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphology and cilia ultrastructure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chi-tln and strategically placed smooth myocytes. The epithelium was populated ...

  16. Virus wars: using one virus to block the spread of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Paff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure of traditional interventions to block and cure HIV infections has led to novel proposals that involve treating infections with therapeutic viruses–infectious viruses that specifically inhibit HIV propagation in the host. Early efforts in evaluating these proposals have been limited chiefly to mathematical models of dynamics, for lack of suitable empirical systems. Here we propose, develop and analyze an empirical system of a therapeutic virus that protects a host cell population against a lethal virus. The empirical system uses E. coli bacteria as the host cell population, an RNA phage as the lethal virus and a filamentous phage as the therapeutic virus. Basic dynamic properties are established for each virus alone and then together. Observed dynamics broadly agree with those predicted by a computer simulation model, although some differences are noted. Two cases of dynamics are contrasted, differing in whether the therapeutic virus is introduced before the lethal virus or after the lethal virus. The therapeutic virus increases in both cases but by different mechanisms. With the therapeutic virus introduced first, it spreads infectiously without any appreciable change in host dynamics. With the therapeutic virus introduced second, host abundance is depressed at the time therapy is applied; following an initial period of therapeutic virus spread by infection, the subsequent rise of protection is through reproduction by hosts already protected. This latter outcome is due to inheritance of the therapeutic virus state when the protected cell divides. Overall, the work establishes the feasibility and robustness to details of a viral interference using a therapeutic virus.

  17. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize the growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns. As external fixed-nitrogen is increased, the spacing distribution for our local placement strategy retains the same shape, while the average spacing between heterocysts continuously increases. (paper)

  18. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, K.; Sakurada, I.; Okada, T.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 kcal/mol between 20 and 60 0 C and 10 kcal/ mol between 60 and 80 0 C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70 0 C, shows maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130 0 C and then breaks off at 136 0 C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300 0 C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and their metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption; however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. (author)

  19. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  20. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  1. Unconventional actin conformations localize on intermediate filaments in mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Unconventional actin conformations colocalize with vimentin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. → These conformations are detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 ('lower dimer') and 2G2 ('nuclear actin'), but not C4 (monomeric actin). → Mitotic unconventional actin cables are independent of filamentous actin or microtubules. → Unconventional actin colocalizes with vimentin on a nocodazole-induced perinuclear dense mass of cables. -- Abstract: Different structural conformations of actin have been identified in cells and shown to reside in distinct subcellular locations of cells. In this report, we describe the localization of actin on a cage-like structure in metaphase HEK 293T cells. Actin was detected with the anti-actin antibodies 1C7 and 2G2, but not with the anti-actin antibody C4. Actin contained in this structure is independent of microtubules and actin filaments, and colocalizes with vimentin. Taking advantage of intermediate filament collapse into a perinuclear dense mass of cables when microtubules are depolymerized, we were able to relocalize actin to such structures. We hypothesize that phosphorylation of intermediate filaments at mitosis entry triggers the recruitment of different actin conformations to mitotic intermediate filaments. Storage and partition of the nuclear actin and antiparallel 'lower dimer' actin conformations between daughter cells possibly contribute to gene transcription and transient actin filament dynamics at G1 entry.

  2. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  3. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  4. Filament winding technique, experiment and simulation analysis on tubular structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Kaige, Jiang; Idris, M. S.; Harith, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Filament winding process has emerged as one of the potential composite fabrication processes with lower costs. Filament wound products involve classic axisymmetric parts (pipes, rings, driveshafts, high-pressure vessels and storage tanks), non-axisymmetric parts (prismatic nonround sections and pipe fittings). Based on the 3-axis filament winding machine has been designed with the inexpensive control system, it is completely necessary to make a relative comparison between experiment and simulation on tubular structure. In this technical paper, the aim of this paper is to perform a dry winding experiment using the 3-axis filament winding machine and simulate winding process on the tubular structure using CADWIND software with 30°, 45°, 60° winding angle. The main result indicates that the 3-axis filament winding machine can produce tubular structure with high winding pattern performance with different winding angle. This developed 3-axis winding machine still has weakness compared to CAWIND software simulation results with high axes winding machine about winding pattern, turnaround impact, process error, thickness, friction impact etc. In conclusion, the 3-axis filament winding machine improvements and recommendations come up with its comparison results, which can intuitively understand its limitations and characteristics.

  5. Laser-induced filaments in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltikov, A M

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared gives rise to unique regimes of nonlinear wave dynamics and reveals in many ways unusual nonlinear-optical properties of materials in this frequency range. The λ 2 scaling of the self-focusing threshold P cr , with radiation wavelength λ , allows the laser powers transmitted by single mid-IR filaments to be drastically increased without the loss of beam continuity and spatial coherence. When extended to the mid-infrared, laser filamentation enables new methods of pulse compression. Often working around the universal physical limitations, it helps generate few-cycle and subcycle field waveforms within an extraordinarily broad range of peak powers, from just a few up to hundreds of P cr . As a part of a bigger picture, laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared offers important physical insights into the general properties of the nonlinear-optical response of matter as a function of the wavelength. Unlike their near-infrared counterparts, which can be accurately described within the framework of perturbative nonlinear optics, mid-infrared filaments often entangle perturbative and nonperturbative nonlinear-optical effects, showing clear signatures of strong-field optical physics. With the role of nonperturbative nonlinear-optical phenomena growing, as a general tendency, with the field intensity and the driver wavelength, extension of laser filamentation to even longer driver wavelengths, toward the long-wavelength infrared, promises a hic sunt dracones land. (topical review)

  6. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  7. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  8. Disintegration of an eruptive filament via interactions with quasi-separatrix layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jun; Wang, YuMing

    2018-06-01

    The disintegration of solar filaments via mass drainage is a frequently observed phenomenon during a variety of filament activities. It is generally considered that the draining of dense filament material is directed by both gravity and magnetic field, yet the detailed process remains elusive. Here we report on a partial filament eruption during which filament material drains downward to the surface not only along the filament's legs, but to a remote flare ribbon through a fan-out curtain-like structure. It is found that the magnetic configuration is characterized by two conjoining dome-like quasi-sepratrix layers (QSLs). The filament is located underneath one QSL dome, whose footprint apparently bounds the major flare ribbons resulting from the filament eruption, whereas the remote flare ribbon matches well with the other QSL dome's far-side footprint. We suggest that the interaction of the filament with the overlying QSLs results in the splitting and disintegration of the filament.

  9. Self-assembly of designed supramolecular magnetic filaments of different shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, E.V. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Rozhkov, D.A., E-mail: d.a.rozhkov@gmail.com [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sanchez, P.A. [University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria); Kantorovich, S.S. [Ural Federal University, Lenin Av. 51, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we study via molecular dynamics simulations filaments of ring and linear shape. Filaments are made of magnetic nanoparticles, possessing a point dipole in their centres. Particles in filaments are crosslinked in a particular way, so that the deviation of the neighbouring dipoles from the head-to-tail orientation is penalised by the bond. We show how the conformation of a single chain and ring filament changes on cooling for different lengths. We also study filament pairs, by fixing filaments at a certain distance and analysing the impact of inter-filament interaction on the equilibrium configurations. Our study opens a perspective to investigate the dispersions of filaments, both theoretically and numerically, by using effective potentials. - Highlights: • Single filament study. • Magnetic particles crosslinked in chains and rings. • Magnetic filament interactions.

  10. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  11. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na I D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He I λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca II K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na I D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  12. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  13. Large amplitude oscillatory motion along a solar filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršnak, B.; Veronig, A. M.; Thalmann, J. K.; Žic, T.

    2007-08-01

    Context: Large amplitude oscillations of solar filaments is a phenomenon that has been known for more than half a century. Recently, a new mode of oscillations, characterized by periodical plasma motions along the filament axis, was discovered. Aims: We analyze such an event, recorded on 23 January 2002 in Big Bear Solar Observatory Hα filtergrams, to infer the triggering mechanism and the nature of the restoring force. Methods: Motion along the filament axis of a distinct buldge-like feature was traced, to quantify the kinematics of the oscillatory motion. The data were fitted by a damped sine function to estimate the basic parameters of the oscillations. To identify the triggering mechanism, morphological changes in the vicinity of the filament were analyzed. Results: The observed oscillations of the plasma along the filament were characterized by an initial displacement of 24 Mm, an initial velocity amplitude of 51 km s-1, a period of 50 min, and a damping time of 115 min. We interpret the trigger in terms of poloidal magnetic flux injection by magnetic reconnection at one of the filament legs. The restoring force is caused by the magnetic pressure gradient along the filament axis. The period of oscillations, derived from the linearized equation of motion (harmonic oscillator) can be expressed as P=π√{2}L/v_Aϕ≈4.4L/v_Aϕ, where v_Aϕ =Bϕ0/√μ_0ρ represents the Alfvén speed based on the equilibrium poloidal field Bϕ0. Conclusions: Combination of our measurements with some previous observations of the same kind of oscillations shows good agreement with the proposed interpretation. Movie to Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Magnetic Fields in the Massive Dense Cores of the DR21 Filament: Weakly Magnetized Cores in a Strongly Magnetized Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Hauyu B., E-mail: chingtaochung@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    We present Submillimeter Array 880 μ m dust polarization observations of six massive dense cores in the DR21 filament. The dust polarization shows complex magnetic field structures in the massive dense cores with sizes of 0.1 pc, in contrast to the ordered magnetic fields of the parsec-scale filament. The major axes of the massive dense cores appear to be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic fields of the filament, indicating that the parsec-scale magnetic fields play an important role in the formation of the massive dense cores. However, the correlation between the major axes of the cores and the magnetic fields of the cores is less significant, suggesting that during the core formation, the magnetic fields below 0.1 pc scales become less important than the magnetic fields above 0.1 pc scales in supporting a core against gravity. Our analysis of the angular dispersion functions of the observed polarization segments yields a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 0.4–1.7 mG for the massive dense cores. We estimate the kinematic, magnetic, and gravitational virial parameters of the filament and the cores. The virial parameters show that the gravitational energy in the filament dominates magnetic and kinematic energies, while the kinematic energy dominates in the cores. Our work suggests that although magnetic fields may play an important role in a collapsing filament, the kinematics arising from gravitational collapse must become more important than magnetic fields during the evolution from filaments to massive dense cores.

  15. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Feng, Xue-Shang; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption.

  16. A comparison study of a solar active-region eruptive filament and a neighboring non-eruptive filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) cospatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that an MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger an MFR eruption. (paper)

  17. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-07-12

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance cold-dark-matter cosmological model that galaxy clusters occur at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this 'cosmic web' has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently, the warm–hot intergalactic medium (a sparse plasma with temperatures of 10(5) kelvin to 10(7) kelvin) residing in low-redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying dark-matter skeleton, which should contain more than half of all matter, has remained elusive, because earlier candidates for such detections were either falsified or suffered from low signal-to-noise ratios and unphysical misalignments of dark and luminous matter. Here we report the detection of a dark-matter filament connecting the two main components of the Abell 222/223 supercluster system from its weak gravitational lensing signal, both in a non-parametric mass reconstruction and in parametric model fits. This filament is coincident with an overdensity of galaxies and diffuse, soft-X-ray emission, and contributes a mass comparable to that of an additional galaxy cluster to the total mass of the supercluster. By combining this result with X-ray observations, we can place an upper limit of 0.09 on the hot gas fraction (the mass of X-ray-emitting gas divided by the total mass) in the filament.

  18. Rapid Formation and Disappearance of a Filament Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita; Mathew, Shibu K.; Martin, Sara F.

    2013-11-01

    We present observations of an activated quiescent filament obtained in Hα from the high-resolution Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 20 August 2010. The filament developed a barb in 10 min, which disappeared within the next 35 min. A data set from the DOT spanning 2 h was used to analyse this event. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images, which reveal flows in filament spine during this period. Photospheric magnetograms were used from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The analysis shows flows in the filament spine towards the barb location preceding its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Magnetograms reveal patches of minority polarity flux close to the end of the barb at its greatest elongation. The flows in the spine and barbs are along numerous threads that compose these typical filament structures. The flows are consistent with field-aligned threads and demonstrate that the replacement time of the mass in barbs, and by inference, in the spine is very rapid.

  19. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  20. Morphological indictors of the chirality of solar filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B. P.

    2017-10-01

    There is no doubt that the structural features of filaments reflect properties of their magnetic fields, such as chirality and helicity. However, the interpretation of some morphological features can lead to incorrect conclusions when the observing time is limited and the spatial resolution is insufficiently high. In spite of the relative constancy of their overall shapes, filaments are dynamical formations with inhomogeneities moving along the threads making them up. Therefore, it is possible to observe material concentrated not only in magnetic traps, but also along curved arcs. Difficulties often arise in determining the chirality of filaments with anomalous "barbs"; i.e., those whose jagged side is located on the opposite side of the axis compared to most ("normal") filaments. A simple model is used to show that anomalous barbs can exist in an ordinary magnetic flux rope, with the threads of its fine structure oriented nearly perpendicular to its length. A careful analysis of images with the maximum available spatial resolution and with information about temporal dynamics, together with comparisons with observations in various spectral lines, can enable a correct determination of the chirality of filaments.

  1. Intermediate Filaments at the Junction of Mechanotransduction, Migration, and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Sanghvi-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction. In this review, with a particular focus on keratins and vimentin, the relationship between the physical state of intermediate filaments and their role in mechanotransduction signaling is illustrated through a survey of current literature. Association with adhesion receptors such as cadherins and integrins provides a critical interface through which intermediate filaments are exposed to forces from a cell's environment. As a consequence, these cytoskeletal networks are posttranslationally modified, remodeled and reorganized with direct impacts on local signal transduction events and cell migratory behaviors important to development. We propose that intermediate filaments provide an opportune platform for cells to both cope with mechanical forces and modulate signal transduction.

  2. Automatic Segmentation and Quantification of Filamentous Structures in Electron Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Leandro A; Bebis, George; Chang, Hang; Auer, Manfred; Sarkar, Purbasha; Parvin, Bahram

    2012-10-01

    Electron tomography is a promising technology for imaging ultrastructures at nanoscale resolutions. However, image and quantitative analyses are often hindered by high levels of noise, staining heterogeneity, and material damage either as a result of the electron beam or sample preparation. We have developed and built a framework that allows for automatic segmentation and quantification of filamentous objects in 3D electron tomography. Our approach consists of three steps: (i) local enhancement of filaments by Hessian filtering; (ii) detection and completion (e.g., gap filling) of filamentous structures through tensor voting; and (iii) delineation of the filamentous networks. Our approach allows for quantification of filamentous networks in terms of their compositional and morphological features. We first validate our approach using a set of specifically designed synthetic data. We then apply our segmentation framework to tomograms of plant cell walls that have undergone different chemical treatments for polysaccharide extraction. The subsequent compositional and morphological analyses of the plant cell walls reveal their organizational characteristics and the effects of the different chemical protocols on specific polysaccharides.

  3. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Trasferetti, Benedito C.; Scarminio, Jair; Davanzo, Celso U.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO x , WO x and VO x . The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min -1 for MoO x , are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO x films, for example, present a mixture of MoO 2 and MoO 3 phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li + intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO x and WO x films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO x films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented

  4. Hot Ta filament resistance in-situ monitoring under silane containing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunsky, D.; Schroeder, B.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of the electrical resistance of the Ta catalyst during the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of thin silicon films gives information about filament condition. Using Ta filaments for silane decomposition not only the well known strong changes at the cold ends, but also changes of the central part of the filament were observed. Three different phenomena can be distinguished: silicide (stoichiometric Ta X Si Y alloys) growth on the filament surfaces, diffusion of Si into the Ta filament and thick silicon deposits (TSD) formation on the filament surface. The formation of different tantalum silicides on the surface as well as the in-diffusion of silicon increase the filament resistance, while the TSDs form additional electrical current channels and that result in a decrease of the filament resistance. Thus, the filament resistance behaviour during ageing is the result of the competition between these two processes

  5. Filamentous hydrous ferric oxide biosignatures in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Campbell, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    A pipeline carrying acidic mine effluent at Iron Mountain, CA, developed Fe(III)-rich precipitate caused by oxidation of Fe(II)aq. The native microbial community in the pipe included filamentous microbes. The pipe scale consisted of microbial filaments, and schwertmannite (ferric oxyhydroxysulfate, FOHS) mineral spheres and filaments. FOHS filaments contained central lumina with diameters similar to those of microbial filaments. FOHS filament geometry, the geochemical environment, and the presence of filamentous microbes suggest that FOHS filaments are mineralized microbial filaments. This formation of textural biosignatures provides the basis for a conceptual model for the development and preservation of biosignatures in other environments.

  6. Chemical Strategies for the Covalent Modification of Filamentous Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically filamentous bacteriophage have been known to be the workhorse of phage display due to their ability to link genotype to phenotype. More recently, the filamentous phage scaffold has proved to be powerful outside the realms of phage display technology in fields such as molecular imaging, cancer research and materials and vaccine development. The ability of the virion to serve as a platform for a variety of applications heavily relies on the functionalization of the phage coat proteins with a wide variety of functionalities. Genetic modification of the coat proteins has been the most widely used strategy for functionalizing the virion; however complementary chemical modification strategies can help to diversify the range of materials that can be developed. This review emphasizes the recent advances that have been made in the chemical modification of filamentous phage as well as some of the challenges that are involved functionalizing the virion.

  7. The formation and disappearance of filament barbs observed by SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leping; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Employing six-day (August 16-21, 2010) SDO/AIA observations, we systematically investigate the formation and disappearance of 58 barbs of a northern (~N60) polar crown filament. Three different ways of barb formation are discovered, including (1) the convergence of surrounding moving materials (55.2%), (2) the flows of materials from the filament (37.9%), and (3) the material injections from neighboring brightening regions (6.9%). We also find three different types of barb disappearance, involving: (i) the bi-lateral movements (44.8%), and (ii) the outflowing (27.6%) of barb material resulting in the barb disappearance, as well as (iii) the barb disappearance associated with neighboring brightenings (27.6%). We propose that barbs exchange materials with the filament, surrounding atmosphere, and nearby brightening regions, causing the barb formation and disappearance.

  8. SOLAR MAGNETIZED 'TORNADOES': RELATION TO FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela [IGAM-Kanzelhoehe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Wang Tongjiang [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gan Weiqun, E-mail: yang.su@uni-graz.at [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-09-10

    Solar magnetized 'tornadoes', a phenomenon discovered in the solar atmosphere, appear as tornado-like structures in the corona but are rooted in the photosphere. Like other solar phenomena, solar tornadoes are a feature of magnetized plasma and therefore differ distinctly from terrestrial tornadoes. Here we report the first analysis of solar 'tornadoes' (two papers which focused on different aspects of solar tornadoes were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters and Nature, respectively, during the revision of this Letter). A detailed case study of two events indicates that they are rotating vertical magnetic structures probably driven by underlying vortex flows in the photosphere. They usually exist as a group and are related to filaments/prominences, another important solar phenomenon whose formation and eruption are still mysteries. Solar tornadoes may play a distinct role in the supply of mass and twists to filaments. These findings could lead to a new explanation of filament formation and eruption.

  9. Filament structures at the plasma edge on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A; Ayed, N Ben; Counsell, G; Dudson, B; Eich, T; Herrmann, A; Koch, B; Martin, R; Meakins, A; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Tallents, S; Walsh, M; Wilson, H R

    2006-01-01

    The boundary of the tokamak core plasma, or scrape-off layer, is normally characterized in terms of average parameters such as density, temperature and e-folding lengths suggesting diffusive losses. However, as is shown in this paper, localized filamentary structures play an important role in determining the radial efflux in both L mode and during edge localized modes (ELMs) on MAST. Understanding the size, poloidal and toroidal localization and the outward radial extent of these filaments is crucial in order to calculate their effect on power loading both on the first wall and the divertor target plates in future devices. The spatial and temporal evolution of filaments observed on MAST in L-mode and ELMs have been compared and contrasted in order to confront the predictions of various models that have been proposed to predict filament propagation and in particular ELM energy losses

  10. Fast, controlled stepping drive for D2 filament ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenda, W.; Lang, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Centrifugal pellet injectors are required to refuel plasma machines. The pellet feed into the centrifuge should, if possible, be direct to keep the exit angle divergence small. The D 2 filaments used are first stored in a cryostat and then rapidly transported to the intake region of the centrifuge. An intermittent drive for fast, controlled ejection of D 2 filaments is described here. Mean filament speed of up to 0.6 m/s per step (1.2 mm) are achieved for the centrifugal pellet injector which refuels the ASDEX tokamak at Garching. The timing of the (81) step shifts can be synchronized with the rotor motion. The drive allows rates of up to 50 pellets per second. The drive method also seems to be suitable for direct feeding of other known centrifugal pellet injectors

  11. Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.

  12. Controlling Plasma Channels through Ultrashort Laser Pulse Filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrey; Seleznev, Leonid; Sunchugasheva, Elena

    2013-09-01

    A review of studies fulfilled at the Lebedev Institute in collaboration with the Moscow State University and Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk on influence of various characteristics of ultrashort laser pulse on plasma channels formed under its filamentation is presented. Filamentation of high-power laser pulses with wavefront controlled by a deformable mirror, with cross-sections spatially formed by various diaphragms and with different wavelengths was experimentally and numerically studied. An application of plasma channels formed due to filamentation of ultrashort laser pulse including a train of such pulses for triggering and guiding long electric discharges is discussed. The research was supported by RFBR Grants 11-02-12061-ofi-m and 11-02-01100, and EOARD Grant 097007 through ISTC Project 4073 P

  13. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation by Tandem W Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Tian, Xia; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus, once formed, rapidly polymerizes into filament, thus making it impossible to capture stable multisubunit actin nucleus. Here, we report an effective double-mutant strategy to stabilize actin nucleus by preventing further polymerization. Employing this strategy, we solved the crystal structure of AMPPNP-actin in complex with the first two tandem W domains of Cordon-bleu (Cobl), a potent actin filament nucleator. Further sequence comparison and functional studies suggest that the nucleation mechanism of Cobl is probably shared by the p53 cofactor JMY, but not Spire. Moreover, the double-mutant strategy opens the way for atomic mechanistic study of actin nucleation and polymerization. PMID:23727244

  14. On the association of magnetic clouds with disappearing filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence that an interplanetary magnetic cloud preceding an interaction region, observed at earth January 24, 1974, is associated with the eruptive filament or disparition brusque (DB) near central meridian on January 18. The DB also was associated with a long-decay soft X ray transient (LDE) and a long-duration gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) radio burst. To assess whether magnetic clouds are generally associated with DBs, we present results from statistical testing of the relation of 33 magnetic clouds (and 33 control samples without magnetic clouds) to disappearing filaments near central meridian (approx. 99% confidence. There is a suggestion that clouds following shocks, probably launched at times of solar flares, are not as strongly associated with disappearing filaments as are clouds launched less violently

  15. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  16. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  17. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  18. Solo and keratin filaments regulate epithelial tubule morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryosuke; Kato, Kagayaki; Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-04-28

    Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction. In this study, we examined the roles of Solo and K8/K18 filaments in epithelial tubulogenesis using MDCK cells cultured in 3D collagen gels. Knockdown of either Solo or K18 resulted in rounder tubules with increased lumen size, indicating that Solo and K8/K18 filaments play critical roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules. Moreover, knockdown of Solo or K18 decreased the level of diphosphorylated myosin light chain (a marker of contractile force) at the luminal and outer surfaces of tubules, suggesting that Solo and K8/K18 filaments are involved in the generation of the myosin II-mediated contractile force during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. In addition, K18 filaments were normally oriented along the long axis of the tubule, but knockdown of Solo perturbed their orientation. These results suggest that Solo plays crucial roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules and in regulating myosin II activity and K18 filament organization during epithelial tubule formation.

  19. The versatility of hot-filament activated chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Lothar; Hoefer, Markus; Kroeger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    In the field of activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polycrystalline diamond films, hot-filament activation (HF-CVD) is widely used for applications where large deposition areas are needed or three-dimensional substrates have to be coated. We have developed processes for the deposition of conductive, boron-doped diamond films as well as for tribological crystalline diamond coatings on deposition areas up to 50 cm x 100 cm. Such multi-filament processes are used to produce diamond electrodes for advanced electrochemical processes or large batches of diamond-coated tools and parts, respectively. These processes demonstrate the high degree of uniformity and reproducibility of hot-filament CVD. The usability of hot-filament CVD for diamond deposition on three-dimensional substrates is well known for CVD diamond shaft tools. We also develop interior diamond coatings for drawing dies, nozzles, and thread guides. Hot-filament CVD also enables the deposition of diamond film modifications with tailored properties. In order to adjust the surface topography to specific applications, we apply processes for smooth, fine-grained or textured diamond films for cutting tools and tribological applications. Rough diamond is employed for grinding applications. Multilayers of fine-grained and coarse-grained diamond have been developed, showing increased shock resistance due to reduced crack propagation. Hot-filament CVD is also used for in situ deposition of carbide coatings and diamond-carbide composites, and the deposition of non-diamond, silicon-based films. These coatings are suitable as diffusion barriers and are also applied for adhesion and stress engineering and for semiconductor applications, respectively

  20. Development and manufacture of ultra-fine NbTi filament wires at ALSTHOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.K.; Laumond, Y.; Sabrie, J.L.; Dubots, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ultra-fine NbTi filament wires have been developed and manufactured by ALSTHOM. It is now possible to produce industrial copper -copper-nickel matrix wires with 0.6 mu m NbTi filaments for use in 50 / 60 Hz machines. Smaller filaments with diameters down to 0.08 mu m have been obtained with 254 100 filament wire samples. Studies are now being carried out on copper matrix conductors to reduce the filament diameter. The first results show that it is possible to obtain submicron filaments even in copper matrix wires

  1. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-07-05

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases.

  2. Design of the klystron filament power supply control system for EAST LHCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zege; Wang, Mao; Hu, Huaichuan; Ma, Wendong; Zhou, Taian; Zhou, Faxin; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A filament is a critical component of the klystron used to heat the cathode. There are totally 44 klystrons in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems. All klystron filaments are powered by AC power suppliers through isolated transformers. In order to achieve better klystron preheat, a klystron filament power supply control system is designed to obtain the automatic control of all filament power suppliers. Klystron filament current is measured by PLC and the interlock between filament current and klystron high voltage system is also implemented. This design has already been deployed in two LHCD systems and proves feasible completely.

  3. The intermediate filament network protein, vimentin, is required for parvoviral infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly, E-mail: pante@zoology.ubc.ca

    2013-09-15

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) have recently been shown to serve novel roles during infection by many viruses. Here we have begun to study the role of IFs during the early steps of infection by the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). We found that during early infection with MVM, after endosomal escape, the vimentin IF network was considerably altered, yielding collapsed immunofluorescence staining near the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, we found that vimentin plays an important role in the life cycle of MVM. The number of cells, which successfully replicated MVM, was reduced in infected cells in which the vimentin network was genetically or pharmacologically modified; viral endocytosis, however, remained unaltered. Perinuclear accumulation of MVM-containing vesicles was reduced in cells lacking vimentin. Our data suggests that vimentin is required for the MVM life cycle, presenting possibly a dual role: (1) following MVM escape from endosomes and (2) during endosomal trafficking of MVM. - Highlights: • MVM infection changes the distribution of the vimentin network to perinuclear regions. • Disrupting the vimentin network with acrylamide decreases MVM replication. • MVM replication is significantly reduced in vimentin-null cells. • Distribution of MVM-containing vesicles is affected in MVM infected vimentin-null cells.

  4. The intermediate filament network protein, vimentin, is required for parvoviral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) have recently been shown to serve novel roles during infection by many viruses. Here we have begun to study the role of IFs during the early steps of infection by the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). We found that during early infection with MVM, after endosomal escape, the vimentin IF network was considerably altered, yielding collapsed immunofluorescence staining near the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, we found that vimentin plays an important role in the life cycle of MVM. The number of cells, which successfully replicated MVM, was reduced in infected cells in which the vimentin network was genetically or pharmacologically modified; viral endocytosis, however, remained unaltered. Perinuclear accumulation of MVM-containing vesicles was reduced in cells lacking vimentin. Our data suggests that vimentin is required for the MVM life cycle, presenting possibly a dual role: (1) following MVM escape from endosomes and (2) during endosomal trafficking of MVM. - Highlights: • MVM infection changes the distribution of the vimentin network to perinuclear regions. • Disrupting the vimentin network with acrylamide decreases MVM replication. • MVM replication is significantly reduced in vimentin-null cells. • Distribution of MVM-containing vesicles is affected in MVM infected vimentin-null cells

  5. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-01-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ∼3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level

  6. Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Pukhov, Anatoly; Zigler, Arie

    2007-04-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present detailed measurements of plasma density variations along laser propagation. Over the length of the filament, electron density variations of 3 orders of magnitude are measured. They display evidence of a meter-long postionization range, along which a self-guided structure is observed coupled with a low plasma density, corresponding to ˜3 orders of magnitude decrease from the peak density level.

  7. Strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is focused on strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes made of E glass/polyester under internal pressure. The primary attention of this investigation is to develop a reliable computation procedure for stress, displacement and initial failure analysis of layered composite tubes. For that purpose we have combined the finite element method (FEM with corresponding initial failure criterions. In addition, finite element analyses using commercial code, MSC/NASTRAN, were performed to predict the behavior of filament wound structures. Computation results are compared with experiments. Good agreement between computation and experimental results are obtained.

  8. Whole life cycle of femtosecond ultraviolet filaments in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnac, Amélie; Tamosauskas, Gintaras; Majus, Donatas; Houard, Aurélien; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    We present measurements fully characterizing the whole life cycle of femtosecond pulses undergoing filamentation in water at 400 nm. The complete pulse dynamics is monitored by means of a four-dimensional mapping technique for the intensity distribution I (x,y,z,t) during the nonlinear interaction. Measured events (focusing or defocusing cycles, pulse splitting and replenishment, supercontinuum generation, conical emission, nonlinear absorption peaks) are mutually connected.The filament evolution from laser energy deposition in water, which is of paramount importance for a wide range of technological and medical applications, is interpreted in light of simulation results.

  9. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra B Wolf

    Full Text Available The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions. These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  10. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  11. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s −1 . During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  12. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19-20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ˜280 km s-1. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ˜8 G.

  13. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haisu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  14. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yan, Xiaoli [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Xue, Jianchao, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-05-20

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s{sup −1}. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  15. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, L.M.; Martin, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments

  16. Automated image analysis for quantification of filamentous bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning; Spillum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    in systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry (such as Vitek-2, Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway). The objective was to examine an automated image analysis algorithm for quantification of filamentous bacteria using the 3D digital microscopy imaging system, oCelloScope. Results Three E. coli strains displaying...

  17. Sensitivity of RF-driven Plasma Filaments to Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, M. J.; Czarnocki, C. J.; Czarnocki, K.; Zweben, S. J.; Zwicker, A.

    2011-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in many types of plasma discharges in both natural (e.g. lightning) and industrial systems (e.g. dielectric barrier discharges). Recent progress has been made in characterizing these structures, though various aspects of their essential physics remain unclear. A common example of this phenomenon can be found within a toy plasma globe (or plasma ball), wherein a primarily neon gas mixture near atmospheric pressure clearly and aesthetically displays filamentation. Recent work has provided the first characterization of these plasma globe filaments [Campanell et al., Physics of Plasmas 2010], where it was noticed that discharges of pure gases tend not to produce filaments. We have extended this initial work to investigate in greater detail the dependence of trace gases on filamentation within a primarily Neon discharge. Our preliminary results using a custom globe apparatus will be presented, along with some discussion of voltage dependencies. Newly supported by the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering.

  18. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  19. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  20. The physiology of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijkhuis, H.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the physiology of Microthrix parvicella. This filamentous bacterium often causes poor settleability of activated sludge in oxidation ditches supplied with domestic sewage. The organism was found to utilize only long chain fatty acids (preferably in

  1. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lei [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: yczhang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  2. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  3. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  4. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haisu [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Tzortzakis, Stelios, E-mail: stzortz@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-23

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  5. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host.

    In Chapter 1, the use of microbial

  6. Mechanical response of melt-spun amorphous filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A A; Reifler, F A; Hufenus, R; Mohanty, G; Michler, J

    2014-01-01

    High-speed melt spinning of a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and a copolyamide (CoPA) have been performed. Differential scanning calorimetry curves of the resulting monofilaments show that they remain in an amorphous state even after hot drawing. Wide angle x-ray diffraction patterns of undrawn and drawn COP filaments show that although the material remains in an amorphous state, a degree of orientation is induced in the polymer after drawing. The amorphous filaments show an enhanced bending recovery with respect to different semi-crystalline monofilaments commercially available. However, single fiber axial compressive testing indicates that the amorphous filaments exhibit a compressive modulus value which is 50% lower than what is observed for a reference semi-crystalline PET filament. Analysis of the compressive strains applied by the bending recovery test indicates that while the maximum applied strains remain well within the region of elastic deformation of the amorphous materials, the threshold between elastic and plastic deformation is reached for the semi-crystalline materials. (paper)

  7. Transient filament stretching rheometer I: force balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The filament stretching device which is used increasingly as an apparatus for measuring extensional properties of polymeric liquids isanalysed. A force balance that includes the effects of inertia and surface tension is derived.The force balance may be used to correct for the effects of inertia...

  8. Collapsing vortex filaments and the spectrum of quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    The method of correlation functions and the method of quantum vortex configurations are used to calculate the energy spectrum of a three-dimensional velocity field that is induced by collapsing (immediately before reconnection) vortex filaments. The formulation of this problem is motivated by the idea of modeling classical turbulence by a set of chaotic quantized vortex filaments. Among the various arguments that support the idea of quasi-classical behavior for quantum turbulence, the most persuasive is probably the resulting Kolmogorov energy spectrum resembling E ( k ) ∝ k - 5 / 3 that was obtained in a number of numerical studies. Another goal is associated with an important and intensely studied theme that relates to the role of hydrodynamic collapse in the formation of turbulence spectra. Calculations have demonstrated that vortex filaments create a velocity field at the moment of contact, which has a singularity. This configuration of vortex filaments generates the spectrum E(k), which bears the resemblance to the Kolmogorov law. A possible cause for this observation is discussed, as well as the likely reasons behind any deviations. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of both classical and quantum turbulence.

  9. Magnetic islands in tokamaks induced by thermal filamentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, M.A.; Mohamed-Benkadda, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The thermal instability of filamentation is revisited in the fully nonlinear regime of a system of cool magnetic island chains, taking into account: the different transport processes inside and outside island cores, and a realistic temperature dependence of radiative losses. This mechanism is found to be a plausible candidate to explain the anomalous electron energy transport

  10. Filament identification and dominance of Eikelboom Type 0092 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order of prevalence, the five most common dominant filament species in 96 activated sludge samples were: Eikelboom Type 0092, Eikelboom Type 1851, nocardioforms, Microthrix parvicella and Eikelboom Type 021N. In order to compile a statistically significant database, it is recommended that an extensive nationwide ...

  11. The cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, Robbert A.

    2005-01-01

    Fungi are a very successful species and are distributed worldwide. However, the presence of fungi is not always desired. Filamentous fungi can grow on living or dead organic material and even inside the host. Current methods to prevent fungal growth are insufficient, causing fatality after fungal

  12. Analysis of filament statistics in fast camera data on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Tom; Militello, Fulvio; Walkden, Nick; Harrison, James; Silburn, Scott; Bradley, James

    2017-10-01

    Coherent filamentary structures have been shown to play a dominant role in turbulent cross-field particle transport [D'Ippolito 2011]. An improved understanding of filaments is vital in order to control scrape off layer (SOL) density profiles and thus control first wall erosion, impurity flushing and coupling of radio frequency heating in future devices. The Elzar code [T. Farley, 2017 in prep.] is applied to MAST data. The code uses information about the magnetic equilibrium to calculate the intensity of light emission along field lines as seen in the camera images, as a function of the field lines' radial and toroidal locations at the mid-plane. In this way a `pseudo-inversion' of the intensity profiles in the camera images is achieved from which filaments can be identified and measured. In this work, a statistical analysis of the intensity fluctuations along field lines in the camera field of view is performed using techniques similar to those typically applied in standard Langmuir probe analyses. These filament statistics are interpreted in terms of the theoretical ergodic framework presented by F. Militello & J.T. Omotani, 2016, in order to better understand how time averaged filament dynamics produce the more familiar SOL density profiles. This work has received funding from the RCUK Energy programme (Grant Number EP/P012450/1), from Euratom (Grant Agreement No. 633053) and from the EUROfusion consortium.

  13. Formation of solar filaments by steady and nonsteady chromospheric heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, C.; Chen, P. F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with

  14. Formation of Solar Filaments by Steady and Nonsteady Chromospheric Heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, C.; Chen, P.F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. -J

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with

  15. Wettability dynamics of liquid filaments on horizontal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Javier; Ravazzoli, Pablo; Cuellar, Ingrith; Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    We study the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved in the motion of the contact line formed at the end region of a liquid filament laying on a planar and horizontal substrate. Since the flow develops under partially wetting conditions, the tip of the filament recedes and forms a bulged region (head) that subsequently develops a neck region behind it. Later the neck breaks up leading to a separated drop, while the rest of the filament restarts the sequence. One main feature of this flow is that the whole dynamics and final drop shapes are strongly influenced by the hysteresis of the contact angle typical in most of the liquid-substrate systems. The time evolution till breakup is studied experimentally and pictured in terms of a hybrid wettability theory which involves the Cox-Voinov hydrodynamic approach combined with the molecular kinetic theory developed by Blake. The parameters of this theory are determined for our liquid-substrate system (silicone oil ``coated glass). The experimental results of the retracting filament are described in terms of a simple heuristic model and compared with numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equations. This study is of special interest in the context of pulsed laser-induced dewetting. The authors acknowledge support from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas (CONICET, Argentina) with Grant PIP 844/2012 and Agencia Nacional de Promocin Cientfica y Tecnolgica (ANPCyT, Argentina) with Grant PICT 931/2012.

  16. Decidable and undecidable arithmetic functions in actin filament networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is very sensitive to its environment, and reacts to stimuli with appropriate motions. Both the sensory and motor stages of these reactions are explained by hydrodynamic processes, based on fluid dynamics, with the participation of actin filament networks. This paper is devoted to actin filament networks as a computational medium. The point is that actin filaments, with contributions from many other proteins like myosin, are sensitive to extracellular stimuli (attractants as well as repellents), and appear and disappear at different places in the cell to change aspects of the cell structure—e.g. its shape. By assembling and disassembling actin filaments, some unicellular organisms, like Amoeba proteus, can move in response to various stimuli. As a result, these organisms can be considered a simple reversible logic gate—extracellular signals being its inputs and motions its outputs. In this way, we can implement various logic gates on amoeboid behaviours. These networks can embody arithmetic functions within p-adic valued logic. Furthermore, within these networks we can define the so-called diagonalization for deducing undecidable arithmetic functions.

  17. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  18. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10-50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell's equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament

  19. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10 50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell’s equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament.

  20. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... and alluring application prospects of filament are dis- covered, e.g. control of a ... (1) are the linear effects, accounting for the spatial diffraction and the ... The input electric field envelope is modelled by a. Gaussian profile with ...

  1. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  2. Stochastic calculus of protein filament formation under spatial confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Dear, Alexander J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2018-05-01

    The growth of filamentous aggregates from precursor proteins is a process of central importance to both normal and aberrant biology, for instance as the driver of devastating human disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The conventional theoretical framework for describing this class of phenomena in bulk is based upon the mean-field limit of the law of mass action, which implicitly assumes deterministic dynamics. However, protein filament formation processes under spatial confinement, such as in microdroplets or in the cellular environment, show intrinsic variability due to the molecular noise associated with small-volume effects. To account for this effect, in this paper we introduce a stochastic differential equation approach for investigating protein filament formation processes under spatial confinement. Using this framework, we study the statistical properties of stochastic aggregation curves, as well as the distribution of reaction lag-times. Moreover, we establish the gradual breakdown of the correlation between lag-time and normalized growth rate under spatial confinement. Our results establish the key role of spatial confinement in determining the onset of stochasticity in protein filament formation and offer a formalism for studying protein aggregation kinetics in small volumes in terms of the kinetic parameters describing the aggregation dynamics in bulk.

  3. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electron emission regulator for an x-ray tube filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, H.E.; Randall, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tube ma regulator has an scr phase shift voltage regulator supplying the primary winding of a transformer whose secondary is coupled to the x-ray tube filament. Prior to initiation of an x-ray exposure, the filament is preheated to a temperature corresponding substantially to the electron emissivity needed for obtaining the desired tube ma during an exposure. During the preexposure interval, the phase shift regulator is controlled by a signal corresponding to the sum of signals representative of the voltage applied to the filament transformer, the desired filament voltage and the space charge compensation needed for the selected x-ray tube anode to cathode voltage. When an exposure is initiated, control of the voltage regulator is switched to a circuit that responds to the tube current by controlling the amount of phase shift and, hence, the voltage supplied to the transformer. Transformer leakage current compensation is provided during the exposure interval with a circuit that includes an element whose impedance is varied in accordance with the anode-to-cathode voltage setting so the element drains off tube current as required to cancel the effect of leakage current variations

  5. On filament structure and propagation within a commercial plasma globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burin, M. J.; Simmons, G. G.; Ceja, H. G.; Zweben, S. J.; Nagy, A.; Brunkhorst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentary discharge seen within commercial plasma globes is commonly enjoyed yet not well understood. Here, we investigate the discharge properties of a plasma globe using a variable high voltage amplifier. We find that increasing voltage magnitude increases the number of filaments while leaving their individual structure basically unchanged, a result typical of dielectric barrier discharges. The frequency of the voltage also affects filament population but more significantly changes filament structure, with more diffuse filaments seen at lower frequencies. Voltage polarity is observed to be important, especially at lower frequencies, where for negative-gradient voltages the discharge is more diffuse, not filamentary. At late stages of the discharge circular structures appear and expand on the glass boundaries. We find no trend of discharge speed with respect to voltage variables, though this may be due to manufacturer sample-to-sample variation. Each voltage cycle the discharge expands outward at ∼10–15 km/s, a speed significantly higher than the estimated electron drift yet considerably lower than that observed for most streamers. We discuss the physics of these observations and their relation to similar discharges that can be found within nature and industry

  6. Filamentation of diamond nanoparticles treated in underwater corona discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Lukeš, Petr; Kozak, Halyna; Artemenko, Anna; Člupek, Martin; Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), 2352-2360 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : nanodiamonds * pulsed streamer corona discharge * filamentation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  7. Influence of plasma background including neutrals on scrape-off layer filaments using 3D simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schwörer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the plasma background, including neutrals in a self-consistent way, on filaments in the scrape-off layer (SOL of fusion devices. A strong dependency of filament motion on background density and temperature is observed. The radial filament motion shows an increase in velocity with decreasing background density and increasing background temperature. In the simulations presented here, three neutral-filament interaction models have been compared, one with a static neutral background, one with no interaction between filaments and neutrals, and one co-evolving the neutrals self consistently with the filaments. With the background conditions employed here, which do not show detachment, there are no significant effects of neutrals on filaments, as by the time the filament reaches maximum velocity, the neutral density has not changed significantly.

  8. Filament to filament bridging and its influence on developing high critical current density in multifilamentary Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T; Jiang, J; Kametani, F; Trociewitz, U P; Larbalestier, D C; Schwartz, J; Hellstrom, E E

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the critical current density (J c ) of the multifilamentary round wire Ag/Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x (2212) requires understanding its complicated microstructure, in which extensive bridges between filaments are prominent. In this first through-process quench study of 2212 round wire, we determined how its microstructure develops during a standard partial-melt process and how filament bridging occurs. We found that filaments can bond together in the melt state. As 2212 starts to grow on subsequent cooling, we observed that two types of 2212 bridges form. One type, which we call Type-A bridges, forms within filaments that bonded in the melt; Type-A bridges are single grains that span multiple bonded filaments. The other type, called Type-B bridges, form between discrete filaments through 2212 outgrowths that penetrate into the Ag matrix and intersect with other 2212 outgrowths from adjacent filaments. We believe the ability of these two types of bridges to carry inter-filament current is intrinsically different: Type-A bridges are high- J c inter-filament paths whereas Type-B bridges contain high-angle grain boundaries and are typically weak linked. Slow cooling leads to more filament bonding, more Type-A bridges and a doubling of J c without changing the flux pinning. We suggest that Type-A bridges create a 3D current flow that is vital to developing high J c in multifilamentary 2212 round wire.

  9. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto de Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Trasferetti, Benedito C. [Departamento de Policia Federal, Superintendencia Regional no Piaui, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Avenida Maranhao, 1022/N, 64.000-010, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Scarminio, Jair [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Davanzo, Celso U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Laboratorio de Processos de Plasma, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO{sub x}, WO{sub x} and VO{sub x}. The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min{sup -1} for MoO{sub x}, are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO{sub x} films, for example, present a mixture of MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li{sup +} intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO{sub x} and WO{sub x} films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO{sub x} films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented.

  10. Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2 and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3 with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82 were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium and poor (carbon source absent in medium conditions. Findings F. aestuarina BUZ 2 significantly reduced the cyanobacterial population whereas F. limi BUZ 3 did not. Physical contact between heterotrophs and autotroph was observed and the cyanobacterial cells showed some level of damage and lysis. Therefore, either contact lysis or entrapment with production of extracellular compounds in close vicinity of host cells could be considered as potential modes of action. The supernatants from pure heterotrophic cultures did not have an effect on Nostoc cultures. However, supernatant from mixed cultures of BUZ 2 and Nostoc had a negative effect on cyanobacterial growth, indicating that the lytic compounds were only produced in the presence of Nostoc. The growth and survival of tested heterotrophs was enhanced by the presence of Nostoc or its metabolites, suggesting that the heterotrophs could utilize the autotrophs and its products as a nutrient source. However, the autotroph could withstand and out-compete the heterotrophs under nutrient poor conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that the nutrients in cultivation media, which boost or reduce the number of heterotrophs, were the important factor influencing the outcome of the interplay between filamentous heterotrophs and autotrophs. For better understanding of these interactions, additional research is needed. In particular, it is necessary to elucidate the mode of action for lysis by heterotrophs, and the possible defense mechanisms of the autotrophs.

  11. Filament structure, organization, and dynamics in MreB sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Maéda, Yuichiro; Robinson, Robert C

    2010-05-21

    In vivo fluorescence microscopy studies of bacterial cells have shown that the bacterial shape-determining protein and actin homolog, MreB, forms cable-like structures that spiral around the periphery of the cell. The molecular structure of these cables has yet to be established. Here we show by electron microscopy that Thermatoga maritime MreB forms complex, several mum long multilayered sheets consisting of diagonally interwoven filaments in the presence of either ATP or GTP. This architecture, in agreement with recent rheological measurements on MreB cables, may have superior mechanical properties and could be an important feature for maintaining bacterial cell shape. MreB polymers within the sheets appear to be single-stranded helical filaments rather than the linear protofilaments found in the MreB crystal structure. Sheet assembly occurs over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Polymerization kinetics are consistent with a cooperative assembly mechanism requiring only two steps: monomer activation followed by elongation. Steady-state TIRF microscopy studies of MreB suggest filament treadmilling while high pressure small angle x-ray scattering measurements indicate that the stability of MreB polymers is similar to that of F-actin filaments. In the presence of ADP or GDP, long, thin cables formed in which MreB was arranged in parallel as linear protofilaments. This suggests that the bacterial cell may exploit various nucleotides to generate different filament structures within cables for specific MreB-based functions.

  12. Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Bin; Chu Wei; Li Guihua; Zhang Haisu; Ni Jielei [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao Hui; Liu Weiwei [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser (COPL) and Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that the peak intensity in the filament core, which is inherently limited by the intensity clamping effect during femtosecond laser filamentation, can be significantly enhanced using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, the filament length obtained by spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses is {approx}25 times shorter than that obtained by a conventional focusing scheme, resulting in improved high spatial resolution.

  13. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This indicates the fact that the action of large-scale tidal torques affected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic filaments. To this

  14. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, A.B.; Vos, de M.; Boer, de W.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to

  15. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, A.B.; Vos, M.; De Boer, W.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to

  16. Partial characterisation of citrus leaf blotch virus, a new virus from Nagami kumquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipienso, L; Vives, M C; Moreno, P; Milne, R G; Navarro, L; Guerri, J

    2001-01-01

    Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was purified from leaves of Nagami kumquat SRA-153 that showed bud union crease when propagated on Troyer citrange. Virions were filamentous particles (960 x 14 nm) containing a 42 kDa protein and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) of about 9,000 nt (Mr 3 x 10(6)). Infected tissue contained three species of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of Mr 6, 4.5 and 3.4 x 10(6). The nucleotide sequence of several complementary DNA (cDNA) clones showed significant similarities with replication-related proteins from plant filamentous viruses in several genera. A digoxigenin-labelled probe from one of these cDNA clones hybridised in Northern blots with ssRNA from virions and with the three dsRNA species, suggesting that the ssRNA is the genomic RNA of the virus, the largest dsRNA is its replicative form, and the two smaller dsRNAs probably replicative forms of 5' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs. CLBV was also detected in several citrus cultivars from Spain and Japan including Navelina sweet orange field trees propagated on Troyer citrange showing bud union crease; however, no virus could be detected in other citrus trees with similar symptoms. This indicates that CLBV is not restricted to kumquat SRA-153, but its involvement in causing the bud union disorder remains unclear.

  17. Dissipative light-bullets in the filamentation of femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, M.A.; Gonzalo, I.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. With the growing interest in filamentation in solid and liquid media, the regime of filamentation with anomalous dispersion is receiving more attention. In this work we show that basics aspects of the filament dynamics in this regime can be explained in terms of a novel type of light-bullet, which is not of solitary or of conical types, but a wave-packet that maximizes the energy dissipation into the medium while remaining localized and stationary in propagation. We first show that a nonlinear optical medium at a given carrier wave length at which dispersion is anomalous, supports 'dissipative' light-bullets, i.e., waves localized in space and time and that propagate without change as a result of a balance between nonlinear compression and nonlinear absorption. Among them, the particular dissipative light-bullet with the highest possible dissipation is unique in a given medium, in the sense that all its properties are fixed by the properties of the medium at the carrier wave length. In this light-bullet, self-focusing continuously transports energy towards the pulse center by an amount that just compensates for the nonlinear losses. Figure 1(a) shows the radial profiles of the dissipative light-bullets that maximizes energy dissipation for several orders of multi-photon absorption responsible for the nonlinear losses. We have also found that this dissipative light-bullet tends to be spontaneously formed in the filamentary dynamics in media with anomalous dispersion. Figure 1(b) shows the peak intensity, the total energy and losses of a pulse that undergoes self-focusing and filamentation in an ideal medium with only Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption. This simple model reproduces the particularly long filament 'segments' and the 'burst' observed in experiments and in more accurate simulations. The peak intensity in the filament is identical to that of the dissipative light-bullet with maximum dissipation, and the

  18. Comparison of the filament behaviour observed during type I ELMs in ASDEX upgrade and MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, A; Ayed, B; Counsell, G F; Lisgo, S; Price, M; Tallents, S; Herrmann, A; Eich, T; Muller, H W; Schmid, A; Wilson, H

    2008-01-01

    A study of the evolution of the filaments observed during Type I ELMs on ASDEX Upgrade and MAST is presented. The filaments start off rotating toroidally/poloidally with velocities close to that of the pedestal. This velocity then decreases as the filaments propagate radially. On both devices the ion saturation current e-folding lengths of the filaments show a weak, if any, dependence on the size of the ELM (δW ELM /W ped ). On MAST the measured radial velocities of the filaments also show at most a weak dependence on δW ELM /W ped

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 1: Development, Properties, and Recycling Potential of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Balu; Hoffmann, Niklas; Saltonstall, Brooks; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-03-01

    This work focuses on developing filaments of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and their hollow particle-filled syntactic foams for commercial three-dimensional (3D) printers based on fused filament fabrication technology. Hollow fly-ash cenospheres were blended by 40 wt.% in a HDPE matrix to produce syntactic foam (HDPE40) filaments. Further, the recycling potential was studied by pelletizing the filaments again to extrude twice (2×) and three times (3×). The filaments were tensile tested at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1, and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. HDPE40 filaments show an increasing trend in modulus and strength with the strain rate. Higher density and modulus were noticed for 2× filaments compared to 1× filaments because of the crushing of some cenospheres in the extrusion cycle. However, 2× and 3× filament densities are nearly the same, showing potential for recycling them. The filaments show better properties than the same materials processed by conventional injection molding. Micro-CT scans show a uniform dispersion of cenospheres in all filaments.

  20. Thick filament mechano-sensing is a calcium-independent regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Yan, Z; Irving, M

    2016-10-31

    Recent X-ray diffraction studies on actively contracting fibres from skeletal muscle showed that the number of myosin motors available to interact with actin-containing thin filaments is controlled by the stress in the myosin-containing thick filaments. Those results suggested that thick filament mechano-sensing might constitute a novel regulatory mechanism in striated muscles that acts independently of the well-known thin filament-mediated calcium signalling pathway. Here we test that hypothesis using probes attached to the myosin regulatory light chain in demembranated muscle fibres. We show that both the extent and kinetics of thick filament activation depend on thick filament stress but are independent of intracellular calcium concentration in the physiological range. These results establish direct control of myosin motors by thick filament mechano-sensing as a general regulatory mechanism in skeletal muscle that is independent of the canonical calcium signalling pathway.

  1. A MAGNETIC RIBBON MODEL FOR STAR-FORMING FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auddy, Sayantan; Basu, Shantanu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Kudoh, Takahiro, E-mail: sauddy3@uwo.ca, E-mail: basu@uwo.ca, E-mail: kudoh@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    We develop a magnetic ribbon model for molecular cloud filaments. These result from turbulent compression in a molecular cloud in which the background magnetic field sets a preferred direction. We argue that this is a natural model for filaments and is based on the interplay between turbulence, strong magnetic fields, and gravitationally driven ambipolar diffusion, rather than pure gravity and thermal pressure. An analytic model for the formation of magnetic ribbons that is based on numerical simulations is used to derive a lateral width of a magnetic ribbon. This differs from the thickness along the magnetic field direction, which is essentially the Jeans scale. We use our model to calculate a synthetic observed relation between apparent width in projection versus observed column density. The relationship is relatively flat, similar to observations, and unlike the simple expectation based on a Jeans length argument.

  2. Electromagnetic effects on plasma blob-filament transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Angus, J.R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nuclear Research National University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Both microscopic and macroscopic impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Linear stability analysis and nonlinear BOUT++ simulations demonstrate that electromagnetic effects in high temperature or high beta plasmas suppress the resistive drift wave turbulence in the blob when resistivity drops below a certain value. In the course of blob’s motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important. It is found that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament length leads to bending of the high-beta blob filaments. This is caused by the increase of the propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time) in higher-density plasma. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time.

  3. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    The quest for conclusive evidence of microfossils in meteorites has been elusive. Abiotic microstructures, mineral grains, and even coating artifacts may mimic unicellular bacteria, archaea and nanobacteria with simple spherical or rod morphologies (i.e., cocci, diplococci, bacilli, etc.). This is not the case for the larger and more complex microorganisms, colonies and microbial consortia and ecosystems. Microfossils of algae, cyanobacteria, and cyanobacterial and microbial mats have been recognized and described from many of the most ancient rocks on Earth. The filamentous cyanobacteria and sulphur-bacteria have very distinctive size ranges, complex and recognizable morphologies and visibly differentiated cellular microstructures. The taphonomic modes of fossilization and the life habits and processes of these microorganisms often result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with carbonization, silicification, calcification, phosphatization and metal-binding properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Valid biogenicity is provided by the combination of a suite of known biogenic elements (that differ from the meteorite matrix) found in direct association with recognizable and distinct biological features and microstructures (e.g., uniseriate or multiseriate filaments, trichomes, sheaths and cells of proper size/size range); specialized cells (e.g., basal or apical cells, hormogonia, akinetes, and heterocysts); and evidence of growth characteristics (e.g., spiral filaments, robust or thin sheaths, laminated sheaths, true or false branching of trichomes, tapered or uniform filaments) and evidence of locomotion (e.g. emergent cells and trichomes, coiling hormogonia, and hollow or flattened and twisted sheaths). Since 1997 we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) studies of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial

  4. Thermal and Electrical Investigation of Conductive Polylactic Acid Based Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, R. A.; Marcu, A. E.; Drumea, A.; Vlădescu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Printed electronics gain momentum as the involved technologies become affordable. The ability to shape electrostatic dissipative materials in almost any form is useful. The idea to use a general-purpose 3D printer to manufacture the electrical interconnections for a circuit is very attractive. The advantage of using a 3D printed structure over other technologies are mainly the lower price, less requirements concerning storage and use conditions, and the capability to build thicker traces while maintaining flexibility. The main element allowing this to happen is a printing filament with conductive properties. The paper shows the experiments that were performed to determine the thermal and electrical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) based ESD dissipative filament. Quantitative results regarding the thermal behavior of the DC resistance and the variation of the equivalent parallel impedance model parameters (losses resistance, capacitance, impedance magnitude and phase angle) with frequency are shown.. Using these results, new applications like printed temperature sensors can be imagined.

  5. Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior)

  6. Regulated 15-V, 7500-A, neutral-beam filament supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) designed a cost-effective, regulated 15-V, 7500-A filament supply for use with the High-Voltage Test Stand , a major ERDA developmental neutral-beam test facility. The filament supply can float to 200 kV and can provide pulse widths up to 30 s. Powered by a 24-V, 0.5-TJ battery bank, it avoids the use of expensive isolation transformers and induction voltage regulators (IVR's). Battery output is regulated by a water-cooled resistor-contactor combination in which contactors are closed in sequential format to create a staircase current waveform. A fine-tuning network tunes in-between the ''steps'' for regulation to less than 0.5 percent. The regulator is digitally controlled except for the sense amplifiers, which are optically coupled to the digital controller. All ground telemetry uses optical links to minimize effects of rfi and emi noise in the data channels

  7. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Löwe, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments with prop...... point for ParM polymerization. Hence, we provide evidence for a simple prokaryotic analogue of the eukaryotic mitotic spindle apparatus.......The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments...

  8. UV-induced filamentation in bacteria of the generum Erwinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokulevich, V A; Tomichev, Yu K

    1988-09-01

    It is experimentally shown that cells of 56 pectolytic Erwinia strains isolated at different tomus in different states from various natural sources are converted into filaments under UV-light effect in relatively low doses which allows one to refer them to natural Fil/sup +/ - organisms. Ability to filamentation in Erwinia bacterium correlates with secretion process to the environment of pectolytic enzymes. Bacteria of 9 E.herbicola strains investigated (without pectatlyase secretion) after irradiation do not form stretched cells. Based on the results obtained a conclusion is drawn that increased ENA49 E.chrysanthemic cell sensitivity to UV light results from its natural defect in the system, providing for cell division processes like the one revealed in E.CoLiB and Lon/sup -/ - mutants of E.Coli K-12.

  9. Stability of a plasma filament with a skinned current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blekher, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    An effective sufficient condition of existence of ideal helical plasma filament instability in a strong longitUdinal magnetic field for skinned current profiles is deduced in the paper. The results of numerical calculations of current skinned profiles of instability diagrams are presented and these results are compared with the obtained sufficient condition. An analytical solution for one model current profile skinning and this solution also is compared with the sufficient condition of instability

  10. Four-photon parametric mixing and interaction between filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, D. A. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovachev, L. M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradcko Chaussee Blvd.,1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-11-12

    Recently energy exchange between two filaments crossing at small angle and with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} was experimentally demonstrated. In this paper we present a model describing the process of this transfer through degenerate four-photon parametric mixing. Our model confirms the experimental results that the direction of energy exchange depends on the relative transverse velocity (incident angle), laser intensity and initial distance between the pulses (relative initial phase)

  11. CNS-syndrome. Characterization of rat brain intermediate filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedzvetskij, V.S.; Busygina, S.G.; Berezin, V.A.; Dvoretskij, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of ionizing radiation on the content and polypeptide composition of filamentous and soluble glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in different regions of rat brain. Ionizing radiation was shown to decrease considerably the level of soluble GFAP in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, middle brain and hippocampus. Polypeptide composition of soluble GFAP detected by the immonublot-method was found to be changed considerably in different brain areas of irradiated animals

  12. Targeting Antibacterial Agents by Using Drug-Carrying Filamentous Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoby, Iftach; Shamis, Marina; Bar, Hagit; Shabat, Doron; Benhar, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been used for more than a century for (unconventional) therapy of bacterial infections, for half a century as tools in genetic research, for 2 decades as tools for discovery of specific target-binding proteins, and for nearly a decade as tools for vaccination or as gene delivery vehicles. Here we present a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages (phages) as targeted drug carriers for the eradication of (pathogenic) bacteria. The phages are genetically modified to d...

  13. Finite element modeling of the filament winding process using ABAQUS

    OpenAIRE

    Miltenberger, Louis C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive stress model of the filament winding fabrication process, previously implemented in the finite element program, WACSAFE, was implemented using the ABAQUS finite element software package. This new implementation, referred to as the ABWACSAFE procedure, consists of the ABAQUS software and a pre/postprocessing routine that was developed to prepare necessary ABAQUS input files and process ABAQUS displacement results for stress and strain computation. The ABWACSAF...

  14. Oxygen vacancy chain and conductive filament formation in hafnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kan-Hao; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2018-04-01

    The stability and aggregation mechanisms of oxygen vacancy chains are studied for hafnia using self-energy corrected density functional theory. While oxygen vacancies tend not to align along the c-axis of monoclinic HfO2, oxygen vacancy chains along a-axis and b-axis are energetically favorable, with cohesive energies of 0.05 eV and 0.03 eV per vacancy, respectively. Nevertheless, with an increase of the cross section area, intensive oxygen vacancy chains become much more stable in hafnia, which yields phase separation into Hf-clusters and HfO2. Compared with disperse single vacancy chains, intensive oxygen vacancy chains made of 4, 6, and 8 single vacancy chains are energetically more favorable by 0.17, 0.20, and 0.30 eV per oxygen vacancy, respectively. On the other hand, while a single oxygen vacancy chain exhibits a tiny electronic energy gap of around 0.5 eV, metallic conduction emerges for the intensive vacancy chain made of 8 single vacancy chains, which possesses a filament cross section area of ˜0.4 nm2. This sets a lower area limit for Hf-cluster filaments from metallic conduction point of view, but in real hafnia resistive RAM devices the cross section area of the filaments can generally be much larger (>5 nm2) for the sake of energy minimization. Our work sets up a bridge between oxygen vacancy ordering and phase separation in hafnia, and shows a clear trend of filament stabilization with larger dimensions. The results could explain the threshold switching phenomenon in hafnia when a small AFM tip was used as the top electrode, as well as the undesired multimode operation in resistive RAM cells with 3 nm-thick hafnia.

  15. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  16. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  17. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  18. A method for 3D-reconstruction of a muscle thick filament using the tilt series images of a single filament electron tomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, G; Pinto, A; Alamo, L; Baumann, B; Ye, F; Winkler, H; Taylor, K; Padrón, R

    2014-05-01

    Myosin interacting-heads (MIH) motifs are visualized in 3D-reconstructions of thick filaments from striated muscle. These reconstructions are calculated by averaging methods using images from electron micrographs of grids prepared using numerous filament preparations. Here we propose an alternative method to calculate the 3D-reconstruction of a single thick filament using only a tilt series images recorded by electron tomography. Relaxed thick filaments, prepared from tarantula leg muscle homogenates, were negatively stained. Single-axis tilt series of single isolated thick filaments were obtained with the electron microscope at a low electron dose, and recorded on a CCD camera by electron tomography. An IHRSR 3D-recontruction was calculated from the tilt series images of a single thick filament. The reconstruction was enhanced by including in the search stage dual tilt image segments while only single tilt along the filament axis is usually used, as well as applying a band pass filter just before the back projection. The reconstruction from a single filament has a 40 Å resolution and clearly shows the presence of MIH motifs. In contrast, the electron tomogram 3D-reconstruction of the same thick filament - calculated without any image averaging and/or imposition of helical symmetry - only reveals MIH motifs infrequently. This is - to our knowledge - the first application of the IHRSR method to calculate a 3D reconstruction from tilt series images. This single filament IHRSR reconstruction method (SF-IHRSR) should provide a new tool to assess structural differences between well-ordered thick (or thin) filaments in a grid by recording separately their electron tomograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preserved filamentous microbial biosignatures in the Brick Flat gossan, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Alpers, Charles N.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Hofmann, Beda A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of actively precipitating mineral environments preserve morphological evidence of microbial biosignatures. One such environment with preserved microbial biosignatures is the oxidized portion of a massive sulfide deposit, or gossan, such as that at Iron Mountain, California. This gossan may serve as a mineralogical analogue to some ancient martian environments due to the presence of oxidized iron and sulfate species, and minerals that only form in acidic aqueous conditions, in both environments. Evaluating the potential biogenicity of cryptic textures in such martian gossans requires an understanding of how microbial textures form biosignatures on Earth. The iron-oxide-dominated composition and morphology of terrestrial, nonbranching filamentous microbial biosignatures may be distinctive of the underlying formation and preservation processes. The Iron Mountain gossan consists primarily of ferric oxide (hematite), hydrous ferric oxide (HFO, predominantly goethite), and jarosite group minerals, categorized into in situ gossan, and remobilized iron deposits. We interpret HFO filaments, found in both gossan types, as HFO-mineralized microbial filaments based in part on (1) the presence of preserved central filament lumina in smooth HFO mineral filaments that are likely molds of microbial filaments, (2) mineral filament formation in actively precipitating iron-oxide environments, (3) high degrees of mineral filament bending consistent with a flexible microbial filament template, and (4) the presence of bare microbial filaments on gossan rocks. Individual HFO filaments are below the resolution of the Mars Curiosity and Mars 2020 rover cameras, but sinuous filaments forming macroscopic matlike textures are resolvable. If present on Mars, available cameras may resolve these features identified as similar to terrestrial HFO filaments and allow subsequent evaluation for their biogenicity by synthesizing geochemical, mineralogical, and morphological analyses. Sinuous

  20. Development of controller strategies for a robotized filament winding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Edgar; Machado, José; Mendonça, João P.

    2013-10-01

    The composites reinforced with continuous fibers of polymeric material are increasingly used in applications where it is essential to reduce weight, mainly due to their high ratio of strength/weight and rigidity/weight. A conventional application are pressure vessels, used for storing liquids or gases subjected to low or high pressure, where the tape continuous fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix material is wound around a mandrel defining the final geometry. In this context the filament winding process is a very attractive process for the production of composite components. For optimal structural performance, and greater weight saving, an optimal path should be adopted, resulting only in axial tension in the longitudinal direction (slip). Such path is the geodesic winding and diverse equipment may be used to guarantee the process automation of the winding. This work herein presented is focused on the study and development of the controller program for a robotized filament winding equipment, taking into account customization of possible trajectories controlling filament winding. The automation of the custom path according to user needs increases exponentially the capabilities, where the use of a robotized solution increases process flexibility and repeatability.

  1. Unambiguous Evidence of Filament Splitting-induced Partial Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Kliem, B.; Ding, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections are often considered to result from the full eruption of a magnetic flux rope (MFR). However, it is recognized that, in some events, the MFR may release only part of its flux, with the details of the implied splitting not completely established due to limitations in observations. Here, we investigate two partial eruption events including a confined and a successful one. Both partial eruptions are a consequence of the vertical splitting of a filament-hosting MFR involving internal reconnection. A loss of equilibrium in the rising part of the magnetic flux is suggested by the impulsive onset of both events and by the delayed onset of reconnection in the confined event. The remaining part of the flux might be line-tied to the photosphere in a bald patch (BP) separatrix surface, and we confirm the existence of extended BP sections for the successful eruption. The internal reconnection is signified by brightenings in the body of one filament and between the rising and remaining parts of both filaments. It evolves quickly into the standard current sheet reconnection in the wake of the eruption. As a result, regardless of being confined or successful, both eruptions produce hard X-ray sources and flare loops below the erupting but above the surviving flux, as well as a pair of flare ribbons enclosing the latter.

  2. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10 4 K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.

  3. ACCELERATION PHASES OF A SOLAR FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Fu, H.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, X.; LI, G.

    2015-01-01

    Filament eruptions often lead to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which can affect critical technological systems in space and on the ground when they interact with the geo-magnetosphere at high speeds. Therefore, it is important to investigate the acceleration mechanisms of CMEs in solar/space physics. Based on observations and simulations, the resistive magnetic reconnection and the ideal instability of magnetic flux ropes have been proposed to accelerate CMEs. However, it remains uncertain whether both of them play a comparable role during a particular eruption. It has been extremely difficult to separate their contributions as they often work in a close time sequence during one fast acceleration phase. Here we report an intriguing filament eruption event, which shows two apparently separated fast acceleration phases and provides us an excellent opportunity to address the issue. Through analyzing the correlations between velocity (acceleration) and soft (hard) X-ray profiles, we suggest that the instability and magnetic reconnection make a major contribution during the first and second fast acceleration phases, respectively. Further, we find that both processes have a comparable contribution to the filament acceleration in this event

  4. Characterization of gold nanoparticle binding to microtubule filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jing C.; Wang Xianghuai; Xue Mei; Xu Zheng; Hamasaki, Toshikazu; Yang, Yang; Wang Kang; Dunn, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) protein filaments were used as templates for fabricating Au nanowires as a bottom-up approach for fabricating building blocks for future integrated circuits. Photochemical reduction methods were employed to form Au nanoparticles which bind and uniformly cover the MT filaments. Synthesis of the MT-templated Au nanowires was characterized using UV/vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, binding between the MT filaments and Au nanoparticles was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to establish the nature of the binding sites. A variety of functional groups were identified by SERS to interact with the Au including imidazole, sulfur, aromatic rings, amine, and carboxylate. The imidazole ring in the histidine is the most prominent functional group for Au binding. The results from these studies provide better understanding of the binding between Au and the biotemplate and give insight concerning methods to improve Au coverage for MT-templated Au nanowires.

  5. Cancer mortality in a cohort of continuous glass filament workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Manzari, Marco; Gallus, Silvano; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina; Romano, Canzio; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    To examine cancer mortality in continuous glass filament workers. A cohort of 936 continuous glass filament workers employed in a plant from northern Italy since January 1976 was followed-up through December 2003, for a total of 19,987 man-years. Overall, 144 deaths were observed compared with 160.8 expected based on regional death rates (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.05). There were 53 deaths from all cancers (SMR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.32), and 21 from lung cancer (SMR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.89). There was no consistent relation with risk for age at first employment, time since first or last employment, or duration of employment for any of the causes considered. Although limited in size, this study provides no evidence that continuous glass filament workers experience a significant increased risk of cancer, including respiratory cancer.

  6. Dynamics of fluid lines, sheets, filaments and membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, N.

    1988-01-01

    We establish the dynamic equations of two types of fluid structures: 1) lines-filaments and 2) sheets-membranes. In the first part, we consider one-dimensional (line) and two-dimensional (sheet) fluid structures. The second part concerns the associated three- dimensional structures: filaments and membranes. In the third part, we establish the equations for thickened lines and thickened sheets. For that purpose, we introduce a thickness in the models of the first part. The fourth part concerns the thinning of the filament and the membrane. Then, by an asymptotic process, we deduce the corresponding equations from the equations of the second part in order to show the purely formal equivalence of the equations of the third and fourth parts. To obtain the equations, we make use of theorems whose proofs can be found in the appendices. The equations can be applied to many areas of interest: instabilities of liquid jets and liquid films, modelisation of interfaces between two different fluids as sheets or membranes, modelisation with the averaged equations over a cross section of single phase flows and two-phase flows in channels with a nonrectilinear axis such as bends or pump casings [fr

  7. Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrujna Patel

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data show that the expression of actin-tracking probes significantly impacts on axonal and dendrite growth these neurons. Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a pBABE promoter, caused a significant decrease in total axon length, while another Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a CAG promoter, decreased the length and complexity of dendritic trees. Utr261-EGFP resulted in increased dendritic branching but Utr230-EGFP only accumulated in cell soma, without labelling any neurites. Lifeact-7-mEGFP and F-tractin-EGFP in a pEGFP-C1 vector, under the control of a CMV promoter, caused only minor changes in neuronal morphology as detected by Sholl analysis. The results of this study demonstrate the effects that filamentous actin tracking probes can have on the axonal and dendritic compartments of neuronal cells and emphasise the care that must be taken when interpreting data from experiments using these probes.

  8. Ff-nano, Short Functionalized Nanorods Derived from Ff (f1, fd or M13 Filamentous Bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia eSattar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available F-specific filamentous phage of Escherichia coli (Ff: f1, M13 or fd are long thin filaments (860 nm x 6 nm. They have been a major workhorse in display technologies and bionanotechnology; however, some applications are limited by the high length-to-diameter ratio of Ff. Furthermore, use of functionalized Ff outside of laboratory containment is in part hampered by the fact that they are genetically modified viruses. We have now developed a system for production and purification of very short functionalized Ff-phage-derived nanorods, named Ff-nano, that are only 50 nm in length. In contrast to standard Ff-derived vectors that replicate in E. coli and contain antibiotic-resistance genes, Ff-nano are protein DNA complexes that cannot replicate on their own and do not contain any coding sequences. These nanorods show an increased resistance to heating at 70 °C in 1 % SDS in comparison to the full-length Ff phage of the same coat composition. We demonstrate that functionalized Ff-nano particles are suitable for application as detection particles in sensitive and quantitative dipstick lateral flow diagnostic assay for human plasma fibronectin.

  9. How capping protein enhances actin filament growth and nucleation on biomimetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Carlsson, Anders E

    2015-11-25

    Capping protein (CP), which caps the growing ends of actin filaments, accelerates actin-based motility. Recent experiments on biomimetic beads have shown that CP also enhances the rate of actin filament nucleation. Proposed explanations for these phenomena include (i) the actin funneling hypothesis (AFH), in which the presence of CP increases the free-actin concentration, and (ii) the monomer gating model, in which CP binding to actin filament barbed ends makes more monomers available for filament nucleation. To establish how CP increases the rates of filament elongation and nucleation on biomimetic beads, we perform a quantitative modeling analysis of actin polymerization, using rate equations that include actin filament nucleation, polymerization and capping, as modified by monomer depletion near the surface of the bead. With one adjustable parameter, our simulation results match previously measured time courses of polymerized actin and filament number. The results support a version of the AFH where CP increases the local actin monomer concentration at the bead surface, but leaves the global free-actin concentration nearly constant. Because the rate of filament nucleation increases with the monomer concentration, the increased local monomer concentration enhances actin filament nucleation. We derive a closed-form formula for the characteristic CP concentration where the local free-actin concentration reaches half the bulk value, and find it to be comparable to the global Arp2/3 complex concentration. We also propose an experimental protocol for distinguishing branching nucleation of filaments from spontaneous nucleation.

  10. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rosolowsky, E. [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kwon, W. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747-AD Groningen (Netherlands); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  11. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  12. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  13. CLUSTER FORMATION TRIGGERED BY FILAMENT COLLISIONS IN SERPENS SOUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawabe, Ryohei; Shinnaga, Hiroko [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kimihiko; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kozu, Minato; Okada, Nozomi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Ogawa, Hideo [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nishitani, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Izumi [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Yonekura, Yoshinori [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kameno, Seiji [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Crdova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Momose, Munetake [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Nakajima, Taku, E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); and others

    2014-08-20

    The Serpens South infrared dark cloud consists of several filamentary ridges, some of which fragment into dense clumps. On the basis of CCS (J{sub N} = 4{sub 3}-3{sub 2}), HC{sub 3}N (J = 5-4), N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0), and SiO (J = 2-1, v = 0) observations, we investigated the kinematics and chemical evolution of these filamentary ridges. We find that CCS is extremely abundant along the main filament in the protocluster clump. We emphasize that Serpens South is the first cluster-forming region where extremely strong CCS emission is detected. The CCS-to-N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance ratio is estimated to be about 0.5 toward the protocluster clump, whereas it is about 3 in the other parts of the main filament. We identify six dense ridges with different V {sub LSR}. These ridges appear to converge toward the protocluster clump, suggesting that the collisions of these ridges may have triggered cluster formation. The collisions presumably happened within a few × 10{sup 5} yr because CCS is abundant only for a short time. The short lifetime agrees with the fact that the number fraction of Class I objects, whose typical lifetime is 0.4 × 10{sup 5} yr, is extremely high, about 70% in the protocluster clump. In the northern part, two ridges appear to have partially collided, forming a V-shape clump. In addition, we detected strong bipolar SiO emission that is due to the molecular outflow blowing out of the protostellar clump, as well as extended weak SiO emission that may originate from the filament collisions.

  14. A Nonthermal Radio Filament Connected to the Galactic Black Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark R.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using the Very Large Array, we have investigated a nonthermal radio filament (NTF) recently found very near the Galactic black hole and its radio counterpart, Sgr A*. While this NTF—the Sgr A West Filament (SgrAWF)—shares many characteristics with the population of NTFs occupying the central few hundred parsecs of the Galaxy, the SgrAWF has the distinction of having an orientation and sky location that suggest an intimate physical connection to Sgr A*. We present 3.3 and 5.5 cm images constructed using an innovative methodology that yields a very high dynamic range, providing an unprecedentedly clear picture of the SgrAWF. While the physical association of the SgrAWF with Sgr A* is not unambiguous, the images decidedly evoke this interesting possibility. Assuming that the SgrAWF bears a physical relationship to Sgr A*, we examine the potential implications. One is that Sgr A* is a source of relativistic particles constrained to diffuse along ordered local field lines. The relativistic particles could also be fed into the local field by a collimated outflow from Sgr A*, perhaps driven by the Poynting flux accompanying the black hole spin in the presence of a magnetic field threading the event horizon. Second, we consider the possibility that the SgrAWF is the manifestation of a low-mass-density cosmic string that has become anchored to the black hole. The simplest form of these hypotheses would predict that the filament be bi-directional, whereas the SgrAWF is only seen on one side of Sgr A*, perhaps because of the dynamics of the local medium.

  15. THE FREE-FALL TIME OF FINITE SHEETS AND FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toala, Jesus A. [Currently at Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, E-1808, Granada (Spain); Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gomez, Gilberto C. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2012-01-10

    Molecular clouds often exhibit filamentary or sheet-like shapes. We compute the free-fall time ({tau}{sub ff}) for finite, uniform, self-gravitating circular sheets and filamentary clouds of small but finite thickness, so that their volume density {rho} can still be defined. We find that, for thin sheets, the free-fall time is larger than that of a uniform sphere with the same volume density by a factor proportional to {radical}A, where the aspect ratio A is given by A = R/h, R being the sheet's radius and h is its thickness. For filamentary clouds, the aspect ratio is defined as A=L/R, where L is the filament's half-length and R is its (small) radius, and the modification factor is more complicated, although in the limit of large A it again reduces to nearly {radical}A. We propose that our result for filamentary shapes naturally explains the ubiquitous configuration of clumps fed by filaments observed in the densest structures of molecular clouds. Also, the longer free-fall times for non-spherical geometries in general may contribute toward partially alleviating the 'star formation conundrum', namely, the star formation rate in the Galaxy appears to be proceeding in a timescale much larger than the total molecular mass in the Galaxy divided by its typical free-fall time. If molecular clouds are in general formed by thin sheets and long filaments, then their relevant free-fall time may have been systematically underestimated, possibly by factors of up to one order of magnitude.

  16. THE FREE-FALL TIME OF FINITE SHEETS AND FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalá, Jesús A.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular clouds often exhibit filamentary or sheet-like shapes. We compute the free-fall time (τ ff ) for finite, uniform, self-gravitating circular sheets and filamentary clouds of small but finite thickness, so that their volume density ρ can still be defined. We find that, for thin sheets, the free-fall time is larger than that of a uniform sphere with the same volume density by a factor proportional to √A, where the aspect ratio A is given by A = R/h, R being the sheet's radius and h is its thickness. For filamentary clouds, the aspect ratio is defined as A=L/R, where L is the filament's half-length and R is its (small) radius, and the modification factor is more complicated, although in the limit of large A it again reduces to nearly √A. We propose that our result for filamentary shapes naturally explains the ubiquitous configuration of clumps fed by filaments observed in the densest structures of molecular clouds. Also, the longer free-fall times for non-spherical geometries in general may contribute toward partially alleviating the 'star formation conundrum', namely, the star formation rate in the Galaxy appears to be proceeding in a timescale much larger than the total molecular mass in the Galaxy divided by its typical free-fall time. If molecular clouds are in general formed by thin sheets and long filaments, then their relevant free-fall time may have been systematically underestimated, possibly by factors of up to one order of magnitude.

  17. Undulatory locomotion of finite filaments: lessons from Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, R S; Kenneth, O; Sznitman, J; Leshansky, A M

    2013-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is a widespread propulsion strategy adopted by many small-scale organisms including various single-cell eukaryotes and nematodes. In this work, we report a comprehensive study of undulatory locomotion of a finite filament using (i) approximate resistive force theory (RFT) assuming a local nature of hydrodynamic interaction between the filament and the surrounding viscous liquid and (ii) particle-based numerical computations taking into account the intra-filament hydrodynamic interaction. Using the ubiquitous model of a propagating sinusoidal waveform, we identify the limit of applicability of the RFT and determine the optimal propulsion gait in terms of (i) swimming distance per period of undulation and (ii) hydrodynamic propulsion efficiency. The occurrence of the optimal swimming gait maximizing hydrodynamic efficiency at finite wavelength in particle-based computations diverges from the prediction of the RFT. To compare the model swimmer powered by sine wave undulations to biological undulatory swimmers, we apply the particle-based approach to study locomotion of the model organism nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using the swimming gait extracted from experiments. The analysis reveals that even though the amplitude and the wavenumber of undulations are similar to those determined for the best performing sinusoidal swimmer, C. elegans overperforms the latter in terms of both displacement and hydrodynamic efficiency. Further comparison with other undulatory microorganisms reveals that many adopt waveforms with characteristics similar to the optimal model swimmer, yet real swimmers still manage to beat the best performing sine-wave swimmer in terms of distance covered per period. Overall our results underline the importance of further waveform optimization, as periodic undulations adopted by C. elegans and other organisms deviate considerably from a simple sine wave. (paper)

  18. Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.; Patterson, James E.; Olson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid material containing wound filaments made of a hybrid of high-strength carbon fibers and poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) [PBO] fibers is discussed. This hybrid material is chosen in an effort to increase the ability of the pressure vessel to resist damage by low-speed impacts (e.g., dropping of tools on the vessel or bumping of the vessel against hard objects during installation and use) without significantly increasing the weight of the vessel. While the basic concept of hybridizing fibers in filament-wound structures is not new, the use of hybridization to increase resistance to impacts is an innovation, and can be expected to be of interest in the composite-pressure-vessel industry. The precise types and the proportions of the high-strength carbon fibers and the PBO fibers in the hybrid are chosen, along with the filament-winding pattern, to maximize the advantageous effects and minimize the disadvantageous effects of each material. In particular, one seeks to (1) take advantage of the ability of the carbon fibers to resist stress rupture while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to impact damage and (2) take advantage of the toughness of the PBO fibers while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to stress rupture. Experiments on prototype vessels fabricated according to this concept have shown promising results. At the time of reporting the information for this article, research toward understanding and optimizing the performances of PBO fibers so as to minimize their contribution to vulnerability of the pressure vessel to stress rupture had yet to be performed.

  19. Effect of friction on the motion of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Odd Erik; Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker

    is influenced by the collisional friction with the neutral gas fluid. In magnetically confined plasmas, the motion of filamentary structures in the edge region can be influenced by parallel dynamics in a manner that resembles an effective friction. In the presence of strong ballooning, such a frictional...... an effective friction, is investigated. In the inertial regime the radial filament velocity scales as the square root of its size. In the limit of strong friction regime the velocity scales as the inverse of the structure size. A discussion of these results will be given in the context of irregularities...

  20. Numerical simulation of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, D.J.; Sajjadi, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical studies of beam filamentation in laser-produced plasma are presented. This involves the numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation, known as the Schroedinger equation, coupled with the thermal transport equations for both ions and electrons, in two dimensions. The solution of the resulting equation with non-linear refractive index due to thermal and pondermotive forces, shows self-focusing and a variety of strong aberration effects. Intensity amplification at the final focus is found to be between one and two orders of magnitude greater than the initial beam intensity, governed in general by diffraction and aberration effects within the beam. (author)

  1. Numerical simulation of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, D.J.; Sajjadi, S.G.

    1986-05-14

    Numerical studies of beam filamentation in laser-produced plasma are presented. This involves the numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation, known as the Schroedinger equation, coupled with the thermal transport equations for both ions and electrons, in two dimensions. The solution of the resulting equation with non-linear refractive index due to thermal and pondermotive forces, shows self-focusing and a variety of strong aberration effects. Intensity amplification at the final focus is found to be between one and two orders of magnitude greater than the initial beam intensity, governed in general by diffraction and aberration effects within the beam.

  2. Thioploca spp: filamentous sulfur bacteria with nitrate vacuoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Gallardo, VA

    1999-01-01

    communities of large Thioploca species live along the Pacific coast of South America and in other upwelling areas of high organic matter sedimentation with bottom waters poor in oxygen and rich in nitrate. Each cell of these thioplocas harbors a large liquid vacuole which is used as a storage for nitrate...... with a concentration of lip to 506 mM. The nitrate is used as an electron acceptor for sulfide oxidation and the bacteria may grow autotrophically or mixotrophically using acetate or other organic molecules as carbon source. The filaments stretch up into the overlying seawater, from which they take up nitrate...

  3. Aspergilli: Models for systems biology in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    and proteomics where outstanding contributions are highlighted. From past developments it becomes apparent that CRISPR technology will speed up genetic research in the Aspergillus field. This speed up will allow for an increase in systems biology targeted research by accelerating data generation. The increase......Aspergillus is a diverse genus of filamentous fungi including common house hold mold as well as human pathogens. More than 350 species are currently part of this genus and all their genomes are soon to be sequenced. The availability of this vast amount of data will allow for more in...

  4. Solar filament impact on 21 January 2005: Geospace consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Liemohn, M. W.; Cattell, C.; De Zeeuw, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Evans, D. S.; Fang, X.; Fok, M.-C.; Frey, H. U.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Hairston, M.; Heelis, R.; Lu, G.; Manchester, W. B.; Mende, S.; Paxton, L. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Ridley, A.; Sandanger, M.; Soraas, F.; Sotirelis, T.; Thomsen, M. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Verkhoglyadova, O.

    2014-07-01

    On 21 January 2005, a moderate magnetic storm produced a number of anomalous features, some seen more typically during superstorms. The aim of this study is to establish the differences in the space environment from what we expect (and normally observe) for a storm of this intensity, which make it behave in some ways like a superstorm. The storm was driven by one of the fastest interplanetary coronal mass ejections in solar cycle 23, containing a piece of the dense erupting solar filament material. The momentum of the massive solar filament caused it to push its way through the flux rope as the interplanetary coronal mass ejection decelerated moving toward 1 AU creating the appearance of an eroded flux rope (see companion paper by Manchester et al. (2014)) and, in this case, limiting the intensity of the resulting geomagnetic storm. On impact, the solar filament further disrupted the partial ring current shielding in existence at the time, creating a brief superfountain in the equatorial ionosphere—an unusual occurrence for a moderate storm. Within 1 h after impact, a cold dense plasma sheet (CDPS) formed out of the filament material. As the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from obliquely to more purely northward, the magnetotail transformed from an open to a closed configuration and the CDPS evolved from warmer to cooler temperatures. Plasma sheet densities reached tens per cubic centimeter along the flanks—high enough to inflate the magnetotail in the simulation under northward IMF conditions despite the cool temperatures. Observational evidence for this stretching was provided by a corresponding expansion and intensification of both the auroral oval and ring current precipitation zones linked to magnetotail stretching by field line curvature scattering. Strong Joule heating in the cusps, a by-product of the CDPS formation process, contributed to an equatorward neutral wind surge that reached low latitudes within 1-2 h and intensified the

  5. Automated quantification and sizing of unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria by model based object oriented image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeder, M; Van den Wyngaert, S; Köster, O; Felder, K M; Pernthaler, J

    2010-01-01

    Quantification and sizing of filamentous cyanobacteria in environmental samples or cultures are time-consuming and are often performed by using manual or semiautomated microscopic analysis. Automation of conventional image analysis is difficult because filaments may exhibit great variations in length and patchy autofluorescence. Moreover, individual filaments frequently cross each other in microscopic preparations, as deduced by modeling. This paper describes a novel approach based on object-...

  6. UV/IR Filaments for High Resolution Novel Spectroscopic Interrogation of Plumes on Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy of plumes created by a laser filament. The molecules to be detected are excited by the short pulse IR pulse, while the co-propagating... spectroscopy of gas samples has been demonstrated in IR filaments [32], using the fs pulse of the filament (800 nm) to vibrationally excite the components...Petit. Isotope ratio determination of uranium by optical emission spectroscopy on a laser -produced plasma; basic investigation and analytical results

  7. Population study of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. off the Bay of Concepcion, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Strotmann, B.; Gallardo, VA

    2000-01-01

    A population of filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. living in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile, and the adjoining shelf area was sampled for 14 mo at 4 to 6 wk intervals to investigate the influence of seasonal variations in upwelling intensity and oxygen concentrations on the population dynam......, filaments with short cells in sheaths, populating the upper 7 cm of the sediment, and filaments without sheaths living at the sediment surface....

  8. Growth and nitrate reduction of Beggiatoa filaments studied in enrichment cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja

    In this thesis, several aspects of the gliding, filamentous, colourless sulphur bacteria Beggiatoa were investigated. The first part of this thesis addressed the growth mode, breakage of filaments for multiplication, and movement directions of filaments of Beggiatoa. Marine Beggiatoa were enriche...... to ammonium), whereas denitrification was not detected. This study revealed for the first time that a freshwater Beggiatoa strain was capable of intracellular accumulation of nitrate, and that the nitrate was used to perform DNRA....

  9. Equilibrium of plasma filament with inhomogeneous field along on axis and without of longitudinal current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobryakov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium of a plasma filament with an inhomogeneos nonuniform field along an axis that has not any asymmetry has been considered for the first order of β=8 πp/B 2 and the curvature. The filament is assumed to be inside an ideally-conducting sheath with a circular cross-section. It is shown that the filament shift depends noticeably on this sheath. The plasma equilibrium has been considered as an example in a Drakon magnetic trap. 9 refs

  10. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  11. THE DISAPPEARING SOLAR FILAMENT OF 2003 JUNE 11: A THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Pevtsov, A. A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Cliver, E. W. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O. [Helio Research, La Crescenta, CA 91214 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region-a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate ({approx}11 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed ({approx}5 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator -6 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the 'broadside' (versus 'end-on') angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  12. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  13. A control scheme for filament stretching rheometers with application to polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román Marín, José Manuel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Javier Alvarez, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new control scheme to maintain a constant strain rate of the mid-filament diameter in a filament stretching rheometer for polymer melts. The scheme is cast as a velocity algorithm and consists of a feed-back and a feed-forward contribution. The performance of the controller is demons......We propose a new control scheme to maintain a constant strain rate of the mid-filament diameter in a filament stretching rheometer for polymer melts. The scheme is cast as a velocity algorithm and consists of a feed-back and a feed-forward contribution. The performance of the controller...

  14. Structures Of Magnetically-Supported Filaments And Their Appearance In The Linear Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisaka, Kohji

    2017-10-01

    Dust thermal emissions observed with Herschel have revealed that interstellar molecular clouds consist of many filaments. Polarization observation of interstellar extinctions in the optical and near IR wavelengths shows that the dense filaments are extending perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. Magnetohydrostatic structures of such filaments are studied. It is well known that a hydrostatic filament without magnetic field has a maximum line mass of ¥lambda_max=2c_s^2/G (c_s:the isothermal sound speed and G: the gravitational constant). On the other hand, the magnetically-supported maximum line mass increases in proportion to the magnetic flux per unit length threading the filament (¥phi), as ¥lambda_max 2c_s^2/G + ¥phi/(2¥pi G^1/2). Comparison is made with 3D clouds. Stability of these magnetized filaments is studied using time-dependent 3D MHD simulations to discuss star formation in the filaments. Polarization pattern expected for the magnetically subcritical filaments is calculated. The distribution function of the angle between B-field and the axis of the filament, which is obtained with Planck Satellite, is compared with this mock observation.

  15. Magnetic diagnostic of SOL-filaments generated by type I ELMs on JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Vianello, N.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    to a simple model, motivated by observations. A new diagnostic in the form of a reciprocating probe with three magnetic pickup loops was developed for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Measurements during the passage of type-I ELM filaments determine the filaments to be in the scrape off layer (SOL) and to carry currents......This contribution is focused on the magnetic signatures of type I ELM filaments. On JET a limited number of high time resolution magnetic coils were used to derive essential ELM filament parameters. The method uses forward modelling and simultaneous fitting of magnetic pickup coil signals...

  16. Elastic deformation and failure in protein filament bundles: Atomistic simulations and coarse-grained modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Nathan A; Kamm, Roger D

    2008-07-01

    The synthetic peptide RAD16-II has shown promise in tissue engineering and drug delivery. It has been studied as a vehicle for cell delivery and controlled release of IGF-1 to repair infarcted cardiac tissue, and as a scaffold to promote capillary formation for an in vitro model of angiogenesis. The structure of RAD16-II is hierarchical, with monomers forming long beta-sheets that pair together to form filaments; filaments form bundles approximately 30-60 nm in diameter; branching networks of filament bundles form macroscopic gels. We investigate the mechanics of shearing between the two beta-sheets constituting one filament, and between cohered filaments of RAD16-II. This shear loading is found in filament bundle bending or in tensile loading of fibers composed of partial-length filaments. Molecular dynamics simulations show that time to failure is a stochastic function of applied shear stress, and that for a given loading time behavior is elastic for sufficiently small shear loads. We propose a coarse-grained model based on Langevin dynamics that matches molecular dynamics results and facilities extending simulations in space and time. The model treats a filament as an elastic string of particles, each having potential energy that is a periodic function of its position relative to the neighboring filament. With insight from these simulations, we discuss strategies for strengthening RAD16-II and similar materials.

  17. Spatial correlation of conductive filaments for multiple switching cycles in CBRAM

    KAUST Repository

    Pey, K. L.

    2014-06-01

    Conducting bridge random access memory (CBRAM) is one of the potential technologies being considered for replacement of Flash memory for non-volatile data storage. CBRAM devices operate on the principle of nucleation and rupture of metallic filaments. One key concern for commercializing this technology is the question of variability which could arise due to nucleation of multiple filaments across the device at spatially different locations. The spatial spread of the filament location may cause long tails at the low and high percentile regions for the switching parameter distribution as the new filament that nucleates may have a completely different shape and size. It is therefore essential to probe whether switching in CBRAM occurs every time at the same filament location or whether there are other new filaments that could nucleate during repeated cycling with some spatial correlation (if any) to the original filament. To investigate this issue, we make use of a metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) transistor test structure with Ni as the top electrode and HfOx/SiOx as the dielectric stack. In-situ stressing using a nano-tip on the M-I-S stack is performed and the filament is imaged in real-time using a high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). We also extract the location of the filament (LFIL) along the channel of the transistor after the nucleation stage using the weighted proportion of the source and drain currents. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Two Types of Long-duration Quasi-static Evolution of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, C.; Li, H. C.; Jiang, B.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the long-duration quasi-static evolution of 12 pre-eruptive filaments (four active region (AR) and eight quiescent filaments), mainly focusing on the evolution of the filament height in 3D and the decay index of the background magnetic field. The filament height in 3D is derived through two-perspective observations of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO). The coronal magnetic field is reconstructed using the potential field source surface model. A new finding is that the filaments we studied show two types of long-duration evolution: one type comprises a long-duration static phase and a short, slow rise phase with a duration of less than 12 hr and a speed of 0.1–0.7 km s‑1, while the other one only presents a slow rise phase but with an extremely long duration of more than 60 hr and a smaller speed of 0.01–0.2 km s‑1. At the moment approaching the eruption, the decay index of the background magnetic field at the filament height is similar for both AR and quiescent filaments. The average value and upper limit are ∼0.9 and ∼1.4, close to the critical index of torus instability. Moreover, the filament height and background magnetic field strength are also found to be linearly and exponentially related with the filament length, respectively.

  19. THE DISAPPEARING SOLAR FILAMENT OF 2003 JUNE 11: A THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Cliver, E. W.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region—a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate (∼11° day –1 ) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed (∼5º-6° day –1 ) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the 'broadside' (versus 'end-on') angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  20. THE CONTRACTION OF OVERLYING CORONAL LOOP AND THE ROTATING MOTION OF A SIGMOID FILAMENT DURING ITS ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Xue, Z. K.; Deng, L. H.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Liu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We present an observation of overlying coronal loop contraction and rotating motion of the sigmoid filament during its eruption on 2012 May 22 observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our results show that the twist can be transported into the filament from the lower atmosphere to the higher atmosphere. The successive contraction of the coronal loops was due to a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath the filament, which was caused by the rising of the filament. Before the sigmoid filament eruption, there was a counterclockwise flow in the photosphere at the right feet of the filament and the contraction loops and a convergence flow at the left foot of the filament. The hot and cool materials have inverse motion along the filament before the filament eruption. Moreover, two coronal loops overlying the filament first experienced brightening, expansion, and contraction successively. At the beginning of the rising and rotation of the left part of the filament, the second coronal loop exhibited rapid contraction. The top of the second coronal loop also showed counterclockwise rotation during the contraction process. After the contraction of the second loop, the left part of the filament rotated counterclockwise and expanded toward the right of NOAA AR 11485. During the filament expansion, the right part of the filament also exhibited counterclockwise rotation like a tornado.

  1. Models of Tidally Induced Gas Filaments in the Magellanic Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardy, Stephen A.; D’Onghia, Elena; Fox, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    The Magellanic Stream and Leading Arm of H I that stretches from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) and over 200° of the Southern sky is thought to be formed from multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC. In this scenario, most of the gas in the Stream and Leading Arm is stripped from the SMC, yet recent observations have shown a bifurcation of the Trailing Arm that reveals LMC origins for some of the gas. Absorption measurements in the Stream also reveal an order of magnitude more gas than in current tidal models. We present hydrodynamical simulations of the multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC at their first pass around the Milky Way, assuming that the Clouds were more extended and gas-rich in the past. Our models create filamentary structures of gas in the Trailing Stream from both the LMC and SMC. While the SMC trailing filament matches the observed Stream location, the LMC filament is offset. In addition, the total observed mass of the Stream in these models is underestimated by a factor of four when the ionized component is accounted for. Our results suggest that there should also be gas stripped from both the LMC and SMC in the Leading Arm, mirroring the bifurcation in the Trailing Stream. This prediction is consistent with recent measurements of spatial variation in chemical abundances in the Leading Arm, which show that gas from multiple sources is present, although its nature is still uncertain.

  2. Observing meiosis in filamentous fungi: Sordaria and Neurospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa and Sordaria macrospora are materials of choice for recombination studies because each of the DNA strands involved in meiosis can be visually analyzed using spore-color mutants. Well-advanced molecular genetic methodologies have been developed for each of these fungi, and several mutants defective in recombination and/or pairing are available. Moreover, the complete genome sequence of N. crassa has made it possible to clone virtually any gene involved in their life cycle. Both fungi provide also a particularly attractive experimental system for cytological analysis of meiosis: stages can be determined independently of chromosomal morphology and their seven chromosomes are easily identified. The techniques for light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy presented here have been used, with success, for monitoring of chromosome behavior during both meiotic and sporulation processes. They have also proved useful for the analysis of mitochondria and peroxisomes as well as cytoskeleton and spindle pole-body components. Moreover, all techniques of this chapter can be easily applied to other filamentous ascomycetes, including other Sordaria and Neurospora species as well as Podospora, Ascobolus, Ascophanus, Fusarium, Neotiella, and Aspergillus species.

  3. Targeting Antibacterial Agents by Using Drug-Carrying Filamentous Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Shamis, Marina; Bar, Hagit; Shabat, Doron; Benhar, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been used for more than a century for (unconventional) therapy of bacterial infections, for half a century as tools in genetic research, for 2 decades as tools for discovery of specific target-binding proteins, and for nearly a decade as tools for vaccination or as gene delivery vehicles. Here we present a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages (phages) as targeted drug carriers for the eradication of (pathogenic) bacteria. The phages are genetically modified to display a targeting moiety on their surface and are used to deliver a large payload of a cytotoxic drug to the target bacteria. The drug is linked to the phages by means of chemical conjugation through a labile linker subject to controlled release. In the conjugated state, the drug is in fact a prodrug devoid of cytotoxic activity and is activated following its dissociation from the phage at the target site in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Our model target was Staphylococcus aureus, and the model drug was the antibiotic chloramphenicol. We demonstrated the potential of using filamentous phages as universal drug carriers for targetable cells involved in disease. Our approach replaces the selectivity of the drug itself with target selectivity borne by the targeting moiety, which may allow the reintroduction of nonspecific drugs that have thus far been excluded from antibacterial use (because of toxicity or low selectivity). Reintroduction of such drugs into the arsenal of useful tools may help to combat emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:16723570

  4. Nano-assembly of nanodiamonds by conjugation to actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Carlo; Say, Jana M; Rastogi, Ishan D; Cordina, Nicole M; Volz, Thomas; Brown, Louise J

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) are remarkable objects. They possess unique mechanical and optical properties combined with high surface areas and controllable surface reactivity. They are non-toxic and hence suited for use in biological environments. NDs are also readily available and commercially inexpensive. Here, the exceptional capability of controlling and tailoring their surface chemistry is demonstrated. Small, bright diamond nanocrystals (size ˜30 nm) are conjugated to protein filaments of actin (length ˜3-7 µm). The conjugation to actin filaments is extremely selective and highly target-specific. These unique features, together with the relative simplicity of the conjugation-targeting method, make functionalised nanodiamonds a powerful and versatile platform in biomedicine and quantum nanotechnologies. Applications ranging from using NDs as superior biological markers to, potentially, developing novel bottom-up approaches for the fabrication of hybrid quantum devices that would bridge across the bio/solid-state interface are presented and discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Development of Nylon Based FDM Filament for Rapid Tooling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    There has been critical need for development of cost effective nylon based wire to be used as feed stock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) machine. But hitherto, very less work has been reported for development of alternate solution of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based wire which is presently used in most of FDM machines. The present research work is focused on development of nylon based wire as an alternative of ABS wire (which is to be used as feedstock filament on FDM) without changing any hardware or software of machine. For the present study aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as additive in different proportion has been used with nylon fibre. Single screw extruder was used for wire preparation and wire thus produced was tested on FDM. Mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength and percentage elongation of finally developed wire have been optimized by Taguchi L9 technique. The work represented major development in reducing cost and time in rapid tooling applications.

  6. Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Yamasaki, Noriko; Kawahara, Hajime; Sekiya, Norio; Sasaki, Shin; Sousbie, Thierry

    Because galaxies are forced to follow the strong gravitational potential created by the underlying cosmic web of the dark matter, their distribution reflects its filamentary structures. By identifying the filamentary structures, one can therefore recover a map of the network that drives structure formation. Filamentary junctions are regions of particular interest as they identify places where mergers and other interesting astrophysical phenomena have high chances to occur. We identified the galaxy filaments by our original method (Sousbie (2011) & Sousbie et al. (2011)) and X-ray pointing observations were conducted for the six fields locating in the junctions of the galaxy filaments where no specific diffuse X-ray emissions had previously been detected so far. We discovered significant X-ray signals in their images and spectra of the all regions. Spectral analysis demonstrated that six sources originate from diffuse emissions associated with optically bright galaxies, group-scale, or cluster-scale X-ray halos with kT˜1-4 keV, while the others are compact object origin. Interestingly, all of the newly discovered three intracluster media show peculiar features such as complex or elongated morphologies in X-ray and/or optical and hot spot involved in ongoing merger events (Kawahara et al. (2011) & Mitsuishi et al. (2014)). In this conference, results of follow-up radio observations for the merging groups as well as the details of the X-ray observations will be reported.

  7. DISCOVERY OF C IV EMISSION FILAMENTS IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Cracraft, M.; Donahue, M.; Voit, M.; Carswell, R.; Martin, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    Gas at intermediate temperatures between the hot X-ray-emitting coronal gas in galaxies at the centers of galaxy clusters and the much cooler optical line emitting filaments yields information on transport processes and plausible scenarios for the relationship between X-ray cool cores and other galactic phenomena such as mergers or the onset of an active galactic nucleus. Hitherto, detection of intermediate temperature gas has proven elusive. Here, we present FUV imaging of the 'low excitation' emission filaments of M87 and show strong evidence for the presence of C IV 1549 A emission which arises in gas at temperature ∼10 5 K co-located with Hα+[N II] emission from cooler ∼10 4 K gas. We infer that the hot and cool phases are in thermal communication, and show that quantitatively the emission strength is consistent with thermal conduction, which in turn may account for many of the observed characteristics of cool-core galaxy clusters.

  8. Bacterial actin MreB forms antiparallel double filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Fusinita; Izoré, Thierry; Bharat, Tanmay Am; Johnson, Christopher M; Löwe, Jan

    2014-05-02

    Filaments of all actin-like proteins known to date are assembled from pairs of protofilaments that are arranged in a parallel fashion, generating polarity. In this study, we show that the prokaryotic actin homologue MreB forms pairs of protofilaments that adopt an antiparallel arrangement in vitro and in vivo. We provide an atomic view of antiparallel protofilaments of Caulobacter MreB as apparent from crystal structures. We show that a protofilament doublet is essential for MreB's function in cell shape maintenance and demonstrate by in vivo site-specific cross-linking the antiparallel orientation of MreB protofilaments in E. coli. 3D cryo-EM shows that pairs of protofilaments of Caulobacter MreB tightly bind to membranes. Crystal structures of different nucleotide and polymerisation states of Caulobacter MreB reveal conserved conformational changes accompanying antiparallel filament formation. Finally, the antimicrobial agents A22/MP265 are shown to bind close to the bound nucleotide of MreB, presumably preventing nucleotide hydrolysis and destabilising double protofilaments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02634.001. Copyright © 2014, van den Ent et al.

  9. Spontaneous Wave Generation from Submesoscale Fronts and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, C. J.; Hogg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Submesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, jets and filaments can be significant sources of spontaneous wave generation at the ocean surface. Unlike near-inertial waves forced by winds, these spontaneous waves are typically of higher frequency and can propagate through the thermocline, whereupon they break and drive mixing in the ocean interior. Here we investigate the spontaneous generation, propagation and subsequent breaking of these waves using a combination of theory and submesoscale resolving numerical models. The mechanism of generation is nearly identical to that of lee waves where flow is deflected over a rigid obstacle on the sea floor. Here, very sharp fronts and filaments of order 100m width moving in the submesoscale surface flow generate "surface lee waves" by presenting an obstacle to the surrounding stratified fluid. Using our numerical model we quantify the net downward wave energy flux from the surface, and where it is dissipated in the water column. Our results suggest an alternative to the classical paradigm where the energy associated with mixing in the ocean interior is sourced from bottom-generated lee waves.

  10. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  11. GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE AND FILAMENT FORMATION: COMPARISON WITH THE PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitsch, Fabian; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Hartmann, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of molecular cloud formation and evolution suggest that such clouds are dynamic and generally exhibit gravitational collapse. We present a simple analytic model of global collapse onto a filament and compare this with our numerical simulations of the flow-driven formation of an isolated molecular cloud to illustrate the supersonic motions and infall ram pressures expected in models of gravity-driven cloud evolution. We compare our results with observations of the Pipe Nebula, an especially suitable object for our purposes as its low star formation activity implies insignificant perturbations from stellar feedback. We show that our collapsing cloud model can explain the magnitude of the velocity dispersions seen in the 13 CO filamentary structure by Onishi et al. and the ram pressures required by Lada et al. to confine the lower-mass cores in the Pipe Nebula. We further conjecture that higher-resolution simulations will show small velocity dispersions in the densest core gas, as observed, but which are infall motions and not supporting turbulence. Our results point out the inevitability of ram pressures as boundary conditions for molecular cloud filaments, and the possibility that especially lower-mass cores still can be accreting mass at significant rates, as suggested by observations.

  12. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  13. Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yay, A; Ozdamar, S; Canoz, O; Baran, M; Tucer, B; Sonmez, M F

    2014-01-01

    Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. In our study, we aimed to determine the expression of nestin in meninges covering the brain tissue at different developmental stages and in the new born. In this study 10 human fetuses in different development stages between developmental weeks 9-34 and a newborn brain tissue were used. Fetuses in paraffin section were stained with H+E and nestin immunohistochemical staining protocol was performed. In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells. In the present study, nestin positive cells gradually diminished in the developing and maturing meninges during the fetal period. This probably depends on initiation of a decrease in nestin expression and replacement with other tissue-specific intermediate filaments while the differentiation process continues. These differences can make significant contributions to the investigation and diagnosis of various pathological disorders (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 36).

  14. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayarre, Javier; Sanchez, David; Sanchez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Terron, Maria C.; Llorca, Oscar; Perez-Sala, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -PGJ 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ) and PGA 1 in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA 1 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ 2 or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ 2 at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles

  15. Role of Tellurite Resistance Operon in Filamentous Growth of Yersinia pestis in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis initiates infection by parasitism of host macrophages. In response to macrophage infections, intracellular Y. pestis can assume a filamentous cellular morphology which may mediate resistance to host cell innate immune responses. We previously observed the expression of Y. pestis tellurite resistance proteins TerD and TerE from the terZABCDE operon during macrophage infections. Others have observed a filamentous response associated with expression of tellurite resistance operon in Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite. Therefore, in this study we examine the potential role of Y. pestis tellurite resistance operon in filamentous cellular morphology during macrophage infections. In vitro treatment of Y. pestis culture with sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3) caused the bacterial cells to assume a filamentous phenotype similar to the filamentous phenotype observed during macrophage infections. A deletion mutant for genes terZAB abolished the filamentous morphologic response to tellurite exposure or intracellular parasitism, but without affecting tellurite resistance. However, a terZABCDE deletion mutant abolished both filamentous morphologic response and tellurite resistance. Complementation of the terZABCDE deletion mutant with terCDE, but not terZAB, partially restored tellurite resistance. When the terZABCDE deletion mutant was complemented with terZAB or terCDE, Y. pestis exhibited filamentous morphology during macrophage infections as well as while these complemented genes were being expressed under an in vitro condition. Further in E. coli, expression of Y. pestis terZAB, but not terCDE, conferred a filamentous phenotype. These findings support the role of Y. pestis terZAB mediation of the filamentous response phenotype; whereas, terCDE confers tellurite resistance. Although the beneficial role of filamentous morphological responses by Y. pestis during macrophage infections is yet to be fully defined, it may be a bacterial adaptive strategy to macrophage

  16. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  17. Delayed Failure of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S Multi-filament Tows and Single Filaments at Intermediate Temperatures (500 degrees-800 degrees C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, W.; Lamon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous results have shown that tows of SiC Nicalon fibers are sensitive to the phenomenon of delayed failure, at temperatures below 700 C. The present paper examines the static fatigue of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S when subjected to constant load, at temperatures between 500 and 800 C in air. Multi-filament tows and single filaments were tested. Experimental data show that the rupture times of tows depend on the applied stress according to the conventional power law tσ n =A. In contrast, the stress-rupture time data obtained on single filaments exhibit significant scatter. A model based on slow crack growth in single filaments shows that the stress-rupture of fiber tows follows the conventional time power law. The dependence on temperature was introduced. The model allowed sound calculations of tow lifetimes and characteristics of the slow crack growth phenomenon to be extracted from the tow stress-rupture time data. (authors)

  18. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  19. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: anand.joshi@nao.ac.jp [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  20. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Van Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in

  1. Extending Femtosecond Filamentation of High Power Laser Propagating in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Sivan, Yonatan; Fibich, Gadi; Zigler, Arie

    2008-06-01

    We show experimentally for ultrashort laser pulses propagating in air, that the filamentation distance of intense laser pulses in the atmosphere can be extended and controlled with a simple double-lens setup. Using this method we were able to achieve a 20-fold delay of the filamentation distance of non-chirped 120 fs pulses propagating in air, from 16 m to 330 m. At 330 m, the collapsing pulse is sufficiently powerful to create plasma filaments. We also show that the scatter of the filaments at 330 m can be significantly reduced by tilting the second lens. We derive a simple formula for the filamentation distance, and confirm its agreement with the experimental results. We also observe that delaying the onset of filamentation increases the filament length. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest distance reported in the literature at which plasma filaments were created and controlled. Finally, we show that the peak power at the onset of collapse is significantly higher with the double-lens setup, compared with the standard negative chirping approach.

  2. Community structure of filamentous, sheath-building sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp, off the coast of Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB; Fossing, HA

    1996-01-01

    The filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp, produce dense bacterial mats in the shelf area off the coast of Chile and Peru. The mat consists of common sheaths, shared by many filaments, that reach 5 to 10 cm dean into the sediment, The structure of the Thioploca communities off the Bay...

  3. Type III intermediate filaments desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M.; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    Type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review the

  4. Type III Intermediate Filaments Desmin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Vimentin, and Peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    SummaryType III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review

  5. Rotational effects of polymeric fluids on shape of filaments in melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -circular geometries on their peripheries and the filaments are produced when the slots in disk and annulus are offset from each other. The effect of die rotation on the shape of filament is investigated by analysing the polymer flow inside the complex die slots...

  6. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the Abell 3395/Abell 3391 Intercluster Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriella E.; Randall, Scott W.; Bourdin, Hervé; Jones, Christine; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2018-05-01

    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the Abell 3391/Abell 3395 intercluster filament. It has been suggested that the galaxy clusters Abell 3395, Abell 3391, and the galaxy group ESO-161 -IG 006 located between the two clusters, are in alignment along a large-scale intercluster filament. We find that the filament is aligned close to the plane of the sky, in contrast to previous results. We find a global projected filament temperature kT = {4.45}-0.55+0.89 keV, electron density {n}e={1.08}-0.05+0.06× {10}-4 cm‑3, and {M}gas}={2.7}-0.1+0.2 × {10}13 M ⊙. The thermodynamic properties of the filament are consistent with that of the intracluster medium (ICM) of Abell 3395 and Abell 3391, suggesting that the filament emission is dominated by ICM gas that has been tidally disrupted during an early stage merger between these two clusters. We present temperature, density, entropy, and abundance profiles across the filament. We find that the galaxy group ESO-161 may be undergoing ram-pressure-stripping in the low-density environment at or near the virial radius of both clusters, due to its rapid motion through the filament.

  7. Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huashun; Jiang, Jiasheng

    2017-02-21

    Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode in a two grid electron gun is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theoretical equations. The influences upon performance and design of electron gun with linear filament cathode, which is used broadly in electrocurtain accelerators, are discussed in detail.

  8. A hot X-ray filament associated with A3017 galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Durret, F.; Padmanabh, P.; Pandge, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Recent simulations and observations have shown large-scale filaments in the cosmic web connecting nodes, with accreting materials (baryonic and dark matter) flowing through them. Current high-sensitivity observations also show that the propagation of shocks through filaments can heat them up and make filaments visible between two or more galaxy clusters or around massive clusters, based on optical and/or X-ray observations. We are reporting here the special case of the cluster A3017 associated with a hot filament. The temperature of the filament is 3.4^{-0.77}_{+1.30} keV and its length is ∼1 Mpc. We have analysed its archival Chandra data and report various properties. We also analysed GMRT 235/610 MHz radio data. Radio observations have revealed symmetric two-sided lobes that fill cavities in the A3017 cluster core region, associated with central active galactic nucleus. In the radio map, we also noticed a peculiar linear vertical radio structure in the X-ray filament region which might be associated with a cosmic filament shock. This radio structure could be a radio phoenix or old plasma where an old relativistic population is re-accelerated by shock propagation. Finally, we put an upper limit on the radio luminosity of the filament region.

  9. Magnetic signature of current carrying edge localized modes filaments on the Joint European Torus tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliucci, P.; Naulin, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Fast magnetic pickup coils are used in forward modeling to match parameters in a simple edge localized mode (ELM) filament model. This novel method allows us to determine key parameters for the evolution of the ELM filaments, as effective mode number, radial and toroidal velocities, and average c...

  10. Evaluation of the local temperature of conductive filaments in resistive switching materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalon, E; Cohen, S; Gavrilov, A; Ritter, D

    2012-01-01

    The resistive switching effect in metal oxides and other dielectric materials is among the leading future non-volatile memory technologies. Resistive switching is widely ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide, which are generated by temperature-enhanced nano-scale ion migration or other thermal effects. In spite of the central role of the local filament temperature on the switching effect, as well as on the conduction and reliability physics, no measurement methods of the filament temperature are yet available. In this work, we report on a method for evaluating the conducting filament temperature, using a metal–insulator–semiconductor bipolar transistor structure. The filament temperature is obtained by analyzing the thermal excitation rate of electrons from the filament Fermi level into the conduction band of a p-type semiconductor electrode. Measurements were carried out to obtain the conductive filament temperature in hafnia at varying ambient temperatures in the range of 3–300 K. Significant Joule heating of the filament was observed across the entire measured ambient temperature range. The extracted temperatures provide physical insight into the resistive switching effect. (paper)

  11. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous, flexible, and high-strength superconducting Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Heffernan, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of continuous, flexible, and high-strength (1600 MN/m 2 ) composite filaments of Nb 3 Ge (T/subc/ 18 0 K) and Nb 3 Sn is reported, involving chemical vapor deposition of these compounds on Nb-coated high-strength W--1% ThO 2 filaments

  13. Structural and functional properties of chimeric EspA-FliCi filaments of EPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Valerie F; Martinez, Eric; Shaw, Robert K; Frankel, Gad; Daniell, Sarah J

    2008-04-18

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli utilise a filamentous type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host gut epithelial cells. The primary constituent of the extracellular component of the filamentous type III secretion system is EspA. This forms a long flexible helical conduit between the bacterium and host and has a structure almost identical to that of the flagella filament. We have inserted the D3 domain of FliCi (from Salmonella typhimurium) into the outer domain of EspA and have studied the structure and function of modified filaments when expressed in an enteropathogenic E. coli espA mutant. We found that the chimeric protein EspA-FliCi filaments were biologically active as they supported protein secretion and translocation [assessed by their ability to trigger actin polymerisation beneath adherent bacteria (fluorescent actin staining test)]. The expressed filaments were recognised by both EspA and FliCi antisera. Visualisation and analysis of the chimeric filaments by electron microscopy after negative staining showed that, remarkably, EspA filaments are able to tolerate a large protein insertion without a significant effect on their helical architecture.

  14. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  15. Dependence of the length of solar filament threads on the magnetic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu-Hao; Chen Peng-Fei; Fang Cheng; Zhang Qing-Min

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution Hα observations indicate that filaments consist of an assembly of thin threads. In quiescent filaments, the threads are generally short, whereas in active region filaments, the threads are generally long. In order to explain these observational features, we performed one-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations of filament formation along a dipped magnetic flux tube in the framework of the chromospheric evaporation-coronal condensation model. The geometry of a dipped magnetic flux tube is characterized by three parameters, i.e., the depth (D), the half-width (w) and the altitude (h) of the magnetic dip. A survey of the parameters in numerical simulations shows that when allowing the filament thread to grow in 5 days, the maximum length (L th ) of the filament thread increases linearly with w, and decreases linearly with D and h. The dependence is fitted into a linear function L th = 0.84w − 0.88D − 2.78h+17.31(Mm). Such a relation can qualitatively explain why quiescent filaments have shorter threads and active region filaments have longer threads

  16. Video-supported analysis of Beggiatoa filament growth, breakage, and movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Røy, Hans; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2008-01-01

    A marine Beggiatoa sp. was cultured in semi-solid agar with opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients. Growth pattern, breakage of filaments for multiplication, and movement directions of Beggiatoa filaments in the transparent agar were investigated by time-lapse video recording. The initial doubling time...

  17. Flapping modes of three filaments placed side by side in a free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2010-11-01

    Flexible filaments flapping in a surrounding flow are useful models for understanding the flow-induced vibration and mimicking the schooling behavior of fish. In the present work, the coupled modes of three identical filaments in a side-by- side arrangement are studied using the linear stability analysis and also an immersed boundary--lattice Boltzmann method for low Reynolds numbers (Re on order of 100). The numerical simulations show that the system dynamics exhibits several patterns that depend on the spacing between the filaments. Among these patterns, three can be predicted by the linear analysis and have been reported before. These modes are: (1) the three filaments all flap in phase; (2) the two outer filaments are out of phase while the middle one is stable; (3) the two outer filaments are in phase while the middle one is out of phase. The simulations also identified two additional modes: (1) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a frequency reduced by half; (2) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a slightly different frequency. In addition to the vibratory modes, the drag force and the flapping amplitude are also computed, and the implication of the result will be discussed.

  18. Recruitment Kinetics of Tropomyosin Tpm3.1 to Actin Filament Bundles in the Cytoskeleton Is Independent of Actin Filament Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaduray, Mark A; Masedunskas, Andrius; Bryce, Nicole S; Lucas, Christine A; Warren, Sean C; Timpson, Paul; Stear, Jeffrey H; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that is involved in virtually every cellular process. Most actin filaments in metazoa exist as a co-polymer of actin and tropomyosin (Tpm) and the function of an actin filament is primarily defined by the specific Tpm isoform associated with it. However, there is little information on the interdependence of these co-polymers during filament assembly and disassembly. We addressed this by investigating the recovery kinetics of fluorescently tagged isoform Tpm3.1 into actin filament bundles using FRAP analysis in cell culture and in vivo in rats using intracellular intravital microscopy, in the presence or absence of the actin-targeting drug jasplakinolide. The mobile fraction of Tpm3.1 is between 50% and 70% depending on whether the tag is at the C- or N-terminus and whether the analysis is in vivo or in cultured cells. We find that the continuous dynamic exchange of Tpm3.1 is not significantly impacted by jasplakinolide, unlike tagged actin. We conclude that tagged Tpm3.1 may be able to undergo exchange in actin filament bundles largely independent of the assembly and turnover of actin.

  19. Ultrastructural instability of paired helical filaments from corticobasal degeneration as examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezak-Reding, H.; Tracz, E.; Yang, L. S.; Dickson, D. W.; Simon, M.; Wall, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Paired helical filaments (PHFs) accumulate in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and certain other neurodegenerative disorders, including corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Electron microscope studies have shown that PHFs from CBD differ from those of AD by being wider and having a longer periodicity of the helical twist. Moreover, PHFs from CBD have been shown to be primarily composed of two rather than three highly phosphorylated polypeptides of tau (PHF-tau), with these polypeptides expressing no exons 3 and 10. To further explore the relationship between the heterogeneity of PHF-tau and the appearance of abnormal filaments, the ultrastructure and physical parameters such as mass per unit length and dimensions were compared in filaments from CBD and AD using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Filament-enriched fractions were isolated as Sarcosyl-insoluble pellets and for STEM studies, samples were freeze-dried without prior fixation or staining. Ultrastructurally, PHFs from CBD were shown to be a heterogeneous population as double- and single-stranded filaments could be identified based on their width and physical mass per unit length expressed in kilodaltons (kd) per nanometer (nm). Less abundant, double-stranded filaments had a maximal width of 29 nm and a mass per unit length of 133 kd/nm, whereas three times more abundant single-stranded filaments were 15 nm wide and bad a mass per unit length of 62 kd/nm. Double-stranded filaments also displayed a distinct axial region of less dense mass, which appeared to divide the PHFs into two protofilament-like strands. Furthermore, these filaments were frequently observed to physically separate along the long axis into two single strands or to break longitudinally. In contrast, PHFs from AD were ultrastructurally stable and uniform both in their width (22 nm) and physical mass per unit length (104 kd/nm). The ultrastructural features indicate that filaments of

  20. Mycoviruses of filamentous fungi and their relevance to plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michael N; Beever, Ross E; Boine, Barbara; Arthur, Kieren

    2009-01-01

    Mycoviruses (fungal viruses) are reviewed with emphasis on plant pathogenic fungi. Based on the presence of virus-like particles and unencapsidated dsRNAs, mycoviruses are common in all major fungal groups. Over 80 mycovirus species have been officially recognized from ten virus families, but a paucity of nucleic acid sequence data makes assignment of many reported mycoviruses difficult. Although most of the particle types recognized to date are isometric, a variety of morphologies have been found and, additionally, many apparently unencapsidated dsRNAs have been reported. Until recently, most characterized mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes, but ssRNA mycoviruses now constitute about one-third of the total. Two hypotheses for the origin of mycoviruses of plant pathogens are discussed: the first that they are of unknown but ancient origin and have coevolved along with their hosts, the second that they have relatively recently moved from a fungal plant host into the fungus. Although mycoviruses are typically readily transmitted through asexual spores, transmission through sexual spores varies with the host fungus. Evidence for natural horizontal transmission has been found. Typically, mycoviruses are apparently symptomless (cryptic) but beneficial effects on the host fungus have been reported. Of more practical interest to plant pathologists are those viruses that confer a hypovirulent phenotype, and the scope for using such viruses as biocontrol agents is reviewed. New tools are being developed based on host genome studies that will help to address the intellectual challenge of understanding the fungal-virus interactions and the practical challenge of manipulating this relationship to develop novel biocontrol agents for important plant pathogens.

  1. Comments on filament-disintegration and its relation to other aspects of solar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.; Rovira De Miceli, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of sudden disintegrations of filaments in solar cycles 19 and 20 (to 1969) indicate that such events occur frequently. Approximately 30% of all large filaments in these cycles disintegrated in the course of their transit across the solar disk. 'Major' flares occurred with above average frequency on the last day on which 141 large disappearing filaments were observed. Relationships between a disintegrating filament on July 10-11, 1959, a prior major flare, a newly formed spot, and concomitant growth of H-alpha plage are presented. Observation of prior descending prominence material apparently directed towards the location of the flare of July 15, 1959 is reported. The development of the filament-associated flare of Feb. 13, 1967 is described.

  2. Collective dynamics of populations of weakly correlated filaments of incoherent white light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxin; Sheridan, John T; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dynamics of two populations of self-trapped filaments of spatially and temporally incoherent white light. The populations consisted of (i) independent filaments generated through self-trapping of incandescent speckles, and (ii) co-dependent filaments created through modulation instability of a broad incandescent beam. Both filament populations were positionally stable in conditions where individual pairs of self-trapped beams interact strongly. Both also acquired significantly broad intensity distributions, which were independent of their parent optical fields; a small but persistent number of high-intensity filaments was identified in both cases. These studies provide accessible routes to weakly correlated ensembles, insight into their collective behaviour such as self-stabilization and self-selected intensity distributions, and reveal intriguing similarities between the dynamics of two populations of different origins. (paper)

  3. Effect of an Energy Reservoir on the Atmospheric Propagation of Laser-Plasma Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Peñano, Joseph; Sprangle, Phillip; Zigler, Arie

    2008-04-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present the first detailed measurements and numerical 3-D simulations of the longitudinal plasma density variation in a laser-plasma filament after it passes through an iris that blocks the surrounding energy reservoir. Since no compensation is available from the surrounding background energy, filament propagation is terminated after a few centimeters. For this experiment, simulations indicate that filament propagation is terminated by plasma defocusing and ionization loss, which reduces the pulse power below the effective self-focusing power. With no blockage, a plasma filament length of over a few meters was observed.

  4. Effect of an Energy Reservoir on the Atmospheric Propagation of Laser-Plasma Filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, Shmuel; Penano, Joseph; Sprangle, Phillip; Zigler, Arie

    2008-01-01

    The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present the first detailed measurements and numerical 3-D simulations of the longitudinal plasma density variation in a laser-plasma filament after it passes through an iris that blocks the surrounding energy reservoir. Since no compensation is available from the surrounding background energy, filament propagation is terminated after a few centimeters. For this experiment, simulations indicate that filament propagation is terminated by plasma defocusing and ionization loss, which reduces the pulse power below the effective self-focusing power. With no blockage, a plasma filament length of over a few meters was observed

  5. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  6. Formation and disruption of conductive filaments in a HfO2/TiN structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brivio, S; Tallarida, G; Cianci, E; Spiga, S

    2014-01-01

    The process of the formation and disruption of nanometric conductive filaments in a HfO 2 /TiN structure is investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy. The preforming state evidences nonhomogeneous conduction at high fields through conductive paths, which are associated with pre-existing defects and develop into conductive filaments with a forming procedure. The disruption of the same filaments is demonstrated as well, according to a bipolar operation. In addition, the conductive tip of the microscopy is exploited to perform electrical operations on single conductive spots, which evidences that neighboring conductive filaments are not electrically independent. We propose a picture that describes the evolution of the shape of the conductive filaments in the processes of their formation and disruption, which involves the development of conductive branches from a common root; this root resides in the pre-existing defects that lay at the HfO 2 /TiN interface. (paper)

  7. Interaction of current filaments in dielectric barrier discharges with relation to surface charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, L

    2009-01-01

    In a planar, laterally extended dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system operated in glow mode, a filamentary discharge is observed. The filaments tend to move laterally and hence tend to cause collisions. Thereby, usually one collision partner becomes destroyed. In this paper, the collision process and especially the preceding time period is investigated. Beside the luminescence density of the filaments, the surface charge density accumulated between the single breakdowns of the DBD is observed via an optical measurement technique based on the linear electro-optical effect (pockels effect). A ring-like substructure of the surface charge distribution of a single filament is found, which correlates to the filament interaction behaviour. Furthermore, a preferred filament distance is found, suggesting the formation of a filamentary quasi-molecule.

  8. The giant protein titin regulates the length of the striated muscle thick filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonino, Paola; Kiss, Balazs; Strom, Josh; Methawasin, Mei; Smith, John E; Kolb, Justin; Labeit, Siegfried; Granzier, Henk

    2017-10-19

    The contractile machinery of heart and skeletal muscles has as an essential component the thick filament, comprised of the molecular motor myosin. The thick filament is of a precisely controlled length, defining thereby the force level that muscles generate and how this force varies with muscle length. It has been speculated that the mechanism by which thick filament length is controlled involves the giant protein titin, but no conclusive support for this hypothesis exists. Here we show that in a mouse model in which we deleted two of titin's C-zone super-repeats, thick filament length is reduced in cardiac and skeletal muscles. In addition, functional studies reveal reduced force generation and a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) phenotype. Thus, regulation of thick filament length depends on titin and is critical for maintaining muscle health.

  9. Self-modulation and filamentation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1976-01-01

    Self-modulation and filamentation of an electromagnetic wave is considered as a problem of the non-linear interaction between electromagnetic and ion waves. A new electro-magnetic modulational instability is obtained, whose threshold is the same as that of the oscillating two-stream instability. A simple geometrical model is given of filamentation when the non-linearity is due to the ponderomotive force. The relationship between the filamentation and electromagnetic modulational instabilities and other parametric instabilities is considered. In particular, it is shown that both electromagnetic modulational and filamentation instabilities can occur at the critical density where they have the same threshold as the modulational instability of a Langmuir wave. Finally, a conservation relation (a generalization of the Manley-Rowe relation) for the wave action density is obtained for the filamentation instability. This shows clearly that this instability results from a four wave interaction. (author)

  10. Fracture and fatigue of high strength filaments. Final report, September 25, 1974--August 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, N.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    The history of high strength filamentary materials is traced and it is seen that their use has been widespread. It is shown that today's demands upon these materials require a better understanding of their behavior than is presently available. Current theories for both the static and fatigue strength of filamentary materials are reviewed. An analysis of static strength tests on short filaments is presented that explains seemingly anomalous test behavior which has been reported in the literature. The proposed approach is supported by experiments and computer analysis. A new machine for the fatigue testing of filaments or wires was designed and is described in detail. Results are presented for fatigue tests on tungsten wire, graphite filaments and glass filaments. Graphite filaments showed an unexpected deterioration in strength after very many cycles (10 8 ). An explanation of this effect is offered and supported by scanning electron microscope observations. The work concludes with some suggestions for further research

  11. Femtosecond filaments for rapid and flexible writing of Fiber-Bragg grating (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertorer, Erden; Haque, Moez; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Kerr-lens self-channelling of femtosecond laser light offers a novel high-aspect geometry for laser processing inside transparent materials. In glass materials, the laser filaments enable white-light continuum generation, scribing, nanochannel formation, and refractive index modification. In the present work, refractive index matching oils were applied around optical fiber to eliminate astigmatic aberration and thereby form highly symmetric and uniform filaments selectively in the cladding or core waveguide of standard single-mode optical fibre (SMF-28). Under tight focusing, long filaments exceeding 20 um length were formed with single pulses to sub-micron diameter. Arrays of 0.5 um spaced filaments are verified by formation of strong fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Flexible positioning of the filament arrays within the fiber core offers wide scope for coupling to cladding and radiation modes and creating new types of in-fibre optical devices.

  12. A Nanodiamond-peptide Bioconjugate for Fluorescence and ODMR Microscopy of a Single Actin Filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genjo, Takuya; Sotoma, Shingo; Tanabe, Ryotaro; Igarashi, Ryuji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the importance of conformational changes in actin filaments induced by mechanical stimulation of a cell has been increasingly recognized, especially in terms of mechanobiology. Despite its fundamental importance, however, long-term observation of a single actin filament by fluorescent microscopy has been difficult because of the low photostability of traditional fluorescent molecules. This paper reports a novel molecular labeling system for actin filaments using fluorescent nanodiamond (ND) particles harboring nitrogen-vacancy centers; ND has flexible chemical modifiability, extremely high photostability and biocompatibility, and provides a variety of physical information quantitatively via optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements. We performed the chemical surface modification of an ND with the actin filament-specific binding peptide Lifeact and observed colocalization of pure Lifeact-modified ND and actin filaments by the ODMR selective imaging protocol, suggesting the capability of long-term observation and quantitative analysis of a single molecule by using an ND particle.

  13. Unusual polar filament structure in two microsporidia from water reservoirs with radionuclide and organic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharenko, M.; Molloy, D.; Wita, I.

    1998-01-01

    Two species of microsporidia with the unusual polar filament structure were found in Cricotopus silvestris and Microtendipes pedellus larvae which were collected near the zone of influence of the Chernobyl atomic power station (Ukraine) and from a high polluted pond in the Mazurian region of Poland. The first microsporidium had separate unikaryotic spores and was assigned to the family Unikaryonidae Sprague. The diameter of the middle coil of the triple-coiled polar filament of this microsporidium was larger than its two other coils. The observed polar filament was thus neither of isofilar nor of the classical anisofilar type. The second polysporoblastic microsporidium has unikaryotic spores and an uncoiled polar filament and was placed in the family Thelohaniidae Hazard and Oldacre. The rare single macrospores of this microsporidium have a double set of the polar filament complex. The relationship between ultrastructural features of microsporidian spores and water pollution is discussed. (author)

  14. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  15. Temporal evolution of plasma density in femtosecond light filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haitao; Fan Chengyu; Shen Hong; Qiao Chunhong; Zhang Jinghui; Zhang Pengfei; Ma Huimin; Xu Huiling

    2012-01-01

    By using a legible and comprehensive physical model describing the generation and evolvement of ion densities in the plasma channel induced by intense femtosecond laser pulse, the work studied the temporal evolution of the plasma densities in femtosecond light filaments. It shows that the contribution of the ionization of oxygen and nitrogen molecules to the total electron densities varies much for different laser pulse shapes, and the pulse shapes have more effects on the lifetime of the higher density plasma. It is necessary to control the pulse shape for efficient using of the plasma channel. Pulses of long duration and short wavelength can obtain a plasma channel with higher electron density, but the channel lifetime thoroughly depends on the later evolution of the self-guided channel. (authors)

  16. Catarrhal proventriculitis associated with a filamentous organism in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    Catarrhal proventriculitis due to infection by an unidentified organism was diagnosed in 79 of 534 pet birds examined histologically. It was more prevalent in domestic birds (70 cases) than in imported ones (9 cases). A high incidence of the disease was encountered in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and it was occasionally found in finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis), Amazona parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). The agent was a large filamentous rod, and was stained positively with Gram, GMS and PAS methods. Histologically, it induced a mild to moderate exudative or proliferative inflammation in the proventriculus. All the cases had an erosion in the gizzard. Ultrastructurally, the organism had a eukaryotic nucleus and three cell-wall layers. Concurrent infections were very common, including adenoviruses (37 cases), giardiasis (31 cases), candidiasis (13 cases), papovaviruses (11 cases) and knemidocoptic mites (11 cases).

  17. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  18. Diode Laser Assisted Filament Winding of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Squeo, Erica Anna; Prosperi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    A new consolidation method for the laser-assisted filament winding of thermoplastic prepregs is discussed: for the first time a diode laser is used, as well as long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs. A consolidation apparatus was built by means of a CNC motion table, a stepper motor and a simple tensioner. Preliminary tests were performed in a hoop winding configuration: only the winding speed was changed, and all the other process parameters (laser power, distance from the laser focus, consolidation force) were kept constant. Small wound rings with an internal diameter of 25 mm were produced and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the composite agglomeration in dependence of the winding speed. At lower winding speeds, a strong interpenetration of adjacent layers was observed.

  19. Diode Laser Assisted Filament Winding of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prosperi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consolidation method for the laser-assisted filament winding of thermoplastic prepregs is discussed: for the first time a diode laser is used, as well as long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene prepregs. A consolidation apparatus was built by means of a CNC motion table, a stepper motor and a simple tensioner. Preliminary tests were performed in a hoop winding configuration: only the winding speed was changed, and all the other process parameters (laser power, distance from the laser focus, consolidation force were kept constant. Small wound rings with an internal diameter of 25 mm were produced and compression tests were carried out to evaluate the composite agglomeration in dependence of the winding speed. At lower winding speeds, a stronginterpenetration of adjacent layers was observed.

  20. Focal dynamics of multiple filaments: Microscopic imaging and reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, P. Prem; Bagchi, Suman; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Krishnan, Siva Rama; Arnold, C. L.; Couairon, A.

    2010-01-01

    We observe the complete dynamics of the propagation of very intense, femtosecond laser pulses in air under tight focusing conditions via direct imaging of the entire interaction zone. The whole life history of the focused pulses is then reconstructed by means of numerical simulations. We show that beam breakup leads to a dual-rate increase in filament numbers with laser power. Linearly and circularly polarized pulses give rise to beam breakup and fusion governed by external focusing conditions. For tight focusing conditions, intensity saturation due to plasma generation and nonlinear losses does not limit the intensity growth, thereby giving access to a new propagation regime featured by an efficient laser energy deposition in fully ionized air and intense 10 15 W/cm 2 pulses at the focus.

  1. 3D Printable Filaments Made of Biobased Polyethylene Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Filgueira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different series of biobased polyethylene (BioPE were used for the manufacturing of biocomposites, complemented with thermomechanical pulp (TMP fibers. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of the TMP fibers was previously modified by grafting hydrophobic compounds (octyl gallate and lauryl gallate by means of an enzymatic-assisted treatment. BioPE with low melt flow index (MFI yielded filaments with low void fraction and relatively low thickness variation. The water absorption of the biocomposites was remarkably improved when the enzymatically-hydrophobized TMP fibers were used. Importantly, the 3D printing of BioPE was improved by adding 10% and 20% TMP fibers to the composition. Thus, 3D printable biocomposites with low water uptake can be manufactured by using fully biobased materials and environmentally-friendly processes.

  2. Durability of filament-wound composite flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Jun

    2012-02-01

    This paper predicts the durability of two types of flywheels, one assumes to fail in the radial direction and the other assumes to fail in the circumferential direction. The flywheel failing in the radial direction is a conventional filament-wound composite flywheel and the one failing in the circumferential direction is a tailor-made type. The durability of the former is predicted by Micromechanics of Failure (MMF) (Ha et al. in J. Compos. Mater. 42:1873-1875, 2008), employing time-dependent matrix strength, and that of the latter is predicted by Simultaneous Fiber Failure (SFF) (Koyanagi et al. in J. Compos. Mater. 43:1901-1914, 2009), employing identical time-dependent matrix strength. The predicted durability of the latter is much greater than that of the former, depending on the interface strength. This study suggests that a relatively weak interface is necessary for high-durability composite flywheel fabrication.

  3. The stability of free-electron lasers against filamentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Yu, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, the high electromagnetic fields propagating through a relatively dense plasma can result in a transverse instability, causing the matter and light to form filaments oriented parallel to the light beam. We examine whether a similar instability exists in the electron beam of a free-electron laser, where such an instability could interfere with the transfer of beam kinetic energy into optical wave energy. We heuristically examine the instability in a relativistic beam through which an intense laser beam is propagating. We ignore the FEL effects. We estimate how the altered index of refraction in an FEL affects the dispersion relation. Finally, we estimate the effect that the instability could have on the phase coherence of a particle as it transits an FEL. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamical 3-Space: Cosmic Filaments, Sheets and Voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of weak gravitational lensing combined with statistical tomographic techniques have revealed that galaxies have formed along filaments, essentially one- dimensional lines or strings, which form sheets and voids. These have, in the main, been interpreted as “dark matter” effects. To the contrary here we report the discovery that the dynamical 3-space theory possesses such filamentary solutions. These solutions are purely space self-interaction effects, and are attractive to matter, and as well gener- ate electromagnetic lensing. This theory of space has explained bore hole anomalies, supermassive black hole masses in spherical galaxies and globular clusters, flat rota- tion curves of spiral galaxies, and other gravitational anomalies. The theory has two constants, G and , where the bore hole experiments show that 1 = 137 is the fine structure constant.

  6. Dynamical 3-Space: Cosmic Filaments, Sheets and Voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of weak gravitational lensing combined with statistical tomographic techniques have revealed that galaxies have formed along filaments, essentially one-dimensional lines or strings, which form sheets and voids. These have, in the main, been interpreted as "dark matter" effects. To the contrary here we report the discovery that the dynamical 3-space theory possesses such filamentary solutions. These solutions are purely space self-interaction effects, and are attractive to matter, and as well generate electromagnetic lensing. This theory of space has explained bore hole anomalies, supermassive black hole masses in spherical galaxies and globular clusters, flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies, and other gravitational anomalies. The theory has two constants, $G$ and $alpha$, where the bore hole experiments show that $alpha approx 1/137$ is the fine structure constant.

  7. Directed synthesis of bio-inorganic vanadium oxide composites using genetically modified filamentous phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Michael; Baik, Seungyun; Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yuchan; Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phage is an excellent seeding for bio-templates for environmentally benign vanadium oxide nanocomposite synthesis. • The synthesized bio-inorganic vanadium oxide showed photodegradation activities. • The fabricated wt phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited bundle-like structure. • The fabricated RSTB-phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited a ball with a fiber-like nanostructure. • The virus/vanadium oxide composite could be applied in photocatalysts, sensors and nanoelectronic applications. - Abstract: The growth of crystalline vanadium oxide using a filamentous bacteriophage template was investigated using sequential incubation in a V 2 O 5 precursor. Using the genetic modification of the bacteriophage, we displayed two cysteines that constrained the RSTB-1 peptide on the major coat protein P8, resulting in vanadium oxide crystallization. The phage-driven vanadium oxide crystals with different topologies, microstructures, photodegradation and vanadium oxide composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quartz microbalance and dissipation (QCM-D) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Non-specific electrostatic attraction between a wild-type phage (wt-phage) and vanadium cations in the V 2 O 5 precursor caused phage agglomeration and fiber formation along the length of the viral scaffold. As a result, the addition of recombinant phage (re-phage) in V 2 O 5 precursors formed heterogeneous structures, which led to efficient condensation of vanadium oxide crystal formation in lines, shown by QCM-D analysis. Furthermore, re-phage/V x O x composites showed significantly enhanced photodegradation activities compared with the synthesized wt-phage-V 2 O 5 composite under illumination. This study demonstrates that peptide-mediated vanadium oxide mineralization is governed by a complicated interplay of peptide sequence, local structure, kinetics and the presence of a mineralizing

  8. ARCADE IMPLOSION CAUSED BY A FILAMENT ERUPTION IN A FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Hannah, I. G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Thalmann, J. K. [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hudson, H. S., E-mail: j.wang.4@research.gla.ac.uk [SSL/UC, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Coronal implosions—the convergence motion of plasmas and entrained magnetic field in the corona due to a reduction in magnetic pressure—can help to locate and track sites of magnetic energy release or redistribution during solar flares and eruptions. We report here on the analysis of a well-observed implosion in the form of an arcade contraction associated with a filament eruption, during the C3.5 flare SOL2013-06-19T07:29. A sequence of events including the magnetic flux-rope instability and distortion, followed by a filament eruption and arcade implosion, lead us to conclude that the implosion arises from the transfer of magnetic energy from beneath the arcade as part of the global magnetic instability, rather than due to local magnetic energy dissipation in the flare. The observed net contraction of the imploding loops, which is found also in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations, reflects a permanent reduction of magnetic energy underneath the arcade. This event shows that, in addition to resulting in the expansion or eruption of an overlying field, flux-rope instability can also simultaneously implode an unopened field due to magnetic energy transfer. It demonstrates the “partial opening of the field” scenario, which is one of the ways in 3D to produce a magnetic eruption without violating the Aly–Sturrock hypothesis. In the framework of this observation, we also propose a unification of three main concepts for active region magnetic evolution, namely the metastable eruption model, the implosion conjecture, and the standard “CSHKP” flare model.

  9. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  10. Isolation and characterisation of theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro-Mensah, Daniel; Ocloo, Augustine; Lowor, Sammy T; Bonney, Evelyn Y; Okine, Laud K N A; Adamafio, Naa Ayikailey

    2018-01-01

    Strategies for achieving global food security include identification of alternative feedstock for use as animal feed, to contribute towards efforts at increasing livestock farming. The presence of theobromine in cocoa pod husks, a major agro-waste in cocoa-producing countries, hinders its utilisation for this purpose. Cheap treatment of cocoa pod husks to remove theobromine would allow largescale beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes generated annually. The aim of this study was to isolate theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi that could serve as bioremediation agents for detheobromination of cocoa pod husks. Filamentous fungi were screened for ability to degrade theobromine. The most promising isolates were characterized with respect to optimal environmental conditions for theobromine degradation. Secretion of theobromine-degrading enzymes by the isolates was investigated. Theobromine degradation was monitored by HPLC. Of fourteen theobromine-degrading isolates collected and identified by rDNA 5.8S and ITS sequences, seven belonged to Aspergillus spp. and six were Talaromyces spp. Based on the extent of theobromine utilization, four isolates; Aspergillus niger, Talaromyces verruculosus and two Talaromyces marneffei, showed the best potential for use as bioagents for detheobromination. First-time evidence was found of the use of xanthine oxidase and theobromine oxidase in degradation of a methylxanthine by fungal isolates. Metabolism of theobromine involved initial demethylation at position 7 to form 3-methylxanthine, or initial oxidation at position 8 to form 3,7-dimethyuric acid. All four isolates degraded theobromine beyond uric acid. The data suggest that the four isolates can be applied to substrates, such as cocoa pod husks, for elimination of theobromine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortman Jennifer R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Results Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  12. Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.

  13. A Multi-spacecraft View of a Giant Filament Eruption during 2009 September 26/27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Sanjay; Schmieder, Brigitte; Artzner, Guy; Bogachev, Sergei; Török, Tibor

    2012-12-01

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations of a giant filament eruption that occurred during 2009 September 26 and 27. The filament eruption was associated with a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The filament consisted of a large and a small part, and both parts erupted nearly simultaneously. Here we focus on the eruption associated with the larger part of the filament. The STEREO satellites were separated by about 117° during this event, so we additionally used SoHO/EIT and CORONAS/TESIS observations as a third eye (Earth view) to aid our measurements. We measure the plane-of-sky trajectory of the filament as seen from STEREO-A and TESIS viewpoints. Using a simple trigonometric relation, we then use these measurements to estimate the true direction of propagation of the filament which allows us to derive the true R/R ⊙-time profile of the filament apex. Furthermore, we develop a new tomographic method that can potentially provide a more robust three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by exploiting multiple simultaneous views. We apply this method also to investigate the 3D evolution of the top part of filament. We expect this method to be useful when SDO and STEREO observations are combined. We then analyze the kinematics of the eruptive filament during its rapid acceleration phase by fitting different functional forms to the height-time data derived from the two methods. We find that for both methods an exponential function fits the rise profile of the filament slightly better than parabolic or cubic functions. Finally, we confront these results with the predictions of theoretical eruption models.

  14. A MULTI-SPACECRAFT VIEW OF A GIANT FILAMENT ERUPTION DURING 2009 SEPTEMBER 26/27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosain, Sanjay [National Solar Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schmieder, Brigitte [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Artzner, Guy [CNRS UMR 8617, Institut d' astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bogachev, Sergei [Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninskij prospekt 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Toeroek, Tibor [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations of a giant filament eruption that occurred during 2009 September 26 and 27. The filament eruption was associated with a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The filament consisted of a large and a small part, and both parts erupted nearly simultaneously. Here we focus on the eruption associated with the larger part of the filament. The STEREO satellites were separated by about 117 Degree-Sign during this event, so we additionally used SoHO/EIT and CORONAS/TESIS observations as a third eye (Earth view) to aid our measurements. We measure the plane-of-sky trajectory of the filament as seen from STEREO-A and TESIS viewpoints. Using a simple trigonometric relation, we then use these measurements to estimate the true direction of propagation of the filament which allows us to derive the true R/R{sub Sun }-time profile of the filament apex. Furthermore, we develop a new tomographic method that can potentially provide a more robust three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by exploiting multiple simultaneous views. We apply this method also to investigate the 3D evolution of the top part of filament. We expect this method to be useful when SDO and STEREO observations are combined. We then analyze the kinematics of the eruptive filament during its rapid acceleration phase by fitting different functional forms to the height-time data derived from the two methods. We find that for both methods an exponential function fits the rise profile of the filament slightly better than parabolic or cubic functions. Finally, we confront these results with the predictions of theoretical eruption models.

  15. A MULTI-SPACECRAFT VIEW OF A GIANT FILAMENT ERUPTION DURING 2009 SEPTEMBER 26/27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosain, Sanjay; Schmieder, Brigitte; Artzner, Guy; Bogachev, Sergei; Török, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations of a giant filament eruption that occurred during 2009 September 26 and 27. The filament eruption was associated with a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The filament consisted of a large and a small part, and both parts erupted nearly simultaneously. Here we focus on the eruption associated with the larger part of the filament. The STEREO satellites were separated by about 117° during this event, so we additionally used SoHO/EIT and CORONAS/TESIS observations as a third eye (Earth view) to aid our measurements. We measure the plane-of-sky trajectory of the filament as seen from STEREO-A and TESIS viewpoints. Using a simple trigonometric relation, we then use these measurements to estimate the true direction of propagation of the filament which allows us to derive the true R/R ☉ -time profile of the filament apex. Furthermore, we develop a new tomographic method that can potentially provide a more robust three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by exploiting multiple simultaneous views. We apply this method also to investigate the 3D evolution of the top part of filament. We expect this method to be useful when SDO and STEREO observations are combined. We then analyze the kinematics of the eruptive filament during its rapid acceleration phase by fitting different functional forms to the height-time data derived from the two methods. We find that for both methods an exponential function fits the rise profile of the filament slightly better than parabolic or cubic functions. Finally, we confront these results with the predictions of theoretical eruption models.

  16. EIT and SXT Observations of a Quiet Region Filament Ejection: First Eruption, Then Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We observe a slow-onset quiet-region filament eruption with the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO, and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. This event occurred on 1999 April 18, and was likely the origin of a coronal mass ejection (CME) detected by SOHO at 08:30 UT on that day. In EIT, one-half of the filament shows two stages of evolution: Stage I is a slow, roughly constant upward movement at approx. 1 km per second lasting approximately 6.5 hours, and Stage 2 is a rapid upward eruption at approximately 16 kilometers per second occurring just before the filament disappears into interplanetary space. The other half of the filament shows little motion along the line-of-sight during the time of Stage 1, but erupts along with the rest of the filament during Stage 2. There is no obvious emission from the filament in SXT until Stage 2; at that time an arcade of EUV and soft X-ray loops forms first at the central location of the filament, and then expands outward along the length of the filament channel. A plot of EUV intensity versus time of the central portion of the filament (where the postflare loops initially form) shows a flat profile during Stage 1, and a rapid upturn after the start of Stage 2. This lightcurve is delayed from what would be expected if "tether-cutting" reconnection in the core of the erupting region were responsible for the initiation of the eruption. Rather, these observations suggest that a loss of stability of the magnetic field holding the filament initiates the eruption, with reconnection in the core region occurring only as a byproduct.

  17. EIT And SXT Observations of a Quiet-Region Filament Ejection: First Eruption, Then Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Thompson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    We observe a slow-onset quiet-region filament eruption with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. This event occurred on 1999 April 18 and was likely the origin of a coronal mass ejection detected by SOHO at 08:30 UT on that day. In the EIT observation, one-half of the filament shows two stages of evolution: stage 1 is a slow, roughly constant upward movement at approximately 1 km/s lasting approximately 0.5 hr, and stage 2 is a rapid upward eruption at approximately 16 km/s occurring just before the filament disappears into interplanetary space. The other half of the filament shows little motion along the line of sight during the time of stage 1 but erupts along with the rest of the filament during stage 2. There is no obvious emission from the filament in the SXT observation until stage 2; at that time, an arcade of EUV and soft X-ray loops forms first at the central location of the filament and then expands outward along the length of the filament channel. A plot of EUV intensity versus time of the central portion of the filament (where the postflare loops initially form) shows a flat profile during stage 1 and a rapid upturn after the start of stage 2. This light curve is delayed from what would be expected if 'tether-cutting' reconnection in the core of the erupting region were responsible for the initiation of the eruption. Rather, these observations suggest that a loss of stability of the magnetic field holding the filament initiates the eruption, with reconnection in the core region occurring only as a by-product.

  18. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  19. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  20. Transient extensional viscosity of polymers in the filament strecthing rheometer. A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen, O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Hassager, Ole

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the transient uni-axial eextensional viscosity of polymer melts by means of a filament strecthing rheometer.......We investigate the transient uni-axial eextensional viscosity of polymer melts by means of a filament strecthing rheometer....

  1. Bacillus subtilis MreB paralogues have different filament architectures and lead to shape remodelling of a heterologous cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufo, Hervé Joël Defeu; Graumann, Peter L

    2010-12-01

    Like many bacteria, Bacillus subtilis cells contain three actin-like MreB proteins. We show that the three paralogues, MreB, Mbl and MreBH, have different filament architectures in a heterologous cell system, and form straight filaments, helices or ring structures, different from the regular helical arrangement in B. subtilis cells. However, when coexpressed, they colocalize into a single filamentous helical structure, showing that the paralogues influence each other's filament architecture. Ring-like MreBH structures can be converted into MreB-like helical filaments by a single point mutation affecting subunit contacts, showing that MreB paralogues feature flexible filament arrangements. Time-lapse and FRAP experiments show that filaments can extend as well as shrink at both ends, and also show internal rearrangement, suggesting that filaments consist of overlapping bundles of shorter filaments that continuously turn over. Upon induction in Escherichia coli cells, B. subtilis MreB (BsMreB) filaments push the cells into strikingly altered cell morphology, showing that MreB filaments can change cell shape. E. coli cells with a weakened cell wall were ruptured upon induction of BsMreB filaments, suggesting that the bacterial actin orthologue may exert force against the cell membrane and envelope, and thus possibly plays an additional mechanical role in bacteria. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. AC Loss Reduction in Filamentized YBCO Coated Conductors with Virtual Transverse Cross-cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; X, Xiong, [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    While the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-based coated conductors under dc currents has improved significantly in recent years, filamentization is being investigated as a technique to reduce ac loss so that the 2nd generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires can also be utilized in various ac power applications such as cables, transformers and fault current limiters. Experimental studies have shown that simply filamentizing the superconducting layer is not effective enough to reduce ac loss because of incomplete flux penetration in between the filaments as the length of the tape increases. To introduce flux penetration in between the filaments more uniformly and further reduce the ac loss, virtual transverse cross-cuts were made in superconducting filaments of the coated conductors fabricated using the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The virtual transverse cross-cuts were formed by making cross-cuts (17 - 120 {micro}m wide) on the IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition)-MgO templates using laser scribing followed by depositing the superconducting layer ({approx} 0.6 {micro}m thick). AC losses were measured and compared for filamentized conductors with and without the cross-cuts under applied peak ac fields up to 100 mT. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of filament decoupling and the feasibility of using this method to achieve ac loss reduction.

  3. Model planetary nebulae: the effect of shadowed filaments on low ionization potential ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, A.

    1977-01-01

    Previous homogeneous model planetary nebulae calculations No. 4 have yielded emission strengths for low ionization potential No. 4 ions which are considerably lower than those observed. Several attempts were to correct this problem by the inclusion of optically thin condensations, the use of energy flux distributions from stellar model calculations instead of blackbody spectrum stars, and the inclusion of dust in the nebulae. The effect that shadowed filaments have on the ionization and thermal structure of model nebulae and the resultant line strengths are considered. These radial filaments are shielded from the direct stellar ionizing radiation by optically thick condensations in the nebula. Theoretical observational evidence exists for the presence of condensations and filaments. Since the only source of ionizing photons in the shadowed filaments is due to diffuse photons produced by recombination, ions of lower ionization potential are expected to exist there in greater numbers than those found in the rest of the nebula. This leads to increased line strengths from these ions and increases their values to match the observational values. It is shown that these line strengths in the filaments increase by over one to two orders of magnitude relative to values found in homogeneous models. This results in an increase of approximately one order of magnitude for these lines when contributions from both components of the nebula are considered. The parameters that determine the exact value of the increase are the radial location of the filaments in the nebula and the fraction of the nebular volume occupied by the filaments

  4. THE FORMATION AND MAGNETIC STRUCTURES OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS OBSERVED BY NVST, SDO, AND HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Xiang, Y. Y.; Kong, D. F.; Yang, L. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    To better understand the properties of solar active-region filaments, we present a detailed study on the formation and magnetic structures of two active-region filaments in active region NOAA 11884 during a period of four days. It is found that the shearing motion of the opposite magnetic polarities and the rotation of the small sunspots with negative polarity play an important role in the formation of two active-region filaments. During the formation of these two active-region filaments, one foot of the filaments was rooted in a small sunspot with negative polarity. The small sunspot rotated not only around another small sunspot with negative polarity, but also around the center of its umbra. By analyzing the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation using the vector magnetic fields in the photosphere, twisted structures were found in the two active-region filaments prior to their eruptions. These results imply that the magnetic fields were dragged by the shearing motion between opposite magnetic polarities and became more horizontal. The sunspot rotation twisted the horizontal magnetic fields and finally formed the twisted active-region filaments.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT DURING THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao, E-mail: egnever@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  6. Shortening actin filaments cause force generation in actomyosin network to change from contractile to extensile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Gardel, Margaret

    Motor proteins in conjunction with filamentous proteins convert biochemical energy into mechanical energy which serves a number of cellular processes including cell motility, force generation and intracellular cargo transport. In-vitro experiments suggest that the forces generated by kinesin motors on microtubule bundles are extensile in nature whereas myosin motors on actin filaments are contractile. It is not clear how qualitatively similar systems can show completely different behaviors in terms of the nature of force generation. In order to answer this question, we carry out in vitro experiments where we form quasi 2D filamentous actomyosin networks and vary the length of actin filaments by adding capping protein. We show that when filaments are much shorter than their typical persistence length (approximately 10 microns), the forces generated are extensile and we see active nematic defect propagation, as seen in the microtubule-kinesin system. Based on this observation, we claim that the rigidity of rods plays an important role in dictating the nature of force generation in such systems. In order to understand this transition, we selectively label individual filaments and find that longer filaments show considerable bending and buckling, making them difficult to slide and extend along their length.

  7. Limitation of critical current density by intermetallic formation in fine filament Nb-Ti superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Chengren, L.; Starch, W.; Lee, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to investigate the role that the intermetallic reaction between the copper matrix and the Nb-Ti filaments plays in limiting the critical current density (J/sub c/) of Nb 45.6 wt% Ti composites. The first experiment involved composites which were industrially extruded. It was found that as the number of heat treatments increased, the J/sub c/ declined, the resistive transition broadened and the filaments sausaged. The filament sausaging was initiated by intermetallic particles at the filament matrix interface. A series of many heat treatment procedures were then applied to composites fabricated in the authors own laboratories without extrusion. Very high J/sub c/ values were obtained at filament sizes of 20 μm. When the same heat treatment procedures were applied to 4 - 5 μm conductors, extensive sausaging and degraded J/sub c/ values resulted. This degradation was also found to be due to the formation of Cu-Nb-Ti intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that a reliable filament diffusion barrier technology is necessary to permit full flexibility in the heat treatment of 2 - 5 μ filament Nb-Ti composites

  8. Limitation of critical current density by intermetallic formation in fine filament Nb-Ti superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Chengren, Li; Lee, P.J.; Starch, W.

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to investigate the role that the intermetallic reaction between the copper matrix and the Nb-Ti filaments plays in limiting the critical current density (J /SUB c/ ) of Nb 46.5 wt% Ti composites. The first experiment involved composites which were industrially extruded. It was found that as the number of heat treatments increased, the J /SUB c/ declined, the resistive transition broadened and the filaments sausaged. The filament sausaging was initiated by intermetallic particles at the filament matrix interface. A series of many heat treatment procedures were then applied to composites fabricated in our own laboratories without extrusion. Very high J /SUB c/ values were obtained at filament sizes of 20 μm. When the same heat treatment procedures were applied to 4 - 5 μm conductors, extensive sausaging and degraded J /SUB c/ values resulted. This degradation was also found to be due to the formation of Cu-Nb-Ti intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that a reliable filament diffusion barrier technology is necessary to permit full flexibility in the heat treatment of 2 - 5 μm filament Nb-Ti composites

  9. Influence of Ni and Cu contamination on the superconducting properties of MgB2 filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, A; Schlachter, S I; Runtsch, B; Ringsdorf, B; Fillinger, H; Orschulko, H; Drechsler, A; Goldacker, W

    2010-01-01

    Technical MgB 2 wires usually have a sheath composite consisting of different metals. For the inner sheath with direct contact to the superconducting filament, chemically inert Nb may be used as a reaction barrier and thermal stabilization is provided by a highly conductive metal like Cu. A mechanical reinforcement can be achieved by the addition of stainless steel. In order to illuminate the influence of defects in the reaction barrier, monofilament in situ wires with direct contact between the MgB 2 filament and frequently applied reactive sheath metals like Cu, Ni or Monel are studied. Reactions of Mg and B with a Cu-containing sheath lead to Cu-based by-products penetrating the whole filament. Reactions with Ni-containing sheaths lead to Ni-based by-products which tend to remain at the filament-sheath interface. Cu and/or Ni contamination of the filament lowers the MgB 2 -forming temperature due to the eutectic reaction between Mg, Ni and Cu. Thus, for the samples heat-treated at low temperatures J C and (partly) T C are increased compared to stainless-steel-sheathed wires. At high heat treatment temperatures uncontaminated filaments lead to the highest J C values. From the point of view of broken reaction barriers in real wires, the contamination of the filament with Cu and/or Ni does not necessarily constrain the superconductivity; it may even improve the properties of the wire, depending on the desired application.

  10. Temperature dependence of filament-coupling in Bi-2223 tapes: magneto-optical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyl, A.V.; Shantsev, D.V.; Galperin, Y.M.; Johansen, T.H.; Baziljevich, M.; Gaevski, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Coupling through random superconducting bridges between filaments in a multifilamentary Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ tape has been investigated by magneto-optical imaging at temperatures from 20 K up to T c . Magnetic flux distributions have been measured on the surface of an intact tape in the remanent state on applying a strong perpendicular magnetic field. The flux distributions observed at low temperatures reflect the arrangement of individual filaments. At high temperatures, the distribution becomes more similar to that for a uniform monocore tape, indicating that superconducting connections appear between the filaments. To discuss the relative contributions of the intra- and inter-filament currents, a simple model based on the Bean critical state was proposed and applied to analyse the temperature dependent behaviour. The inter-filament coupling, increasing with temperature, reaches at 77 K a point where the currents flowing in large inter-filament loops are roughly equal to the intra-filament currents. (author)

  11. Cations Stiffen Actin Filaments by Adhering a Key Structural Element to Adjacent Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ions regulate the assembly and mechanical properties of actin filaments. Recent work using structural bioinformatics and site-specific mutagenesis favors the existence of two discrete and specific divalent cation binding sites on actin filaments, positioned in the long axis between actin subunits. Cation binding at one site drives polymerization, while the other modulates filament stiffness and plays a role in filament severing by the regulatory protein, cofilin. Existing structural methods have not been able to resolve filament-associated cations, and so in this work we turn to molecular dynamics simulations to suggest a candidate binding pocket geometry for each site and to elucidate the mechanism by which occupancy of the “stiffness site” affects filament mechanical properties. Incorporating a magnesium ion in the “polymerization site” does not seem to require any large-scale change to an actin subunit’s conformation. Binding of a magnesium ion in the “stiffness site” adheres the actin DNase-binding loop (D-loop) to its long-axis neighbor, which increases the filament torsional stiffness and bending persistence length. Our analysis shows that bound D-loops occupy a smaller region of accessible conformational space. Cation occupancy buries key conserved residues of the D-loop, restricting accessibility to regulatory proteins and enzymes that target these amino acids. PMID:27146246

  12. Interaction of Two Active Region Filaments Observed by NVST and SDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Li, Ting, E-mail: yangliheng@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Using high spatial and temporal resolution H α data from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) and simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory , we present the rare event of the interaction between two filaments (F1 and F2) in AR 11967 on 2014 January 31. The adjacent two filaments were almost perpendicular to each other. Their interaction was driven by the movement of F1 and started when the two filaments collided with each other. During the interaction, the threads of F1 continuously slipped from the northeast to the southwest, and were accompanied by the brightenings at the junction of two filaments and the northeast footpoint of F2. Part of F1 and the main body of F2 became invisible in H α wavelength due to the heating and the motion of F2. At the same time, bright material initiated from the junction of two filaments were observed to move along F1. The magnetic connectivities of F1 were found to be changed after their interaction. These observations suggest that magnetic reconnection was involved in the interaction of two filaments and resulted in the eruption of one filament.

  13. Blowout Surge due to Interaction between a Solar Filament and Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Yang, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao; Chen, Hechao [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Qu, Zhining, E-mail: lhd@ynao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2017-06-20

    We present an observation of the interaction between a filament and the outer spine-like loops that produces a blowout surge within one footpoint of large-scale coronal loops on 2015 February 6. Based the observation of the AIA 304 and 94 Å, the activated filament is initially embedded below a dome of a fan-spine configuration. Due to the ascending motion, the erupting filament reconnects with the outer spine-like field. We note that the material in the filament blows out along the outer spine-like field to form the surge with a wider spire, and a two-ribbon flare appears at the site of the filament eruption. In this process, small bright blobs appear at the interaction region and stream up along the outer spine-like field and down along the eastern fan-like field. As a result, a leg of the filament becomes radial and the material in it erupts, while another leg forms the new closed loops. Our results confirm that the successive reconnection occurring between the erupting filament and the coronal loops may lead to a strong thermal/magnetic pressure imbalance, resulting in a blowout surge.

  14. Helical filaments of human Dmc1 protein on single-stranded DNA: a cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins in the RecA/Rad51/RadA family form nucleoprotein filaments on DNA that catalyze a strand exchange reaction as part of homologous genetic recombination. Because of the centrality of this system to many aspects of DNA repair, the generation of genetic diversity, and cancer when this system fails or is not properly regulated, these filaments have been the object of many biochemical and biophysical studies. A recent paper has argued that the human Dmc1 protein, a meiotic homolog of bacterial RecA and human Rad51, forms filaments on single stranded DNA with ∼ 9 subunits per turn in contrast to the filaments formed on double stranded DNA with ∼ 6.4 subunits per turn, and that the stoichiometry of DNA binding is different between these two filaments. We show using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that the Dmc1 filament formed on single stranded DNA has a mass per unit length expected from ∼ 6.5 subunits per turn. More generally, we show how ambiguities in helical symmetry determination can generate incorrect solutions, and why one sometimes must use other techniques, such as biochemistry, metal shadowing, or STEM to resolve these ambiguities. While three-dimensional reconstruction of helical filaments from EM images is a powerful tool, the intrinsic ambiguities that may be present with limited resolution are not sufficiently appreciated. PMID:20600108

  15. Analysis of the axial filaments of Treponema hyodysenteriae by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, K A; Sellwood, R; Lemcke, R M; Burrows, M R; Lysons, R J

    1989-06-01

    Purified axial filaments from eight serotypes of Treponema hyodysenteriae and two non-pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Axial filaments of all ten strains had similar SDS-PAGE profiles; five major axial filament polypeptides were identified, with molecular masses of 43.8, 38, 34.8, 32.8 and 29.4 kDa. Hyperimmune gnotobiotic pig serum raised against purified axial filaments of strain P18A (serotype 4) cross-reacted with all other serotypes and with the non-pathogens, and convalescent serum taken from a pig with persistent swine dysentery also showed a strong response to the axial filament polypeptides. Hyperimmune gnotobiotic pig serum raised against axial filaments failed to agglutinate viable organisms and did not inhibit growth in vitro. Hence, the axial filaments of T. hyodysenteriae have been identified as major immunodominant antigens, although the role that antibodies to these antigens play in protection has yet to be established.

  16. EVIDENCE OF FILAMENT UPFLOWS ORIGINATING FROM INTENSITY OSCILLATIONS ON THE SOLAR SURFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Ning, Zongjun; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Ji Haisheng

    2010-01-01

    A filament footpoint rooted in an active region (NOAA 11032) was well observed for about 78 minutes with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2009 November 18 in Hα ±0.75 A. This data set had high cadence (∼15 s) and high spatial resolution (∼0.''1) and offered a unique opportunity to study filament dynamics. As in previous findings from space observations, several dark intermittent upflows were identified, and they behave in groups at isolated locations along the filament. However, we have two new findings. First, we find that the dark upflows propagating along the filament channel are strongly associated with the intensity oscillations on the solar surface around the filament footpoints. The upflows start at the same time as the peak in the oscillations, illustrating that the upflow velocities are well correlated with the oscillations. Second, the intensity of one of the seven upflows detected in our data set exhibits a clear periodicity when the upflow propagates along the filament. The periods gradually vary from ∼10 to ∼5 minutes. Our results give observational clues on the driving mechanism of the upflows in the filament.

  17. The Intriguing Dual Lattices of the Myosin Filaments in Vertebrate Striated Muscles: Evolution and Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Luther

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myosin filaments in vertebrate striated muscle have a long roughly cylindrical backbone with cross-bridge projections on the surfaces of both halves except for a short central bare zone. In the middle of this central region the filaments are cross-linked by the M-band which holds them in a well-defined hexagonal lattice in the muscle A-band. During muscular contraction the M-band-defined rotation of the myosin filaments around their long axes influences the interactions that the cross-bridges can make with the neighbouring actin filaments. We can visualise this filament rotation by electron microscopy of thin cross-sections in the bare-region immediately adjacent to the M-band where the filament profiles are distinctly triangular. In the muscles of teleost fishes, the thick filament triangular profiles have a single orientation giving what we call the simple lattice. In other vertebrates, for example all the tetrapods, the thick filaments have one of two orientations where the triangles point in opposite directions (they are rotated by 60° or 180° according to set rules. Such a distribution cannot be developed in an ordered fashion across a large 2D lattice, but there are small domains of superlattice such that the next-nearest neighbouring thick filaments often have the same orientation. We believe that this difference in the lattice forms can lead to different contractile behaviours. Here we provide a historical review, and when appropriate cite recent work related to the emergence of the simple and superlattice forms by examining the muscles of several species ranging back to primitive vertebrates and we discuss the functional differences that the two lattice forms may have.

  18. Regulation of Contraction by the Thick Filaments in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Malcolm

    2017-12-19

    Contraction of skeletal muscle cells is initiated by a well-known signaling pathway. An action potential in a motor nerve triggers an action potential in a muscle cell membrane, a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration, binding of calcium to troponin in the actin-containing thin filaments, and a structural change in the thin filaments that allows myosin motors from the thick filaments to bind to actin and generate force. This calcium/thin filament mediated pathway provides the "START" signal for contraction, but it is argued that the functional response of the muscle cell, including the speed of its contraction and relaxation, adaptation to the external load, and the metabolic cost of contraction is largely determined by additional mechanisms. This review considers the role of the thick filaments in those mechanisms, and puts forward a paradigm for the control of contraction in skeletal muscle in which both the thick and thin filaments have a regulatory function. The OFF state of the thick filament is characterized by helical packing of most of the myosin head or motor domains on the thick filament surface in a conformation that makes them unavailable for actin binding or ATP hydrolysis, although a small fraction of the myosin heads are constitutively ON. The availability of the majority fraction of the myosin heads for contraction is controlled in part by the external load on the muscle, so that these heads only attach to actin and hydrolyze ATP when they are required. This phenomenon seems to be the major determinant of the well-known force-velocity relationship of muscle, and controls the metabolic cost of contraction. The regulatory state of the thick filament also seems to control the dynamics of both muscle activation and relaxation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Image processing for identification and quantification of filamentous bacteria in in situ acquired images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Philipe A; Dunkel, Thiemo; Fajado, Diego A S; Gallegos, Erika de León; Denecke, Martin; Wiedemann, Philipp; Schneider, Fabio K; Suhr, Hajo

    2016-06-11

    In the activated sludge process, problems of filamentous bulking and foaming can occur due to overgrowth of certain filamentous bacteria. Nowadays, these microorganisms are typically monitored by means of light microscopy, commonly combined with staining techniques. As drawbacks, these methods are susceptible to human errors, subjectivity and limited by the use of discontinuous microscopy. The in situ microscope appears as a suitable tool for continuous monitoring of filamentous bacteria, providing real-time examination, automated analysis and eliminating sampling, preparation and transport of samples. In this context, a proper image processing algorithm is proposed for automated recognition and measurement of filamentous objects. This work introduces a method for real-time evaluation of images without any staining, phase-contrast or dilution techniques, differently from studies present in the literature. Moreover, we introduce an algorithm which estimates the total extended filament length based on geodesic distance calculation. For a period of twelve months, samples from an industrial activated sludge plant were weekly collected and imaged without any prior conditioning, replicating real environment conditions. Trends of filament growth rate-the most important parameter for decision making-are correctly identified. For reference images whose filaments were marked by specialists, the algorithm correctly recognized 72 % of the filaments pixels, with a false positive rate of at most 14 %. An average execution time of 0.7 s per image was achieved. Experiments have shown that the designed algorithm provided a suitable quantification of filaments when compared with human perception and standard methods. The algorithm's average execution time proved its suitability for being optimally mapped into a computational architecture to provide real-time monitoring.

  20. The circulation dynamics associated with a northern Benguela upwelling filament during October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Annethea A.; Mohrholz, Volker; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Upwelling filaments, a common feature in all the major upwelling systems, are also regularly observed in the Benguela upwelling system and are thought to provide an effective mechanism for the exchange of matter between the shelf and the open ocean. The mesoscale dynamics of a northern Benguela upwelling filament located at approximately 18.5°S were examined and the associated transport was quantified. The development of the filament was tracked using optimal interpolated SST satellite data and two transects were consequently sampled across the feature using a towed undulating CTD (ScanFish). Additional hydrographic, nutrient and biological parameters were investigated at several stations along each transect. Following 7 days of strong upwelling favorable winds, sampling coincided with a period of relative wind relaxation and the filament was presumably in a decaying state. The basic mesoscale structure of the investigated filament corresponded well to what had previously been described for filaments from other eastern boundary current systems. The cross-shore transport associated with the filament was found to be significantly greater than the integrated Ekman transport in the region. With the combination of the high resolution dataset and a MOM-4 ecosystem model the complex mesoscale flow field associated with the feature could be observed and the counterbalancing onshore transport, associated with subsurface dipole eddies, was revealed within the filament. The results further suggest that an interaction between the offshore bending of flow at the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF), the detachment of the strong poleward flow from the coast as the thermal front meanders and the observed dipole eddies may be driving filament occurrence in the region off Cape Frio.