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Sample records for acides amines du

  1. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  2. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  3. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  4. Multilayered Thin Films from Boronic Acid-Functional Poly(amido amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the properties of phenylboronic acid-functional poly(amido amine) polymers (BA-PAA) in forming multilayered thin films with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), and to evaluate their compatibility with COS-7 cells. Methods Copolymers of phenylboronic acid-

  5. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  6. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  7. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  8. Etude du métabolisme des amines biogènes chez les bactéries lactiques du vin

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin-Jusserand, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    Les amines biogènes sont des composés allergènes, notamment rencontrés dans les produits fermentés tel que le vin. Les bactéries lactiques du vin, dont Oenococcus oeni, le principal acteur de la fermentation malolactique, sont capables de produire ces molécules, à partir de précurseurs azotés. Afin de réduire la teneur en amines biogènes, il est nécessaire de comprendre le rôle de cette production, chez les souches impliquées dans la synthèse de ces métabolites. Le projet européen BiamFood FP...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. A Metal and Base-Free Chemoselective Primary Amination of Boronic Acids Using Cyanamidyl/Arylcyanamidyl Radical as Aminating Species: Synthesis and Mechanistic Studies by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Arfeen, Minhajul; Bharatam, Prasad V; Goswami, Avijit

    2016-06-17

    An efficient, metal and base-free, chemoselective synthesis of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl primary amines from the corresponding boronic acids has been achieved at ambient temperature mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) using cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radicals as the aminating species. The primary amine compounds were initially obtained as their corresponding ammonium trifluoroacetate salts which, on treatment with aq NaOH, provide the free amines. Finally, the primary amines were isolated through column chromatography over silica-gel using hexane-EtOAc solvent system as the eluent. The reactions are sufficiently fast, completing within 1 h. Quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental observations validate that the ipso amination of substituted boronic acids involves the formation of cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radical, followed by regiospecific interaction of its nitrile-N center with boron atom of the boronic acids, leading to chemoselective primary amination. PMID:27182931

  12. Screening of biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from grape musts and wine

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Polo, María Carmen; Jorganes, Felisa; Muñoz, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    The potential to produce the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine and putrescine, was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of various origin, including commercial malolactic starter cultures, type strains and 78 strains isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. The presence of biogenic amines in a decarboxylase synthetic broth was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Tyramine was the main amine formed by the LAB strains investigated. ...

  13. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  14. Cyclic Comonomers for the Synthesis of Carboxylic Acid and Amine Functionalized Poly(l-Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heiny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactic acid are widely used in biomedical applications, however, they lack functional moieties along the polymer backbone that are amenable for functionalization reactions or could be the basis for interactions with biological systems. Here we present a straightforward route for the synthesis of functional α-ω epoxyesters as comonomers for lactide polymerization. Salient features of these highly functionalized epoxides are versatility in functionality and a short synthetic route of less than four steps. The α-ω epoxyesters presented serve as a means to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into poly(lactic acid polymers via ring-opening copolymerization.

  15. Relationship Between Biogenic Amines and Free Amino Acid Contents of Winesand Musts from Alentejo (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Paulo; Cabrita, Maria Joao; Ratola, Nuno; Laureano, Olga; Alves, Arminda

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of biogenic amines and free amino acids was studied in 102 Portuguese wines and 18 musts from Alentejo demarcated (D.O.C.) regions. Most wines were commercial, except for 38 monovarietals obtained by micro vinification. Musts from the varieties used to produce the latter wines were also studied. Both biogenic amines and free amino acids were analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection for their o-phthalaldehyde/fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (OPA/FMOC) deriva...

  16. Rôle des acides aminés dans la production d'amines biogènes chez Oenococcus oeni

    OpenAIRE

    Dandach, Said,

    2013-01-01

    Dans le vin, les amines biogènes sont essentiellement d'origine microbienne, et sont produitesnotamment par les bactéries lactiques Oenococcus oeni, principal agent responsable de lafermentation malolactique, possède de nombreuses auxotrophies vis-à-vis des acides aminés.Aucune étude n'a été menée sur la relation entre l’auxotrophie vis-à-vis d’un acide aminé et leniveau de l’amine correspondante. 80 souches de Oenococcus oeni ont été isolées de vinsrouges. Leurs auxotrophies vis-à-vis d’acid...

  17. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    ), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s.......The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di...... networks, formed by mixing multifunctional carboxylic acids such as citric acid (CA), tricarballylic acid (TCAA), trimesic acid (TMA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DETPA) with two di ff erent Je ff amine polyetheramines (designated as D400 and D2000...

  18. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N2O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N2O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N2O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N2O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  19. New amidines from intramolecular cyclization in triflic acid of nitroketene aminals with a tethered phenyl ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soro Yaya; Bamba Fanté; Siaka Sorho; Coustard Jean-Marie; Adima A Augustin

    2007-05-01

    Nitroketene aminals with a tethered phenyl group underwent an intramolecular cyclization in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid to afford the corresponding N-(3-ethyl-hydrohydroxyiminobenzocycloalkenylidene) methylamine trifluoromethanesulfonate. The yields were fair to good excepted for the starting compound 1-[N-ethyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)amino]-1-methylamino-2-nitroethene.

  20. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  1. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in environmentally benign brine solution using acetyl chloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Basu; Suchandra Chakraborty; Achintya Kumar Sarkar; Chandan Saha

    2013-05-01

    Acetyl chloride is one of the most commonly available and cheap acylating agent but its high reactivity and concomitant instability in water precludes its use to carry out acetylation in aqueous medium. The present methodology illustrates the efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in brine solution by means of acetyl chloride under weakly basic condition in the presence of sodium acetate and/or triethyl amine followed by trituration with aqueous saturated bicarbonate solution. This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the amide derivatives. Mechanistic rationale of this methodology is also important.

  2. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Pereira; Pereira, Ana C.; Pérez Trujillo, Juan P.; Juan Cacho; Marques, José C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step) on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white) were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months) and overheating (70°C, 1 month) conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injecti...

  3. Michael addition of thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroamino acid and dehydropeptide derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Paula M.T.; Maia, Hernâni L. S.; Monteiro, Luís S.; Sacramento, Joana

    2001-01-01

    Michael additions of nitrogen heterocycles, thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroalanine derivatives, including a glycyldehydroalanine peptide, were performed in fair to good yields. Dehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives reacted only with the stronger nucleophiles but in considerably lower yields and often no reaction was observed with the corresponding dehydrophenylalanine derivatives. When a tosyl group was bonded to the nitrogen atom of the dehydroamino acid, in some cases the a...

  4. Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines Evolution during the Estufagem of Fortified Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was focused on the impact of accelerated ageing (heating step on the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of fortified wines. In this sense, three Madeira wines from two commonly used grape varieties (one red and the other white were analysed during the heating, at standard (45°C, 3 months and overheating (70°C, 1 month conditions, following a precolumn derivatization procedure using iodoacetic acid, o-phthaldialdehyde, and 2-mercaptoethanol, carried out in the injection loop prior to RP-HPLC-FLD detection. Eighteen amino acids were identified, with arginine being the most abundant. An important decrease of the amino acid levels was detected during the standard heating (up to 30%, enhanced up to 61% by the temperature increase. Cysteine, histidine, and asparagine revealed the greatest decreases at 45°C. Conversely, some amino acids, such as asparagine, slightly increased. Four biogenic amines were identified but always in trace amounts. Finally, it was observed that the accelerated ageing did not favour the biogenic amine development. The results also indicate that the heating process promotes the amino acid transformation into new ageing products.

  5. A theoretical study of hydrated molecular clusters of amines and dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-08-01

    Amines and carboxylic acids have been recognized as important precursor species in atmospheric new particle formation. In this study, the interaction between dimethylamine and succinic acid is investigated using Basin Paving Monte Carlo (BPMC) sampling with the classical force field to obtain low energy conformers of dimethylamine and succinic acid hydrated molecular clusters. Geometry optimization and frequency calculations are further performed on the basis of the BPMC results using density functional theory. At standard temperature and pressure, dimethylamine binds to succinic acid with a bonding energy of 14.2 kcal mol-1, smaller than that of dimethylamine with sulfuric acid (21.1 kcal mol-1). Hydration promotes proton transfer from succinic acid to dimethylamine and consequently increases the interaction strength, while proton transfer from sulfuric acid to dimethylamine occurs without hydration. On the other hand, the reactivity of sulfuric acid with dimethylamine decreases with the degree of hydration of sulfuric acid. The free energies of formation for hydrated clusters consisting of dimethylamine and succinic acid reveal that the interaction between amines and dicarboxylic acids likely exerts a synergetic effect on atmospheric aerosol nucleation by formation of aminium carboxylate ion pairs.

  6. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  7. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Esmeray Küley; Fatih Özogul; Esra Balikçi; Mustafa Durmus; Deniz Ayas

    2013-01-01

    The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB) on biogenic amines (BA) formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream) IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN) and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05). The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were obser...

  8. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the ma...

  9. Amine substitution into sulfuric acid – ammonia clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kupiainen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of ammonia by dimethylamine in sulfuric acid – ammonia – dimethylamine clusters was studied using a collision and evaporation dynamics model. Quantum chemical formation free energies were computed using B3LYP/CBSB7 for geometries and frequencies and RI-CC2/aug-cc-pV(T+dZ for electronic energies. We first demonstrate the good performance of our method by a comparison with an experimental study investigating base substitution in positively charged clusters, and then continue by simulating base exchange in neutral clusters, which cannot be measured directly. Collisions of a dimethylamine molecule with an ammonia containing positively charged cluster result in the instantaneous evaporation of an ammonia molecule, while the dimethylamine molecule remains in the cluster. According to our simulations, a similar base exchange can take place in neutral clusters, although the overall process is more complicated. Neutral sulfuric acid – ammonia clusters are significantly less stable than their positively charged counterparts, resulting in a competition between cluster evaporation and base exchange.

  10. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, João; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Praplan, Arnaud P; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Henschel, Henning; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kurtén, Theo; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Leppä, Johannes; Loukonen, Ville; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; McGrath, Matthew J; Nieminen, Tuomo; Olenius, Tinja; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Seinfeld, John H; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjo; Virtanen, Annele; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Baltensperger, Urs; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Kirkby, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates ...

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and application of silica supported ionic liquid as catalyst for reductive amination of cyclohexanone with formic acid and triethyl amine as hydrogen source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashif H. Tamboli; Avinash A. Chaugule; Faheem A. Sheikh; Wook-Jin Chung; Hern Kim

    2015-01-01

    A silica supported ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, and thermogravimetric analysis. All these techniques, especially SEM results indicated the presence of well-defined spherical particles having diameters larger than the pristine silica particles, confirming the successful immobilization of the ionic liquid. The prepared silica supported ionic liquid was used in the reductive amination of cyclohexanone under different conditions with different azeo-tropic mixtures of formic acid and triethyl amine as a hydrogen source. The catalyst showed effi-cient catalytic performance and excellent yields of N-cyclohexyl amine derivatives in the range of 58%to 84%at 30 °C. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered by simple filtration and reused for another five cycles without any significant impact on product yields. The obtained catalytic performance indicates that the present catalyst is green, very active, and reusable for the reductive amination of cyclohexanone.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of enantiopure alpha- and beta-amino acids by phenylalanine aminomutase-catalysed amination of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wietzes, Piet; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Feringa, Ben L; Janssen, Dick B

    2009-01-26

    The phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis catalyses the conversion of alpha-phenylalanine to beta-phenylalanine, an important step in the biosynthesis of the N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side-chain of the anticancer drug taxol. Mechanistic studies on PAM have suggested that (E)-cinnamic acid is an intermediate in the mutase reaction and that it can be released from the enzyme's active site. Here we describe a novel synthetic strategy that is based on the finding that ring-substituted (E)-cinnamic acids can serve as a substrate in PAM-catalysed ammonia addition reactions for the biocatalytic production of several important beta-amino acids. The enzyme has a broad substrate range and a high enantioselectivity with cinnamic acid derivatives; this allows the synthesis of several non-natural aromatic alpha- and beta-amino acids in excellent enantiomeric excess (ee >99 %). The internal 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) cofactor is essential for the PAM-catalysed amination reactions. The regioselectivity of amination reactions was influenced by the nature of the ring substituent.

  13. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Polyatomic Molecules - V : Formic Acid and Propyl Amine

    CERN Document Server

    Ram, N Bhargava

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the dissociative electron attachment process in Formic Acid and Propyl Amine. These are molecules containing more than one functional group and have low symmetry (Cs group). We measured the kinetic energy and angular distributions of fragment H^{-} ions from the resonances observed in these molecules and compared with that in the precursor molecules, namely - Water, Ammonia and Methane. Measurements suggest that the dissociation dynamics in bigger molecules are independent of overall symmetry of the molecule, rather depend only on the local symmetry of functional group and bond orientation factors.

  14. Ionic networks derived from the protonation of dendritic amines with carboxylic acid end‐functionalized PEGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel ionic networks linked by the ammonium salts of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers of the first (PPI G1) and second (PPI G2) generation and two short bis carboxymethyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (DiCOOH‐PEG) with different molecular...... weights (Mn ∼ 250 and Mn ∼ 600) are reported. Likewise, an ionic network based on PPI G1 and a long αω‐dicarboxylic acid functionalized PEG (Mn ∼ 4800) were evaluated. Simpler ionic structures based on tris(2‐aminoethyl)amine or hexamethylene diamine and the short DiCOOH‐PEGs are also investigated...

  15. Strong Fluorescent Smart Organogel as a Dual Sensing Material for Volatile Acid and Organic Amine Vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Yao, Boqi; Wang, Panpan; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Zhenqi; Lu, Ran

    2015-11-23

    An L-phenylalanine derivative (C12PhBPCP) consisting of a strong emission fluorophore with benzoxazole and cyano groups is designed and synthesized to realize dual responses to volatile acid and organic amine vapors. The photophysical properties and self-assembly of the said derivative in the gel phase are also studied. C12PhBPCP can gelate organic solvents and self-assemble into 1 D nanofibers in the gels. UV/Vis absorption spectral results show H-aggregate formation during gelation, which indicates strong exciton coupling between fluorophores. Both wet gel and xerogel emit strong green fluorescence because the cyano group suppresses fluorescence quenching in the self-assemblies. Moreover, the xerogel film with strong green fluorescence can be used as a dual chemosensor for quantitative detection of volatile acid and organic amine vapors with fast response times and low detection limits owing to its large surface area and amplified fluorescence quenching. The detection limits are 796 ppt and 25 ppb for gaseous aniline and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), respectively.

  16. ADSORPTION OF TANNIN ACID ONTO AN AMINATED MACROPOROUS RESIN FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A macroporous polymeric adsorbent NG-8 was synthesized with divinylbenzene using conventional suspension polymerization technique. Its aminated product NG-9 was prepared by introducing tertiary amino groups into NG-8 for removal of tannin acid from aqueous solutions. NG-9 could be used directly without a wetting process and had higher adsorption capacity than NG-8, which might be attributed to the enhanced adsorbent-adsorbate interaction due to the tertiary amino groups on the polymeric matrix. The Langmuir equation was successfully employed to describe the adsorption process. The adsorption enthalpy change further validated the uptake of tannin acid on NG-9 to be an enhanced physical adsorption because of the Lewis acid-base interaction. In addition, adsorption kinetic studies testified that the tertiary amino groups on the polymer matrix could decrease the adsorption rate maybe for the hindrance of the tertiary amino groups and water clusters built up.

  17. Graph Machine Based-QSAR Approach for Modeling Thermodynamic Properties of Amines: Application to CO2 Capture in Postcombustion Approche QSAR Graph Machines pour la modélisation des propriétés thermodynamiques des amines : application au captage du CO2 en postcombustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcheron F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amine scrubbing is usually considered as the most efficient technology for CO2 mitigation through postcombustion Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS. However, optimization of the amine structure to improve the solvent properties requires to sample a large number of possible candidates and hence to gather a large amount of experimental data. In this context, the use of QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship statistical modeling is a powerful tool as it performs a mapping of a set of input vectors (i.e. the characteristics or the properties of the molecules under consideration to a set of output vectors (i.e. their targeted properties. In this work, we used a high throughput screening experimental device to measure CO2 solubility data on a set of 46 amine aqueous solutions. Absorption isotherms are represented using a thermodynamic model based on two thermodynamic constants, pKa*  and pKc* , accounting for the main chemical reactions occurring in the liquid phase between amine and CO2. Then, we used a statistical approach named Graph Machines at the same time to cluster the molecules and to model the variation of the acidity constant pKa*  as a function of the molecular structure. The originality of our approach is the use of graphs to represent molecules in multidimensional spaces and simultaneously construct predictive models of their physicochemical properties based on these graphs. This approach is applied in this paper to predict the thermodynamic properties of a set of 5 new molecules. Le procédé d’absorption aux amines est considéré comme la technologie la plus efficace pour limiter les rejets de CO2 dans le cadre du captage en postcombustion puis du stockage du CO2. Cependant, l’optimisation des propriétés du solvant nécessite d’évaluer un grand nombre de candidats potentiels et donc de collecter une quantité importante de propriétés expérimentales. Dans ce contexte, l’utilisation de méthodes de mod

  18. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.

  19. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. PMID:25704705

  20. CATABOLISM OF AROMATIC BIOGENIC AMINES BY 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' PA01 VIA META CLEAVAGE OF HOMOPROTOCATECHUIC ACID (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aruginosa PA01 catabolized the aromatic amines tyramine and octopamine through 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). Meta ring cleavage was mediated by 3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPADO), producing 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymeth...

  1. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  2. Carbohydrate-interactive pDNA and siRNA gene vectors based on boronic acid functionalized poly(amido amine)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piest, Martin; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J

    2013-08-10

    In order to evaluate the influence of incorporation of boronic acid groups on the properties of poly(amido amine)s as gene vectors, a novel poly(amido amine) copolymer p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) containing ortho-aminomethylphenylboronic acid (2AMPBA) moieties was prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of a mixture of 1,4-aminobutanol (ABOL) and 2-((4-aminobutylamino)methyl)phenyl boronic acid to N,N'-cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA). It appeared that the presence of the boronic acid moieties as side groups along the polymer chain strongly enhances the stability of the self-assembled nanoparticles and nanosized polyplexes formed from this polymer; no aggregation was observed after storage for 6days at 37°C. This strong stabilization can be attributed to intermolecular Lewis acid-base interactions between the 2AMPBA groups and the alcohol and amine groups present in the polymer, leading to dynamical (reversible) crosslinking in the nanoparticles. Moreover, since the boronic acids can reversibly form boronic esters with vicinal diol groups, the presence of the 2AMPBA groups add carbohydrate-interactive properties to these polymers that strongly influence their behavior as gene delivery vectors. DNA transfection with p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) polyplexes gave transfection efficiencies that were approximately similar to commercial PEI in different cell lines (COS-7, HUH-6 and H1299-Fluc), but lower than those obtained with reference polyplexes from p(CBA-ABOL). It is hypothesized that the uptake of the boronated polyplexes is suppressed by binding to the glycocalyx of the cells. This is supported by the observation that addition of sorbitol or dextran to the transfection medium significantly enhances the transfection efficiency, which can be attributed to increased cellular uptake of the polyplexes due to boronic ester formation with these agents. AFM, SEM and confocal microscopy showed that polyplexes of p(CBA-ABOL/2AMPBA) become decorated with a dextran layer in the presence of 0.9% (w

  3. N-heterocyclic Amine Derivatives as Efficient Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Acidic Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel heterocyclic amine derivatives, namely N, N'-substituted pyridinyl ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid sodium salt (A) and ethylene diamine N, N'-diacetic acid di (2-methylene tetra hydro furfuryl) acetate (B) were synthesized and their structure confirmations were performed by FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectra. The inhibition effectiveness was evaluated against the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by weight loss and polarization techniques. The results showed that the synthesized derivatives are good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium, their inhibition efficiency, increased with inhibitor concentration, and (A) is slightly more effective than (B). The potentiostatic polarization study showed that (A) and (B) are mixed-type inhibitors in 1 M HCl. These compounds prevent carbon steel from corrosion by adsorption to the steel surface and forming insoluble complexes with ferrous species. The weight loss results and potentiostatic polarization studies were in reasonable agreement. (author)

  4. Cellulose sulphuric acid as a biodegradable catalyst for conversion of aryl amines into azides at room temperature under mild conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Firouzeh Nesmati; Ali Elhampour

    2012-07-01

    This article describes simple and efficient method for the diazotization and azidation of different aromatic amines over cellulose sulphuric acid, sodium nitrite and sodium azide under mild conditions at room temperature. Various aryl amines possessing electron-withdrawing groups or electron-donating groups have been converted into the corresponding aryl azides with 71-99% yields. The use of mild reaction conditions, avoids the use of harmful acids and toxic solvents and short reaction times are advantages of this methodology. The selected catalyst is found to be highly efficient and recyclable.

  5. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeray Küley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB on biogenic amines (BA formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05. The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM, dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L and mackerel (100.84 mg/L IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L in sardine IDB.

  6. Distribution of amines and organic acids in the secondary side of Embalse Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we summarized the distribution of amines and organic acids generated by the thermal decomposition of morpholine in the secondary side of Embalse NPP. Sampling and analytical procedures to determine the concentration of formic, acetic and glycolic acids, morpholine, ammonia, methylamine, ethanolamine and 2(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol are described. Two sets of samples were collected in March 1995 and October 1996 in the following points: main steam line, composite steam generator blowdown, moisture separator, condensate extraction pump discharge and outlet feed pump. The general trend of the product distribution along the secondary side is similar to that reported for other CANDU NPP. In CNE methylamine and ethanolamine are more abundant than 2(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol due to faster decomposition of morpholine and less oxidizing conditions. Ammonia, and methylamine concentrate in the steam because of the lack of a de-aerator. The volatility of ethanolamine is low and its concentration in the steam generator is high. It could help to neutralize acid conditions in crevices and sludges. The concentration of organic acids in CNE is low as compared with other CANDU NPP, with formic acid being the predominant species. Differences in the relative concentrations of morpholine degradation products as compared to other CANDU NPP are discussed. (author)

  7. The effect of H2SO4 - amine clustering on chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Petaja, T.; Smith, J.;

    2011-01-01

    by the CIMS instrument, though the most reliable computational methods employed predict this fraction to be small; on the order of ten percent or less. Third, the amine molecules will evaporate practically immediately after charging, thus evading detection. These effects may need to be taken into account...... chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concentration is around or above a few ppt. Second, some fraction of these acid-amine clusters may not be charged...

  8. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  9. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  10. Brønsted acid cocatalysis in photocatalytic intramolecular coupling of tertiary amines: efficient synthesis of 2-arylindols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoqian; Wu, Xinxin; Dong, Shupeng; Wu, Guibing; Ye, Jinxing

    2016-08-21

    We report herein a highly efficient intramolecular coupling reaction of tertiary amines and ketones (α,β-unsaturated ketones) by using a Brønsted acid as a cocatalyst, affording 2-arylindols in good to excellent yields (up to 92%) under visible light irradiation at room temperature. PMID:27431277

  11. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  12. Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidations of Phthalimide Protected Allylic Amines : A New Catalytic Route to beta(3)-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Baeza Garcia, Alejandro; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of B-3-amino acids is presented. Phthalimide protected allylic amines are oxidized under Wacker conditions selectively to aldehydes using PdCl2 and CuCl or Pd(MeCN)(2)Cl(NO2) and CuCl2 as complementary catalyst systems. The aldehydes are produced in excellent yields an

  13. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  14. Nanoparticle strategies for cancer therapeutics: Nucleic acids, polyamines, bovine serum amine oxidase and iron oxide nanoparticles (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Enzo; Vianello, Fabio; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T J

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology for cancer gene therapy is an emerging field. Nucleic acids, polyamine analogues and cytotoxic products of polyamine oxidation, generated in situ by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, can be developed for nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics with reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy. Nucleic acid-based gene therapy approaches depend on the compaction of DNA/RNA to nanoparticles and polyamine analogues are excellent agents for the condensation of nucleic acids to nanoparticles. Polyamines and amine oxidases are found in higher levels in tumours compared to that of normal tissues. Therefore, the metabolism of polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, can be targets for antineoplastic therapy since these naturally occurring alkylamines are essential for normal mammalian cell growth. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are maintained at a cell type-specific set point through the coordinated and highly regulated interplay between biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism. In particular, polyamine catabolism involves copper-containing amine oxidases. Several studies showed an important role of these enzymes in developmental and disease-related processes in animals through the control of polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment, and environmental and/or cellular stress. The production of toxic aldehydes and reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular, by these oxidases suggests a mechanism by which amine oxidases can be exploited as antineoplastic drug targets. The combination of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) and polyamines prevents tumour growth, particularly well if the enzyme has been conjugated with a biocompatible hydrogel polymer. The findings described herein suggest that enzymatically formed cytotoxic agents activate stress signal transduction pathways, leading to apoptotic cell death. Consequently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles or other

  15. Hydrolysis and rearrangement of phthalamic acid derivatives and assessment of their potential as prodrug forms for amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, H; Steffansen, B

    1990-01-01

    ) and various other N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted phthalamic acid derivatives were examined with the primary aim of assessing their degradation rate at physiological pH. Whereas the compounds I and II were indeed found to be easily degraded in neutral aqueous solutions, the degradation was not due....... It is concluded that phthalamic acid derivatives are too stable chemically and enzymatically to be considered as prodrug forms for primary or secondary amines....

  16. Fatty acid composition and biogenic amines in acidified and fermented fish silage: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Gülsün; Gökdoğan, Saadet; Şimşek, Ayşe; Yuvka, Ilknur; Ergüven, Merve; Kuley Boga, Esmeray

    2016-01-01

    In the presented study, ensiling of discard fish by acidification or fermentation was evaluated. Klunzinger's ponyfish which is a discard fish was used for the production of fish silage by acidification (3% formic acid for Method FA; 1.5% formic and 1.5% sulphuric acid for Method FASA) and fermentation (Lactobacillus plantarum for Method LP and Streptococcus thermophilus for Method ST). The chemical, microbiological and nutritional properties of the differently preserved fish silages were estimated during a storage period of 60 d at ambient temperature. Compared to the raw material, a slight increase in saturated fatty acids and a slight decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all silages. At the end of the storage period, the aerobic bacteria counts after applying Methods FA, FASA, LP and ST amounted to 2.35, 2.39, 5.77 and 5.43 log cfu/g, respectively. The analysis of thiobarbituric acid revealed that acidification of silages accelerated the lipid oxidation. Nine biogenic amines were found in raw fish and different silages. The initial histamine concentration in raw fish was 0.17 mg/100 g and in all silages it remained at low levels during the storage period. The initial tyramine content was found to be 1.56 mg/100 g in raw fish and increased significantly in all silages. The increase of the tyramine content in fermented silages was considerably higher than in acidified silages (23-48 mg/100 g and 5-10 mg/100 g, respectively). It can be concluded that acidified or fermented fish silage should be considered as potential feed component for animals because of its high nutritional value and appropriate microbiological and chemical quality.

  17. Evolution of free amino acids, biogenic amines and n-nitrosoamines throughout ageing in organic fermented beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Wójciak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, interest in uncured meat products has grown and studies were carried out on the use of substances which could replace nitrites, such as acid whey. In spite of this problem in fermented meat products, there is no information regarding the effects of prolonged ageing on the formation of chemi- cal (nitrosoamines, biogenic amines, secondary lipid oxidation products and microbiological (L. monocy- togenes, S. aureus, OLD toxicants in fermented beef marinated with acid whey. The aim of this study was to determine the selected pathogenic bacteria, biogenic amines, N-nitrosamines contents in fermented beef subjected to extended ageing. Material and methods. In this study, selected pathogenic bacteria, N-nitrosamines, biogenic amines, amino acids, TBARS values changes during the ageing of fermented beef marinated with acid whey were analyzed in 0-, 2- and 36-month-old samples. Results. The pH values of fermented beef aged for 2 months (5.68, 5.49 and 5.68 respectively were sig- nificantly lower (p < 0.05 than those obtained after the end of the manufacturing ripening period (5.96, 5.97 and 5.74 respectively, which confirmed the effectiveness of the fermentation process of acidification on beef. The high Lactic Acid Bacteria content (5.64–6.30 log cfu/g confirmed this finding. Histamine was not detected in either of the products. The highest concentration of total biogenic amine (i.e. 1159.0 mg/kg was found in fermented beef marinated with acid whey, whereas a total of only 209.8 mg/kg, was observed in control beef with nitrate and nitrite. N-nitrosamines were not detected in any of the ageing beef samples. Conclusion. In this study, marinating beef in acid whey did not inhibit the production of biogenic amines in the samples analyzed. The high concentration of FAAs, the potential precursor of BA, could lead to intense peptidase activity. The results obtained indicate that biogenic amines are not direct precursors

  18. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chih Chen; Chih-Yang Huang; Shih-Lan Hsu; Eugene Lin; Chien-Te Ku; Ho Lin; Chuan-Mu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation) and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP). Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and ...

  19. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  20. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Aromatic Amine-Epoxidized Sunflower Free Fatty Acid Adducts As Corrosion Inhibitors in Curable Varnishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five aromatic amines [o-, m- and p- Toluidine (o-T, m-T and p-T), p- anizidine (p-A) and p- chloroaniline (p-ClA)] were reacted with epoxidized sunflower free fatty acid (ESFA) under severe conditions of inert atmosphere and high temperature. The produced adducts were characterized physically, chemically and by IR spectroscopic analysis. Acid value and oxiran content of the prepared adducts were determined to confirm the participation of carboxylic groups and epoxy groups respectively in the reaction of ESFA with aromatic amines. The prepared adducts of (o-T-ESFA, m-T-ESFA, p-T-ESFA, p-A-ESFA and p-ClA-ESFA) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in epoxy acrylate oligomer formulations curable by electron beam irradiation. Different concentrations of the prepared aromatic adducts were added in varnish formulations. Physical and mechanical measurements were carried out, in addition to corrosion resistance tests and weight loss of coated steel panels. The efficiency of adducts in varnishes formulation were determined, in which it was found that, the varnish formulations containing the prepared aromatic amine adducts could protect steel from corrosion. Superior corrosion inhibition efficiency was found for the varnish formula containing 0.6% p-A-ESFA adduct. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared aromatic amine in epoxy acrylate oligomer varnishes follows the order: p-A-ESFA > p-T-ESFA > m-T-ESFA > o-T-ESFA > p-ClA-ESFA

  2. ANALYSIS OF FREE AMINO ACIDS AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN THE BULL MUSCULUS THORACIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, changes of pH, free amino acids and biogenic amines during aging of beef Musculus thoracis during maturation were analysed. The parameters were analysed 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after slaughtering. The value of pH was 24 hours after slaughtering 5.6 and 48 hours similar 5.57, following the first week increased (pH 5.89 and decreased after the second week and in the third week reached 6.20 pH. During the 3 weeks ripening of meat, we found statistically significant (P ≤0.01 differences only in spermidine content. Spermine content was significantly increased (P ≤0.05 from 20.05 mg.kg-1 to 48.27 mg.kg-1. Free amino acids histamine not significant increased from 0.04 to 0.86 mg.kg-1, also content of free amino acids ornithine increased from 0.02 to 0.37 mg.kg-1 at the end of ripening. The putrescine content was 24 hours after slaughter 1.11 mg.kg-1 and at 21th day of the experiment was non significantly higher of 9.28 mg.kg-1. Spermidine content significantly (P ≤0.01 increased from 2.04 to 9.91 mg.kg-1 and spermine significantly increased (P ≤0.05 from 20.05 to 48.27 mg.kg-1 on the 21th day of the experiment.

  3. Rapid HPLC analysis of amino acids and biogenic amines in wines during fermentation and evaluation of matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qin; Ye, Dong-Qing; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wu, Guang-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-11-15

    A rapid HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 amino acids, 10 biogenic amines and the ammonium ion in wine. Samples were pre-column derivatised with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and separated using reversed-phase HPLC within 30 min. The matrix effect was evaluated when measuring samples taken from different stages of fermentation. Most compounds showed no obvious matrix effect, whereas proline, ethanolamine and spermine had remarkably different responses to variable concentrations of sugar. High concentrations of sugar affected the pH of the derivatisation reaction system; proline, ethanolamine and spermine derivatives were sensitive to this effect. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of these compounds. Validation of the method showed that it was accurate, reproducible and efficient for the simultaneous determination of amino acids and biogenic amines in wines during fermentation. As a specific application of the method, red wine samples taken from different stages of fermentation were analysed. PMID:24912689

  4. Uranyl ion complexation by citric and citramalic acids in the presence of di-amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranyl nitrate reacts with citric (H4cit) or D-(-)-citramalic (H3citml) acids under mild hydrothermal conditions and in the presence of di-amines to give different complexes which are all characterized by the presence of 2:2 uranyl/poly-carboxylate di-anionic dimers or of polymeric chains based on the same dimeric motif. Each uranium ion is chelated by the two ligands through the alkoxide and the α- or β-carboxylate groups, the second β-carboxylic group in citrate being uncoordinated. The uranium coordination sphere is completed by either a water molecule or the β-carboxylate group of a neighboring unit, thus giving zero- or one-dimensional assemblages, respectively. The evidence for [UO2(Hcit)]2 dimers in the solid state confirms previous results from potentiometric and EXAFS measurements on solutions. Depending on the diamine used (DABCO, 2,2'- and 4,4'-bipyridine, [2.2.2]cryptand) and its ability to form divergent hydrogen bonds or not, different uranyl/poly-carboxylate topologies are obtained, thus evidencing template effects, and extended hydrogen bonding gives two- or three-dimensional assemblages. These results, together with those previously obtained with NaOH as a base, add to the knowledge of the uranyl/citrate system, which is much investigated for its environmental relevance. (author)

  5. Identification of a novel enzymatic activity from lactic acid bacteria able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, S; Sendra, R; Ferrer, S; Pardo, I

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were the search for enzymatic activities responsible for biogenic amine (BA) degradation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from wine, their identification, and the evaluation of their applicability for reducing BAs in wine. Fifty-three percent of the 76 LAB cell extracts showed activity against a mixture of histamine, tyramine, and putrescine when analyzed in-gel. The quantification of the degrading ability for each individual amine was tested in a synthetic medium and wine. Most of the bacteria analyzed were able to degrade the three amines in both conditions. The highest percentages of degradation in wine were those of putrescine: up to 41% diminution in 1 week. Enzymes responsible for amine degradation were isolated and purified from Lactobacillus plantarum J16 and Pediococcus acidilactici CECT 5930 strains and were identified as multicopper oxidases. This is the first report of an efficient BA reduction in wine by LAB. Furthermore, the identity of the enzymes involved has been revealed. PMID:23515835

  6. An efficient way to coupling amine with derivatives of steric N-Boc-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhi Liu; Hao Fang; Wen Fang Xu

    2007-01-01

    An efficient way to coupling amine with the derivatives of steric N-Boc-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid was reported in this paper.We have found that the synthesis of derivatives is problematic with the commonly used DCC/HOBT method. As a substitute, the mixed anhydride method was adopted. A series of 6-(3-nitroguanidino)hexanamidopyrrolidine derivatives were prepared with this method.

  7. Visible-Light-Mediated Synthesis of Amides from Aldehydes and Amines via in Situ Acid Chloride Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naeem; Cho, Eun Jin

    2016-03-01

    An efficient visible-light photocatalysis-based one-pot amide synthesis method was developed; visible-light irradiation of a mixture of an aldehyde, tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide, and N-chlorosuccinimide using a Ru(bpy)3Cl2 photocatalyst afforded an acid chloride, which subsequently reacted with amine to yield the corresponding amide. The reaction was used to synthesize moclobemide and a D3 receptor intermediate. PMID:26836367

  8. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  9. Saponification of esters of chiral alpha-amino acids anchored through their amine function on solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantel, Sonia; Desgranges, Stéphane; Martinez, Jean; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain

    2004-06-01

    Anchoring an alpha-amino acid residue by its amine function onto a solid support is an alternative to develop chemistry on its carboxylic function. This strategy can involve the use of amino-acid esters as precursors of the carboxylic function. A complete study on the Wang-resin was performed to determine the non racemizing saponification conditions of anchored alpha-amino esters. The use of LiOH, NaOH, NaOSi(Me)3, various solvents and temperatures were tested for this reaction. After saponification and cleavage from the support, samples were examined through their Marfey's derivatives by reversed phase HPLC to evaluate the percentage of racemization.

  10. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces DU145 Cell Cycle Arrest through Cdk5 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, the active form of vitamin A, plays an important role in the growth arrest of numerous types of cancer cells. It has been indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 activity can be affected by ATRA treatment. Our previous results demonstrate the involvement of Cdk5 in the fate of prostate cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to examine whether Cdk5 is involved in ATRA-induced growth arrest of the castration-resistant cancer cell line DU145 through up-regulating Cdk inhibitor protein, p27. Methods: DU145 cells were treated with ATRA, and cell proliferation, protein expression, and protein localization of Cdk5/p27 were examined. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were also determined under Cdk5 inhibition induced by inhibitor or knockdown. Results: ATRA treatment inhibited DU145 cell proliferation and significantly increased p27 expression through Cdk5 up-regulation. Immunocytochemical data showed that a Cdk5 inhibitor reduced ATRA-triggered nuclear distribution of p27 in DU145 cells. The proliferation inhibition and G1 phase accumulation of DU145 cells were significantly increased by ATRA treatment, whereas Cdk5 inhibitor and siRNA could reverse these effects. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that ATRA induced growth inhibition in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through activating Cdk5 and p27. We hope this finding will increase the knowledge of prostate cancer treatment and can be applied in patients' nutritional control in the future.

  11. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Gas Loading on Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X52 Carbon Steel in Amine Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, M.; Lalehparvar, M. M.; Ghassemi, A.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of temperature and H2S concentration on amine corrosion of API 5L X52 carbon steel in a CO2-saturated 25 wt.% diethanolamine solution was investigated via electrochemical techniques. It was found that increase in temperature from 25 to 80 °C resulted in severe increase in corrosion rate from 0.88 to 16.24 mpy due to increase in degradation rate of amine. Also, it was concluded that increase in H2S concentration led to increase in corrosion rate because of formation of more heat stable amine salts. The effect of temperature on corrosion rate was more significant than acid gas loading.

  12. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  13. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of free amino acids and biogenic amines in honey and wine samples using in loop orthophthalaldeyde derivatization procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, V.; Pontes, M.; Câmara, J. S.; Marques, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of free amino acids and biogenic amines in liquid food matrices and the results of the application to honey and wine samples obtained from different production processes and geographic origins. The developed methodology is based on a pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde carried out in the sample injection loop. The compounds were separated in a Nova-Pack RP-C18 column (150 mm × 3.9 mm, 4 μm) at 35 °C. The mob...

  15. On the formation of sulphuric acidamine clusters in varying atmospheric conditions and its influence on atmospheric new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is a key component in atmospheric new particle formation. However, sulphuric acid alone does not form stable enough clusters to initiate particle formation in atmospheric conditions. Strong bases, such as amines, have been suggested to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and thus participate in particle formation. We modelled the formation rate of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules (JA2B2 at varying atmospherically relevant conditions with respect to concentrations of sulphuric acid ([H2SO4], dimethylamine ([DMA] and trimethylamine ([TMA], temperature and relative humidity (RH. We also tested how the model results change if we assume that the clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules would act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of organic vapours (other than amines with higher atmospheric concentrations than sulphuric acid. The modelled formation rates JA2B2 were functions of sulphuric acid concentration with close to quadratic dependence, which is in good agreement with atmospheric observations of the connection between the particle formation rate and sulphuric acid concentration. The coefficients KA2B2 connecting the cluster formation rate and sulphuric acid concentrations as JA2B2=KA2B2[H2SO4]2 turned out to depend also on amine concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. We compared the modelled coefficients KA2B2 with the corresponding coefficients calculated from the atmospheric observations (Kobs from environments with varying temperatures and levels of anthropogenic influence. By taking into account the modelled behaviour of JA2B2 as a function of [H2SO4], temperature and RH, the atmospheric particle formation rate was reproduced more closely than with the traditional semi-empirical formulae based on sulphuric acid concentration only. The formation rates of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules with different amine compositions (DMA or TMA or one of both had

  16. Study of the degradation mechanisms of amines used for the capture of CO{sub 2} in industrial fumes; Etude des mecanismes de degradation des amines utilisees pour le captage du CO{sub 2} dans les fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepaumier, H

    2008-10-15

    Global warming leads to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture with solvent is the most advanced technology to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in industrial fumes. A major problem associated with chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} using the benchmark ethanolamine (MEA) is solvent degradation through irreversible side reactions with CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} which leads to numerous harmful impacts to the process: corrosion, solvent loss, foaming, fouling, and viscosity increase. So, developing new amines with higher chemical stability is essential. This work is based on the chemical stability study of 17 different molecules. Their structures have been chosen in order to establish structure-property relationships: alkanolamines, known for gas treatment application (MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP...), di-amines, and tri-amines without alcohol function. Impact of temperature, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} on degradation has been studied. Strong experimental conditions have been used to observe significant degradation after a 15 days experiment. Separation, identification and quantification of degradation products have been performed by using different testing instructions such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ionic chromatography and NMR. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain most of degradation compounds. Radical reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, ring-closure reactions and piperazinones formation) are involved under O{sub 2} pressure whereas CO{sub 2} induces ionic reactions (dealkylation, alkylation, addition, ring-closure reactions and oxazolidinones or imidazolidinones formation). Large discrepancies of stability are noticed among the different amines. Knowledge of degradation products and reaction mechanisms has thus permitted to establish some relationships between structure and chemical stability: for example, role of the amine function (primary, secondary, tertiary), impact of alkyl chain length between the two amino groups and steric

  17. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines.

  18. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations <10mg/L, except putrescine which reached 20.5 ± 10.2mg/L in Cannonau wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines. PMID:25577047

  19. Corrosion inhibition of aminated hydroxyl ethyl cellulose on mild steel in acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; Sairam Sundaram, C

    2016-10-01

    Aminated hydroxyethyl cellulose (AHEC) was synthesized, characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the corrosion inhibition of AHEC on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using chemical and electrochemical studies. Results obtained in weight loss method showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of AHEC. The adsorption of the inhibitor on metal surface followed Frumkin isotherm. Polarization studies revealed that the AHEC inhibits through mixed mode. Thermodynamic parameters and activation energy were calculated and discussed. FTIR and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) confirmed the adsorption of the inhibitor. The surface morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). PMID:27312608

  20. Alteration of amino acid and biogenic amine metabolism in hepatobiliary cancers: Findings from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Floegel, Anne; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; Assi, Nada; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Schmidt, Julie A; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Vineis, Paolo; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-15

    Perturbations in levels of amino acids (AA) and their derivatives are observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, it is unclear whether these alterations precede or are a consequence of the disease, nor whether they pertain to anatomically related cancers of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC), and gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract (GBTC). Circulating standard AA, biogenic amines and hexoses were measured (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ-p180Kit) in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort (147 HCC, 43 IHBC and 134 GBTC cases). Liver function and hepatitis status biomarkers were determined separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95%CI) for log-transformed standardised (mean = 0, SD = 1) serum metabolite levels and relevant ratios in relation to HCC, IHBC or GBTC risk. Fourteen metabolites were significantly associated with HCC risk, of which seven metabolites and four ratios were the strongest predictors in continuous models. Leucine, lysine, glutamine and the ratio of branched chain to aromatic AA (Fischer's ratio) were inversely, while phenylalanine, tyrosine and their ratio, glutamate, glutamate/glutamine ratio, kynurenine and its ratio to tryptophan were positively associated with HCC risk. Confounding by hepatitis status and liver enzyme levels was observed. For the other cancers no significant associations were observed. In conclusion, imbalances of specific AA and biogenic amines may be involved in HCC development. PMID:26238458

  1. The effect of H2SO4 – amine clustering on chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtén, T.; T. Petäjä; Smith,J; Ortega, I.K.; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Vehkamäki, H.; Mauldin, L.; Worsnop, D.R.; M. Kulmala

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines i...

  2. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA): A new organic solid acid for the nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles in the presence of NaNO2 under mild and heterogeneous conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholamabbas Chehardoli; Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Toktam Faal-Rastegar; Shadpour Mallakpour; Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani

    2009-07-01

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  3. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  4. Phosphotungstic acid encapsulated in the mesocages of amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks for catalytic oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Huang, Yuan-Biao; Lin, Zu-Jin; Cao, Rong

    2014-08-21

    Highly dispersed Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40, PTA) encapsulated in the mesocages of amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 has been prepared by an anion-exchange method. PTA anions (PW12O40(3-)) are stabilized in the mesocages via the electrostatic interaction with amino groups of the MIL-101(Cr)-NH2. The obtained catalyst (denoted PTA@MIL-101(Cr)-NH2) exhibits high catalytic activity in the extractive and catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ECODS) system under mild conditions. Moreover, it can be easily recovered and recycled several times without leaching and loss of activity. PMID:24967570

  5. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E

    2016-02-01

    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products. PMID:27308214

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which mi

  7. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: Non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.;

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic...

  8. 2-(Sulfooxy)propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid as novel and versatile catalyst for the formylation of alcohols and amines using ethyl formate under neat conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani; Ziba Akbaripanah

    2012-01-01

    2-(Sulfooxy)propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (supported on silica gel) has been introduced as novel and green catalyst for the formylation of alcohols and amines with ethyl formate,as mild formylation agent,under neat conditions at room temperature.

  9. Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zongyao [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Research Institute of Henan Coal and Chemical Industry Group, Zhengzhou 450046 (China); Li Chunli [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao Chunmei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wu Wei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: hwang@henu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2012-10-15

    With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

  10. Fast and Living Ring-Opening Polymerization of α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydrides Triggered by an "Alliance" of Primary and Secondary Amines at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2015-04-13

    A novel highly efficient strategy, based on an "alliance" of primary and secondary amine initiators, was successfully developed allowing the fast and living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) at room temperature. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  12. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine – H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine – HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  13. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine-H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine-HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  14. Sorption Characteristics of Mixed Molecules of Glutaraldehyde from Water on Mesoporous Acid-Amine Modified Low-Cost Activated Carbon: Mechanism, Isotherm, and Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The environmental discharge of inefficiently treated waste solutions of the strong biocide glutaraldehyde (GA) from hospitals has potential toxic impact on aquatic organisms. The adsorption characteristics of mixed polarized monomeric and polymeric molecules of GA from water on mesoporous acid-amine modified low-cost activated carbon (AC) were investigated. It was found that the adsorption strongly depended on pH and surface chemistry. In acidic pH, the adsorption mechanism was elaborated to ...

  15. Atmospheric amines - Part I. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Amines are emitted by a wide range of sources and are ubiquitous atmospheric organic bases. Approximately 150 amines and about 30 amino acids have been identified in the atmosphere. We review the present knowledge of atmospherically relevant amines with respect to their sources, fluxes, and dynamics including gas-phase reactions, gas-to-particle conversion and deposition. The health effects of aliphatic and aromatic amines are briefly summarized as well as the atmospheric occurrence and reactivity of amino acids and urea.

  16. 2-Phenyl-tetrahydropyrimidine-4(1H-ones – cyclic benzaldehyde aminals as precursors for functionalised β2-amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Nahrwold

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel procedures have been developed to condense benzaldehyde effectively with β-amino acid amides to cyclic benzyl aminals. Double carbamate protection of the heterocycle resulted in fully protected chiral β-alanine derivatives. These serve as universal precursors for the asymmetric synthesis of functionalised β2-amino acids containing acid-labile protected side chains. Diastereoselective alkylation of the tetrahydropyrimidinone is followed by a chemoselective two step degradation of the heterocycle to release the free β2-amino acid. In the course of this study, an L-asparagine derivative was condensed with benzaldehyde and subsequently converted to orthogonally protected (R-β2-homoaspartate.

  17. Synthesis of Racemic Bis[2-(6-fluoro-2-chromanyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-amine Methanesulfonic Acid Salt Using Lithium Aluminum Amide as a Promoter in Regioselective Ring Opening of Epoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu YANG; Nai Xing WANG; Ya Lan XING; Wu Wei WANG; Jia ZHAO; Gui Xia WANG; Shi TANG

    2005-01-01

    Lithium aluminium amide [LiAl(NHR)4] 5 obtained by treating the primary amine 4 with LiAlH4 could promote the ring opening of epoxide 2 and led to high regioselective product of racemic bis[2-(6-fluoro-2-chromanyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amine methanesulfonic acid salt 7.

  18. The effect of H2SO4amine clustering on chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Worsnop, D.R.; Mauldin, L.; Vehkamäki, H.; M. Ehn; Junninen, H.; Sipilä, M.; Ortega, I.K.; Smith,J; T. Petäjä; Kurtén, T.; M. Kulmala

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concen...

  19. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  20. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  1. Microcalorimetric Study on the Oscillating System of Two-phase Reaction of Aqueous Acid with Primary Amine in Chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Hong-Lin; YU,Xiu-Fang; LU,Cheng-Xue; SUN,Si-Xiu; GUO,Guo-Hua; FU,Xun

    2003-01-01

    It has been found that the two-phase reactions of aqueous HCl,HOAc or H3PO4 with primary amine N1923 in chloroform are oscillating reactions. Their power-time curves were measured by the titration microcalorimetric method, and the induction period (tin).The first oscillating period (tp.1) and the second oscillating period(tp.2 ) were determined.The apparent activating parameters and the orders of the oscillating systems were calculated and the following relationships were established: for the oscillating system of hydrochloric acid tin∝c0.147HCIexp(1.35×103/T),.tp.1∝c0.241HCI·exp(4.33×103/T),tp.2∝c0.290HCIexp(5.59×103/T);for the oscillating system of acetic acid, tm∝c0.883HOAcexp(2.32×103/T),tp.1∝c0.399HOAc·exp(4.50×103/T),tp.2∝c0.301HOAcexp(5.88×103/T),for the oscillating system of phosphoric acid, tim∝c1.14H3PO4exp(7.70×104]T),tp.1∝c1.42H3PO4exp(1.14×104/T),tp.2∝c1.47H3PO4exp(1.27×104/T).

  2. Third phase formation in organic solutions in the extraction of mono-acids by tertiary trialcoyl-amines diluted in very slightly polar organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomena of third phase formation which can occur during the extraction of an acid with a tertiary amine diluted in a low polarity diluent are studied. In the first part a system including water (TnOA - C6H12 - HCl - H2O) is compared with an anhydrous system (TnOA - C6H12 - HCl - N2). There are two kinds of gaps. One during amine salification, another one during the extraction of excess acid. The important part of the water content of the organic phase is demonstrated. The presence of water enhances the gaps. The polar water molecules are dissolved inside the tri-octylamine salt micelles. The heavy phase is formed by aggregates, the light phase represents the solubility of the non soluble species in the medium. In the second part are studied the influence of some parameters (like nature of diluent, acid, amine and temperature) on the gaps formation and on the extraction of excess acid and water. In every cases the part played by water remains the same. Finally some comparisons are made between tertiary systems and binary systems which formed them. The binary systems were studied by the mean of crystallization curves. (author)

  3. Amino Acids from Icy Amines: A Radiation-Chemical Approach to Extraterrestrial Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Detections of amino acids in meteorites go back several decades, with at least 100 such compounds being reported for the Murchison meteorite alone. The presence of these extraterrestrial molecules raises questions as to their formation, abundance, thermal stability, racemization, and possible subsequent reactions. Although all of these topics have been studied in laboratories, such work often involves many variables and unknowns. This has led us to seek out model systems with which to uncover reaction products, test chemical predictions, and sited light on underlying reaction mechanisms. This presentation will describe one such study, focusing on amino-acid formation in ices.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SULPHURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ReO4 - BY THE LONG-CHAIN ALIPHATIC TERTIARY AMINES AND ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander G. Kasikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphuric acid concentration on solvent extraction of ReO4- by the long-chain aliphatic tertiary amines and alcohols in a wide range of H2SO4 concentrations in initial solutions is discussed. It has been established that the influence of the sulphuric acid concentration on rhenium solvent extraction is largely due to the extraction process mechanism. In the case of the anion-exchange mechanism, ReO4- is best extracted from weakly acidic solutions, whereas when the hydrate-solvate mechanism takes place – from solutions containing 4-7 mole/l H2SO4.

  5. Effect of sucrose on the generation of free amino acids and biogenic amines in Chinese traditional dry-cured fish during processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinjie; Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Yaqin; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; YE, XINGQIAN

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C ha...

  6. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...... chamber for 7 days at 70 °C and 95% relative humidity. In the case of the PUF binder coated fibres, quantitative XPS measurements showed some significant changes in the atomic composition of the PUF binder coated mineral fibres after ageing, including decreased urea and carbonyl groups concentrations...... of amide, methylene ether and methylene linkages between urea groups present in the PUF binder. In the case of the alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres, both XPS and ToF-SIMS techniques consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of the alkanol...

  7. Optimization design of mixed amine method for removal of acid gas process%混合胺法脱酸工艺的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志祥

    2016-01-01

    利用混合胺法脱除天然气中的酸性气体,投资少、能耗低、CO2净化度高,脱除效果显著。%This paper,we propose use mixed amine method to remove acid gas from natural gas. This method has less investment,low energy consumption,high purification degree of CO2,and removal effect is remarkable.

  8. Four-component synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives from N-isocyaniminotriphenylphosphorane, aromatic carboxylic acids, aromatic bis-aldehydes, and secondary amines

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazani, Ali; Karimi, Zahra; SOULDOZI, Ali; AHMADI, Yavar

    2012-01-01

    The 1:1 iminium intermediate generated by the addition of a secondary amine to aromatic bis-aldehydes (isophthalaldehyde and terphthalaldehyde) is trapped by the N-isocyaniminotriphenylphosphorane in the presence of a aromatic carboxylic acid derivative, which leads to the formation of corresponding iminophosphorane intermediate. Then disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives are formed via intramolecular aza-Wittig reaction of the iminophosphorane intermediates. The reactions were ...

  9. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-08-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of Un

  10. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method

  11. Hypergolic Burning of Formylidene and Furfurylidene amines with Red Fuming Nitric Acid as Oxidizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Panda

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available Six p-formylidene and six p-furfurylideneamines were synthesized and their ignition delay with red fuming nitric acid (RFNA were measured by cup test method using a high speed camera. Structure - hypergolicity correlation revealed that a p-methyl group inhibits hypergolicity whereas a p-methoxy group accelerates it. Similarly oxidizable non-conjugated benzene rings increase hypergolicity whereas conjugated benzene rings decrease it. On compacting, the p-formylidene anisidine was found to be hypergolic with an ignition delay less than 100 milliseconds.

  12. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Patrick V; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-09-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA(+)) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA(+) nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA(+) relies on the capability of the conjugated HA(+) to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA(+)-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.

  13. Physique statistique du repliement et de la dénaturation des acides nucléiques

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    L'étude de nombreux processus biologiques et nanotechnologiques requièrent une bonne compréhension du repliement et de la dénaturation des acides nucléiques. Les travaux décrits dans cette thèse portent principalement sur le développement et l'utilisation de modèles thermodynamiques de ces mécanismes. Nous avons tout d'abord mis en place un formalisme unifié du modèle de Poland-Scheraga qui permet de décrire la dénaturation thermique de l'ADN quelque soit la taille des molécules considérées, ...

  14. Inhibiting properties and adsorption of an amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel in aqueous carbon dioxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchweishaija, Joseph

    1997-12-31

    Carbon dioxide corrosion is a major corrosion problem in oil and gas production systems and many organic inhibitors have been tested and used to protect the substrate from corrosion. This thesis studies the mechanism of interaction of the inhibitor molecule with the metallic substrate and how this affects the dissolution rate of the metal. The performance of a commercial amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor has been investigated using rotating cylinder electrodes and carbon steel electrodes in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water in the temperature range between 35 to 80{sup o}C. The corrosion process was monitored by electrochemical impedance measurements, and at the end of each experiment full polarization curves were recorded. When the inhibitor was applied on noncorroded electrodes, high inhibitor performance, over 99.7%, was observed independent of temperature. On precorroded electrodes inhibitor performance was found to depend on temperature and time of precorrosion. Above 60{sup o}C, the inhibitor performance decreased with increasing time of precorrosion, presumably because of the formation of a corrosion film of either iron carbonate or a combination of iron carbonate and iron carbide which prevent the inhibitor from reaching the surface. The inhibitor protection efficiency was assumed to be associated with the degree of inhibitor coverage at the material surface, and adsorption isotherms have been calculated in the concentration range between 0.1 ppm and 100 ppm. A Langmuir isotherm was found to give the best fit. The inhibitor performance on a 2 days precorroded rotating electrode was investigated at different solution pH ranging between 4.5 and 6.5 at 35{sup o}C. 130 refs., 80 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Influence of packaging conditions on biogenic amines and fatty acids evolution during 15months storage of a typical spreadable salami ('Nduja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Bonesi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Picci, Nevio; Restuccia, Donatella

    2016-12-15

    The study evaluated the fatty acids and the biogenic amines (BAs) in 'Nduja of Spilinga stored in different packaging materials (i.e. natural casing under vacuum, glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®) during 15months of shelf-life. Raw materials and pepper mixture were analysed as well. BAs concentrations increased with time, tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) were the most abundant. BAs in natural casing were always higher than those found in glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®. Total fatty acids were characterized by higher level of unsaturated fatty acid that decreased with time (glass jar>natural casing under vacuum>aluminum tube>OVTENE®). The reduction of PUFA is the consequence of the increase of peroxides and carbonyls reacting with amino acids to form BAs. This was confirmed by Pearson's correlation matrices implying that lipid oxidation processes were in some way linked to the chemical production of BAs. PMID:27451162

  16. Sorption Characteristics of Mixed Molecules of Glutaraldehyde from Water on Mesoporous Acid-Amine Modified Low-Cost Activated Carbon: Mechanism, Isotherm, and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukosha Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental discharge of inefficiently treated waste solutions of the strong biocide glutaraldehyde (GA from hospitals has potential toxic impact on aquatic organisms. The adsorption characteristics of mixed polarized monomeric and polymeric molecules of GA from water on mesoporous acid-amine modified low-cost activated carbon (AC were investigated. It was found that the adsorption strongly depended on pH and surface chemistry. In acidic pH, the adsorption mechanism was elaborated to involve chemical sorption of mainly hydroxyl GA monomeric molecules on acidic surface groups, while in alkaline pH, the adsorption was elaborated to involve both chemical and physical sorption of GA polymeric forms having mixed functional groups (aldehyde, carboxyl, and hydroxyl on acidic and amine surface groups. The optimum pH of adsorption was about 12 with significant contribution by cooperative adsorption, elucidated in terms of hydrogen bonding and aldol condensation. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted to isotherm data. The adsorption kinetics was dependent on initial concentration and temperature and described by the Elovich model. The adsorption was endothermic, while the intraparticle diffusion model suggested significant contribution by film diffusion. The developed low-cost AC could be used to supplement the GA alkaline deactivation process for efficient removal of residual GA aquatic toxicity.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF CONDENSATION POLYMERS OF SALICYLIC ACID, FORMALDEHYDE AND ALKYL PRIMARY AMINES AND ITS APPLICATION AS A CATALYST FOR THE HYDROLYSIS OF p-NITROPHENYL ACETATE (PNPA) IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Binglin(Ho Pinglum); HUANG Wenqiang

    1983-01-01

    As a model of serine hydrolase, the condensation polymers of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and methyl amine, n-propyl amine, n-hexyl amine or n-lauryl amine were prepared by polycondensation catalyzed by sulfuric acid. It was confirmed by potentiometric titration and infrared spectrum that the polymers containing tertiary amino group possess the structure which resembles the internal salt of amino acid in weak basic and weak acidic solution:[-OOC-OH-CH2-H+N-R-CH2-]n R=alkyl group The catalytic reaction of the above polymers for hydrolysis of active ester,p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA),was studied .It was found kinetically that the most efficient catalytic effect of polymer was composed of two salicylic acid groups and one tertiary amino group in the polymer chain.The rates of hydrolysis of PNPA increase with increasing of pH values and length of the alkyl group in the side chain of the polymers and the effect of the conformation of the polymer containing tertiary amino group in the buffer solution on the catalytic activity was also investigated. Hydrolysis of PNPA catalyzed by the polymer made of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and n-lauryl amine follows the simple Michaelis-Menten type mechanism . The kinetics parameters were determined as :Km 6.7×10-5 M and Vmax 2.07×10-7 M·min-1.

  18. Excited state electron distribution and role of the terminal amine in acidic and basic tryptophan dipeptide fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Azaria S.; Nathan, Moshe; Juszczak, Laura J.

    2016-08-01

    The results of quantum yield (QY) study of tryptophanyl glutamate (Trp-Glu), tryptophanyl lysine (Trp-Lys) and lysinyl tryptophan (Lys-Trp) dipeptides over the pH range, 1.5-13, show that the charge state of the N-terminal amine, and not the nominal molecular charge determines the QY. When the terminal amine is protonated, QY is low (10-2) for all three dipeptides. As the terminal amine cation is found proximal to the indole ring in Trp-Glu and Trp-Lys conformers but not in those for Lys-Trp, its effect may lie only in the partitioning of energy between nonradiative processes, not on QY reduction. QY is also low when both the N-terminal amine and indole amine are deprotonated. These two low QY states can be distinguished by fluorescence lifetime measurement. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the Chi 1 conformers persist for tens of nanoseconds such that 100-101 ns lifetimes may be associated with individual Chi 1 conformers. The ground state electron density or isosurface of high QY (0.30) 3-methyindole has a uniform electron density over the indole ring as do the higher QY Trp dipeptide conformers. This validates the association of ground state isosurfaces with QY. Excited state orbitals from calculated high intensity, low energy absorption transitions are typically centered over the indole ring for higher QY dipeptide species and off the ring in lower QY species. Thus excited state orbitals substantiate the earlier finding that the ground state isosurface charge density pattern on the indole ring can be predictive of QY.

  19. X-ray crystallographic, FT-IR and NMR studies as well as anticancer and antibacterial activity of the salt formed between ionophore antibiotic Lasalocid acid and amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczyński, Adam; Rutkowski, Jacek; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Stefańska, Joanna; Maj, Ewa; Ratajczak-Sitarz, Małgorzata; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Bartl, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Two new complexes of the ionophore antibiotic Lasalocid acid (LAS) with phenylamine (PhA) and butylamine (BuA) were synthesized and their molecular structures were studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. In the solid state both amines are protonated and all NH3+ protons are hydrogen bonded to etheric, hydroxyl and carboxylic oxygen atoms of the LAS anion. In chloroform solutions the structure observed in the crystal of LAS-BuA complex is preserved and an equilibrium between the LAS-PhA complex and dissociated Lasalocid acid and phenylamine is observed. In vitro antimicrobial tests of the complexes showed a significant activity towards some strains of Gram-positive bacteria. For the first time Lasalocid acid and its complexes with amines were tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines: A-549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), HT-29 (colon) and mouse cancer cell line P-388 (leukemia). We found that LAS and its complexes are strong cytotoxic agents towards all tested cell lines. The cytostatic activity of the compounds studied is greater than that of cisplatin, indicating that Lasalocid and its complexes are promising candidates for new anticancer drugs.

  20. Biogenic amines in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Fernández García, María

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds with biological activity, mainly formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids. BA are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can accumulate in high concentrations. In some cheeses more than 1000 mg of BA have been detected per kilogram of cheese. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding the BA c...

  1. HPLC Determination of the Major Non-protein Amino Acids and Common Biogenic Amines in Lathyrus sativus Using a Novel Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Yi YAN; Cheng Jin JIAO; Feng Min LI; Yong Min LIANG; Zhi Xiao LI

    2005-01-01

    An assay is presented for simultaneously determining 5 biogenic amines and the major non-protein amino acids: the toxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropanoic acid (β-ODAP), its isomer α-ODAP and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus extracts using the HPLC system after derivatization with para-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl chloride (PNZ-C1). However, it is more worthy of noting that this paper also describes a new extraction method using 0.2 mol/L HC1O4. The new method has some advantages: shorter extraction-time, simultaneous extraction of free amino acids and polyamines, better inhibiting the isomerization of β-ODAP to α-ODAP, and so on.

  2. Direct high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of an aromatic amine and four aminoalcohols using polysaccharide chiral stationary phases and acidic additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamese, Salvatore; Bianca, Salvatore; Carter, Guy T

    2007-08-01

    The HPLC enantiomeric separation of N-benzyl-alpha-methyl-benzylamine, phenylalaninol, tryptophanol, 2 (diphenylhydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine, and isoproterenol was accomplished in the normal-phase mode using two polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and various n-hexane/2-propanol mobile phases with acidic (TFA) or basic (DEA) additive. The compounds were separated without any derivatization and separation factor range between 2.09 and 1.09 with resolution factor 3.4 and 0.4, respectively. The best separation of the enantiomers of the amine was achieved on amylose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP with TFA additive in the mobile phase; in acidic conditions, instead, the best enantioseparation of the aminoalcohols was achieved on cellulose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenilcarbamate). A long equilibration time of the CSP when switching from an undoped mobile phase to a doped one is required to obtain reproducible results. PMID:17568428

  3. Oxidation of alkanes with m-chloroperbenzoic acid catalyzed by iron(III) chloride and a polydentate amine

    OpenAIRE

    Shul’pin, Georgiy B.; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Mandelli, Dalmo; Kozlov, Yuriy N.; Tesouro Vallina, Ana; Woitiski, Camile B.; Jimenez, Ricardo S.; Carvalho, Wagner A.

    2009-01-01

    Tetradentate amine N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethylene)-1,4-diaminodiphenyl ether (compound 1) dramatically accelerates the oxidation of alkanes with MCPBA in acetonitrile catalyzed by FeCl3, whereas N,N′-bis(2-pyrrolidinmethylene)-1,4-diaminodiphenyl ether (2) does not affect the reaction. The selectivity of the reaction in the presence of 1 is noticeably higher than that in its absence. On the basis of the kinetic study and selectivity parameters a mechanism has been proposed which includes the for...

  4. COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuA01)of Arabidopsis thaliana Contributes to Abscisic Acid-and Polyamine-Induced Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis and Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinukshi Wimalasekera; Corina Villar; Tahmina Begum; Günther F. E. Scherer

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines (PA), polyamine oxidases, copper amine oxidases, and nitric oxide (NO)play important roles in physiology and stress responses in plants. NO biosynthesis as a result of catabolism of PA by polyamine oxidases and copper amine oxidases may explain in part PA-mediated responses. Involvement of a copper amine oxidase gene, COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuA01), of Arabidopsis was tested for its role in stress responses using the knockouts cuaol.1 and cuaol-2. PA-induced and ABA-induced NO production investigated by fluorometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 are impaired in NO production, suggesting a function of CuAO1 in PA and ABA-mediated NO production. Furthermore, we found a PA-dependent increase in protein S-nitrosylation. The addition of PA and ABA also resulted in HO increases, cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 showed less sensitivity to exogenous ABA supplementation during ger-mination, seedling establishment, and root growth inhibition as compared to wild-type. In response to ABA treatment,expression levels of the stress-responsive genes RD29A and ADH1 were significantly lower in the knockouts. These obser-vations characterize cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 as ABA-insensitive mutants. Taken together, our findings extend the ABA signal transduction network to include CuAO1 as one potential contributor to enhanced NO production by ABA.

  5. Precolumn derivatization reagents for high-speed analysis of amines and amino acids in biological fluid using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Kazutaka; Oonuki, Takashi; Yahashi, Akihisa; Hirayama, Kazuo; Miyano, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    A rapid analytical method for amines and amino acids was developed, involving derivatization with the novel reagent 3-aminopyridyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (APDS), followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). More than 100 different analytes with amino groups, including amino acids in biological fluids such as mammalian plasma, could be measured within 10 min. The analytes were easily derivatized with APDS under the mild conditions. Selective reaction monitoring of ESI-MS/MS in positive mode was carried out to include the transitions of all of the protonated molecular ions of analytes derivatized with APDS to the common fragment at m/z 121, which was derived from the amino pyridyl moiety of the reagent. We evaluated the retention time precision, the quantification limits, the linearity, the intra- and inter-day precisions and the accuracy of 22 typical amino acids found in biological fluids, by analyzing a standard amino acid mixture and rat plasma. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention times of the 22 amino acids and their internal standards were within 0.9% and the inter-day RSDs were less than 1.1%, except for asparagines, with an RSD of 1.9%. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs of amino acid analyses in rat plasma were within 8.0% and 4.5%, respectively. The method, which facilitates the amino acid analysis of more than 100 samples in a day, represents an alternative to traditional amino acid analysis techniques, such as chromatography using postcolumn derivatization by ninhydrin. PMID:19350529

  6. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  7. Acetic acid recovery from fast pyrolysis oil. An exploratory study on liquid-liquid reactive extraction using aliphatic tertiary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F. H.; van Geel, F. P.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis oil or Bio-oil (BO), obtained by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, is very acidic in nature. The major component responsible for this acidity is acetic acid, present in levels up to 2-10 wt%. Here, we report an exploratory study on BO upgrading by reactive extraction of ace

  8. Phenylboronic Acid Solid Phase Extraction Cleanup and Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Florfenicol Amine in Fish Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Della Wai-Mei; Ho, Clare; Wong, Yiu-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Florfenicol (FFC) residues in foods are regulated as the sum of florfenicol and its metabolites measured as florfenicol amine (FFA). An isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method utilizing phenylboronic acid (PBA) SPE cleanup is established for the accurate determination of FFA in fish muscles (i.e., salmon and tilapia) after acid catalyzed hydrolysis. Comparisons of the PBA SPE cleanup procedure with other cleanup procedures such as mixed-mode cationic (MCX) SPE and solid supported liquid-liquid extraction were performed. Quantification of FFA in fish muscles was accomplished by using matrix-matched calibration with FFA-D3 as the internal standard. The method was validated with FFA fortified fish muscles at three different levels (50, 100, and 200 μg/kg). Conversion of FFC to FFA by acid catalyzed hydrolysis was evaluated and found to be ≥88%. The recoveries of FFA in fish muscles at the three fortification levels ranged from 89 to 106%, and RSDs were ≤9% in all cases. The LOD values in salmon and tilapia muscles were 0.13 and 1.64 μg/kg, respectively. The LOQ values in salmon and tilapia muscles were 0.29 and 4.13 μg/kg, respectively. This method is suitable for the application in routine control of FFC in fishes according to its residue definition.

  9. Substitution of glutamine for lysine at the pyridoxal phosphate binding site of bacterial D-amino acid transaminase. Effects of exogenous amines on the slow formation of intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaki, S; Ueno, H; Martinez del Pozo, A; Pospischil, M A; Manning, J M; Ringe, D; Stoddard, B; Tanizawa, K; Yoshimura, T; Soda, K

    1990-12-25

    In bacterial D-amino acid transaminase, Lys-145, which binds the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in Schiff base linkage, was changed to Gln-145 by site-directed mutagenesis (K145Q). The mutant enzyme had 0.015% the activity of the wild-type enzyme and was capable of forming a Schiff base with D-alanine; this external aldimine was formed over a period of minutes depending upon the D-alanine concentration. The transformation of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form (i.e. the half-reaction of transamination) occurred over a period of hours with this mutant enzyme. Thus, information on these two steps in the reaction and on the factors that influence them can readily be obtained with this mutant enzyme. In contrast, these reactions with the wild-type enzyme occur at much faster rates and are not easily studied separately. The mutant enzyme shows distinct preference for D- over L-alanine as substrates but it does so about 50-fold less effectively than the wild-type enzyme. Thus, Lys-145 probably acts in concert with the coenzyme and other functional side chain(s) to lead to efficient and stereochemically precise transamination in the wild-type enzyme. The addition of exogenous amines, ethanolamine or methyl amine, increased the rate of external aldimine formation with D-alanine and the mutant enzyme but the subsequent transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme was unaffected by exogenous amines. The wild-type enzyme displayed a large negative trough in the circular dichroic spectrum at 420 nm, which was practically absent in the mutant enzyme. However, addition of D-alanine to the mutant enzyme generated this negative Cotton effect (due to formation of the external aldimine with D-alanine). This circular dichroism band gradually collapsed in parallel with the transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate enzyme. Further studies on this mutant enzyme, which displays the characteristics of the wild

  10. Simultaneous efficient adsorption of Pb2+ and MnO4- ions by MCM-41 functionalized with amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Hong, Mingzhu; You, Weijie; Li, Chong; Yu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    A novel adsorbent NH2/MCM-41/NTAA, capable of simultaneous adsorption of cations and anions from aqueous solution, was prepared by immobilization of amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride (NTAA) onto MCM-41. The structures and properties before and after surface modification were systematically investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). They together confirm that the amine and NTAA group were chemically bonded to the internal surface of the mesoporous. The NH2/MCM-41/NTAA were used to adsorb Pb2+ and MnO4- in an aqueous solution in a batch system, and the maximum adsorption efficiency was found to occur at pH 5.0 and 3.0, respectively. NH2/MCM-41/NTAA exhibit preferable removal of Pb2+ through electrostatic interactions and chelation, whereas it captures MnO4- by means of electrostatic interactions. The experimental data are fitted the Langmuir isotherm model reasonably well, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g for Pb2+ and of 156 mg/g for MnO4-. The adsorption rates of both Pb2+ and MnO4- are found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetics. Furthermore, the NH2/MCM-41/NTAA adsorbent performs good recyclability and reusability for 5 cycles use. This study indicates a potential applicability of NH2/MCM-41/NTAA as new absorbents for effective simultaneous adsorption of hazardous metal ions and anions from wastewater.

  11. Role of Amine Functionality for CO2 Chemisorption on Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Maximilian W; Jelic, Jelena; Berger, Edith; Reuter, Karsten; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of CO2 adsorption on primary, secondary, and bibasic aminosilanes synthetically functionalized in porous SiO2 was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by a combination of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and quantum mechanical modeling. The mode of CO2 adsorption depends particularly on the nature of the amine group and the spacing between the aminosilanes. Primary amines bonded CO2 preferentially through the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates, whereas CO2 was predominantly stabilized as carbamic acid, when interacting with secondary amines. Ammonium carbamate formation requires the transfer of the carbamic acid proton to a second primary amine group to form the ammonium ion and hence two (primary) amine groups are required to bind one CO2 molecule. The higher base strength of secondary amines enables the stabilization of carbamic acid, which is thereby hindered to interact further with nearby amine functions, because their association with Si-OH groups (either protonation or hydrogen bonding) does not allow further stabilization of carbamic acid as carbamate. Steric hindrance of the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates leads to higher uptake capacities for secondary amines functionalized in porous SiO2 at higher amine densities. In aminosilanes possessing a primary and a secondary amine group, the secondary amine group tends to be protonated by Si-OH groups and therefore does not substantially interact with CO2. PMID:26700549

  12. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  13. Filtrates & Residues. Acid Pickling with Amines: An Experiment in Applied Chemistry for High School or Freshman Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Steven G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the process of the removal of corrosion and millscale from the surfaces of ferrous metals by acid pickling. It suggests an experiment to illustrate this process including the procedure and a discussion of the results. (CW)

  14. Alteration of amino acid and biogenic amine metabolism in hepatobiliary cancers : Findings from a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Floegel, Anne; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; Assi, Nada; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Vineis, Paolo; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in levels of amino acids (AA) and their derivatives are observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, it is unclear whether these alterations precede or are a consequence of the disease, nor whether they pertain to anatomically related cancers of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC), a

  15. Combining Amine-Reactive Cross-Linkers and Photo-Reactive Amino Acids for 3D-Structure Analysis of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lössl, Philip; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the combination of chemical cross-linking and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has matured into an alternative approach for analyzing 3D-structures of proteins and protein complexes. Using the distance constraints imposed by the cross-links, models of the protein or protein complex under investigation can be created. The majority of cross-linking studies are currently conducted with homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linkers. We extend this "traditional" cross-linking/MS strategy by adding complementary photo-cross-linking data. For this, the diazirine-containing unnatural amino acids photo-leucine and photo-methionine are incorporated into the proteins and cross-link formation is induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of the photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. We consider the strategy of combining cross-linkers with orthogonal reactivities and distances to be ideally suited for maximizing the amount of structural information that can be gained from a cross-linking experiment.

  16. Relative quantification of enantiomers of chiral amines by high-throughput LC–ESI-MS/MS using isotopic variants of light and heavy L-pyroglutamic acids as the derivatization reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Development of chiral labeling reagent for a pair of amine enantiomers. ► High-throughput analysis of diastereomers by UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. ► Highly efficient separation and detection of the enantiomers. ► Differential analysis of enantiomer ratio in different sample groups using light and heavy labeling reagents. -- Abstract: L-Pyroglutamic acid (L-PGA) was evaluated as a chiral labeling reagent for the enantioseparation of chiral amines in terms of separation efficiency by reversed-phase chromatography and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS/MS. Several amines and amino acid methyl esters were used as typical representatives of the chiral amines. Both enantiomers of the chiral amines were easily labeled with L-PGAs at room temperature for 60 min in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide and 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole as the activation reagents. The resulting diastereomers were completely separated by reversed-phase chromatography using the small particle (1.7 μm) ODS column (Rs = 1.6–6.8). A highly sensitive detection at a low-fmol level (1–4 fmol) was also obtained from the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms. Therefore, a high-throughput determination was achieved by the present UPLC–ESI-MS/MS method. An isotope labeling strategy using light and heavy L-PGAs for the differential analysis of chiral amines in different sample groups was also proposed in this paper. As a model study, the differential analysis of the R and S ratio of 1-phenylethylamine (PEA) was performed according to the proposed procedure using light and heavy reagents, i.e., L-PGA and L-PGA-d5. The R/S ratio of PEA, spiked at the different concentrations in rat plasma, was almost similar to the theoretical values. Consequently, the proposed strategy using light and heavy chiral labeling reagents seems to be applicable for the differential analysis of chiral amine enantiomers in different sample groups, such as healthy persons and disease

  17. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on amine-functionalized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihong; Qiu, Lingna; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Mengyuan; Zhang, Hongyi

    2015-08-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on amine-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was developed for the determination of six phenolic acids in vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amine-functionalized Fe3O4 was synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal reaction between Fe3O4 and 1,6-hexanediamine and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. A trace amount of phosphate buffer solution (extractant) was adsorbed on bare Fe3O4-NH2 nanoparticles by hydrophilic interaction to form the "magnetic extractant". Rapid extraction could be achieved while the "magnetic extractant" on amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles was dispersed in the sample solution by vortexing. After extraction, the "magnetic extractant" was collected by application of an external magnet. Some important parameters, such as pH and volume of extraction and desorption solvents, the extraction and desorption time needed were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory extraction recoveries were obtained for the six phenolic acids in the range of 84.2-106.3%. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6.3 and 10.0%, respectively. Finally, the established method was successfully applied for the determination of six phenolic acids in eight kinds of vegetable oils.

  18. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Pierina eVisciano; Maria eSchirone; Rosanna eTofalo; Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some foo...

  19. La teneur en acides gras polyinsaturés du lait maternel : un marqueur biologique fiable du niveau de consommation des populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guesnet Philippe; Combe Nicole; Ailhaud Gérard; Alessandri Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3 ; ALA), the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 long-chain PUFA. LA and LNA contents in human milk reflect differences in dietary fats consumed by the mothers, including those consumed during several months (long term impac...

  20. Screening Procedure for Biogenic Amine-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Enterobacteria in Traditional Chinese Sausage%传统香肠中产生物胺肠细菌和乳酸菌分离方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士玲; 李开雄; 徐幸莲; 李蕊婷; 马宇霞; 李宝坤

    2012-01-01

    A new method of monolayer cultivation coupled with double-layer color development was established. 96 strains of biogenic amines-producing lactic acid bacteria and 58 strains of biogenic amines-producing Enterobacteria were obtained. The 154 strains of biogenic amines-producing bacteria belonged to 5 species according to the results of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel eleetrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. After sequencing of PCR- products of 16S rDNA fragments and alignment in Genebank, the 5 strains of biogenic amines-producing bacteria were found to be Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter aero- genes. The presence of Biogenic amines-producing gene was demonstrated by special primers.%研究建立了单层培养,双层显色分离产生物胺肠细菌和乳酸菌的方法,并分离到96株产生物胺肠细菌和58株产生物胺乳酸菌。经变性凝胶梯度电泳分析(PCR—DGGE)和PCR扩增测序后与Genebank数据库比对得知,这154株产胺菌属于5种菌,分别为屎肠球菌、粪肠球菌、阴沟肠杆菌、大肠埃希杆菌和产气肠杆菌。并采用特异性引物证明了产生物胺基因的存在。

  1. A comparative study of three ternary complexes prepared in different mixing orders of siRNA/redox-responsive hyperbranched poly (amido amine/hyaluronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Jun Chen,1 Zhi-Xia Zhao,1 Jian-Cheng Wang,1 En-Yu Zhao,1 Ling-Yan Gao,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Xiao-Yan Liu,1 Wan-Liang Lu,1 Qiang Zhang11State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: In this study, a novel redox-responsive hyperbranched poly(amido amine (named PCD was synthesized and used as a cationic polymer to form a ternary complex with small interfering RNA (siRNA and hyaluronic acid (HA for siRNA delivery. Here, it is hypothesized that different mixing orders result in different assembly structures, which may affect the siRNA delivery efficiency. To investigate the effects of mixing orders on siRNA delivery efficiency in two human breast cancer cell lines, three ternary complexes with different mixing orders of siRNA/PCD/HA were prepared and characterized: mixing order I (initially prepared siRNA/PCD binary complex further coated by negatively charged HA, mixing order II (initially prepared HA/PCD binary complex further incubated with siRNA, and mixing order III (initially prepared siRNA/HA mixture further electrostatically compacted by positively charged PCD. With an optimized siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of these ternary complexes were 124.8 nm and 27.3 mV (mixing order I, 147.5 nm and 29.9 mV (mixing order II, and 128.8 nm and 19.4 mV (mixing order III. Also, the effects on stability, cellular uptake, and gene silencing efficiency of siRNA formulated in ternary complexes with different mixing orders were investigated. The results showed that mixing orders I and III displayed better siRNA transfection and protection than mixing order II in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. More interesting, at the siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the

  2. La teneur en acides gras polyinsaturés du lait maternel : un marqueur biologique fiable du niveau de consommation des populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guesnet Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3 ; ALA, the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 long-chain PUFA. LA and LNA contents in human milk reflect differences in dietary fats consumed by the mothers, including those consumed during several months (long term impact. The composition of breast milk from this point of view is a reliable biological marker of the level of habitual consumption of PUFAs in different populations. An increase of LA content for the 1950-1990 period, without any change of LNA content, has been reported in breast milk of women living in western countries, reflecting changes in LA intake by the mother.

  3. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo; Synthese de l'acide cysteique et de la taurine a partir du sulfate dans l'oeuf embryonne de poule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author) [French] On a montre que la formation de taurine a partir de sulfate dans I'oeuf embryonne de poule, etudiee a l'aide des radioisotopes, du soufre, du carbone et de l'hydrogene, correspond aux reactions suivantes: 1) reduction du sulfate en sulfite; 2) fixation du sulfite sur une chaine tricarbonee et aminee provenant de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine, fixation conduisant a la formation d'acide L-cysteique; 3) decarboxylation de l'acide L-cysteique. La reaction (1) a lieu uniquement dans les cellules de l'endoderme du sac vitellin; la reaction (2) dans les memes cellules et dans le vitellus; la reaction (3) est plus generale, elle est localisee dans le sac vitellin, dans le vitellus et dans les tissus de l'embryon. L'enzyme qui catalyse la reaction (2) a ete purifie; il possede le phosphate de pyridoxal comme coenzyme. La desulfhydration de la cysteine par cet enzyme est une reaction reversible. Dans les conditions non

  4. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, M

    2007-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed in protein and amino acid-rich foods at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Of more than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines identified ten have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. As nutritional hazards, their reliable determination in prepared food, their uptake and elimination in living organisms, including humans, and assessment of associated risks are important food-safety issues. The concentration in foods is normally in the low ng g(-1) range, which poses a challenge to the analytical chemist. Because of the complex nature of food matrixes, clean-up and enrichment of the extracts are also complex, usually involving both cation-exchange (propylsulfonic acid silica gel, PRS) and reversed-phase purification. The application of novel solid-phase extraction cartridges with a wettable apolar phase combined with cation-exchange characteristics simplified this process--both the polar and apolar heterocyclic aromatic amines were recovered in one fraction. Copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate bonded to cotton ("blue cotton") or rayon, and molecular imprinted polymers have also been successfully used for one-step sample clean-up. For analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amines, liquid chromatography with base-deactivated reversed-phase columns has been used, and, recently, semi-micro and capillary columns have been introduced. The photometric, fluorimetric, or electrochemical detectors used previously have been replaced by mass spectrometers. Increased specificity and sub-ppb sensitivities have been achieved by the use of the selected-reaction-monitoring mode of detection of advanced MS instrumentation, for example the triple quadrupole and Q-TOF instrument combination. Gas chromatography, also with mass-selective detection, has been used for specific applications; the extra derivatization step needed for volatilization has been balanced by the higher chromatographic resolution. PMID:17546447

  5. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel

    2016-09-01

    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La sp

  6. Taux de reproduction du puceron du pois (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) et teneur en acide médicagénique de la luzerne (Medicago sativa L)

    OpenAIRE

    Bournoville, R

    1996-01-01

    Medicagenic acid, a major component of the saponin content of lucerne, has been reported by some authors as one of the possible mechanisms of resistance of lucerne to the pea aphid. We have measured the net reproductive rate of the pea aphid on 12 clones or hybrids of lucerne, derived from cultivars or lines of American (La, Res, Te) and French (12, 58, Eur) origins. The pea aphid performances were tested on plants growing under controlled conditions (temperature 20 °C, photophasis 16 h). Bef...

  7. CD44-Targeted Hyaluronic Acid-Coated Redox-Responsive Hyperbranched Poly(amido amine)/Plasmid DNA Ternary Nanoassemblies for Efficient Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jijin; Chen, Xinyi; Ren, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiulei; Fang, Xiaoling; Sha, Xianyi

    2016-07-20

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), which can specifically bind to CD44 receptor, is a specific ligand for targeting to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells. The current study aimed to develop ternary nanoassemblies based on HA-coating for targeted gene delivery to CD44-positive tumors. A novel reducible hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (RHB) was assembled with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to form RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were fabricated by coating HA on the surface of the RHB/pDNA nanoassembly core through electrostatic interaction. After optimization, HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were spherical, core-shell nanoparticles with nanosize (187.6 ± 11.4 nm) and negative charge (-9.1 ± 0.3 mV). The ternary nanoassemblies could efficiently protect the condensed pDNA from enzymatic degradation by DNase I, and HA could significantly improve the stability of nanoassemblies in the sodium heparin solution or serum in vitro. As expected, HA significantly decreased the cytotoxicity of RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies due to the negative surface charges. Moreover, it revealed that HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies showed higher transfection activity than RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies in B16F10 cells, especially in the presence of serum in vitro. Because of the active recognition between HA and CD44 receptor, there was significantly different transfection efficiency between B16F10 (CD44+) and NIH3T3 (CD44-) cells after treatment with HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. In addition, the cellular targeting and transfection activity of HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies were further evaluated in vivo. The results indicated that the interaction between HA and CD44 receptor dramatically improved the accumulation of HA/RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies in CD44-positive tumor, leading to higher gene expression than RHB/pDNA nanoassemblies. Therefore, HA/RHB/pDNA ternary nanoassemblies may be a potential gene vector for delivery of therapeutic genes to treat CD44-overexpressing tumors in vivo. PMID:27311558

  8. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  9. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  10. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  11. Du fratinoj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Vivis iam du fratinoj-Aje kaj Fatme.Iliapatrino estis duon-patrino por Fatme kaj in neamis.Foje i diris al sia edzo:-Faru kion ajn,sed mi ne plu volas vidiFatme.La sekvan tagon la patro forkondukis la

  12. Formation of super-concentrated hydrochloric acid in the third phase in tertiary amine N235-PtCl62--HCl system and its influences on the Pt microemulsion extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated the formation of the third-phase in tertiary amine(N235)-PtCl62--HCl system and the microscopic phase structural evolution of platinum-loaded organic phases before and after the occurrence of the third-phase.The third-phase is characterized by various spectroscopic techniques,and the small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS) experiments demonstrate the appearance of nano-aggregates,i.e.,water-in-oil reversed micelles,in the third phase.The experimental results indicate that(1) formation of the third phase is related to the aggregation behaviors of nano-reversed micelles in which a super-concentrated hydrochloric acid formed with the H+ to H2O molar ratio being much higher than that of the conventional 37 wt% saturated hydrochloric acid.(2) The occurrence of the super-concentrated HCl results in a great amount of H+ and Cl-ions enriched and confined within the nano-water pools of W/O reversed micelles in third phase.Therefore,the coordination behaviors of platinum complex ions in that super-concentrated hydrochloric acid are very different from their corresponding behaviors in bulk aqueous solutions.It is possible that H+ ions participate in the formation of such complexes as HmPtCl6z+ in the super-concentrated hydrochloric acid.(3) The relative contents of various HmPtCl6z+ complexes are different corresponding to the H+ ion concentrations in confined nanowater pools.The association ability of the acidified tertiary amine N235 molecules(R3NH+) with various HmPtCl6z+ complexes plays an important role in affecting the platinum extraction behaviors.

  13. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Amine-functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Electrospun Fibers%氨基官能化聚乳酸电纺纤维的制备、表征和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊曦; 李强; 张绪成; 于建; 郭朝霞

    2014-01-01

    通过聚乳酸(PLA)和氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷(KH550)混合进行静电纺丝制备氨基官能化聚乳酸纳米纤维。采用滴定法测定了纤维表面氨基含量,证明当 KH550的添加量为3%~13%(质量分数)时,有19%~26%的氨基出现在纤维的表面。利用场发射扫描电子显微镜、差示扫描量热(DSC)仪、接触角测试仪和电子拉伸机对纤维形貌、 PLA 的玻璃化转变温度和熔点以及纤维膜的亲水性和力学性能进行了表征。结果表明, KH550的加入可以在电纺纤维表面引入氨基,同时使纤维直径变细,使 PLA 的玻璃化转变温度上升,熔点下降,电纺纤维膜的亲水性略有增加,力学性能有所下降。通过吸附将金纳米粒子负载到氨基官能化聚乳酸电纺纤维膜上,得到负载型催化剂,对硼氢化钠还原对硝基苯酚的反应具有良好的催化活性和重复使用性。%Amine-functionalized poly(lactic acid)(PLA) nanofibers were prepared by co-electrospinning of PLA and aminopropyltriethoxysilane(KH550) in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol. The contents of amine groups on the surfaces of the fibers were measured by chemical titration. The results show 19% -26% of total amine groups appeared on the fiber surfaces when 3% -13% of KH550 to PLA is added. The amine-functionalized PLA nanofibers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, differen-tial scanning calorimetry(DSC), contact angle measurements and uniaxial tensile tests. It has been shown that the addition of KH550 can introduce amine groups on PLA fiber surfaces, meantime the fiber diameter decrea-ses, Tg of PLA increases, Tm of PLA decreases, the hydrophilicity of the fiber mat slightly increases and its mechanical properties decreases. Au nanoparticles were adsorbed on the surface of amine-functionalized PLA nanofibers, which showed good catalytic activity and reusability for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  15. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  16. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 CCN activity. Thermal gradient CCN

  17. Geographical and diurnal features of amine-enhanced boundary layer nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, T.; Laaksonen, A.; Korhonen, H.; Malila, J.; Dunne, E. M.; Mielonen, T.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kühn, T.; Arola, A.; Kokkola, H.

    2015-09-01

    Amines have recently been found to be an important ingredient in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric aerosols; however, global estimates of the spatial and temporal extent of amine-enhanced nucleation are currently missing. We utilize two recently published laboratory data sets of amine-sulfuric acid nucleation to evaluate the accuracy of previously published nucleation parameterizations and to produce a new amine-enhanced new particle formation (NPF) parameterization that better reproduces the laboratory observations at atmospherically relevant sulfuric acid concentrations. We implement and compare the amine-enhanced NPF parameterizations and a kinetic nucleation parameterization within the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ and find that the spatial features of amine-enhanced and kinetic NPF are clearly different. Amine-enhanced NPF is limited to areas near the source regions of amine due to its short gas phase residence time of 6.9 h, whereas kinetic nucleation (which depends only on sulfuric acid concentration) produces particles more uniformly across the globe due to long-range transport of SO2. The notably stronger land-sea contrast in amine-enhanced nucleation simulations is in line with relatively rare atmospheric observations of NPF over open oceans. However, when the uptake of gas phase amine molecules to aerosol particles is limited according to previously published estimates (0.2% of collisions leading to uptake), the amine-enhanced NPF parameterization predicts in some regions unrealistically high NPF rates (˜1000 cm-3 s-1) compared to typical observations. Our results indicate that amine-enhanced nucleation may be an important particle formation mechanism near amine source regions but also highlights the need for more tightly defined constraints on the spatial and temporal distribution of amine emissions, gas-to-particle partitioning mechanisms of amines, and condensation and coagulation sinks in global models.

  18. Efficient one-pot, four-component synthesis of N,N-dibenzyl-N-{1-[5-(3-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]cyclobutyl}amine derivatives from the reaction of (isocyanoiminotriphenylphosphorane, dibenzylamine, an aromatic carboxylic acid and cyclobutanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajari Nahid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four-component reaction of cyclobutanone, dibenzylamine and (Nisocyanimino triphenylphosphorane in the presence of aromatic carboxylic acids proceed smoothly at room temperature and under neutral conditions to afford N,N-dibenzyl-N-{1-[5-(3-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]cyclobutyl}amine derivatives in high yields.

  19. Efficient one-pot, four-component synthesis of N,N-dibenzyl-N-{1-[5-(3-aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]cyclobutyl}amine derivatives from the reaction of (isocyanoimino)triphenylphosphorane, dibenzylamine, an aromatic carboxylic acid and cyclobutanone

    OpenAIRE

    Shajari Nahid; Kazemizadeh Reza Ali; Ramazani Ali

    2012-01-01

    Four-component reaction of cyclobutanone, dibenzylamine and (Nisocyanimino) triphenylphosphorane in the presence of aromatic carboxylic acids proceed smoothly at room temperature and under neutral conditions to afford N,N-dibenzyl-N-{1-[5-(3-aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]cyclobutyl}amine derivatives in high yields.

  20. Molecular methods for the detection of biogenic amine-producing bacteria on foods

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Rivas, Blanca de las; Marcobal, Angela; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases that can be detected in raw and processed foods. Several toxicological problems resulting from the ingestion of food containing biogenic amines have been described. Biogenic amines are mainly produced by the decarboxylation of certain amino acids by microbial action. Since the ability of microorganisms to decarboxylate amino acid is highly variable, being in most cases strain-specific, the detection of bacteria possessing amino a...

  1. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  2. Recent achievements in developing the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Hannes; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Höhne, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Novel enzyme activities and chemoenzymatic reaction concepts have considerably expanded the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis. Creating new activities or extending the scope of existing enzymes by protein engineering is a common trend in biocatalysis and in chiral amine synthesis specifically. For instance, an amine dehydrogenase that allows for the direct asymmetric amination of ketones with ammonia was created by mutagenesis of an l-amino acid dehydrogenase. Another trend in chiral amine chemistry is the development of strategies allowing for the synthesis of secondary amines. For example the smart choice of substrates for amine transaminases provided access to secondary amines by chemoenzymatic reactions. Furthermore novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of secondary amines such as imine reductases and Pictet-Spenglerases have been identified and applied. Recent examples showed that the biocatalytic amine synthesis is emerging from simple model reactions towards industrial scale preparation of pharmaceutical relevant substances, for instance, as shown in the synthesis of a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor using an amine transaminase. A comparison of important process parameters such as turnover number and space-time yield demonstrates that biocatalytic strategies for asymmetric reductive amination are maturing and can already compete with established chemical methods. PMID:24721252

  3. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food techn...

  4. Biogenic amines in wines from three Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José M; Ferrer, Sergi; Polo, Lucía; Pardo, Isabel

    2005-02-23

    One hundred and sixty-three wines from La Rioja, Utiel-Requena, and Tarragona were analyzed to determine if there were any differences in the concentrations of six biogenic amines that are found in these three regions. The influence of grape variety, type of vinification, wine pH, malolactic fermentation, and storage in bottle on biogenic amine concentrations was studied. Results show important differences in putrescine and histamine concentrations among regions, varieties of grape, and type of wine; differences were less appreciable for the remaining biogenic amines studied. Low pH prevented biogenic amine formation. Malolactic fermentation and short storage periods in bottle (3-6 months) showed increases in histamine concentration, whereas longer periods of storage led to a general decrease in histamine. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated in this work, and their ability to form biogenic amines was assayed in synthetic media, grape must, and wine. Grape varieties, different types of winemaking, pH, and lactic acid bacteria may be responsible for the differences observed in the biogenic amine concentrations of the wines analyzed.

  5. Tri-n-butylphosphane catalyzed ring opening of aziridines with secondary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xuan Zhang; Li Su; Wei Gang Hu; Jie Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Ring opening of aziridine with dialkyl amine took place readily in the presence of catalytic amounts of tri-n-butylphosphane (10 mol%) in the mixture of CH3CN/H2O (10:1),giving corresponding vicinal diamines in mediate to high yields (58-95%) with good regioselecfivifie,while aromatic secondary amine could not react under the same condifions.Tti-n-butylphosphane exhibited different catalytic selectivity to amines from Lewis acid catalysts.

  6. Formation of biogenic amines and vitamin K contents in the Norwegian autochthonous cheese Gamalost during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Tahir; Vermeer, Cees; Vegarud, Gerd; Abrahamsen, Roger; Skeie, Siv

    2013-01-01

    Gamalost, a Norwegian mould (Mucor mucedo) ripened autochthonous cheese, is a potential functional food due to a high content of peptides that might reduce hypertension, however it has a high content of free amino acids which may be precursors for biogenic amines. This study aimed to investigate if Gamalost might have further health benefits or risks by determination of the formation of vitamin K and biogenic amines. The development of biogenic amines and vitamin K was analysed during ripenin...

  7. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  8. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  9. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  10. Decoupling of dynamic processes in surfactant-based liquid mixtures: the case of lithium-containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotera, Isabella; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo; Calandra, Pietro

    2014-07-22

    Pure surfactant liquids and their binary mixtures, because of the amphiphilic nature of the molecules involved, can exhibit nanosegregation and peculiar transport properties. The idea that inspired this work is that the possibility of including in such media salts currently used for technological applications should lead to a synergy between the properties of the salt and those of the medium. Therefore, the dynamic features of bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid mixtures were investigated as a function of composition and temperature by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and rheometry. Inclusion of litium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiT) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient NMR, and conductimetry methods to highlight the solubilizing and confining properties of these mixtures as well as the lithium conductivity. It was found that BEEA/HDEHP binary liquid mixtures show zero-threshold percolating self-assembly with a maximum in viscosity and a minimum in molecular diffusion at a 1:1 composition. Dissolution of LiT in such system can occur via confinement in the locally self-assembled polar domains. Despite this confinement, Li(+) conduction is scarcely dependent on the medium composition because of the possibility of a field-induced hopping decoupled by the structural and dynamical features of the medium.

  11. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  12. N-nitrosamine formation by monochloramine, free chlorine, and peracetic acid disinfection with presence of amine precursors in drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Danielle M; Wu, Qihua; Donovan, Ariel; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the formation of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine, N-Nitrosopiperidine, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine, N-Nitrosomorpholine, were systematically evaluated with respect to seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine, trimethylamine, 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole, 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, ethylmethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine) and three disinfectants (monochloramine, free chlorine, peracetic acid) under variable dosages, exposure times, and pH in a drinking water system. Without the presence of the seven selected N-nitrosamine precursors N-nitrosamine formation was not observed under any tested condition except very low levels of N-Nitrosopyrrolidine under some conditions. With selected N-nitrosamine precursors present N-nitrosamines formed at different levels under different conditions. The highest N-nitrosamine formation was NDMA with a maximum concentration of 1180 ng/L by monochloramine disinfection with precursors present; much lower levels of N-nitrosamines were formed by free chlorine disinfection; and no detectable level of N-nitrosamines were observed by peracetic acid disinfection except low level of N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine under some conditions. NDMA formation was not affected by pH while four other N-nitrosamine formations were slightly affected by sample pH tested between 7 and 9, with formation decreasing with increasing pH. Monochloramine exposure time study displayed fast formation of N-nitrosamines, largely formed in four hours of exposure and maximized after seven days. This was a systematic study on the N-nitrosamine formation with the seven major N-nitrosamine precursors presence and absence under different conditions, including peracetic acid disinfection which has not been studied elsewhere.

  13. PCR methods for the detection of biogenic amine-producing bacteria on wine

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Rivas, Blanca de las; Marcobal, Ángela; Muñoz, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases frequently found in wine. Several toxicological problems resulting from the ingestion of wine containing biogenic amines have been described. In wine, histamine, tyramine, and putrescine are mainly produced by the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine, tyrosine, and ornithine, respectively, by lactic acid bacteria action. The bacterial ability to decarboxylate amino acids is highly variable, and therefore the...

  14. Chemical and Molecular Descriptors for the Reactivity of Amines with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.

    2012-10-24

    Amine-based solvents are likely to play an important role in CO{sub 2} capture applications in the future, and the identification of amines with superior performance will facilitate their use in CO{sub 2} capture. While some improvements in performance will be achieved through process modifications, modifying the CO{sub 2} capture performance of an amine also implies in part an ability to modify the reactions between the amine and CO{sub 2} through development of new functionalized amines. We present a computational study of trends in the reactions between CO{sub 2} and functionalized amines with a focus on identifying molecular descriptors that determine trends in reactivity. We examine the formation of bicarbonate and carbamate species on three classes of functionalized amines: alkylamines, alkanolamines, and fluorinated alkylamines including primary, secondary and tertiary amines in each class. These functional groups span electron-withdrawing to donating behavior, hydrogen-bonding, extent of functionalization, and proximity effects of the functional groups. Electron withdrawing groups tend to destabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products, whereas electron-donating groups tend to stabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes CO{sub 2} reaction products. Electronic structure descriptors based on electronegativity were found to describe trends in the bicarbonate formation energy. A chemical correlation was observed between the carbamate formation energy and the carbamic acid formation energy. The local softness on the reacting N in the amine was found to partially explain trends carbamic acid formation energy.

  15. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ePei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the classical biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS, and hence referred to as trace amines (TAs, are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioural functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1, a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signalling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  16. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  17. Denitration of Uranyl Nitrate Using Tridodecyl Amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrate extraction from uranyl nitrate using extractant tridodecyl amine and paraffin has been carried out. The aim of this research was to prepare uranyl nitrate with low nitrate content (acid deficiency uranyl nitrate/ADUN). ADUN is a raw material for making kernels uranium oxide in a spherical from which cannot easily be broken/cracked. This ADUN was prepared by extracting nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution with tridodecyl amine (TDA) and paraffin. Nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution moved into organic phase due to the complex formation with TDA. The aqueous phase was ADUN, it was than analyzed its nitric and uranium contents using titration method. Tree variables were observed, i.e. uranium contents (80-125 g/l), process temperature (50-100 oC) and TDA/Nitrate molar ratio (0.5-1). Experiment results showed that optimum condition accurate at uranium content of 100 g/l, temperature extraction 60-70 oC and TDA to Nitrate molar ratio 0.75-0.80 with an efficiency of 77 %. (author)

  18. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

    2011-11-15

    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  19. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  20. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  1. Selective acylation of primary amines in peptides and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abello, N.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; Postma, D.S; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters are derivatizing agents that target primary amine groups. However, even a small molar excess of NHS may lead to acylation of hydroxyl-containing amino acids as a side reaction. We report a straightforward method for the selective removal of ester-linked acyl groups

  2. Synthesis and Properties of An Aminated hypocrellin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new aminated-perylenequinone derivative 2 was synthesized by the reaction of 1 ( hypocrellin B ) with 6-aminohexanoic-acid. The structure of 2 was identified by UV-Vis, MS, IR and 1H-NMR. The amphiphility, spectrum and photochemical properties of 2 were reported.

  3. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  4. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  5. Comparison of Predicted pKa Values for Some Amino-Acids, Dipeptides and Tripeptides, Using COSMO-RS, ChemAxon and ACD/Labs Methods Comparaison des valeurs de pKa de quelques acides aminés, dipeptides et tripeptides, prédites en utilisant les méthodes COSMO-RS, ChemAxon et ACD/Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure O.

    2013-05-01

    as peptides. The final goal of this study is to use the pKa values in a predictive thermodynamics model for products of interest in food industry. For this purpose, the effects of several factors (like conformations set treatment in COSMO-RS calculations, ionic strength effect that can affect the comparison between observed and predicted pKa data are discussed. Les valeurs de constantes d’acidité (pKa jouent un rôle très important, en particulier dans l’industrie alimentaire. Les propriétés chimiques des molécules dépendent significativement de leurs états d’ionisation. La plupart des molécules sont capables de gagner et/ou perdre un proton dans les solutions aqueuses. Ce transfert de proton apparaît la plupart du temps entre l’eau et un atome ionisable de la molécule organique. La réponse de la molécule à la protonation ou à la déprotonation dépend significativement du site concerné par le transfert de proton. La distribution partielle des charges dans la molécule varie également en fonction des sites actifs pour la protonation du couple acide; base. Par conséquent on peut l’utiliser pour déterminer le pKa d’une molécule. Dans un premier temps, nous avons utilisé la méthode COSMO-RS, une combinaison du modèle de solvatation diélectrique (COSMO et d’un traitement de thermodynamique statistique pour des solvants plus réels (RS, pour prédire les constantes de dissociation de 50 molécules environ (des acides aminés, des dipeptides et des tripeptides. Les résultats de pKa obtenus ont été comparés aux valeurs expérimentales, ainsi qu’aux valeurs de pKa prédites par deux autres méthodes. Nous avons utilisé respectivement la méthode ChemAxon, utilisant un programme basé sur le calcul des charges partielles des atomes d’une molécule, et la méthode ACD/Labs qui permet de déterminer des valeurs de pKa pour chaque centre de dissociation en considérant que le reste de la molécule est neutre, en utilisant une base de

  6. Highly Efficient N-Monomethylation of Primary Aryl Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG, Yiyuan; LIU, Hanliang; TANG, Min; CAI, Lisheng; PIKE, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient method for specific synthesis of N-monomethylarylamines is presented. Anilines were treated with acetic anhydride and triethylamine in dry CH2Cl2 to give the corresponding acetamides. The subsequent N-monomethylation of acetyl aryl amines with methyl iodide and Nail in THF introduced methyl group. Acid hy- drolysis of the N-methyl acetanilides in ethylene glycol generated the corresponding N-methyl-N-aryi amines in high yields. This method was also used to synthesize (E)-2-bromo-5-(4-methylaminostyryl)pyridine that may be useful as an amyloid imaging agent for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Synthesis and inverse emulsion polymerization of aminated acrylamidodextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubresse, C; Grandfils, C; Jérôme, R; Teyssié, P; Goethals, P; Schacht, E

    1993-12-01

    A chemically modified form of dextran was prepared, having a polymerizable moiety (acrylamide) and a reactive functional group (primary amine). Dextran was activated with 4-nitrophenyl-chloroformate (24 mol per polysaccharide, 9.8 mol per 100 glucose residues); 9.8% glucose residues were converted to aliphatic carbonates and 5.2% were converted to cyclic carbonates. The activated dextran was coupled with trityldiaminoethane (8 mol per 100 glucose residues), reactivated with 4-nitrophenylchloroformate, then coupled with acryloamidodiaminohexane (6.8 mol per 100 glucose residues). The trityl group was removed by hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid to yield the required aminated acryloamidodextran. The modified dextran was shown to be polymerizable by inverse emulsion polymerization. Submicron particles were successfully prepared, containing functional amine groups suitable for preparing drug conjugates or for modifying the surface properties of this biomaterial. PMID:7512648

  8. Genetic cytological and biochemical study of a tomato chlorophyll mutant of the xanthic type, obtained by irradiation of the seeds; Etude genetique, cytologique et biochimique d'un mutant chlorophyllien de tomate du type xantha, obtenu par irradiation de graines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefort, M.; Duranton, J.; Galmiche, J.M.; Roux, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Irradiation of Lycopersicum aesculantum seeds with increasing doses of X-rays and thermal neutrons leads to the appearance of chlorophyll mutations in the descendants of the irradiated seeds. A genetic study of one of these mutants of the xanthic type showed that it was a recessive mutant with typical mono-genetic separation, while the cytological study demonstrated that the differentiation of the plast stopped at the stage of elementary lamella. Finally it is shown that in the light, the mutation brings about a very large deviation of the carbon metabolism towards the synthesis of amino acids and proteins, at the expense of that of glucosides. (author) [French] L'irradiation de graines de Lycopersicum Aesculantum avec des doses croissantes de rayons X et de neutrons thermiques entraine l'apparition de mutations chlorophylliennes dans la descendance des graines irradiees. L'etude genetique d'un de ces mutants du type xantha a montre qu'il s'agissait d'un mutant recessif a disjonction monogenique typique, tandis que l'etude cytologique a revele que la differentiation du plaste s'arretait au stade de lamelles elementaires. Il est apparu enfin qu'a la lumiere la mutation entrainait une deviation tres importante du metabolisme du carbone vers la synthese des acides amines et des proteines, au detriment de celle des glucides. (auteur)

  9. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jeromel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of biogenic amines. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the concentration of biogenic amines in wines made from Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot noir’ from Plešivica (vintage 2009 produced with classical maceration, cold maceration and use of sur lie method. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. In ‘Pinot noir’ wines tested, histamine was the most abundant biogenic amine followed by tryptamine and 2-Phenylethylamine. Total amount of biogenic amines ranged from 8.72 mg/L in wines made with classical maceration up to 9.34 mg/L in sur lie wines. In summary, from the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that sur lie technology can influence the formation of biogenic acids since the release of amino acids is probably more pronounced in wines aged with lees and stirred weekly. No significant differences were found in the concentration of biogenic amines in relation to the used maceration process.

  10. Concentration of Biogenic Amines in ‘Pinot Noir’ Wines Produced in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jeromel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The origins of biogenic amines are sound grapes, alcoholic fermentations, malolactic fermentation and microbial activities during wine storage. These biologically produced amines are essential at low concentrations for optimal metabolic and physiological functions in animals, plants and micro-organisms. During alcoholic fermentation the degree of maceration is the first factor that affects the extraction of compounds present in the grape skin, among them aminoacids, precursors of biogenic amines. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the concentration of biogenic amines in wines made from Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot noir’ from Plešivica (vintage 2009 produced with classical maceration, cold maceration and use of sur lie method. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. In ‘Pinot noir’ wines tested, histamine was the most abundant biogenic amine followed by tryptamine and 2-Phenylethylamine. Total amount of biogenic amines ranged from 8.72 mg/L in wines made with classical maceration up to 9.34 mg/L in sur lie wines. In summary, from the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that sur lie technology can influence the formation of biogenic acids since the release of amino acids is probably more pronounced in wines aged with lees and stirred weekly. No significant differences were found in the concentration of biogenic amines in relation to the used maceration process.

  11. Managing your wine fermentation to reduce the risk of biogenic amine formation

    OpenAIRE

    MaretDu Toit

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF) inoculated starter cu...

  12. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Z. Zaman; A. S. Abdulamir; Fatimah A. Bakar; Jinap Selamat; Jamilah Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Sout...

  13. Managing Your Wine Fermentation to Reduce the Risk of Biogenic Amine Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Anita Yolandi; Engelbrecht, Lynn; du Toit, Maret

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the inoculated starter cultures for alcoholic and malolactic fermenta...

  14. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  15. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  16. Bilan du 7e congrès organisé par l’International Society For the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL, à Cairns, Australie, du 23 au 28 juillet 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guesnet Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th congress was organized by the International Society For the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL in Cairns (Australia from 23 to 28 July 2006. It joined more than 400 delegates from 35 countries. The meeting included a plenary program, with 25 conferences and selected short communications, and 32 concurrent sessions in which around 300 free communications were presented (oral + posters. The primary themes explored several areas of research on lipids, fatty acids, metabolism and cerebral functions (3 sessions and 4 plenary conferences with respect to maternal and infant health (3 sessions, ageing (1 session and Alzheimer disease (1 session, omega-3 fatty acids and mental health (1 session, PUFA metabolism (3 sessions, the impact of dietary omega-3 and trans fatty acids on several pathologies such as obesity (1 session, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome (4 sessions and 3 plenary conferences, diabetes (1 session, cancer (1 session and osteoporosis (1 session. Lastly, several concurrent sessions focused on methodological aspects for implementing new dietary sources of fatty acids (4 sessions.

  17. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found.

  18. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  19. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  20. Les mots du secret

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Cet article analyse les reconfigurations sémantiques du lexique et des mots du secret en usage dans l’Europe du Sud entre le Moyen Âge et l’époque moderne. En partant des approches récentes du secret et de la dissimulation dans un contexte contemporain de revendication d’un « droit au secret », nous analysons comment l’historiographie actuelle des XVIe et XVIIe siècles aborde une histoire longue des régimes de positivité du secret en Europe. En partant de l’époque pré-moderne, nous étudions l...

  1. Restaurant du Rivage, Vevey

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Sari Bianca; Glocki, Ryszard Nikodem

    2015-01-01

    Après cinquante ans de mutilations, d'abandon et de spéculations économiques, le complexe du château de l'Aile et de la salle du Castillo à Vevey doit redéfinir son rôle public par rapport à la place du Marché et au Jardin du Rivage. S'appuyant sur la mémoire historique en ajoutant une unité à l'ensemble, nous créons un îlot regroupant des fonctions publiques. Il dessert ainsi l'espace ouvert environnant en articulant la relation entre le jardin et la place. L'élargissement de la promenade du...

  2. Du taureau au dindon

    OpenAIRE

    Saumade, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    L’importation du cheval et du taureau en Méso-Amérique et la diffusion corrélative de la corrida comme représentation ostentatoire du pouvoir espagnol ont eu pour conséquence la transformation de la structure originelle du jeu taurino-équestre. Le vecteur de ce système est un paradoxe technologique : la monte du taureau, soit une inversion de l’équitation dont l’initiative historique revient aux péons indigènes exclus de la pratique équestre à l’époque coloniale. À partir d’une approche ethno...

  3. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  4. Incidence d’un régime déséquilibré en acides aminés à chaînes ramifiées sur la consommation et la cinétique post-prandiale des concentrations des acides aminés et des cétoacides plasmatiques chez le porcelet

    OpenAIRE

    Gloaguen, Mathieu; Le Floc'h, Nathalie; PRIMOT, Yvan; Corrent, Etienne; Van Milgen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    When a diet deficient in valine is offered to piglets, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary leucine is in excess. If an unbalanced supply of branched‐chain amino acids (BCAA) proves dangerous to the animals, the anorectic response could serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this by measuring the voluntary feed intake during 30 minutes of a balanced diet one hour after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not deficient in valine. Inges...

  5. Heterogeneous Ru-Based Catalysts for One-Pot Synthesis of Primary Amines from Aldehydes and Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with NH3 and H2 is an alternative route to produce primary amines in practical production. The search for efficient and selective catalysts has attracted great interest. In the present work, the reductive amination of heptaldehyde with NH3 was investigated over a Ru-based catalyst. The product selectivities were found to be related with the supports of Ru. The alumina with spinel structure (γ-Al2O3, θ-Al2O3-supported Ru catalysts exhibited selectivity favoring primary amines (94% yield at 100% heptaldehyde conversion under optimal conditions. Purely basic (MgO, CaO and relative acidic (Nb2O5, SnO2, MCM-41, HZSM-5 supports showed relatively poor selectivity towards primary amines (0%–53% yield. The reductive amination mechanism was also proposed. The Schiff base N-[heptylene]heptyl-1-amine was a key intermediate. Ru/γ-Al2O3 was shown to be an excellent hydrogenolysis catalyst to selectively produce primary amine by amination and hydrogenolysis of N-[heptylene]heptyl-1-amine.

  6. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  7. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  8. Signification politique du climat

    OpenAIRE

    Lamizet, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Le climat fonde une approche politique particulière de l’espace et du temps, en suscitant des représentations particulières se situant dans l’histoire, la mémoire, la prévision et le domaine du développement durable. Le climat représente aussi une forme particulière de limitation des pouvoirs et de représentation de la contrainte dans le discours politique et dans les médias, jusqu’à figurer une forme de violence. Enfin, les significations du climat se situent dans l’inconscient. The notio...

  9. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  10. Photoalignment efficiency enhancement of polyimide alignment layers by alkyl-amine vapor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenji; Usami, Kiyoaki; Miki, Kazushi

    2014-08-01

    We have succeeded in enhancing the photoalignment efficiency of polyimide containing azobenzene in the backbone structure by exposing the corresponding precursor (polyamic acid: Azo-PAA) film to alkyl-amine vapor prior to photoalignment. The Azo-PAA film absorbed alky-amines and swelled by 300%. The photoinduced rotation of the Azo-PAA backbone structure occurred more easily in the swollen film. Most of the alkyl-amines in the swollen film desorbed during thermal imidization. As a result of the photoalignment efficiency enhancement, we also succeeded in expanding the controllable pretilt angle range of liquid crystals up to 38° without the appearance of threadlike disclination loops.

  11. Influence of Dissolved Metals on N-Nitrosamine Formation under Amine-based CO2 Capture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimeng; Mitch, William A

    2015-10-01

    As the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture technology, amine-based scrubbing has to address the concerns over the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamine byproducts from reactions between flue gas NOx and amine solvents. This bench-scale study evaluated the influence of dissolved metals on the potential to form total N-nitrosamines in the solvent within the absorber unit and upon a pressure-cooker treatment that mimics desorber conditions. Among six transition metals tested for the benchmark solvent monoethanolamine (MEA), dissolved Cu promoted total N-nitrosamine formation in the absorber unit at concentrations permitted in drinking water, but not the desorber unit. The Cu effect increased with oxygen concentration. Variation of the amine structural characteristics (amine order, steric hindrance, -OH group substitution and alkyl chain length) indicated that Cu promotes N-nitrosamine formation from primary amines with hydroxyl or carboxyl groups (amino acids), but not from secondary amines, tertiary amines, sterically hindered primary amines, or amines without oxygenated groups. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) suppressed the Cu effect. The results suggested that the catalytic effect of Cu may be associated with the oxidative degradation of primary amines in the absorber unit, a process known to produce a wide spectrum of secondary amine products that are more readily nitrosatable than the pristine primary amines, and that can form stable N-nitrosamines. This study highlighted an intriguing linkage between amine degradation (operational cost) and N-nitrosamine formation (health hazards), all of which are challenges for commercial-scale CO2 capture technology. PMID:26335609

  12. Bases chimiosensorielles du comportement alimentaire chez les poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement alimentaire, indispensable à la survie de l'individu et donc de l'espèce, occupe à ce titre une position de première importance dans la hiérarchie des comportements fondamentaux qui tous en dépendent très étroitement. Chez les poissons, cette prééminence se trouve illustrée par l'extrême diversité des supports sensoriels impliqués et des expressions comportementales qui leur sont liées. A la suite d'un certain nombre de mises en évidence neurophysiologiques et éthologiques de l'importance du sens chimique (olfaction, gustation dans le comportement alimentaire des poissons, de très importants secteurs d'études électrophysiologiques et d'analyses physico-chimiques visant à en déterminer la nature exacte (en termes de substances actives se sont développés ces vingt dernières années. De tous ces travaux dont les plus avancés sont présentés ici, il ressort que les acides aminés de série L plus ou moins associés à d'autres composés de poids moléculaires < 1000 constituent des composés chimiques jouant un rôle déterminant dans le comportement alimentaire de nombreuses espèces de poissons carnivores.

  13. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  14. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  15. A general and facile one-pot process of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Sun; Bin Li,; Jianping Shao; Weimin Mo; Baoxiang Hu; Zhenlu Shen; Xinquan Hu

    2012-01-01

    A general and facile one-pot protocol for the preparation of a broad range of alkyl and aryl isothiocyanates has been developed from their corresponding primary amines under aqueous conditions. This synthetic process involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt from the amine substrate by reacting with CS2 followed by elimination to form the isothiocyanate product with cyanuric acid as the desulfurylation reagent. The choice of solvent is of decisive importance for the successful ...

  16. Azide Tripodal Dendrons from Behera's Amine and Their Clicked Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmare, Farhana; Abadjian, Marie-Caline Z; Wiener, Erik C; Grotjahn, Douglas B

    2016-08-01

    Diazo transfer reactions on Behera's amine and its next-generation analogue formed G0 and G1 azide dendrons bearing three and nine tert-butyl-protected esters, respectively. The utility of the new dendrons was demonstrated by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, with 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene, forming two novel dendrimers in a convergent manner. Acid-mediated dendrimer deprotection was successful, and the resulting carboxy-terminated dendrimers were analyzed by NMR and DOSY experiments. PMID:27454340

  17. [Metabolism of various biogenic amines in acute viral neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, I N; Shchegoleva, R A; Ponomarenko, V P; Leshchinskaia, E V; Kodkind, G Kh

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of biogenic amines was examined in 62 patients with various acute viral neuroinfections. The control group consisted of 57 persons. Depending on the process character and disease period variations of the levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindolylacetic acid, coeruloplasmin and histamine were discovered. A comparison of the results obtained with the clinical course of the diseases revealed a certain correlation, especially in patients with acute meningoencephalitis.

  18. Isolation, Identification and Biogenic Amines-producing Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria from The Fermentation Broth of Chinese Rice Wine%黄酒发酵液中产生物胺乳酸菌的分离鉴定与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韩玲; 杜丽平; 孟镇; 钟其顶; 熊正河; 邹慧君; 肖冬光

    2011-01-01

    从黄酒发酵液中分离得到6株乳酸菌,16S rDNA序列分析和生理生化鉴定结果表明:菌株R1、R4、R5、R8、R20为Lactobacillus rossiae,菌株R2为Lactobacillus casei。采用平板检测法对6株乳酸菌产生物胺能力进行了评价,结果显示只有乳酸菌R1具有产生物胺的能力。利用HPLC检测对平板检测结果进行了验证,结果表明乳酸菌R1能产598.61mg/L的腐胺,其他菌株不具有产生物胺的能力。平板检测与HPLC检测结果相一致,表明平板检测可作为一种有效、操作简单、费用低的定性评价乳酸菌产生物胺能力的手段。%Six strains of lactic acid bacteria were obtained from the fermentation broth of Chinese rice wine. By using methods of physiological-biochemical and 16S rDNA tests, strains R1, R4, R5, R8 and R20 were identified as LactobaciUus rossiae, and strain R2 was identified as LactobaciUus casei. The ability of producing biogenic amines by these strains was evaluated by MRS plates and showed that only strain R1 could produce biogenic amines. HPLC confirmed that strain R1 could produce 598.61mg/L putrescine,and the others could not produce biogenic amines. The consistency of the results indicated that MRS plates analysis could be used as an effective, simple and economical method to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria's ability of producing biogenic amines.

  19. Metabolic activation of aromatic amines and azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H

    1981-01-01

    Aromatic amines, amides and nitro compounds are a class of chemicals that produce tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals, including liver, urinary bladder, forestomach, small intestine, Zymbal's gland, subcutaneous tissue or skin. In man, exposure to some aromatic amines is associated with tumours of the urinary bladder and carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Their biological activity as carcinogens or genotoxic agents is, in all the cases that have been studied in detail, dependent on metabolic activation in vivo, occurring by multiple pathways. Differences in these metabolic pathways may largely account for the differences in tissues and species susceptibilities to cancer induction. Carcinogenicity of aromatic amines or amides is dependent on their oxidation to N-hydroxy derivatives, whilst the carcinogenicity of aromatic nitro compounds is linked to their reduction to hydroxylamines. Further conversion of the N-hydroxylamine or N-hydroxyamide to reactive intermediates can occur in several ways, which include (i) esterification of the N-hydroxy group, (ii) non-enzymic protonation of the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine and (iii) oxidation to a free radical of arylhydroxamic acids. Following generation of such reactive electrophilic intermediates in tissues or cells, macromolecular binding has been observed to nucleic acids and proteins. In many cases, arylamidated and arylaminated products are formed with nucleic acid bases; in the case of the well-studied 2-acetylaminofluorene, nucleophilic atoms of guanine are the predominant site of reaction. Relatively little is known of the structure and biological consequences of DNA adducts formed from other aromatic amines, amides or nitro compounds; more research in these directions is warranted.

  20. Film-forming amines in shell boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Holger [Astrium RST Rostock GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kolk, Christian zum [BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Studies were conducted with the aim of providing answers to important questions concerning the use of film-forming amines in steam generators. Tests were carried out in test steam generators under controlled conditions to study the three following application areas: the influence of film-forming amines on boiling behavior and heat transfer, the influence of film-forming amines on oxidic protective film formation, and the influence of film-forming amines on critical operating conditions. In the experiments water treatment with trisodium phosphate (which is normally used with shell boilers) was compared with treatment with film-forming amines. In all three areas the treatment with film-forming amines achieved comparable or better results than the treatment with trisodium phosphate. (orig.)

  1. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  2. Bisulphate-cluster based atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer for ultra-high sensitivity (10 ppq) detection of atmospheric amines: proof-of-concept and first ambient data from boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, M.; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J.; Rissanen, M. P.; T. Petäjä; Worsnop, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric amines may play a crucial role in formation of new aerosol particles via nucleation with sulphuric acid. Recent studies have revealed that concentrations below 1 ppt can significantly promote nucleation of sulphuric acid particles. While sulphuric acid detection is relatively straightforward, no amine measurements to date have been able to reach the critical sub-ppt concentration range and atmospheric amine concentrations are in general poorly ch...

  3. Bisulfate – cluster based atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer for high-sensitivity (< 100 ppqV) detection of atmospheric dimethyl amine: proof-of-concept and first ambient data from boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, M.; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J.; Rissanen, M. P.; Praplan, A.; M. Simon; A. Kürten; BIANCHI, F.; Dommen, J; J. Curtius; T. Petäjä; Worsnop, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric amines may play a crucial role in formation of new aerosol particles via nucleation with sulfuric acid. Recent studies have revealed that concentrations below 1 pptV can significantly promote nucleation of sulfuric acid particles. While sulfuric acid detection is relatively straightforward, no amine measurements to date have been able to reach the critical sub-pptV concentration range and atmospheric amine concentrations are in general poorly characterized. In th...

  4. A ruthenium racemisation catalyst for the synthesis of primary amines from secondary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Dennis; Altıntaş, Çiğdem; Rudolf Schaller, Max; Vogt, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    A Ru-based half sandwich complex used in amine and alcohol racemization reactions was found to be active in the splitting of secondary amines to primary amines using NH3. Conversions up to 80% along with very high selectivities were achieved. However, after about 80% conversion the catalyst lost activity. Similar to Shvo's catalyst, the complex might deactivate under the influence of ammonia. It was revealed that not NH3 but mainly the primary amine is responsible for the deactivation. PMID:27321431

  5. Electrophilic, Activation-Free Fluorogenic Reagent for Labeling Bioactive Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, Miquel; De Moliner, Fabio; Caballero-Lima, David; Denning, David W; Read, Nick D; Kielland, Nicola; Vendrell, Marc; Lavilla, Rodolfo

    2016-06-15

    Herein we report the preparation of BODIPY mesoionic acid fluorides through a short sequence involving an isocyanide multicomponent reaction as the key synthetic step. These novel BODIPY acid fluorides are water-stable electrophilic reagents that can be used for the fluorescent derivatization of amine-containing biomolecules using mild and activation-free reaction conditions. As a proof of principle, we have labeled the antifungal natamycin and generated a novel fluorogenic probe for imaging a variety of human and plant fungal pathogens, with excellent selectivity over bacterial cells. PMID:27248580

  6. Managing your wine fermentation to reduce the risk of biogenic amine formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yolandi Smit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds produced in wine from amino acid precursors mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The concentration of biogenic amines that can potentially be produced is dependent on the amount of amino acid precursors in the medium, the presence of decarboxylase positive microorganisms and conditions that enable microbial or biochemical activity such as the addition of nutrients to support the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF inoculated starter cultures. MLF can be conducted using co-inoculation or inoculated after the completion of alcoholic fermentation (AF that may also affect the level of biogenic amine in the wine. This study focussed on the impact the addition of complex commercial yeast and bacterial nutrients and the use of different MLF inoculation scenarios could have on the production of biogenic amine in the wine. Results obtained with wine showed that in this study the amine that was influenced by nutrient addition was histamine. In the synthetic winemaking using 12 different treatments no clear tendencies were observed. It was shown that in certain conditions co-inoculation could reduce the amount of biogenic amines produced.

  7. Droit du travail

    OpenAIRE

    De Quenaudon, René

    2016-01-01

    L’association des deux notions, celle de droit du travail et celle de RSE (responsabilité sociale des entreprises), relève du défi, tout au moins dans le contexte juridique français. C’est un peu comme si l’on prétendait pouvoir mélanger l’eau et le feu. Pourquoi ? Parce que classiquement le droit du travail est présenté comme un ensemble de règles assorties de la contrainte étatique dans les relations entre employeurs et salariés alors que la RSE est présentée comme un ensemble d’engagements...

  8. Une science du tourisme ?

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, David; Bédard, François; Ceriani-Sebregondi, Giorgia; Chapuis, Amandine; Dewailly, Jean-Michel; Drouin, Martin; Gay, Jean-Christophe; Hillali, Mimoun; Hoerner, Jean-Michel; Jolin, Louis; Kadri, Boualem; Rémy KNAFOU; Leman, Edward; Novakowski, Nick; Priskin, Julianna

    2009-01-01

    Avec ce numéro thématique, Téoros souhaite promouvoir un débat organisé dans une perspective internationale et pluridisciplinaire. L’objectif de ce numéro est de s’interroger à nouveau sur l’identité scientifique du tourisme, en tentant de mettre en évidence les handicaps épistémologiques et méthodologiques, de comprendre les raisons qui freinent la construction d’un consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique, d’identifier les conditions nécessaires à l’émergence d’une science du tourism...

  9. An efficient method for N-formylation of amines using natural HEU zeolite at room temperature under solvent-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and practical green route for N-formylation of primary and secondary amines with formic acid at room temperature under the solvent-free conditions using HEU zeolite as a heterogeneous, reusable and highly efficient catalyst is described. The process is remarkably simple and environmentally benign. Excellent chemo selectivity was observed for the conversion of primary amines in the presence of secondary amines

  10. Amine degradation and associated problems in the gas treating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, E.R. [Dow Chemical Co. (United States); Souza, R.C.O [Dow Brasil S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Amine degradation and associated problems in the amine gas treating unit cannot be completely avoided or eliminated. They can be cost effectively mitigated using a thorough amine management program. Economic and performance benefits realized from an amine management program include several improvements and performance index. Better yields, lower costs, and fewer environmental concerns are some of the additional advantages of using a comprehensive amine management system to help run the amine gas treating unit. (author)

  11. Studies on coordination and addition compounds and anti microbial activity of some mixed ligand complexes of Au(III), Mo(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) with dibasic acid and heterocyclic amines and addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with benzamide and acetophenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new mixed ligand complexes of Au(III) and Mo(II) with dibasic acid e.g., homophthalic acid, oxalic acid and heterocylic amines e.g., quinonine, iso-quinonine, bipyridine, Phenylanaline and the two new addition compounds of As(III) and Sb(III) halides with N-donor ligands viz. benzamide and acetophenone and one complex [Cd(DPH)(IQ)2], where IQ = Iso-quinoline and DPH = Deprotonated phthalic acid have been prepared according to the procedure in the literature. Their conventional physical and chemical analyses have been done. Their antibacterial studies against nine gram positive and five gram negative pathogenic bacteria and antifungal activities against eight plant and three human fungi have been evaluated. Kanamycin and Nystatin have been used as a standard for carrying out experiments of antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these compounds, as antibiotic against two gram positive and two gram negative pathogenic bacteria, have also been carried out and in this case, Amoxacilin antibiotic has been used as a standard antibiotic. (author)

  12. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  13. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  14. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  15. The Role of Amines, Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in the Formation of Prebiotic Macromolecules Surrounded by Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajen, Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    Amphiphilic compounds are known to self-assemble into membranous structures when exposed to alternate dry and wet conditions. This paper presents a model of how such structures could form near hydrothermal vents while containing macromolecules such as amino acids. The formation of amino acids near deep ocean hydrothermal vents as precursors for the origins of life is problematic as amino acids degrade from thermal energy. In the model proposed here, amino acids would degrade into amines (near hydrothermal vents). Amines have an affinity to interact with carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), form weak heat-unstable salts, and then through exposure to thermal energy release the acid gases and regenerate back to amines. Amines carrying and releasing H2S and CO2 would help other macromolecules form along with amino acids within protected cell-like structures; the cyclical release and recapture of acid gases would subsequently help the amino acids form bonds; further thermal action would degrade some of the amines into polymers that provide more strength and rigidity to the membrane walls; and also enable escaping gases to form tubes within the surrounding membranes for inlet and outlet of chemicals. Consider that liquids and gases are undergoing thermal convection inside a porous medium, and the convecting liquids contain some amines. Consider now that an amine weak salt carrying H2S and another carrying CO2 is inside a vesicle that formed through self-assembly. As this vesicle moves around in the thermal convection cell it will come close to the heat source and release the H2S and CO2 inside the vesicle. As the vesicle moves away from the heat source, the gases would be reabsorbed into the amines. This process would create stability and a repeating set of reactions, reactants, and products forming and reforming - cyclical stability is a key criterion for more complex reactions to occur. Some of the amines present would reform into an amino acid (as occurs

  16. Excretion of metabolites of biogenic amines in patients with irradiated brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolites of biogenic amines were determined in the 24-hour urine samples of patients submitted to surgical removal of a malignant brain tumour and subsequently to telecobalt therapy of the corresponding head region. A significant increase in the excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleasetic acid (5-HIAA), vanillinmandelic acid (VMA) as well as of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) during the period of irradiation was found. This increase is presumably the result of radiation induced release of their parent amines from the brain; in the case of VMA the secondary response of the peripheral sympathetic system might occur. (author)

  17. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  18. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  20. Characterization of collagen fiber grafted with glycidyl methacrylate monomer and treated with dibutyl amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leather grafted with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (L-g-PGMA) having graft yield of 26% and epoxy content 69.4 m mol/ 100 gm was prepared according to the emulsion polymerization technique and impregnated in different dibutyl amine solutions using amine/ epoxy molar ratio range from 0.5 up to 2.5. The obtained samples were characterized with respect to the nitrogen content, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis and the scanning electron microscope. The nitrogen content of the treated leather samples was increased by increasing the dibutyl amine concentration up to amine/ epoxy molar ratio of 2 after which it began to decrease. The water absorption, tensile strength and elongation (%) as well as hardness of the modified leather samples were studied and compared with the unmodified one. The colour strength values of dyed leather samples with acid dye were increased by grafting or by increasing the amine/epoxy molar ratio up to a value of 1.0 after which it begin to decrease. Meanwhile, the colour strength value of dyed leather sample with reactive dye was sharply decreased after grafting with poly (glycidyl methacrylate). On the other hand, pronounced increment in the colour strength value was obtained for the samples grafted with glycidyl methacrylate and treated with dibutyl acrylate amine and the colour strength is directly proportional to the sample nitrogen content

  1. Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Shah, Amisha D; Hu, Lanhua; Plewa, Michael J; McKague, Bruce; Mitch, William A

    2012-09-01

    With years of full-scale experience for precombustion CO(2) capture, amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO(2) capture. However, concerns for postcombustion applications have focused on the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines released following their formation by NO(x) reactions with amines within the capture unit. Analytical methods for N-nitrosamines in drinking waters were adapted to measure specific N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines and total N-nitrosamines in solvent and washwater samples. The high levels of amines, aldehydes, and nitrite in these samples presented a risk for the artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during sample storage or analysis. Application of a 30-fold molar excess of sulfamic acid to nitrite at pH 2 destroyed nitrite with no significant risk of artifactual nitrosation of amines. Analysis of aqueous morpholine solutions purged with different gas-phase NO and NO(2) concentrations indicated that N-nitrosamine formation generally exceeds N-nitramine formation. The total N-nitrosamine formation rate was at least an order of magnitude higher for the secondary amine piperazine (PZ) than for the primary amines 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and monoethanolamine (MEA) and the tertiary amine methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Analysis of pilot washwater samples indicated a 59 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration for a system operated with a 25% AMP/15% PZ solvent, but only 0.73 μM for a 35% MEA solvent. Unfortunately, a greater fraction of the total N-nitrosamine signal was uncharacterized for the MEA-associated washwater. At a 0.73 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration, a ~25000-fold reduction in concentration is needed between washwater units and downwind drinking water supplies to meet proposed permit limits. PMID:22831707

  2. 75 FR 50891 - N-alkyl (C8-C18) Primary Amines and Acetate Salts; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... the Federal Register of February 4, 2010, (75 FR 5793) (FRL- 8807-5), EPA issued a notice pursuant to... polyoxyethylene polymers and fatty acids; carriers such as clay and diatomaceous earth; thickeners such as... NAPAAS primary amines and primary amine acetate salt may also be conjugated, whether by...

  3. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  4. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0 to 30 pg m−3 for MA, 130 to 360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5 to 110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2 to 520 pg m−3 for MA, 100 to 1400 pg m−3 for DMA, 90 to 760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicates that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2 to 2.5%C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the organic nitrogen in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the total detected nitrogen content in submicron particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N to 1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  5. Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada eLedonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trace amines (TAs are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as ‘false’ neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1 and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2, were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson’s disease, all of which are characterised by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to dysinhibition; and (c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004. Further research is needed to address this point, and to further

  6. Teneurs en acides gras polyinsaturés essentiels du lait maternel en France : évolution du contenu en acides linoléique et alphalinolénique au cours des 10 dernières années

    OpenAIRE

    Boué-Vaysse Carole; Billeaud Claude; Guesnet Philippe; Couëdelo Leslie; Alessandri Jean-Marc; Putet Guy; Combe Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3; ALA), the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFA, are also present in breast milk. Although the total amount of fat in human milk is fairly constant, the fatty acid composition can vary subst...

  7. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  8. An overview of amines as nutritional supplements to counteract cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia Lopes; Andrade, Isabel; das Neves, Willian; Hangai, Isabela; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2014-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Recently, some amino acids and other amine dietary supplements have been highlighted in medical field due to positive effects upon diseases evolving skeletal muscle atrophy. Therefore, the aim of this brief review is to discuss the putative application of amines as dietary supplements to counteract skeletal muscle wasting on cancer cachexia. Specifically, we focus in two nutritional supplements: (1) branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and (2) creatine. Both BCAAs and creatine may attenuate proteolysis and enhance proteins synthesis in skeletal muscle. Although more experimental studies and clinical trials are still necessary to elucidate this therapeutic application, several evidences have demonstrated that amines supplementation is a promising coadjuvant treatment to cancer cachexia. PMID:24676930

  9. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  10. Effect of pH and modifier-concentration on the solvent extraction of molybdenum with an alkyl amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the extraction behaviour of molybdenum in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions of an alkyl amine (amberlite LA-2) in kerosene under various pH and in the presence of various percentage of 1-octanol has been reported. The concentration of molybdenum employed was high enough to precipitate it partially during extraction as an amine-molybdenum complex. The maximum extraction coefficient was found to lie between pH 1.5-2.5. Presence of 1-octanol increased the extraction coefficient of molybdenum by increasing the solubility of the amine-molybdenum complex in the organic phase without changing the pH at the maximum extraction. (Auth.)

  11. Désulfuration sélective du gaz soutiré d'un stockage souterrain Selective Desulfurization of Gas Withdrawn from an Underground Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaubertou G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La présence d'H2S constatée dès les premiers soutirages de gaz au stockage souterrain en nappe aquifère de Chémery avait nécessité la mise en place d'unités de désulfuration. Le gaz injecté étant exempt de gaz carbonique, le procédé par voie liquide utilisant la monoéthanolamine avait été retenu. Depuis 1977, le gaz injecté contenant des quantités appréciables de gaz carbonique a rendu inutilisable ce procédé. Parallèlement à l'injection de ce composé acide, la production d'H2S a fortement augmenté. La mise en oeuvre d'une amine sélective (MDEA a permis d'éliminer les composés soufrés en laissant pratiquement inchangée la composition du gaz chargé en C02. Les installations existantes ont pu être conservées, la banalisation des circuits facilitant l'utilisation de cette nouvelle amine. La communication présente les études et essais réalisés ainsi que les résultats d'exploitation qui se sont révélés particulièrement intéressants tant au point de vue technique qu'économique The presence of H2S in the first gas withdrawn from the underground storage aquifer at Chémery, France, required the installation of desulfurization units. Since there was no carton dioxide in the injected gas, a liquid process using monoethanolamine was selected. This process has become unusable since 1977 because the injected gas contains appreciable amounts of carton dioxide. At the same time as the injection of this acid compound, the production of H2S has considerably increased. A selective amine (MDEA was used tg eliminate the sulfur-containing compounds while leaving the composition of the C02-containing gas almost unchanged. The existing installations have been maintained as the result of the standardizing of the circuits for this new amine. This article describes the research and tests performed as well as the operational results which have turned out to be particularly intersting from both the technical and economic stand

  12. Approches contemporaines du bonheur

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet-Lafaye, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    1. Les centres cérébraux du bonheur La pensée et les recherches contemporaines offrent-elles une meilleure compréhension du bonheur de l’homme ? Qu’ont-elles apporté à la réflexion sur le bonheur et à son identification ou à sa détermination ? Les sciences sociales ne se sont intéressées que tardivement à la question de la vie bonne qui a longtemps été le domaine réservé de la philosophie et de la théologie. La psychiatrie fut la première, en raison de son travail sur la dépression, à s’intér...

  13. Jouer du piano

    OpenAIRE

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-01-01

    La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à...

  14. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  15. Le chant du monde

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Jean Grémillon emploie la voix dans ses films de manière très différente de ses collègues. C’est l’ensemble du sonore – bruits, voix et musique – qu’il imagine de façon originale. Son traitement s’inscrit dans une vision du monde : Grémillon conçoit le cinématographe comme un biographe, une écriture de la vie. Cette vie est comprise sur deux plans : celui de l’homme et celui de l’univers. La voix selon Grémillon serait le reflet dans l’homme d’un macrocosme perçu comme énigme (le bruit) ou ré...

  16. Les Conidae du Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.

    1973-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les prospections des navires océanographiques Snellius et Luymes au large des côtes du Surinam révèlent l'existence de sept espèces de Conidae. Parmi celles-ci une espèce, Conus guyanensis spec. nov., semble endémique à cette région. Six espèces (Conus centurio, C. austini, C. daucus, C. jasp

  17. The application experience of ethanol amine at KORI unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary system water chemistry in the KORI PWR units has been well controlled by reducing the corrosion in the tubes of the steam generators; the pH agent has been changing from ammonia to ethanol amine (ETA) (1.8 to 2.0 ppm). For example, the iron concentration in the system was reduced by 40 to 70% compared with ammonia treatment. The paper presents the detailed information, such as ETA injection concentration and the variation of pH, concentration of organic acid products, and irons in the system, and a significant change on sludge after ETA application. (S. Ohno)

  18. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  19. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  20. Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bulushi, Ismail; Poole, Susan; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Putrescine and cadaverine have been suggested to potentiate histamine toxicity. With respect to spoilage on the other hand, only cadaverine has been found to be a useful index of the initial stage of fish decomposition. The relationship between biogenic amines, sensory evaluation, and trimethylamine during spoilage are influenced by bacterial composition and free amino acid content. A mesophilic bacterial count of log 6-7 cfu/g has been found to be associated with 5 mg histamine/100 g fish, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum allowable histamine level. In vitro studies have shown the involvement of cadaverine and putrescine in the formation of nitrosamines, nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), respectively. In addition, impure salt, high temperature, and low pH enhance nitrosamine formation, whereas pure sodium chloride inhibits their formation. Understanding the relationships between biogenic amines and their involvement in the formation of nitrosamines could explain the mechanism of scombroid poisoning and assure the safety of many fish products.

  1. Gradient Elution Method for Successive Separation of Common Cations and Hydrophobic Amines using Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mixed waste the separation and sequential determination of alkali, alkaline earth metals mixed with hydrophobic amines represent a challenge analytical problem. The effect of a new mobile phase (amido-sulfonic acid, ASA) on the suppressed ion chromatographic separation of alkali, alkaline earth metals and hydrophobic amines on Dionex Ion Pac CS12A analytical column was investigated. The addition of surface modifier to the eluent appears to provide better interfacial compatibility between the mobile and stationary phase and facilitates the rapid equilibration of analytes. Incorporation of a very low concentration of the additive may also alters the stationary phase surface by creating a fine-tuning and improves the partition characteristics of the analytes. A dramatic and sufficient elution capability of ASA for sequential separation of the analytes was found and rational mechanisms for the separated analytes are proposed. ASA can act as ion-pairing agent resulting in the separation of a wide variety of amines. The new mobile phase (ASA) is proved to have more successful separation over methanesulfonic acid (MSA) even with eluent free solvent. The proposed method shows that a profound particular effect on the separation of aliphatic diamine (ethylenediamine) and organic amine (cyclohexylamine) was achieved in addition to all common cations and amines using isocratic elution of 18 mM of ASA without organic eluent modifier

  2. Screening of biogenic amine production by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham proceses

    OpenAIRE

    Landeta, Gerardo; Rivas, Blanca de las; Alfonso V Carrascosa; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated for 56 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes. The presence of biogenic amines from bacterial cultures was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The percentage of strains that decarboxylated amino acids was very low (3.6%). The only staphylococci with aminogenic capacity were an histamine-producing Staphylococcus capitis strain, and a Staphylococcus lugdunensis strain tha...

  3. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  4. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  5. Surface amination of poly(acrylonitrile)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Andreas; Mulder, Marcel; Smolders, Cees A.

    1994-01-01

    The surface amination of poly (acrylonitrile) by ammonia plasma treatment has been studied. Furthermore, two other surface modification techniques have been investigated, the plasma chemical decomposition of an amino group containing chemical (tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine) onto the polymer surface and the surface reduction by lithium aluminium hydride. The three different methods are compared with respect to the adhesion improvement of the coatings onto the modified surfaces.

  6. Modification and characterization of sites giving acid cracking on aluminium oxide supports; Modification et caracterisation des sites responsables du craquage acide sur des supports a base d`alumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, D.

    1997-10-23

    The aim of this work is to characterize the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, especially the nature, the amount, the strength and the environment of acid sites. The techniques that have been used are: the thermo-desorption of trimethyl-phosphine followed by {sup 31}P MAS NMR, the infrared spectroscopy, the n-heptane cracking, the modification of {gamma} alumina by the addition of chlorine, silicon and alkali (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}), alkaline-earths (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}), lanthanum (La{sup 3+}) cations. The combination of these techniques has allowed to identify the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina through the n-heptane transformation reactions under reforming conditions. We have shown that Lewis acidity is responsible for cracking reactions leading to C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} whereas the cracking of n-heptane producing C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} is due to Broensted acid sites. The isomerization and cyclization reactions both require weaker Broensted acid sites than cracking leading to C{sub 3}-C{sub 4}. The mechanisms involved in the formation of products of these reactions have been identified. Despite the complexity of surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, this study has determined the environment of catalytically active sites, considering the presence of cation vacancies. (author) 206 refs.

  7. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other...

  8. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  9. Les pirogues du Maroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie François

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the

  10. Absorption mechanism study of benzoic acid on calcite. Influence on the wettability; Etude du mecanisme d`absorption de l`acide benzoique sur la calcite. Incidence sur la mouillabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legens, Ch.

    1997-12-03

    A pure carbonate rock is strongly water-wet whereas oil accumulations study shows that most of carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet or of mixed-wettability. This is one of the main difficulties to extract crude oil. This change of behavior is due to the adsorption of some crude oil compounds on the mineral surface. We have mainly studied the interactions between acid molecules by adsorption on a calcite powder in an organic phase (benzoic acid and lauric acid) and in an aqueous phase (benzoic acid and lauric sodium salt). The technics which enabled us to define and characterize adsorption are thermogravimetry infrared diffuse reflection and thermal analysis with controlled kinetic linked to a mass spectrometer. Molecular modelling calculations have completed these analysis. It has been showed that when crude oil fills the biggest pores of the reservoir rock, the aqueous film is unstable and acids adsorb via ionic bonds on mineral calcium ions. Wettability is evaluated thanks to contact angle measurements of a water droplet deposited on a compacted powder pellet. Calcite wettability changes were all the greater as hydro-carbonated chains were longer, as it confers molecule hydrophobia. It has been also investigated acid molecules diffusion from the organic to the aqueous phase which saturates the smallest pores. Molecules which are able to diffuse from the first to the second medium do not adsorb on the surface. As a consequence, carbonate rock wettability changes require a direct contact between crude oil and mineral that involves aqueous film instability. (author) 128 refs.

  11. L'Origine du Monde

    CERN Multimedia

    CNET & Ecole Polytechnique Paris; Vincent Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Création, théologie, science, découverte, recherche, religion, condition humaine.Avec Maurice Jacob physicien, Hubert Curien Président du Conseil du CERN, Michael Doser physicien, Frère Emile Communauté de Taizé.

  12. Direct amination of benzene to aniline with several typical vanadium complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fen Lv; Liang Fang Zhu; Qiu Yuan Liu; Bin Guo; Xiao Ke Hu; Chang Wei Hu

    2009-01-01

    The liquid-phase direct catalytic amination of benzene to aniline was performed in acetic acid water solvent using a series of vanadium(Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ)complexes with N,O-or O,O-ligands as catalysts and hydroxylamine hydrochloride as the aminating agent.The vanadium complexes exhibited much higher selectivity towards the production of aniline than NaVO3 or VOSO4.Under the optimized conditions,an aniline yield of 42.5% and a TON of 48 with a high selectivity of above 99.9% was obtained using 0.2 mmol of[VO(OAc)2]as the catalyst.

  13. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.

  14. Bioactive amines in Brazilian wines: types, levels and correlation with physico-chemical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Solange C. Souza; Karine H. Theodoro; Élson R. Souza; Silvana da Motta; Maria Beatriz Abreu Glória

    2005-01-01

    The levels of ten bioactive amines and the physico-chemical characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot wines from Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, vintage of 1999 were investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics varied significantly: pH from 3.80 to 4.07, total acidity from 67.7 to 85.3 meq/L, alcohol content from 11.45 to 12.46 mL/100 mL and total SO2 from 9.6 to 102 mg/L. Six amines were detected in every sample - spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, seroton...

  15. Chemical and enzymatic interactions of Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 on release of carcinogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, A; Bhaskar, M; Ganga, Radhakrishnan; Sekaran, G; Sadulla, S

    2004-09-01

    Release of amine products from azo compounds is of considerable interest, since most of the metabolized amine products have toxic and carcinogenic characters. Moreover, most of the azo dyes are extensively used as coloring agents in inks, textiles, leathers, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study emphasis on the quantification and comparison of amines released from water soluble dyes by (i) extra cellular protein (ECP) of Streptomyces sp. SS07 and by (ii) chemical methods. It has been observed that both the methods release considerable quantities of similar type of amine products. Release of amine compounds by ECP and chemical reduction in acid and alkaline sweat medium from a leather garment sample was also assessed. ECP (0.7852 mg protein/mg of ECP) releases benzidine and 4-amino biphenyl from Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 as stable products at pH 9.2 and at 37 degrees C for a contact period of 24 h. On comparison with chemical reduction, it was observed that about 5-20% increase in the release of amine products by ECP was observed. However, more than 60% of amine products were released by chemical method from leather garment samples than direct treatment with ECP.

  16. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Primary Amines by Using Lithium Amidoborane as Reducing Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维亮; 郑学丽; 吴国涛; 陈萍

    2012-01-01

    A variety of secondary amines were obtained in high isolated yields in the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones by using lithium amidoborane as reducing agent. Compared to ammonia borane, lithium amidoborane has higher reducibility, and thus, exhibits faster reaction rate.

  17. Discours du figural

    OpenAIRE

    Sarikartal, Eminé

    2008-01-01

    Autour de la question du cheminement de l’art et de son interaction avec la technique, après une lecture de la partie prologue de La fable cinématographique de Jacques Rancière suivant le propre fil de réflexion de l’auteur, ce texte propose la rencontre de cette lecture avec la pensée de Jean-François Lyotard telle qu’il l’expose dans Discours, Figure.

  18. Analysis of irradiated biogenic amines by computational chemistry and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic Amines (B A) are nitrogenous compounds able to cause food poisoning. In this work, we studied the tyramine, one of the most common BA present in foods by combining experimental measured IR (Infrared) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometry) spectra and computational quantum chemistry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Deformed Atoms in Molecules (DMA) method was used to compute the partition the electronic densities in a chemically-intuitive way and electrostatic potentials of molecule to identify the acid and basic sites. Trading pattern was irradiated using a Cs 137 radiator, and each sample was identified by IR and GC/MS. Calculated and experimental IR spectra were compared. We observed that ionizing gamma irradiation was very effective in decreasing the population of standard amine, resulting in fragments that could be rationalized through the quantum chemistry calculations. In particular, we could locate the acid and basic sites of both molecules and identify possible sites of structural weaknesses, which allowed to propose mechanistic schemes for the breaking of chemical bonds by the irradiation. Moreover, from this work we hope it will be also possible to properly choose the dose of gamma irradiation which should be provided to eliminate each type of contamination. (author)

  19. Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor

    2015-05-25

    Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This

  20. Synthesis of Bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine Monomers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanwei; Yan, Peifang; Liu, Kairui; Wan, Lu; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Huixiang; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-06-01

    We report the synthesis of bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine (BHMFA) from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by reacting 5-HMF with primary amines in the presence of homogeneous Ru(II) catalysts having sterically strained ligands. BHMFA is a group of furan-based monomers that offer great potential to form functional biopolymers with tunable properties. A range of primary amines, such as aliphatic and benzyl amines, are readily converted with 5-HMF to form the corresponding BHMFA in good yields. The reaction proceeds through reductive amination of 5-HMF with primary amine to form secondary amine, followed by reductive amination of 5-HMF with in situ generated secondary amine to produce BHMFA. PMID:27151257

  1. Teneurs en acides gras polyinsaturés essentiels du lait maternel en France : évolution du contenu en acides linoléique et alphalinolénique au cours des 10 dernières années

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boué-Vaysse Carole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3; ALA, the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFA, are also present in breast milk. Although the total amount of fat in human milk is fairly constant, the fatty acid composition can vary substantially depending on the diet of the mother. Large variations in the LA, ALA and DHA (22:6 n-3 contents are observed among countries. As reported by previous studies (1993-2001, the ALA consumption of the French population was 2-3 times lower than the recommended value. Since this period, the food industry offers more food products enriched in n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether current recommendations and improved n-3 PUFA content of food products comply with the actual breast-milk PUFA composition. For this purpose, the PUFA content of a large number of human milk samples collected in 2007 in different French regions were compared with previous data obtained in studies conducted in the nineties years (1993-1998. Moreover, this study aimed to confirm expected reduction of the trans fatty acid (TFA intake resulting from decreased level of TFA in margarine and other dietary fats during the same period. Study design and methods: Mature (postpartum day ≥ 30 human milk samples (n = 145 were provided in 2007 by eight French regional human milk banks (Bordeaux : n = 20; Dijon: n = 21; Ile-de-France: n = 18; Lyon: n = 20; Montpellier: n = 18; Nantes: n = 21; St Etienne: n = 6; Tours: n = 21, from healthy women volunteers with no particular health history. The fatty acid composition of breast milk was analysed by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann and

  2. Utilization of stable isotopes for the study of in vivo compartmental metabolism of poly-insaturate fatty acids; Utilisation des isotopes stables pour l`etude du metabolisme compartimental in vivo d`acides gras polyinsatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, N.; Croset, M.; Lecerf, J.; Lagarde, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Pachiaudi, C.; Normand, S.; Riou, J.P. [Faculte de Medecine, 69 - Lyon (France); Chirouze, V.; Tayot, J.L. [IMEDEX, 69 - Chaponost (France)

    1994-12-31

    In order to study the compartmental metabolism of the 22:6n-3 fatty acid, and particularly the role of the transport plasmatic forms for the tissue uptake (especially brain), a technique is developed using carbon 13 stable isotope and an isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to gaseous chromatography technique. This method has been validated in rat with docosahexaenoic acid enriched in {sup 13}C and esterified in triglycerides. The compartmental metabolism is monitored by measuring the variation of 22:6n-3 isotopic enrichment in the various lipoprotein lipidic fractions, in blood globules and in the brain. 1 fig., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  3. Click and chemically triggered declick reactions through reversible amine and thiol coupling via a conjugate acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Katharine L.; Kolesnichenko, Igor V.; Robotham, Scott A.; Bachman, J. Logan; Zhong, Ye; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Anslyn, Eric V.

    2016-10-01

    The coupling and decoupling of molecular units is a fundamental undertaking of organic chemistry. Herein we report the use of a very simple conjugate acceptor, derived from Meldrum's acid, for the sequential ‘clicking’ together of an amine and a thiol in aqueous conditions at neutral pH. Subsequently, this linkage can be ‘declicked’ by a chemical trigger to release the original amine and thiol undisturbed. The reactivity differs from that of other crosslinking agents because the selectivity for sequential functionalization derives from an altering of the electrophilicity of the conjugate acceptor on the addition of the amine. We describe the use of the procedure to modify proteins, create multicomponent libraries and synthesize oligomers, all of which can be declicked to their starting components in a controlled fashion when desired. Owing to the mild reaction conditions and ease of use in a variety of applications, the method is predicted to have wide utility.

  4. Catalyst-free dehydrocoupling of amines, alcohols, and thiols with pinacol borane and 9-borabicyclononane (9-BBN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Erik A; Peltier, Jesse L; Jazzar, Rodolphe; Bertrand, Guy

    2016-08-18

    Contrary to recent reports, the dehydrocoupling of pinacol borane and 9-borabicyclononane with a variety of amines, alcohols and thiols can be achieved under mild conditions without catalyst. This process involves the formation of Lewis acid-base adducts featuring a hydridic B-H in close proximity to an acidic Nu-H. PMID:27498971

  5. Introduction of various amine groups onto polyethylene bead prepared by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation-induced graft polymerization is a good method for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymeric materials because it can endow properties such as membrane quality, ion exchange, blood compatibility, dyeability, protein adsorption, and immobilization of bioactive materials. Polyethylene microbead is very useful material due to the following advantages; low price, simple purchase, high sensitivity, and simple analysis. On the other hand, the epoxy group of the glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can easily be converted to the various functional groups such as amines, alcohols, phosphoric acid, sulfonic acid, and amino acid, etc. Cyclodextrin have been applied universally in various industries such as foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industry, analytical chemistry, and chemical industry. In order to obtain cyclodextrins, polyethylene microbead with the epoxy group were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of GMA onto polyethylene microbead. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-induced polyethylene microbeads were investigated by IR, thermal analysis (TGA/DSC), and SEM, respectively. Subsequently, the various amine groups such as diethylamine. diethylenetriamine, triethylamine, triethylenetetramine, and 1,6-hexanediamine were induced onto the epoxy group in polyethylene microbead. Finally, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase were immobilized onto polyethylene microbead with various amines under the various experimental conditions, such as pH, amin content, immobilization time, and etc. The activity of CGTase-immobilized polyethylene microbead was determined by Phenolphthein method. The production of the cyclodextrins from starch is in progress

  6. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  7. Advanced Development and Characterization of DEA Amine-Polysulfone/Polyvinylacetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology effectively separates CO2 from CH4 and has been practiced for many years but requires membranes with high selectivity and permeability. Different approaches are employed to improve membrane performance and it is soon possible to develop a blended polymeric membrane that separates high pressure gas streams at the point of processing pressure. However, glassy polymers suffer a lack of permeability causing their performance to drop as an upper bound trade-off but highly selective and rubbery polymers have high permeability with low selectivity. As an amine solution is capable of purifying naturally acidic gas, blending glassy, rubbery polymers with amines-specifically, polysulfone and polyvinyl acetate with diethanol amine in dimethyl acetamide as solvent-we developed flat sheet membranes with desirable properties. As it is now possible to acquire amine-polymer blends with more desirable properties by mixing with a miscible polymer, it is essential to observe factors that affect the polymer's miscibility with amines. Hence, we also analyzed the effects of blend ratios on different properties. Blended membranes of different ratios were synthesized and their functional groups were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR. We then employed Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA to describe weight loss and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM to determine respective morphologies.

  8. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  9. Contribution to the study of the redox couple Np(VI)/Np(V) in the presence of uranium(VI) in solutions of nitric acid and nitrous acid; Contribution a l'etude du comportement redox du couple Np(VI)/Np(V) en presence d'uranium VI dans les solutions constituees d'acide nitrique et d'acide nitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpigny, S. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. de Radiochimie et Procedes, DRP, 30 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The redox behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was the subject of a spectrometric study of the Np(VI) reduction reaction in nitric acid solutions (4 to 5 M) containing variable concentrations (1.5 to 3.5 x 10{sup -3} M) of nitrous acid. A low nitrous acid concentration and a high nitric acid concentration were found to favor the stabilization of Np(VI). The stoichiometric coefficients of nitrous acid and nitric acid in the Np(VI) reduction reaction were determined thermodynamically, although only the reaction order with respect to HNO{sub 2} could be calculated from a kinetic analysis. Adding nitrate ions to a HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solution enhanced the stability of neptunium at oxidation state +VI, but also increased the reduction rate. When uranium(VI) was added to the HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solutions, the total quantity of neptunium at oxidation state +V (either free or as a Np(V)-U(VI) complex) remained practically unchanged, as did the Np(VI) reduction rate. The electrochemical behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was investigated in a weak acidic medium by voltammetry with an ultra-micro-electrode (UME). The oxidation wave limiting current variation was a linear function of the Np(V) concentration when a gold UME was used, but not with a platinum UME; the reduction wave limiting current variation versus the Np(V) concentration was linear with either gold or platinum UMEs. The presence of the Np(V)-U(VI) complex in the neptunium solutions was characterized by a shift in the normal apparent potential of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple toward anodic potentials consistent with the previously determined values of the complexation constants. (author)

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  11. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  12. La carbonatation du béton armé

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, C

    1998-01-01

    Ce document présente les divers aspects de la carbonatation du béton armé: Description des diverses réactions chimiques qui conduisent à la carbonatation des bétons. Comment le pH du béton se modifie laissant les armatures dans un milieu acide, donc corrosif. Description des conséquences sur les bétons et les armatures. Formation de cloques de surface, éclatement et perte de résistance. Méthodes d'investigation des dégâts d'ouvrages en béton armé visuelle, électrique, et par carottage. Prophylaxie passive et active: disposition des armatures lors de la réalisation, utilisation d'armatures ydables ou de fers enrobés de peinture epoxydique, protection des aciers lors de travaux d'assainissement. Principes d'assainissement du béton armé sur ouvrages anciens. Purge des bétons, passivation et protection des armatures et reconstitution au mortier de résine, ou passivation par infiltration du béton. Impact sur les ouvrages du CERN et conséquences financières prévisibles.

  13. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  14. Solvent extraction bis (the 2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid catecholamine structural property quantitative correlation; Bisu (2-echiruhekishiru) rinsan wo mochiita katekoru amin rui no yobai chushutsu to teiryoteki kozo bussho sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Fujimoto, Yuko; Owatari, Keisuke; Inoue, Katsutoshi

    1999-03-05

    As a basic research of separation and refinement of catecholamine (CA) by solvent extraction method which is chemical messenger of central neuron in the internal, it was extracted from dopamine (DA), adrenalin (Ad) and in hydrochloric acid aqueous solution of noradrenaline (NA). Then, each solution of chloroform. Hexane and toluene of bis (the 2 - ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used in respect of the stripping. All CA is CA by D2EHPA in mechanism of ion exchange: It was clarified that it was extracted as D2EHPA=1:4 complex and the extraction equilibrium constant was obtained. In addition, the consideration by molecule modeling considering the solvent effect of continuous medium types using semi-experience molecular orbital method by quantitative structural property correlation (QSPR) was carried out on got extraction equilibrium constant. (translated by NEDO)

  15. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN DEPRESSION*

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, V.; V. Ramachandran; Somasundaram, O.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on the study of 40 depressives in an attempt to explore the possible association between the suicidal ideas and the biogenic amines. The severity of suicidal ideas was measured on Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and their amine metabolites were measured (MHFG, HVA and 5 HIAA) in urine and C.S.F. It was observed that the level of 5 HIAA, and Serotonin (5 HT) was more related to suicidal ideas and was inversely related. The probable associations between these are d...

  16. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  17. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  18. Femmes du Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Claudine; Fine, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    L'actualité, comme toujours, suscite la réflexion historique. Devant le déchaînement de la violence en Algérie, CLIO avait programmé, dès sa fondation en 1995, un numéro consacré aux Femmes d'Algérie où se seraient exprimés des chercheurs (euses) d'Algérie. C'était pour son comité de rédaction une façon de dire, comme il le pouvait, sa solidarité à ceux qui vivaient dans la quotidienneté de la terreur. Il a demandé à Djamila Amrane, titulaire depuis 1994 du poste d'« Histoire des Femme...

  19. La musique du malentendu

    OpenAIRE

    Abbrugiati, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    La « petite musique » du style tabucchien rencontre souvent la musique tout court : personnages musiciens, musique en arrière-plan des récits, ou au centre de la trame narrative, donnent une projection artistique au problème d’une harmonie impossible entre des êtres qui “n’entendent” pas les événements de la même manière. Il s’agira d’examiner les récits de Tabucchi où la musique joue un rôle flagrant, pour définir ce rôle et, au-delà de leur diégèse propre, de comprendre de quelle métaphore ...

  20. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.;

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  1. A molecular probe for the optical detection of biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boram; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

    2011-01-01

    A coumarin derivative was employed for the detection of biogenic amines in buffered aqueous solution by UV-Vis or fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, the dye can also be used for the optical detection of gaseous amines.

  2. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  3. Amines and Ammonia Measured in the Southeastern U.S. Forest during the 2013 SOAS Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; You, Y.; Sierra-Hernández, M.; Baumann, K.; Fry, J.; Allen, H.; Draper, D. C.; Edgerton, E.

    2013-12-01

    Amines and ammonia play critical roles in new particle formation, via acid-base reactions at the initial stage of aerosol nucleation. Nitrogen base compounds are important for SOA formation, via formation of salts and condensation of amine photo-oxidation products; they also contribute to the formation of brown organic aerosols. Amines and ammonia can change the acidity and physical state of aerosols to further affect SOA yields. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in Centerville, Alabama from June 1 to July 15, 2013, amines and ammonia were simultaneously measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) by Kent State University [Yu and Lee, 2012: Environ. Chem. 9, 190-201]. The sensitivity of the CIMS was in the range of 5-10 Hz ion signals for 1 pptv of a base compound, which ultimately allows for the fast-time response detection (less than 1 minute) of ammonia and amines at the pptv level. Additionally, ammonia was also detected with another two independent methods, MARGA (Measuring AeRosols and Gases) by Reed College, and chemiluminescence by ARA. Ammonia concentrations measured by CIMS, MARGA and chemiluminescence were at the ppbv and sub-ppbv level. Over the 6 weeks of the SOAS field study, these three ammonia instruments consistently showed very similar time variations and agreed reasonably well. The CIMS also detected various C1 through C6 amines at the pptv and tens pptv level. Trimethylamine (C3 amine) and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends, temperature and wind direction dependences for most days, implying common natural emission sources of these two base compounds at this forest site. On the other hand, methylamine (C1) and dimethylamine (C2) were much lower than trimethylamine and they did not show clear diurnal variations and temperature dependences. During the brief episode of local biomass burning, concentrations of C3 through C6 amines and ammonia increased rapidly, while methylamine and dimethylamine were

  4. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. eLinares; Beatriz edel Río; Victor eLadero; Noelia eMartínez; María eFernández; María Cruz eMartín; Miguel A. eAlvarez

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amine...

  5. 西式蒸煮火腿切片货架期褪色与游离氨基酸和生物胺的关系%Relationship Between Color Parameters and Free Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines of Sliced Cooked Cured Beef Ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫青; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Discoloration during storage is a key problem that limits the shelf-life of cooked cured meats. The purpose of the experiment is to study the relationship of color parameters and amino acids and biogenic amines of sliced cooked cured beef ham (SCCBH), to reveal the effects of the nitrogen compounds in meat products on the stability of the heme pigment and apparent color, in the hope of providing theoretical guidances for color protection of this type of products. [Method]Color parameters, free amino acids and biological amines of SCCH during storage were examined and factor analysis was used to explain the effect of free amino acids and biogenic amines on the color parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the principal factor. Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser normalization method was adopted in data analysis. [Result]Eight kinds of biogenic amines and 16 kinds of free amino acids were detected in this experiment. Biological amines showed no significant changes during storage, while, threonine (Thr), valine (Val), methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) changed significantly. The factor analysis results showed that the first principal factor (F1) explained 45.72% of the total variation, and the second (F2) explained 21.52%. F1 was a concentrated reflection of color changes of SCCBH during storage, especially of the redness (a*), Chroma (C) and pigment NO-Heme (NH), and nitrogen compounds directly affecting the apparent color. F2 was mainly expressed the information of the hue and of the nitrogen compounds indirectly affecting apparent redness through the hue (H) or yellowness (b*), these nitrogen compounds mainly contained acidic and alkaline free amino acids. Tyramine (TYR) and spermine (SPM) significantly affected the stability of heme pigment and apparent color of SCCBH, which were shown by a high factor loading value (0.98) in F1. Further, TYR and SPM negatively correlated with the color parameters of SCCBH

  6. Effet des protéines et des fibres alimentaires sur les pertes iléales d'acides aminés endogènes chez le porc.

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Rossi, Florence; André THEWIS

    1997-01-01

    An N-free diet was supplemented with limited but increasing amounts of proteins (30, 60, 90 g/kg diet from a mixture of casein and egg yolk), in order to measure their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses in pigs. The study was conducted at 2 dietary fibre levels: 20 and 80 g/kg, isolated from pea seeds. Compared to the N-free diet, a supply of 30 g proteins was sufficient to obtain a positive N retention and the following supplies allowed a constant and linear increase (0.88...

  7. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  8. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  9. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  10. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  12. Amines in the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Density Functional Theory Study of the Thermochemistry of Pre-Nucleation Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Herb

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of organic species which are present in the Earth’s atmosphere on the burst of new particles is critically important for the understanding of the molecular nature of atmospheric nucleation phenomena. Amines have recently been proposed as possible stabilizers of binary pre-nucleation clusters. In order to advance the understanding of atmospheric nucleation phenomena, a quantum-chemical study of hydrogen-bonded complexes of binary sulfuric acid-water clusters with methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamines representing common atmospheric organic species, vegetation products and laboratory impurities has been carried out. The thermochemical stability of the sulfuric acid-amines-water complexes was found to be higher than that of the sulfuric acid-ammonia-water complexes, in qualitative agreement with the previous studies. However, the enhancement in stability due to amines appears to not be large enough to overcome the difference in typical atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and amines. Further research is needed in order to address the existing uncertainties and to reach a final conclusion about the importance of amines for the atmospheric nucleation.

  13. Corps gras non conventionnels du Bassin du Congo : Caractérisation, biodiversité et qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silou Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cent trente échantillons d’huiles et graisses extraites de 77 espèces oléagineuses du Bassin du Congo, appartenant à 35 familles botaniques, font l’objet de cette revue. Les familles Annonaceae, Burseraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Irvingiaceae, Mimosaceae et Palmaceae sont les mieux représentées, avec au moins cinq espèces examinées pour chacune d’elles. La teneur en matière grasse varie de 13 à 87 % avec 30 % de plantes faiblement oléagineuses, 42 % de plantes moyennement oléagineuses et 33 % de plantes fortement oléagineuses. Les matières grasses extraites de ces plantes sont essentiellement constituées des acides gras (AG courants (C12 à C24 avec une prédominance nette des acides gras en C16 et C18. Un classement de ces matières grasses comme source de 1, 2 ou 3 acides gras majeurs a été proposé. Il distingue des huiles et graisses sources d’acides gras individuels (acides stéarique, oléique et linoléique, mais également des huiles et graisses sources des couples d’acides gras (laurique-mystique et stéarique-oléique. La situation la plus fréquente est celle du trio d’acides palmitique, oléique, linoléique, avec des teneurs individuelles en AG de l’ordre de 20 % et une teneur cumulée des trois AG au moins égale à 90 %. La représentation « radar-plots », en faisant ressortir les ressemblances et les différences entre les huiles et graisses étudiées, permet de faire un regroupement et éventuellement un classement de ces matières grasses par pôle d’intérêt. Un regroupement en fonction du profil des TAG majeurs a également été envisagé. Cette étude, qui regroupe une quantité importante de données obtenues sur une quarantaine d’années, met en évidence la grande diversité des espèces oléagineuses du Bassin du Congo et permet d’identifier, sur la base de leur composition chimique, les domaines potentiels d’utilisation des huiles et graisses examinées.

  14. New adducts of Lapachol with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirelly D.F.; Litivack-Junior, Jose T.; Antunes, Roberto V.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ccelso@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    New adducts of lapachol with neat primary aliphatic amines were obtained in a solvent-free reaction in good to reasonable yields (52 to 88%), at room temperature. The new compounds containing a phenazine moiety were obtained from suitable functionalized aminoalkyl compounds, including ethanolamine, 3-propanolamine, 2-methoxy-ethylamine, 3-methoxy-propylamine, n-butylamine and 2-phenetylamine. (author)

  15. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these—the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate—quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  16. Toward rational design of amines for CO2 capture: Substituent effect on kinetic process for the reaction of monoethanolamine with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Pan; He, Ning; Yang, Xianhai; Chen, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    Amines have been considered as promising candidates for post-combustion CO2 capture. A mechanistic understanding for the chemical processes involved in the capture and release of CO2 is important for the rational design of amines. In this study, the structural effects of amines on the kinetic competition among three typical products (carbamates, carbamic acids and bicarbonate) from amines+CO2 were investigated, in contrast to previous thermodynamic studies to tune the reaction of amines with CO2 based on desirable reaction enthalpy and reaction stoichiometry. We used a quantum chemical method to calculate the activation energies (Ea) for the reactions of a range of substituted monoethanolamines with CO2 covering three pathways to the three products. The results indicate that the formation of carbamates is the most favorable, among the three considered products. In addition, we found that the Ea values for all pathways linearly correlate with pKa of amines, and more importantly, the kinetic competition between carbamate and bicarbonate absorption pathways varies with pKa of the amines, i.e. stronger basicity results in less difference in Ea. These results highlight the importance of the consideration of kinetic competition among different reaction pathways in amine design.

  17. Application of aminO acid chelates in infant milk formulation%氨基酸螯合物在婴幼儿配方奶粉中的应用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鸣; 张凤; 贾承胜; 夏书芹; 乐琳

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid chelates were used as mineral additives for fortification of infant milk formulation. The retention of VA, VC, VE as well as POV change during storage were evaluated when adding inorganic salts, organic salts and chelates, respectively. The results indicated that the retention of VA,VC,VE was highest in chelate group, followed by mixed organic group, and inorganic group was the lowest. Higher temperature could accelerate the degradation of vitamins mentioned above. The POV of three group of infant milk formulations all increased after storage, but it was lowest in the chelate group, which suggested that amino acid chelate was better than inorganic and other organic salts when adding into infant milk formulation.%研究氨基酸螯合物在婴幼儿配方奶粉中的应用性能.将不同微量元素添加到婴幼儿配方奶粉中研究其对体系过氧化值及VA、VC、VE稳定性的影响,发现无机组维生素降解非常迅速,螯合组最慢,混合组稍次于螯合组;温度升高会加速维生素的降解;婴幼儿配方奶粉储藏一定时间后POV均略有升高,升高幅度为无机组>混合组>螯合组,表明氨基酸螯合物在婴幼儿配方奶粉中的应用性能优于无机盐和有机盐.

  18. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological, Biochemical and Genetic Potential of Freeze Dried Starter Cultures of Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tropical Products Found in Sub-Saharan Africa and Intended for Use in the Production of Vinegar. The International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD is a unique international effort that evaluates the relevance, quality and effectiveness of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (AKST, the effectiveness of public and private sector policies as well as institutional arrangements in relation to AKST. The purpose of IAASTD is to assess the impact of AKST on hunger, poverty, nutrition, human health, and environmental and social sustainability, in order to formulate options for actions to use AKST more effectively to facilitate sustainable development. The IAASTD report concludes that business as usual is not an option, successfully meeting development and sustainability goals and responding to new priorities and changing circumstances would require a fundamental shift in agricultural knowledge, science, and technology.

  19. Study of molybdenum (VI) complexation and precipitation by zirconium (IV) in strongly acid medium. Application to nuclear spent fuel dissolution; Etude de la complexation et de la precipitation du molybdene (VI) par le zirconium (IV) en milieu tres acide. Application a la dissolution du combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E

    1999-07-01

    These last years the formation of solid deposits has been observed in the dissolution workshops of the La Hague plant. A sample of the solid was withdrawn for expertise: molybdenum and zirconium are the two major components of the solid, identified as zirconium molybdate. This thesis consisted in the approach of the mechanisms in solution liable to induce precipitate formation. After a bibliographical overview on the chemistry of Mo(VI) in highly acidic solution, this system was studied by absorption spectrophotometry in perchloric medium. The implication of two major forms of Mo(VI) in a dimerization equilibrium was confirmed by this way and by {sup 95}Mo NMR. The principal parameters governing this equilibrium were identified. It is thus shown that the molybdenum dimerization reaction is exothermic. Disturbance of the Mo(VI) system in highly acidic solution by Zr(IV) was also studied. In a restricted experimental field, for which 'conventional' exploitation methodologies had to be adapted to the system, a main complex of stoichiometry 1:1 between Mo(VI) and Zr(IV) was found. The precipitation study of Mo(VI) by Zr(IV) under conditions close to those of the dissolution medium of nuclear spent fuel was undertaken. The main parameters which control precipitation kinetics were identified. The results obtained reveal that precipitation is controlled by a single macroscopic process and therefore can be described by a single equation. The solid obtained is composed of only one phase presenting a Mo:Zr non-stoichiometry when compared to the theoretical formula ZrMo{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2},2H{sub 2}O. At last, on the basis of the research results, a descriptive mechanism of the system is proposed in which intervenes a 1:1 intermediate complex, much more soluble than a probable 2:1 precipitation precursor. (author)

  20. Experience with treating the water/steam cycle in the Nehlsen Stavenhagen RDF power plant with film-forming amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolander, Bernd [School of Engineering for Engines and Machines ' ' Rudolf Diesel' ' , Meissen (Germany); Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Product Development for Water Conditioning; Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Product Development for Water Conditioning; BK Giulini GmbH, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Conditioning of the water/steam cycle in the Nehlsen Stavenhagen refuse-derived fuel (RDF) power plant has been carried out with a conditioning agent based on film-forming amines for the last four years. The water and steam parameters correspond to the specifications in the guidelines, with the exception of the acid conductivity of the vapor that is used to drive the extraction condensing turbine. The increased acid conductivity can be traced to carbon dioxide, degradation of organic components and the amines. Inspections of the boiler and turbine show that the plant is in excellent condition. Conditioning of the water/steam cycle with film-forming amines is evaluated as being very satisfactory. (orig.)

  1. Le collisionneur du futur?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Pourquoi deux études parallèles pour un même collisionneur linéaire ? Loin d’être un double effort et un gaspillage de ressources, ces deux études s’inscrivent dans une stratégie de complémentarité afin de fournir la meilleure technologie requise par la physique du futur. Vendredi 12 juin a eu lieu au CERN la première réunion conjointe CLIC et ILC. Elle n’a pas été avare de bons résultats et d’importantes décisions. Le Collisionneur Linéaire International (ILC) et le Collisionneur Linéaire Compact (CLIC) sont deux études qui font, tous deux, appel à des technologies de pointe. A première vue en compétition, les deux études sont en réalité complémentaires et elles ont un objectif commun : proposer dans les plus brefs délais et au moindre coût, l‘accélérateur linéaire le mieux adapté pour prendre le relais de la physique des très hautes énergies après le LHC.

  2. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  3. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  4. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid : equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented tha

  5. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J. L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  6. Improved Parameterization of Amine-Carboxyate and Amine-Phosphate Interactions for Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using the CHARMM and AMBER Force Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jejoong

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules have become a mainstream biophysics technique. As the length and time scales amenable to the MD method increase, shortcomings of the empirical force fields---which have been developed and validated using relatively short simulations of small molecules---become apparent. One common artifact is aggregation of water-soluble biomolecules driven by artificially strong charge--charge interactions. Here, we report a systematic refinement of Lennard-Jones parameters (NBFIX) describing amine--carboxylate and amine--phosphate interactions, which brings MD simulations of basic peptide-mediated nucleic acids assemblies and lipid bilayer membranes in better agreement with experiment. As our refinement neither affects the existing parameterization of bonded interaction nor does it alter the solvation free energies, it improves realism of an MD simulation without introducing additional artifacts.

  7. Binary competitive adsorption of naphthalene compounds onto an aminated hypercrosslinked macroporous polymeric adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-qiang; CHEN Jin-long; CHENG Xiu-mei; GE Jun-jie; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Quan-xing

    2004-01-01

    An aminated hypercrosslinked macroporous polymeric adsorbent was synthesized and characterized. Adsorption isotherms for 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid(1, 2, 4-acid) and 2-naphthol obtained from various binary adsorption environments can be well fitted by Freundlich equation, which indicated a favorable adsorption process in the studied range. Adsorption for 1, 2, 4-acid was an endothermic process in comparison with that for 2-naphthol of an exothermic process. 2-naphthol molecules put a little influence on the adsorption capacity for 1, 2, 4-acid. However, the adsorption to 1, 2, 4-acid depressed that to 2-naphthol in a large extent for the stronger electrostatic interaction between 1, 2, 4-acid and adsorbent. The predominant mechanism can be contributed to the competition for adsorption sites. And the simultaneous environment was confirmed to be helpful to the selective adsorption towards 1,2,4-acid based on the larger selectivity index.

  8. Synthesis and post-synthetic modification of amine-, alkyne-, azide- and nitro-functionalized metal-organic frameworks based on DUT-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Meike A; Grosjean, Sylvain; Brunner, Tobias S; Kotzel, Johannes; Gänzler, Andreas M; Wolf, Silke; Bräse, Stefan; Kleist, Wolfgang

    2015-10-14

    Functionalized 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid molecules with additional amine, alkyne, azide or nitro groups were prepared and applied in the synthesis of novel metal-organic frameworks and mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks isoreticular to DUT-5. The properties of the frameworks could be tuned by varying the number of functional groups in the materials and the amine groups were employed in post-synthetic modification reactions without changing the framework structure or significantly decreasing the porosity of the materials.

  9. Pyrylium Salts as Reactive Matrices for MALDI-MS Imaging of Biologically Active Primary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Källback, Patrik; Karlsson, Oskar; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Svenningsson, Per; Andren, Per E.

    2015-06-01

    Many neuroactive substances, including endogenous biomolecules, environmental compounds, and pharmaceuticals possess primary amine functional groups. Among these are catecholamine neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine), many substituted phenethylamines (e.g., amphetamine), as well as amino acids and neuropeptides. In most cases, mass spectrometric (ESI and MALDI) analyses of trace amounts of such compounds are challenging because of their poor ionization properties. We present a method for chemical derivatization of primary amines by reaction with pyrylium salts that facilitates their detection by MALDI-MS and enables the imaging of primary amines in brain tissue sections. A screen of pyrylium salts revealed that the 2,4-diphenyl-pyranylium ion efficiently derivatizes primary amines and can be used as a reactive MALDI-MS matrix that induces both derivatization and desorption. MALDI-MS imaging with such matrix was used to map the localization of dopamine and amphetamine in brain tissue sections and to quantitatively map the distribution of the neurotoxin β- N-methylamino-L-alanine.

  10. Electrical detection of amine ligation to a metalloporphyrin via a hybrid SOI-MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takulapalli, Bharath R; Laws, Gez M; Liddell, Paul A; Andréasson, Joakim; Erno, Zach; Gust, Devens; Thornton, Trevor J

    2008-02-20

    A close-packed monolayer of zinc 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin has been prepared and deposited on the thin native oxide covering the surface of an SOI-MOSFET (silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor) using Langmuir-Blodgett techniques. When the device is exposed to amine vapors in a nitrogen atmosphere, the amine coordinates to the zinc atom. The resulting change in electron distribution within the porphyrin leads to a large change in the drain current of the transistor, biased via a back gate. This change is sensitive to both the amount of amine present and the base strength of the amine. Only very small changes in drain current were observed with a monolayer of free base porphyrin or palmitic acid. After exposure to high pyridine concentrations, the device response saturates, but partially recovers after overnight exposure to flowing nitrogen gas. Interestingly, the device response is instantaneously reset by exposure to visible light, suggesting that photode-ligation occurs. An electrical model for the hybrid device that describes its response to ligand binding in terms of a change in the work function of the porphyrin monolayer has been developed. A transistor response to a few hundred attomoles of bound pyridine can be readily detected. This extreme sensitivity, coupled with the ability to reset the device using light, suggests that such systems might be useful as sensors. PMID:18225896

  11. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani; Javad Aliakbarlu; Ali Ehsani; Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan ...

  12. Debaryomyces hansenii, Proteus vulgaris, Psychrobacter sp and Microbacterium foliorum are able to produce biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Hélinck, Sandra; Perello, Marie-Claire; Deetae, Pawinee; De Revel, Gilles; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of biogenic amines (BAs) produced by the microbiota of fermented foods is a source of health concern. The three bacteria Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. and the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, isolated from surface-ripened cheeses, are known to contribute to their aromatic properties. The potential of each of these strains to produce BAs was investigated, both in pure cultures of each bacterium in a laboratory medium supplemented with amino acids an...

  13. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Ana; Martínez Álvarez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana , Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández García, María; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid ...

  14. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  15. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  16. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  17. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines: XIII. Application of the ERAS model to cyclic amine + alkane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Sanz, Luis Felipe; García De La Fuente, Isaías; Cobos, José Carlos

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures are investigated using ERAS. • ERAS parameters are given. Relatively high X{sub AB} values remark the importance of physical interactions. • ERAS parameters are consistent with those of primary or secondary (linear or aromatic) amines. • H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, and C{sub pm}{sup E} data reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects. • ERAS correctly describes H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E}, G{sub m}{sup E} and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. - Abstract: Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures have been investigated in the framework of the ERAS (Extended Real Associated Solution) model. The corresponding ERAS parameters are reported. All the amines considered have the same equilibrium constant (K{sub A} = 0.75). Cyclopropylamine, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine and pyrrolidine are characterized by the same enthalpy of self-association (Δh{sub A}{sup *}=−15 kJ mol{sup −1}). Piperidine and hexamethyleneimine show a less negative Δh{sub A}{sup *} value (−13 kJ mol{sup −1}). Experimental data on excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E}, volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, and isobaric heat capacities, C{sub pm}{sup E}, reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects in the studied solutions. The latter lead to values of self-association of pure amines, Δv{sub A}{sup *}, which may depend on the solvent in systems with a given amine. Although the model overestimates the Δh{sub A}{sup *} values, the relatively high values of the physical parameters X{sub AB} remark the importance of physical interactions. ERAS describes correctly the excess functions H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E} and G{sub m}{sup E} (molar Gibbs energy), and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. Nevertheless, discrepancies with experimental data are found for the concentration

  18. L'administration du travail et la production du droit du travail (1906-1960). : Note de synthèse du rapport de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Le Crom, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Synthèse d'un rapport de recherche dont l'objectif est d'appréhender le rôle de l'administration centrale du travail dans la production du droit du travail. Deux dimensions sont explorées : le profil des rédacteurs et l'organisation des structures.

  19. O-Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Zhan-Hui(徐占辉); HUANG,Zhi-Tang(黄志镗)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated. Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration. While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  20. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C. F.; McDowell, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references.

  1. Charles Masson, Droit du sol

    OpenAIRE

    Harzoune, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    À Mayotte, collectivité d’outre-mer en passe de devenir le 101e département français en 2011, le droit commun français a vocation à s’appliquer. Pour autant, en matière d’entrée et de séjour des étrangers, de droit du travail et de protection sociale, tel n’est pas encore le cas. François Baroin en septembre 2005 et Christian Estrosi en février 2007 voulaient étendre cette exception au droit du sol en privant les étrangers nés à Mayotte du droit de devenir français. Il faut dire qu’il y aurai...

  2. Traitement automatique du langage naturel

    OpenAIRE

    BADREDDINE, I

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude s'intéresse particulièrement aux exigences de sécurité et à une méthode d'extraction des exigences. Pour cette extraction, nous nous sommes penchés sur le traitement automatique du langage naturel. Une discipline, à la frontière de la linguistique, de l'informatique et de l'intelligence artificielle, qui concerne l'application de programme informatique à tous les aspects du langage humain (écrit et/ou parlé). Le but de l'étude du TALN est d'explorer les méthodes et de connaître la...

  3. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  4. Les paradoxes du littoral Swahili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le contact entre l'océan Indien occidental et le continent africain a forgé l'identité et l'originalité du littoral swahili. Cette interface, longue d'environ 2 000 kilomètres, du sud de la Somalie au nord du Mozambique, constitue un monde original où, au gré de traditions anciennes de circulation maritime et continentale se sont diffusées et mêlées des influences culturelles venues du continent africain, de la péninsule arabique et de la péninsule indienne. Le développement du continent, du littoral et des archipels s'inscrit dans une double logique de fragmentation et d'ouverture au monde. Dans cette vaste aire géographique, le rôle de relais des îles et des axes de pénétration continentale à partir des ports est essentiel.The identity and the original features of the Swahili seashore mainly proceed from the contact of African mainland and western indian Ocean. This coastal interface, stretching over 2 000 kilometres from southern Somalia to northern Mozambique, is characterized by ancient traditions of trade movements through maritime areas and mainland as well, which spread and mixed different cultural influences originating from Africa and both Arabic and Indian peninsulas. The development of this area is linked to both fragmentation and opening dynamics. In such a wide area, the relaying function of islands and continental corridors from main harbours is very important.

  5. C-H functionalization of cyclic amines: redox-annulations with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, YoungKu; Richers, Matthew T; Sawicki, Conrad H; Seidel, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Cyclic amines such as pyrrolidine and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline undergo redox-annulations with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. Carboxylic acid promoted generation of a conjugated azomethine ylide is followed by 6π-electrocylization, and, in some cases, tautomerization. The resulting ring-fused pyrrolines are readily oxidized to the corresponding pyrroles or reduced to pyrrolidines. PMID:26051897

  6. On the role of small amines in zeolite synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollmann, L.D.; Schlenker, J.L.; Lawton, S.L.; Kennedy, C.L.; Kennedy, G.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States). Strategic Research Center; Doren, D.J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1999-08-26

    A crystallization study was undertaken to relate the structure of small amines to the zeolite product obtained. At SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 200, certain noncyclic amines (some not previously recognized) were specific for the formation of 10-ring zeolites, e.g., ZSM-22 and ZSM-23. For example, ethylmethylamine and diethylamine yielded highly crystalline ZSM-22, while ethylamine and isopropylamine yielded ZSM-12. At lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios (40), a different set of zeolites was obtained, as expected, ZSM-35 and MCM-22. Again, a specific relationship was observed between the amine employed and the zeolite obtained. In both SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} regimes, several amines played non-structure-specific pore- and pH-stabilizing roles and yielded ZSM-5. With relatively few exceptions, the zeolite products were fully porefilled with amine and low in Na (Na/Al < 1). Computer simulations confirmed a pore-stabilizing role for both structure-specific and non-structure-specific amines. At the same time, among structure-specific (structure-directing) amines, they showed that the interaction energy differences between alternative amine-pore combinations were often quite small (0.5--2.0 kcal/mol, for example). Nevertheless, the changes in amine-pore interaction energies for this group of amines consistently tracked the changes in zeolite products observed.

  7. La promesse du bonheur : introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Figure de la phénoménologie queer, Sara Ahmed interroge au fil de son œuvre les injonctions et identifications que produisent des affects spécifiques pour mieux penser l’ampleur politique des mouvements féministes, queer et noirs. Dans le prolongement d’un travail sur les politiques culturelles des émotions (2004), elle pose ici les bases d’une critique de la pensée du bonheur. La promesse du bonheur, dont est extraite la présente introduction, interroge ce que produit le désir de bonheur. Me...

  8. Des usages du constructivisme (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury-Vilatte, Béatrice; Walter, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Dans cette deuxième série d’articles consacrés au constructivisme, Bernard Delforce, Isabelle Gavillet et Nicolas Pélissier prolongent la discussion menée par Roger Bautier, Denis Benoit et Roselyne Koren sur les usages de la notion par des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine du journalisme, quitte à s’interroger sur les effets d’une telle centration. Si l’approche historique et le recours aux sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et aux sciences du langage nourrissaient l...

  9. Dužnost umiranja

    OpenAIRE

    Czerny Urban, Milica; Baccarini, Elvio

    2010-01-01

    U suvremenim raspravama o eutanaziji i liječnički potpomognutom samoubojstvu, te odustajanju od tretmana, osim uobičajenih razloga koji se temelje na slobodi i izbjegavanju patnje osobe koja traži ubrzavanje smrti, postoji i teza o dužnosti umiranja. S obzirom na to da je pojedinac ujedno i član zajednice, odnosno da ima obitelj i voljene, nužno je raspraviti o slučajevima kada bolest izaziva značajne teškoće za život njegovih bližnjih. Smatramo kako i pacijentova pravedna prosudba o dužnosti...

  10. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 μg/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  11. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 {mu}g/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  12. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  13. Emission of Trimethylamine from Chenopodium vulvaria - first results from quantifiying plant emissions of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Neftel, Albrecht; Jörg, Sintermann; Derstroff, Bettina; Sauvage, Carina; Bohley, Katharina; Kadereit, Gudrun; Williams, Jonathan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Amines comprise a wide range of nitrogenous organic compounds such as aliphatic methylamines MA. TMA is the most common amine species emitted by various sources and the most abundant amine in the atmosphere (Ge et al., 2011a). Additionally, TMA has been found to be the dominant amine species in the gas-phase compared to MMA and DMA at agriculture sites (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). On the global scale, the knowledge about the fluxes of most amines is limited (Ge et al., 2011a). Furthermore, terrestrial vegetation is also assumed to be a potential source for amines (Schade and Crutzen, 1995). There are a few studies from the end of the 19th century until 1975, which described high amount of MA-emission from certain plant species, which was associated with their plant tissues or with blossoms during flowering (Smith, 1971). Despite the low atmospheric concentration of amines (DMA = 0.5 ppb (Okita, 1970), TMA = 0.6 -1.6 ppb (Fujii and Kitai, 1987)), previous studies have already shown that amines play an important role in the New aerosol Particle Formation (NPF) (Almeida et al., 2013, and summarized in Sintermann and Neftel, 2015). In the atmosphere, NPF occurs frequently from gas-phase precursors. High uncertainty exists in the estimation of the global secondary aerosols budget, which was cause to the uncertain contribution of the gas-phase precursors to the NPF (Spracklen et al., 2011). It becomes more clearly that instead of binary systems of sulfuric acid and water, ternary system of sulfuric acid, water and a neutralizing compound as NH3 or amines is a key system in NPF (Almeida et al., 2013, Kurten et al., 2014). Despite their low atmospheric concentrations amines may play, at least locally, a crucial role in aerosol formation. In this study, we focus on the plant species chenopodium vulvaria, which is well known as a strong TMA-emitter (Dessaignes, 1856). But TMA emission rates from that plant species was not determined systematically up to now. In this study, we

  14. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed. PMID:10092944

  15. Tertiary-amine-containing thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrophilic ABA triblock copolymers: effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Daniel M; Wright, Roger A E; Woodcock, Jeremiah W; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-03-11

    This Article reports on the synthesis of a series of well-defined, tertiary-amine-containing ABA triblock copolymers, composed of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) central block and thermo- and pH-sensitive outer blocks, and the study of the effect of different tertiary amines on thermally induced sol-gel transition temperatures (T(sol-gel)) of their 10 wt % aqueous solutions. The doubly responsive ABA triblock copolymers were prepared from a difunctional PEO macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization of methoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) methacrylate at a feed molar ratio of 30:70 with ∼5 mol % of either N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate, or N,N-di(n-butyl)aminoethyl methacrylate. The chain lengths of thermosensitive outer blocks and the molar contents of tertiary amines were very similar for all copolymers. Using rheological measurements, we determined the pH dependences of T(sol-gel) of 10 wt % aqueous solutions of these copolymers in a phosphate buffer. The T(sol-gel) versus pH curves of all polymers exhibited a sigmoidal shape. The T(sol-gel) increased with decreasing pH; the changes were small on both high and low pH sides. At a specific pH, the T(sol-gel) decreased with increasing the hydrophobicity of the tertiary amine, and upon decreasing pH the onset pH value for the T(sol-gel) to begin to increase noticeably was lower for the more hydrophobic tertiary amine-containing copolymer. In addition, we studied the effect of different tertiary amines on the release behavior of FITC-dextran from 10 wt % micellar gels in an acidic medium at 37 and 27 °C. The release profiles for three studied hydrogels at 37 °C were essentially the same, suggesting that the release was dominated by the diffusion of FITC-dextran. At 27 °C, the release was significantly faster for the DEAEMA-containing copolymer, indicating that both diffusion and gel dissolution contributed to the

  16. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  17. Cri-du-chat syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15 000 to 1:50 000 live-born infants. Its main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds,

  18. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ian J.; Lankford, Jeremy E; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Numan, Mohammed T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biogenic amine brain levels and their cerebral metabolism are frequently studied by quantitation of biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a paucity of studies in adolescents and young adults investigating the potential role of disordered cerebral biogenic amine metabolism in young patients who have dysautonomia based on abnormal head-up tilt table (HUTT). Methods In a cohort of juvenile patients with neurocardiogenic synco...

  19. Characterization of a novel amine transaminase from Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioli, Lorenzo; Planchestainer, Matteo; Cassidy, Jennifer; Tessaro, Davide; Paradisi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Chiral amines are indispensable building blocks in the production of biologically active compounds. They are fundamental for the pharmaceutical industry, both as active molecules themselves and as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis; however, the available synthetic strategies often present disadvantages. ω-Transaminases (ω-TAs) appear as an attractive alternative by driving the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. HEWT is a novel amine transaminase from the moderate halophi...

  20. Bioactive amines in Brazilian wines: types, levels and correlation with physico-chemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange C. Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of ten bioactive amines and the physico-chemical characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot wines from Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, vintage of 1999 were investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics varied significantly: pH from 3.80 to 4.07, total acidity from 67.7 to 85.3 meq/L, alcohol content from 11.45 to 12.46 mL/100 mL and total SO2 from 9.6 to 102 mg/L. Six amines were detected in every sample - spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonine and phenylethylamine. Total amine levels ranged from 2.03 to 7.60 mg/L. Putrescine was the prevalent amine, contributing with 20 to 66% of total levels. The amine profile and total levels were affected to a greater extent by vinification practices compared to grape type. There was significant correlation between some amines and also between amines and the physico-chemical parameters. Histamine levels were well below limits recommended by several countries.Os teores de aminas bioativas e as características físico-químicas de Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc e Merlot da região de Bento Gonçalves, RS, safra de 1999, foram analisados. As características físico-químicas variaram significativamente: pH de 3,80 a 4,07; acidez total de 67,7 a 85,3 meq/L, teor alcoólico de 11,45 a 12,46 mL/100 mL e SO2 total de 9,6 a 102 mg/L. Seis aminas estavam presentes em todas as amostras - espermidina, putrescina, histamina, tiramina, serotonina e feniletilamina. Os teores totais de aminas variaram de 2,03 a 7,60 mg/L. Putrescina foi a amina predominante, contribuindo com 20 a 66% do total. O perfil de aminas foi mais afetado pela vinícola do que pelo tipo de uva. Houve correlação significativa entre aminas e também entre aminas e parâmetros físico-químicos. Os teores de histamina detectados são inferiores aos limites máximos estipulados para o vinho em outros países.

  1. Le corps du sultan ottoman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vatin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La personne du sultan est la clef de voûte de l’État ottoman. C’est son existence qui assure le bon ordre du monde. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que la société ottomane n’ait jamais admis la possibilité d’une solution de continuité dynastique et ait, de ce fait, accordé une importance considérable à la présence physique de la personne du souverain. Ainsi le corps vivant du sultan, s’il n’était pas à proprement parler sacré, était cependant d’une nature surhumaine, d’une valeur supérieure qui était plus que symbolique et dépassait sa personne individuelle.En conséquence, mort ou déposé, le sultan n’était plus rien et aucun respect particulier n’était dû à sa personne physique. Bien au contraire, alors que, en cas de décès, il devenait en théorie un musulman comme un autre, sa qualité d’ancien souverain faisait qu’il avait moins de droits qu’un autre. Son corps pouvait subir des traitements plus ou moins dégradants dictés par des considérations politiques, à commencer par le refus de toute solution de continuité dynastique qui obligea plus d’une fois à maintenir le décès secret et à retarder de plusieurs semaines l’inhumation du défunt.On peut cependant discerner des éléments de sacralisation du corps mort du sultan, voire même les traces d’un culte qui aurait pu se développer. Mais celui-ci était sans doute trop païen pour s’imposer dans un État qui tendit au cours des siècles à renforcer l’orthodoxie de ses pratiques et à accorder une place croissante à la dynastie au détriment de la personne des sultans individuels.

  2. Design of cationic microspheres based on aminated gelatin for controlled release of peptide and protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Chono, Sumio; Kosai, Tadashi; Seki, Toshinobu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-02-01

    Two different types of cationized microspheres based on a native cationic gelatin (NGMS) and aminated gelatin with ethylendiamine (CGMS) were investigated for the controlled release of three model acidic peptide/protein drugs with different molecular weights (MWs) and isoelectric points (IEPs). Recombinant human (rh)-insulin (MW: 5.8 kDa, IEP: 5.3), bovine milk lactoalbumin, BMLA (MW: 14 kDa, IEP: 4.3), and bovine serum albumin (BSA MW: 67 kDa, IEP: 4.9) were used as model acidic peptide/protein drugs. The in vitro release profiles of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from NGMS and CGMS were compared and different periods of cross-linking were obtained. The slower release of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from CGMS compared with those from NGMS with cross-linking for 48 hr. was caused by the suppression of burst release during the initial phase. The degree of suppression of burst release of the three peptide/protein drugs during the initial phase by CGMS was in the following order: (rh)-insulin > BMLA > BSA. The release of insulin with a lower molecular weight from CGMS was particularly suppressed compared with the other two drugs with higher molecular weights in the initial phase. The control of the release rate of acidic peptide/protein drugs from gelatin microsphere can be achieved by amination of gelatin. Therefore, CGMS is useful for the controlled release of acidic peptide/ protein drugs.

  3. Solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid with high-molecular alkylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of dodecamolibdophosphoric acid H3PMo12O40 by nitrates of some high molecular amines (di-(2-ethylene-hexyl)-amine, diponylamine, diisoamyloctylamine) dichlorthane solution has been studied. The composition of associates in the organic phase may be presented as (BH3)PMo12O40, where BH+ is the protonized form of the amine. The overall conventional equilibrium constant of complex formation and extraction equals (1.51+-0.35)x1011

  4. A regenerable solid amine CO2 concentrator for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Cusick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A regenerable solid amine CO2 control system, which employs water vapor for desorption, is being developed for potential use on long duration space missions. During cyclic operation, CO2 is first absorbed from the cabin atmosphere onto the granular amine. Steam is then used to heat the solid amine bed and desorb the CO2. This paper describes the solid amine system operation and application to the Shuttle Orbiter, Manned Space Platform (MSP) and Space Operations Center (SOC). The importance and interplay of system performance parameters are presented together with supporting data and design characteristics.

  5. Carbon capture and sequestration: an exploratory inhalation toxicity assessment of amine-trapping solvents and their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Garner, C Edwin; Wegerski, Chris; Senft, Al; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Rohr, Annette

    2014-09-16

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption with aqueous amine solvents is a method of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from flue gases. One concern is the possible release of amine solvents and degradation products into the atmosphere, warranting evaluation of potential pulmonary effects from inhalation. The CCS amines monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP) underwent oxidative and CO2-mediated degradation for 75 days. C57bl/6N mice were exposed for 7 days by inhalation of 25 ppm neat amine or equivalant concentration in the degraded mixture. The aqueous solutions were nebulized to create the inhalation atmospheres. Pulmonary response was measured by changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine expression in lung tissue. Ames mutagenicity and CHO-K1 micronucleus assays were applied to assess genotoxicity. Chemical analysis of the test atmosphere and liquid revealed complex mixtures, including acids, aldehydes, and other compounds. Exposure to oxidatively degraded MEA increased (p < 0.05) total cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes compared to control mice and caused inflammatory cytokine expression (statistical increase at p < 0.05). MEA and CO2-degraded MEA were the only atmospheres to show statistical (p < 0.05) increase in oxidative stress. CO2 degradation resulted in a different composition, less degradation, and lower observed toxicity (less magnitude and number of effects) with no genotoxicity. Overall, oxidative degradation of the amines studied resulted in enhanced toxicity (increased magnitude and number of effects) compared to the neat chemicals.

  6. Detection of Cometary Amines in Samples Returned by the Stardust Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, J. E.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids to the early Earth by comets and their fragments could have been a significant source of the early Earth's prebiotic organic inventory that led to the emergence of life (Chyba and Sagan, 1992). Over 20 organic molecules including methane, ethane, ammonia, cyanic acid, formaldehyde, formamide, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, and methanol have been identified by radio spectroscopic observations of the comae of comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake (Crovisier et al. 2004). These simple molecules could have provided the organic reservoir to allow the forn1ation of more complex prebiotic organic compounds such as amino acids. After a 7 -year mission, the Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet Wild 2 on January 15, 2006 providing the opportunity to analyze the organic composition and isotopic distribution of cometary material with state-of-the-art laboratory instrun1entation. The Preliminary Examination Team analyses of organics in samples returned by Stardust were largely focused on particles that impacted the collector aerogel and aluminum foil (Sandford et al. 2006). However, it is also possible that Stardust returned a "diffuse" sample of gas-phase organic molecules that struck the aerogel directly or diffused away from the grains after impact. To test this possibility, samples of Stardust flight aerogel and foil were carried through a hot water extraction and acid hydrolysis procedure to see if primary amine compounds were present in excess of those seen in controls. Here we report highly sensitive liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectron1etry measurements of amino acids and amines in samples returned from a comet (Glavin et al. 2008). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in the Stardust bulk aerogel. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in comet-exposed aerogels were also present in the aerogel witness tile that

  7. Spontaneous and reversible interaction of vanadium(V) oxyanions with amine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between vanadate and tri- or tetradentate ethanolamine derivatives has been studied by using 51V NMR spectroscopy. The reactions occur spontaneously in aqueous solutions, at ambient temperatures and in the physiological pH range. In addition to one amine group and one hydroxyl group, the ethanolamine derivative should contain a third and/or fourth functionality that is an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, a phosphonium acid, or an amine. The reactions are highly dependent on pH, concentrations of monomeric vanadate, amine. The stability constants for the complexes are minimum orders of magnitude greater than those found for vanadate derivatives of corresponding ether derivatives, and the high stability is associated with the central nitrogen. Only one vanadium complex is formed in substantial amounts in the reaction of ethanolamine derivatives with vanadate, and that complex is mononuclear in vanadium. Several of the ethanolamine derivatives that form complexes are commonly used buffers in biological and biomedical studies in vitro. 22 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  9. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  10. Role of biogenic amines in pathogenesis of dust induced respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakin, Yu.N.; Deinega, V.G.; Gridneva, N.V.; Levitskaya, V.A.

    1987-06-01

    Studies metabolism of biogenic amines, catecholamine, histamine and serotonin and their part in pathophysiologic mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in chronic dust bronchitits of coal miners. Three groups of miners, 50 healthy controls, 200 with pneumoconiosis and 95 with chronic dust bronchitis were tested to determine content in blood of histamine, serotonin, activity of histaminase, monoaminoxidase (MAO), daily elimination in urine of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid, adrenalin, noradrelin, dopamine and dopa. Results processed statistically are shown in a table (changes of indices of metabolism of biogenic amines in blood of coal miners). Healthy miners show increased catabolism of serotonin. During stage 1 pneumoconiosis, evacuation of noradrenalin is increased and emission of dopamine with urine decreases, level of histamine in blood rises, activity of MOA and excretion of 5-oxyindoleacetic acid increase. In chronic dust bronchitis depression of mediator link of sympathetic adrenalin system is augmented, level of histamine of blood rises with lowered histaminopexia. Activity of MAO and evacuation of 5-oxyindoleacetic increase. To evaluate the condition of metabolism of biogenic amines, it is advisable in clinical practice to use informative biochemical criteria in combination with physiologic methods of investigation to conduct provocative and pharmacologic tests in order to approach differentially establishment of a basic curative treatment complex and improve effectiveness of therapy. 16 refs.

  11. Enantiomeric excesses of chiral amines in ammonia-rich carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Yarnes, Christopher T.

    2016-06-01

    Chiral homogeneity is essential to the structure and function of terrestrial biopolymers but the origin of this "homochirality" is poorly understood and remains one of the many unknowns surrounding the origins of life. Several amino acids extracted from Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorites display L-enantiomeric excesses (ee) and their findings have encouraged suggestions that an input of non-racemic meteoritic compounds to early Earth might have led to terrestrial homochirality. Motivated by occasional indications of possible ee in other classes of soluble meteoritic compounds, we have undertaken a systematic study of the chiral distribution of amines in Renazzo-type (CR) meteorites, where they are the second most abundant organic molecular species and ammonia is by far the most abundant single molecule. We report here the first time finding of L-ee for two chiral amines in several pristine CR meteorites from Antarctica and outline a proposal by which the compounds possibly formed from the same ketone precursors as some of the chiral amino acids. This would occur during a warm hydrous stage of the asteroidal parent body, via a reductive amination process in the presence of a large abundance of ammonia, where the precursors' adsorption upon mineral phases possessing asymmetry offered the opportunity for chiral induction. Because the precursor ketones are achiral, the proposal underscores the likelihood of diverse asymmetric influences and processes in cosmochemistry.

  12. A Novel Palladium-catalyzed Amination of Aryl Halides with Amines Using rac-P-Phos as the Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Huansheng; WANG, Quanrui; TAO, Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides with amines, using rac-P-Phos as the ancillary ligand and Pd(OAc)2 as the palladium source is developed. The ligand and all of the synthetic intermediates are stable to air and moisture, allowing the easy handling. The catalyst system performed well for a large number of different substrate combinations in 80-110 ℃ to furnish aromatic amines in high yields.

  13. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  14. LES GITES PLOMBO-ZINCIFERES DU DISTRICT MINIER DU KOUDIAT SIDU AUSUD DU KEF EN TUNISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont dćcrit l:i stratigiaphie. I.i tectonique, le corps de minerals, la paragenese et la genese dcs gttes Koudiat Sidri situ&s environ 20 km au sud de la ville du Kef en Tunisie.

  15. Chemical reactivity of graphene oxide towards amines elucidated by solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Isabella A.; Spinato, Cinzia; Raya, Jésus; Bianco, Alberto; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by amidation. We also prove that there is a negligible amount of carboxylic acid groups in two GO samples obtained by a different synthesis process, hence eliminating the possibility of amidation reactions with amine derivatives. This work brings additional insights into the chemical reactivity of GO, which is fundamental to control its functionalization, and highlights the major role of MAS NMR spectroscopy for a comprehensive characterization of derivatized GO.Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by

  16. The Multiple Facets of Iodine(III) Compounds in an Unprecedented Catalytic Auto-amination for Chiral Amine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia, Julien; Grelier, Gwendal; Darses, Benjamin; Jarvis, Amanda G; Taran, Frédéric; Dauban, Philippe

    2016-06-20

    Iodine(III) reagents are used in catalytic one-pot reactions, first as both oxidants and substrates, then as cross-coupling partners, to afford chiral polyfunctionalized amines. The strategy relies on an initial catalytic auto C(sp(3) )-H amination of the iodine(III) oxidant, which delivers an amine-derived iodine(I) product that is subsequently used in palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings to afford a variety of useful building blocks with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities. This study demonstrates the concept of self-amination of the hypervalent iodine reagents, which increases the value of the aryl moiety. PMID:27158802

  17. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forzale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore” cheeses belonging to same batch were tested during ripening time, up to 5 months. BAs content was analyzed by an HPLC-UV method. The BAs content was significantly higher in the core than in the external part. Tyramine was the amine most frequently detected and largely quantized, followed by putrescine, histamine and cadaverine.

  18. Chromium(VI) reduction by catechol(amine)s results in DNA cleavage in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Levina, A;

    2001-01-01

    Catechols are found extensively in nature both as essential biomolecules and as the byproducts of normal oxidative damage of amino acids and proteins. They are also present in cigarette smoke and other atmospheric pollutants. Here, the interactions of reactive species generated in Cr(VI)/catechol......(amine) mixtures with plasmid DNA have been investigated to model a potential route to Cr(VI)-induced genotoxicity. Reduction of Cr(VI) by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) (1), dopamine (2), or adrenaline (3) produces species that cause extensive DNA damage, but the products of similar reactions with catechol (4......) or 4-tert-butylcatechol (5) do not damage DNA. The Cr(VI)/catechol(amine) reactions have been studied at low added H(2)O(2) concentrations, which lead to enhanced DNA cleavage with 1 and induce DNA cleavage with 4. The Cr(V) and organic intermediates generated by the reactions of Cr(VI) with 1 or 4...

  19. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Amine/Carboxyl Substituted Prolines and Proline Homologues: Scope and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziniu; Scott, William L; O'Donnell, Martin J

    2016-03-15

    A solid-phase procedure is used to synthesize racemic peptidomimetics based on the fundamental peptide unit. The peptidomimetics are constructed around proline or proline homologues variably substituted at the amine and carbonyl sites. The procedure expands the diversity of substituted peptidomimetic molecules available to the Distributed Drug Discovery (D3) project. Using a BAL-based solid-phase synthetic sequence the proline or proline homologue subunit is both constructed and incorporated into the peptidomimetic by an α-alkylation, hydrolysis and intramolecular cyclization sequence. Further transformations on solid-phase provide access to a variety of piperazine derivatives representing a class of molecules known to exhibit central nervous system activity. The procedure works well with proline cores, but with larger six- and seven-membered ring homologues the nature of the carboxylic acid acylating the cyclic amine can lead to side reactions and result in poor overall yields.

  20. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  1. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  2. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  3. Biogenic amines in submicron marine aerosol (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, M.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonium salts of dimethyl and diethyl amine (DMA+ and DEA+) have been detected in size segregated marine samples collected in the North Atlantic over open ocean and at a coastal site. DMA+ and DEA+ peak in the accumulation mode range while very low concentration, close to detection limit, are observed in the coarse size fractions, as well as in sea spray aerosol artificially generated in the laboratory using sea water. These results indicate a secondary formation pathway. DMA+ and DEA+ represent up to 20% of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in our samples , and to our knowledge they are the most abundant organic species besides MSA ever detected in clean marine aerosol . Maximum concentrations have been observed during spring and summer when the biological activity is high and in clean marine air masses, thus indicating biogenic sources. Total organic nitrogen (ON) concentration also peaks in the accumulation mode range and represents in our samples a fraction from 32 to 54 % of the total SOA. Ammonium salt formation from biogenic amines might be an important source of marine SOA and atmospheric nitrogen at the global scale with a seasonal variation connected to the oceanic biological productivity and an atmospheric cycle parallel to that of the organosulfur species.

  4. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  5. Compte rendu du colloque : « Anthropologie du Maroc et du Maghreb »

    OpenAIRE

    Planeix, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Du 8 au 10 septembre 2013 a eu lieu, à Essaouira (Maroc), le colloque « Anthropologie du Maroc et du Maghreb », troisième du genre après ceux de Tanger en 2003 et de Fès en 2007, organisé par le Centre Jacques Berque (CGB) sous l’impulsion de Baudouin Dupret, son directeur, et de Cédric Baylocq, alors postdoctorant et depuis enseignant à l’université Mundiapolis de Casablanca. L’ambition, derrière un tel intitulé, fut de convier une part représentative des travaux contemporains sur le Maroc e...

  6. Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail

    OpenAIRE

    Caillé, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Alain Caillé resitue le paradigme du don que le Mouvement anti-utilitariste en sciences sociales (MAUSS) s’emploie à dégager depuis une trentaine d’années avant de montrer comment les lunettes du don permettent de mieux voir ce qu’il y a dans la boîte noire des organisations et de mieux lire par là même les ravages du néomanagement. À cette contribution répond celle de Norbert Alter dans le cadre du dossier Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? »

  7. Recovery of acetic acid from an aqueous pyrolysis oil phase by reactive extraction using tri-n-octylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Girisuta, B.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Windt, M.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    The application of reactive extraction to isolate organic acids, particularly acetic acid, from the aqueous stream of phase splitted pyrolysis oil using a long chain aliphatic tertiary amine is reported. Acetic acid recovery was optimized by selecting the proper amine and diluent combination and adj

  8. Processing method for drainage-containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol amine is decomposed by aerobically acting Pseudomonas sp. When drainage contains hydrazine, copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide are added to the drainage under exposed condition to remove hydrazine as a pretreatment of the decomposing step. With such procedures, ethanol amine in the drainage can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  9. Determination of Biogenic Amines with HPLC-APCI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biogenic amines in fish samples can be used as a quality attribute and are commonly performed using a derivatization step followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection. Over estimation and misidentification of biogenic amines can occur when interfering comp...

  10. Synthesis of amine functionalized cellulose nanocrystals: optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Zaman, Masuduz; Mohammed, Nishil; Brinatti, César; Batmaz, Rasim; Berry, Richard; Loh, Watson; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-05-29

    A simple protocol was used to prepare amine functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-NH2). In the first step, epichlorohydrin (EPH) was reacted with ammonium hydroxide to produce 2-hydroxy-3-chloro propylamine (HCPA). In the next step, HCPA was grafted to CNC using the etherification reaction in an organic solution media. Various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and reactant molar ratio were performed to determine the optimal reaction conditions. The final product (CNC-NH2(T)) was dialyzed for a week. Further purification via centrifugation yielded the sediment (CNC-NH2(P)) and supernatant (POLY-NH2). The presence of amine groups on the surface of modified CNC was confirmed by FTIR and the amine content was determined by potentiometric titration and elemental analysis. A high amine content of 2.2 and 0.6 mmol amine/g was achieved for CNC-NH2(T) and CNC-NH2(P), respectively. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the charge reversal of amine CNC from positive to negative when the pH was increased from 3 to 10. The flocculation of amine functionalized CNC due to its interactions with a negatively charged surfactant namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated at pH 4. It showed promising results for applications, such as in flocculation of fine dispersions in water treatment. This simple and versatile synthetic method to produce high amine content CNC can be used for further conjugation as required for various applications. PMID:25933198

  11. ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Brachert, L.; Desagher, D.; Thielens, M.L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission from amine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream or downstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribu

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation of primary, secondary and tertiary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amines have been widely identified in ambient aerosol in both urban and rural environments and they are potential precursors for formation of nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the role of amines in SOA formation has not been well studied. In this wrok, we use UC-Riversid...

  13. Analyse du discours et archive

    OpenAIRE

    Maingueneau, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Les recherches qui se réclament de "l’analyse du discours" connaissent un développement considérable dans le monde entier ; en revanche, "l’école française d’analyse du discours" (AD) traverse une crise d’identité depuis le début des années 80. Dans cet exposé nous voudrions explorer les raisons de cette crise, puis préciser le concept d’archive qui, à notre sens, permet de prolonger la voie ouverte à la fin des années 1960. Mais il ne s’agit que d’une des voies possibles, dès lors que, comme...

  14. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  15. The azomethine ylide route to amine C-H functionalization: redox-versions of classic reactions and a pathway to new transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Daniel

    2015-02-17

    Conspectus Redox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C-H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C-H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts. Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet-Spengler, and Kabachnik-Fields reactions, Friedel-Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C-H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct. Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic processes, have been

  16. The Azomethine Ylide Route to Amine C–H Functionalization: Redox-Versions of Classic Reactions and a Pathway to New Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Redox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C–H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C–H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts. Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet–Spengler, and Kabachnik–Fields reactions, Friedel–Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C–H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct. Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic

  17. Determination of the hydrothermal degradation products of D-(U-14C) glucose and D-(U-14C) fructose by TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal degradation was examined using D-(U-14C) glucose and D-(U-14C) fructose. By thin layer chromatography with methylene chloride, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic acid - 60:20:20 as a mobile phase; it was possible to separate and identify the carbohydrates and their reaction products, glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural. Up to 99% of the initial activity was determined by scintillation counting of the TL-chromatograms. A reaction scheme for the hydrothermal degradation of glucose and fructose was obtained from these results. (author)

  18. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  19. Revision du Genre Aseraggodes Kaup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanaud, P.

    1930-01-01

    Le présent travail comprend la définition du genre Aseraggodes Kaup et la revision, sous forme d'une clef dichotomique, de toutes les espèces qui le composent, revision établie d'après les types eux-mêmes de ces espèces. Ce genre Aseraggodes appartient à la famille des Soleidae et à la sousfamille d

  20. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum) a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  1. PEG-bis phosphonic acid based ionic supramolecular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A number of supramolecular structures are prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts of a phosphonic acid terminated poly(ethylene glycol) with propargyl amine, hexamethylene diamine, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, and the first generation of a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer in turn at room temperature...

  2. Clefs du cœur, du corps et du texte

    OpenAIRE

    Pomel, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Glisser la clef d’amour dans la serrure du cœur, emporter ou détenir la clef du cœur : l’image se rencontre assez souvent dans les romans médiévaux. Il s’agira, à partir d’un corpus qui traite de l’amour profane – romans arthuriens, poésie lyrique, Roman de la Rose, jeux et dons courtois, traité intitulé La Clef d’amour –, de voir selon quelles modalités la métaphore de la clef est mobilisée pour dire l’amour comme expérience affective et sexuelle, mais aussi parfois le travail de la lectur...

  3. Etude du perçage et du soudage laser : dynamique du capillaire

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Massaud

    2011-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est d'étudier expérimentalement la formation du capillaire durant le perçage et le soudage par faisceau laser, et de développer une simulation numérique permettant de reproduire la dynamique de formation et d'évolution du capillaire. Nous avons fait le choix d’utiliser comme matériau test le Zinc, en raison de ses propriétés thermodynamiques. Afin de simplifier le problème, nous avons étudié dans un premier temps le mécanisme de perçage. Deux méthodes expérimentales o...

  4. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  5. NMR study of Corynebacterium melassecola metabolism; Etude du metabolisme de corynebacterium melassecola par RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, C.; Morgant, V.; Guyonvarch, A. [Centre ORSAN, 91 - Les Ulis (France); Guerquin Kern, J.L. [Institut Curie, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1994-12-31

    Corynebacterium melassecola is a microorganism producing glutamic acid, an aminate acid used as food additive. Knowledge of its metabolism is essential for improving the phyla. A study is carried out on intracellular extracts with NMR spectrometry in order to determine certain glucose catabolism pathways using a partial isotopic enrichment with (1-{sup 13}C) or (6-{sup 13}C) glucose. Results demonstrate the particular metabolism of Corynebacteria. 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  6. Enhanced Salt Removal in an Inverted Capacitive Deionization Cell Using Amine Modified Microporous Carbon Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Omosebi, Ayokunle; Landon, James; Liu, Kunlei

    2015-09-15

    Microporous SpectraCarb carbon cloth was treated using nitric acid to enhance negative surface charges of COO(-) in a neutral solution. This acid-treated carbon was further modified by ethylenediamine to attach -NH2 surface functional groups, resulting in positive surface charges of -NH3(+) via pronation in a neutral solution. Through multiple characterizations, in comparison to pristine SpectraCarb carbon, amine-treated SpectraCarb carbon displays a decreased potential of zero charge but an increased point of zero charge, which is opposed to the effect obtained for acid-treated SpectraCarb carbon. An inverted capacitive deionization cell was constructed using amine-treated cathodes and acid-treated anodes, where the cathode is the negatively polarized electrode and the anode is the positively polarized electrode. Constant-voltage switching operation using NaCl solution showed that the salt removal capacity was approximately 5.3 mg g(-1) at a maximum working voltage of 1.1/0 V, which is an expansion in both the salt capacity and potential window from previous i-CDI results demonstrated for carbon xerogel materials. This improved performance is accounted for by the enlarged cathodic working voltage window through ethylenediamine-derived functional groups, and the enhanced microporosity of the SpectraCarb electrodes for salt adsorption. These results expand the use of i-CDI for efficient desalination applications. PMID:26302134

  7. Deacidification of oils and fats of biological origine by aqueous solutions of tertiary amines*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deacidification of triacylglycerols by extraction is investigated using aqueous solutions of amines as extractants. Tertiary amines with boiling points ranging between 100° and 170°C, such as 2-methylamino-diethanol, 2-dimethylamino-ethanol, 4-methylmorpholine, 1-dimethylamino-2-propanol etc. were found to be suitable substances. Especially the deacidification by aqueous solutions of 2-dimethylamino-ethanol (DMAE was amply investigated as it is used as an active agent in remedies. Amazingly gelatinous soap stocks are not formed, when the concentration of DMAE exceeds 20% if the free fatty acid content of the oil is below 15%. Two liquid phases are formed in systems composed of triacylglyceroles and aqueous solutions containing 20 to 80% DMAE. Palm oil containing 4.3 wt.% free fatty acids was mixed with an equal amount of an aqueous solution of 30 wt.% DMAE at 60°C. In equilibrium an extract containing 86 wt.% free fatty acids (solvents deducted and a raffinate of 0.09 wt.% free fatty acids are obtained. Loss of neutral oil being 0.7 wt.%.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Amin Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John C.

    2002-11-01

    Extraordinary claims for the The Amin engine, made recently in full-page paid advertisements in Science Magazine and Physics Today are based upon faulty analysis of the proposed cycle. As presented, the engine constitutes a claim to violate the second law of thermodynamics, purporting to produce net useful work while extracting heat from a reservoir at a single temperature. When analyzed correctly, it conforms to the second law and produces at most zero net work when operating under isothermal conditions. The author neglects the torque-angle work needed to change the angular velocity and/or moment of inertia of the working fluid in the cylinder. When this is correctly accounted for, the contradiction with the second law is resolved.

  9. N-(3-Methylphenylquinoxalin-2-amine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Idris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The quinoxaline system in the title hydrate, C15H13N3·H2O, is roughly planar, the r.m.s. deviation for the 18 non-H atoms being 0.188 Å; this conformation features a short intramolecular C—H...N(pyrazine interaction. In the crystal, the amine H atom forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the water molecule, which in turn forms two O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the pyrazine N atoms of different organic molecules. These interactions lead to supramolecular arrays in the bc plane that are two molecules thick; additional π–π interactions stabilize the layers [ring centroid–centroid distance = 3.5923 (7 Å]. The layers stack along the a-axis direction via C—H...π contacts.

  10. An electronic nose for amine detection based on polymer/SWNT-COOH nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwongtragooll, Panida; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2011-12-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) system based on polymer/carboxylic-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) was developed for sensing various volatile amines. The SWNT-COOH dispersed in the matrix of different polymers; namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cumene terminated polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (cumene-PSMA), poly(styrenecomaleic acid) partial isobutyl/methyl mixed ester (PSE), and polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP), were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes to make the gas sensors. The response of these sensors to volatile amines was studied by both static and dynamic flow measurements. It was found that all sensors exhibited behaviors corresponding to Plateau-Bretano-Stevens law (R2 = 0.81 to 0.99) as the response to volatile amines. Real-world application was demonstrated by applying this e-nose to monitor the odor of sun-dried snakeskin gourami that was pre-processed by salting-preservation. This electronic nose can discriminate sun-dried fish odors with different stored days using a simple pattern recognition based on the principal component analysis (PCA).

  11. Artifacts Generated During Azoalkane Peroxy Radical Oxidative Stress Testing of Pharmaceuticals Containing Primary and Secondary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefliu, Marcela; Zelesky, Todd; Jansen, Patrick; Sluggett, Gregory W; Foti, Christopher; Baertschi, Steven W; Harmon, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    We report artifactual degradation of pharmaceutical compounds containing primary and secondary amines during peroxy radical-mediated oxidative stress carried out using azoalkane initiators. Two degradation products were detected when model drug compounds dissolved in methanol/water were heated to 40°C with radical initiators such as 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN). The primary artifact was identified as an α-aminonitrile generated from the reaction of the amine group of the model drug with formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, generated as byproducts of the stress reaction. A minor artifact was generated from the reaction between the amine group and isocyanic acid, also a byproduct of the stress reaction. We report the effects of pH, initiator/drug molar ratio, and type of azoalkane initiator on the formation of these artifacts. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for structure elucidation, whereas mechanistic studies, including stable isotope labeling experiments, cyanide analysis, and experiments exploring the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole addition, were employed to support the degradation pathways. PMID:26565996

  12. Synthesis of N, N-diethyl dodecyl amine and its flotation properties on bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; ZHANG Li-min; HU Yue-hua; LIU Chang-miao; OUYANG Kui

    2008-01-01

    N, N-diethyl dodecyi amine(DEN12) was synthesized from dodecyl amine, formic acid and acetic aldehyde. The collecting property of DEN12 on diaspore, kaolinite and illite was investigated by flotation test and infrared spectrum. The results show that in the presence of 2.0×10-4 mol/L DEN12, the recoveries of kaolinite and illite are all higher than 78% and the recovery of diaspore is 50% in the pH range of 5.5-6.0. The mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 in concentrate obtained from separation artificial mixture is higher than 10, suggesting that DEN12 can be used as a collector to separate the aluminosilicates from diaspore in bauxite ores at the pulp pH below 8. The measurements of the infrared spectrum approve that the action between ahiminosilicates and tertiary amine collector is strong electrostatic adsorption and that of diaspore is weak electrostatic adsorption.

  13. One step gold (bio)functionalisation based on CS{sub 2}-amine reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ines [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cascalheira, Antonio C. [Lumisense, Lda, Campus Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. ICAT, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Viana, Ana S., E-mail: anaviana@fc.ul.p [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Dithiocarbamates have been regarded as alternative anchor groups to thiols on gold surfaces, and claimed to be formed in situ through the reaction between secondary amines and carbon disulphide. In this paper, we further exploit this methodology for a convenient one step biomolecule immobilisation onto gold surfaces. First, the reactivity between CS{sub 2} and electroactive compounds containing amines, primary (dopamine), secondary (epinephrine), and an amino acid (tryptophan) has been investigated by electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetric characterisation of the modified electrodes confirmed the immobilisation of all the target compounds, allowing the estimation of their surface concentration. The best result was obtained with epinephrine, a secondary amine, for which a typical quasi-reversible behaviour of surface confined electroactive species could be clearly depicted. Electrochemical reductive desorption studies enabled to infer on the extent of the reaction and on the relative stability of the generated monolayers. Bio-functionalisation studies have been accomplished through the reaction of CS{sub 2} with glucose oxidase in aqueous medium, and the catalytic activity of the immobilised enzyme was evaluated towards glucose, by electrochemical methods in the presence of a redox mediator. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used respectively, to characterize the gold electrodes and Glucose Oxidase coverage and distribution on the modified surfaces.

  14. Une approche comparative de la question de l'effectivité du droit du travail

    OpenAIRE

    Auvergnon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    La question de l'effectivité du droit du travail n'est pas nouvelle. Toutefois, une approche comparative, à partir de différents systèmes juridiques et de relations professionnelles, permet utilement de la revisiter. Qu'entend-on par effectivité du droit ? Ne confond-on pas aujourd'hui souvent effectivité et efficacité ? Le droit du travail est-il particulièrement exposé à l'ineffectivité du fait des rapports de pouvoir prévalant dans les relations de travail subordonné ? L'analyse des effect...

  15. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. PMID:26663734

  16. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg(-1) means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage period, which may be considered this amine as a quality index for fermented milks. The other principal biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine) were produced on days 1-5 of storage, and thereafter decreased. At the end of the 10th day, these amines, respectively, showed values of fermented cow's milk 20.26, 29.09, 17.97, and 82.07 mg kg(-1); and values of fermented goat's milk 22.92, 29.09, 34.85, and 53.85 mg kg(-1), in fermented cow's and goat's milk. Fermented cow's milk was well accepted compared to fermented goat's milk. The results suggested that the content of biogenic amines may be a criterion for selecting lactic acid bacteria used to produce fermented milks. PMID:25987991

  17. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  18. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  19. Temperature- and pH-dependent aqueous-phase kinetics of the reactions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with atmospheric amines and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Takano, Hiromi; Blasic, Vanessa A.; Sullivan, Kristin A.; De Haan, David O.

    2013-10-01

    Reactions of glyoxal (Glx) and methylglyoxal (MG) with primary amines and ammonium salts may produce brown carbon and N-containing oligomers in aqueous aerosol. 1H NMR monitoring of reactant losses and product appearance in bulk aqueous reactions were used to derive rate constants and quantify competing reaction pathways as a function of pH and temperature. Glx + ammonium sulfate (AS) and amine reactions generate products containing C-N bonds, with rates depending directly on pH: rate = (70 ± 60) M-1 s-1fAld [Glx]totfAm [Am]tot, where fAld is the fraction of aldehyde with a dehydrated aldehyde functional group, and fAm is the fraction of amine or ammonia that is deprotonated at a given pH. MG + amine reactions generate mostly aldol condensation products and exhibit less pH dependence: rate = 10[(0.36 ± 0.06) × pH - (3.6 ± 0.3)] M-1 s-1fAld [MG]tot [Am]tot. Aldehyde + AS reactions are less temperature-dependent (Ea = 18 ± 8 kJ mol-1) than corresponding amine reactions (Ea = 50 ± 11 kJ mol-1). Using aerosol concentrations of [OH] = 10-12 M, [amine]tot = [AS] = 0.1 M, fGlx = 0.046 and fMG = 0.09, we estimate that OH radical reactions are normally the major aerosol-phase sink for both dicarbonyl compounds. However, reactions with AS and amines together can account for up to 12 and 45% of daytime aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal reactivity, respectively, in marine aerosol at pH 5.5. Reactions with AS and amines become less important in acidic or non-marine aerosol, but may still be significant atmospheric sources of brown carbon, imidazoles, and nitrogen-containing oligomers.

  20. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  1. Armadillo : Grotte en bordure du rio Armadillo

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Dominique

    1981-01-01

    Près d'Armadillo, municipio Armadillo, San Luis Potosi.Cueva pricta. Grotte en bordure du rio Armadillo, dans les laves. Le sol de la grotte est à environ 3 mètres au dessus du lit de la rivière.Photo prise vers le Nord

  2. Des Taiwanais dans Ie sud du Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Se trouvant dans le sud-est de la Chine au bord dela mer, la province du Fujian s’appelle aussi toutsimplement "Min". Les anc(?)tres d’une grande partie de lapopulation de Taiwan sont venus du Fujian (Min). Les deux

  3. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  4. Influence de la composition en acides gras du lait et des paramètres de fabrication sur la qualité de la crème glacée

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Karen; Block, Jan; Van Der Meeren, Paul; Raes, Katleen; Dewettinck, Koen; Coudijzer, Katleen

    2010-01-01

    International audience There has been considerable interest in recent years in altering the fatty acid composition of milk fat in dairy products to improve the long-term health of consumers. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of altering the fatty acid composition and varying two process parameters (homogenization pressure and ageing temperature) on the quality of ice cream. The quality of ice cream (8% fat) was monitored before and after heat shock by assessing f...

  5. L'imaginaire du volcan

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Dominique; Bosquet, Marie-Françoise; Bozzetto, Roger; Chamart, Gabrielle; Chelebourg, Christian; Chenet-Faugeras, Françoise; Collot, Michel; Cornille, Jean-Louis; Gaillard, Aurélia; Lavocat, Françoise; Frank LESTRINGANT; Racault, Jean-Michel; SHINODA, Chiwaki; Sylvos, Françoise; Tardieu, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Quelle force naturelle pouvait, mieux que le volcan, devenir la métaphore vive de l'enthousiasme poétique ? Auteur du paysage qu'il remodèle après l'avoir détruit, sculpteur de laves autant qu'objet pittoresque, le volcan est dans la littérature un actant essentiel, un relais de l'auteur, comme le montre ce voyage dans la mémoire des représentations volcaniques.

  6. Environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    L'environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud est conditionné par "l'extrême océanité" de la région et l'interaction étroite entre l'atmosphère et l'océan qui conditionne la vie et l'ensemble des paramètres environnementaux des pays insulaires. Les deux principaux phénomènes climatiques qui affectent la région sont : ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) et le réchauffement global. Ces deux signaux climatiques, facteurs principaux de la variabilité climatique, font sentir leurs actions sur l'...

  7. Mali. Musique bambara du Baninko

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Dans le Mali contemporain, le groupe ethnique le plus important numériquement est celui que la littérature ethnographique a définitivement contribué à faire connaître sous le nom de «Bambara». Installés sur un vaste territoire recouvrant grosso modo le quart sud-est du pays, les Bambara, qui dans leur propre langue se désignent en fait sous le nom de bamananw (au singulier: bamanan), se distinguent les uns les autres selon leur répartition géographique, dans les trois régions suivantes: Beled...

  8. Les controverses du bien mourir

    OpenAIRE

    Clapasson, Dominique; Pott, Murielle

    2009-01-01

    Actuellement, la question des situations de fin de vie se pose en problème social. La dénonciation du tabou de la mort et de l’acharnement thérapeutique suscite des interrogations éthiques relatives à la souffrance des malades. Dès lors, le bien mourir devient une préoccupation qui touche chacun d’entre-nous. En Suisse, l’aspiration à une mort pacifiée se meut en deux modèles distincts de la gestion des situations de fin de vie : les soins palliatifs et l’assistance au suicide. En oppositi...

  9. A Comparative Study on Proteomics between LNCap and DU145 Cells by Quantitative Detection and SELDI Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weigui SUN; Zhangqun YE; Zhenguo MI; Tianliang SHI; Cunzhi HAN; Sutang GUO

    2008-01-01

    The differences in intracellular and extracellular protein expressions between human prostate cancer fines LNCap and DU145 were examined. The proteins of the two cell lines were extracted and condensed by using protein extraction kits. And the intracellular and extracellular proteins were quantitatively detected on a micro-plate reader by using bicinchoninie acid (BCA) method. The proteins in cell culture fluid were qualitatively assayed by SELDI-TOF-MS. The results showed that the intracellular protein contents of LNCap cells were extremely higher than those of DU145 cells. After serum-free culture, both intracellular and extracellular protein contents of LNCap and DU145 were decreased to some extent. And the intracellular proteins were decreased by 5% in LNCap and by 36% in DU145 respectively, while the extracellular proteins were decreased by 89% in LNCap and 96% in DU145 respectively. SELDI assay revealed that there were 5 marker proteins in LNCap and 6 in DU145. Although both LNCap and DU145 cell lines originated from human prostate cancer, they had some differences in protein expression.

  10. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    OpenAIRE

    F. Forzale; M. Giorgi; F. Pedonese; R. Nuvoloni; C. D’Ascenzi; S. Rindi

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value) in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore&rdquo...

  11. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen

    2011-05-20

    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of amine-functionalized mixed-ligand metal-organic frameworks of UiO-66 topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sachin M; Shearer, Greig C; Svelle, Stian; Olsbye, Unni; Bonino, Francesca; Ethiraj, Jayashree; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Bordiga, Silvia

    2014-09-15

    A series of amine-functionalized mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of idealized structural formula Zr6O4(OH)4(BDC)(6-6X)(ABDC)6X (where BDC = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, ABDC = 2-aminobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) has been prepared by solvothermal synthesis. The materials have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with the aim of elucidating the effect that varying the degrees of amine functionalization has on the stability (thermal and chemical) and porosity of the framework. This work includes the first application of ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectroscopy in the quantification of ABDC in mixed-linker MOFs.

  13. Dimethylglycine and chemically related amines tested for mutagenicity under potential nitrosation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, A J

    1989-04-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) and the chemically related amino acids glycine, sarcosine (monomethylglycine) and betaine (trimethylglycine) were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 after treatment with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions using a modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay as reported by Colman et al. (1980). The increase in the number of revertants observed both with and without metabolic activation was also induced in the control mixtures without adding the amines. From the subsequent testing of the individual components of the mixtures, we concluded that non-consumed nitrite was responsible for the mutagenic responses observed in the different reaction mixtures, and not the amines themselves. There were no consistent indications of mutagenic activity of the DMG test mixture as compared to the control mixture which exhibited both consistent mutagenic activity and a toxic effect which was not increased by the addition of DMG. In fact, DMG seemed to decrease the toxicity of the control reaction solution to the Salmonella which was clearly observed at the higher doses. DMG cannot be considered mutagenic under the test conditions employed. The same can be said of the other amino acids as well. PMID:2468082

  14. Amine-Promoted Organosilicate Hydrolysis Mechanism at Near-Neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delak, K. M.; Sahai, N.

    2006-12-01

    Proteins bearing polylysine moeities and histidine and serine amino-aicd residues, isolated from diatoms and sponges, are known to promote biological nanoporous silica formation [1, 2]. Using 29Si NMR, we have shown quantitatively that monoamines and small polyamines can chemically accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation rates of organosilicate starting materials, in biomimetic silica synthesis pathways, at circum- neutral pHs and room temperature [3, 4]. The present study is focused on understanding the mechanistic role of these amines in catalyzing the hydrolysis step that precedes condensation [5]. We conducted 29Si NMR experimental studies over a range of temperature and pHs for the hydrolysis rates of trimethylethoxysilane (TMES), a model compound with only one hydrolyzable bond. Experimental results were combined with quantum mechanical hybrid Density Functional Theory calculations of putative intermediate and transition state structures for TMES and tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) which has four hydrolyzable bonds. Comparison of calculated energies with experimentally-determined activation energies indicated that amines promote TMES hydrolysis mainly due to the amine's acidity at neutral pH. The proton released by the amine is transferred to the organosilicate, producing a protonated, ethoxy leaving group that can be displaced by water in an SN2 reaction. For TMOS, the activation energy of proton-transfer coupled with SN2 substitution is comparable to that for Corriu's nucleophile-activated nucleophilic displacement mechanism [6], such that the mechanism of amine-catalyzed hydrolysis is mostly dependent on the ambient pH conditions as well as the type of amine. The molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis and aggregation are reflected, ultimately, on the larger scale in the silica morphology where amines promoting faster hydrolysis result in glassy products compared to slower hydrolyzing amines forming particulate silica [7, 8]. REFERENCES [1] Kroger N

  15. Study on the Reaction of Benzimidazolium Salt with Amine Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The addition-hydrolysis reaction of benzimidazolium salt with some mono- andbifunctional amine nucleophiles is reported, and a novel method of biomimetic synthesis forformamides and heterocycle compounds is provided.

  16. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  17. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  18. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  19. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  20. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  1. Variation of MCPA, metribuzine, methyltriazine-amine and glyphosate degradation, sorption, mineralization and leaching in different soil horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide mineralization and sorption were determined in 75 soil samples from 15 individually drilled holes through the vadose zone along a 28 km long transect of the Danish outwash plain. Mineralization of the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide MCPA was high both in topsoils and in most subsoils, while metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine was always low. Organic matter and soil pH was shown to be responsible for sorption of MCPA and metribuzine in the topsoils. The sorption of methyltriazine-amine in topsoil was positively correlated with clay and negatively correlated with the pH of the soil. Sorption of glyphosate was tested also high in the subsoils. One-dimensional MACRO modeling of the concentration of MCPA, metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine at 2 m depth calculated that the average concentration of MCPA and methyltriazine-amine in the groundwater was below the administrative limit of 0.1 μg/l in all tested profiles while metribuzine always exceeded the 0.1 μg/l threshold value. - Variation in pesticide sorption and degradation ability in 15 soil profiles are highly dependent on the pesticide but can often be described by pedo-transfer functions and used to differentiate pesticide leaching ability

  2. Variation of MCPA, metribuzine, methyltriazine-amine and glyphosate degradation, sorption, mineralization and leaching in different soil horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Carsten S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Geochemistry, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Department of Natural Sciences, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)], E-mail: csj@geus.dk; Keur, Peter van der [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Hydrology, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Iversen, Bo V. [University of Aarhus, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Rosenberg, Per [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Geochemistry, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Barlebo, Heidi C. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Hydrology, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Torp, Soren [University of Aarhus, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Vosgerau, Henrik [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Quaternary Geology, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Juhler, Rene K.; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Rasmussen, Jim; Brinch, Ulla Catrine [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Geochemistry, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole Horbye [University of Aarhus, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Pesticide mineralization and sorption were determined in 75 soil samples from 15 individually drilled holes through the vadose zone along a 28 km long transect of the Danish outwash plain. Mineralization of the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide MCPA was high both in topsoils and in most subsoils, while metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine was always low. Organic matter and soil pH was shown to be responsible for sorption of MCPA and metribuzine in the topsoils. The sorption of methyltriazine-amine in topsoil was positively correlated with clay and negatively correlated with the pH of the soil. Sorption of glyphosate was tested also high in the subsoils. One-dimensional MACRO modeling of the concentration of MCPA, metribuzine and methyltriazine-amine at 2 m depth calculated that the average concentration of MCPA and methyltriazine-amine in the groundwater was below the administrative limit of 0.1 {mu}g/l in all tested profiles while metribuzine always exceeded the 0.1 {mu}g/l threshold value. - Variation in pesticide sorption and degradation ability in 15 soil profiles are highly dependent on the pesticide but can often be described by pedo-transfer functions and used to differentiate pesticide leaching ability.

  3. Functional evolution of the trace amine associated receptors in mammals and the loss of TAAR1 in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westmoreland Susan V

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trace amine associated receptor family is a diverse array of GPCRs that arose before the first vertebrates walked on land. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 is a wide spectrum aminergic receptor that acts as a modulator in brain monoaminergic systems. Other trace amine associated receptors appear to relate to environmental perception and show a birth-and-death pattern in mammals similar to olfactory receptors. Results Across mammals, avians, and amphibians, the TAAR1 gene is intact and appears to be under strong purifying selection based on rates of amino acid fixation compared to neutral mutations. We have found that in dogs it has become a pseudogene. Our analyses using a comparative genetics approach revealed that the pseudogenization event predated the emergence of the Canini tribe rather than being coincident with canine domestication. By assessing the effects of the TAAR1 agonist β-phenylethylamine on [3H]dopamine uptake in canine striatal synaptosomes and comparing the degree and pattern of uptake inhibition to that seen in other mammals, including TAAR1 knockout mice, wild type mice and rhesus monkey, we found that the TAAR1 pseudogenization event resulted in an uncompensated loss of function. Conclusion The gene family has seen expansions among certain mammals, notably rodents, and reductions in others, including primates. By placing the trace amine associated receptors in an evolutionary context we can better understand their function and their potential associations with behavior and neurological disease.

  4. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant. PMID:26471528

  5. Interstitial renal fibrosis due to multiple cisplatin treatments is ameliorated by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2016-02-01

    Elucidation of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), including acute kidney injury (AKI), is important to prevent their progression to chronic kidney disease. Current animal AKI models are often too severe for use in evaluating human AKI. Therefore, new animal models of mild kidney injury are needed. Here a new clinically relevant animal model using multiple low doses of cisplatin (CP) was used to evaluate AKD. When 10 mg/kg CP was administered intraperitoneally once weekly for three times to L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) transgenic mice, moderate renal interstitial fibrosis and tubule dilatation occurred, accompanied by brush-border loss. Urinary L-FABP, a promising biomarker of AKI, changed more drastically than blood urea nitrogen or creatinine. Preventing fibrosis in organs was also studied. Oral administration of a recently reported selective semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor, PXS-4728A, for 1 week attenuated kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis compared with vehicle. Inhibition of renal lipid accumulation in semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor-treated mice, together with reduced oxidative stress and L-FABP suppression in proximal tubules, suggested an antifibrotic effect of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition in this CP-AKD model, a representative onco-nephrology. Thus, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitors may be promising candidates for the prevention of chronic kidney disease in patients using CP to treat malignancy. PMID:26535996

  6. Interstitial renal fibrosis due to multiple cisplatin treatments is ameliorated by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2016-02-01

    Elucidation of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), including acute kidney injury (AKI), is important to prevent their progression to chronic kidney disease. Current animal AKI models are often too severe for use in evaluating human AKI. Therefore, new animal models of mild kidney injury are needed. Here a new clinically relevant animal model using multiple low doses of cisplatin (CP) was used to evaluate AKD. When 10 mg/kg CP was administered intraperitoneally once weekly for three times to L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) transgenic mice, moderate renal interstitial fibrosis and tubule dilatation occurred, accompanied by brush-border loss. Urinary L-FABP, a promising biomarker of AKI, changed more drastically than blood urea nitrogen or creatinine. Preventing fibrosis in organs was also studied. Oral administration of a recently reported selective semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor, PXS-4728A, for 1 week attenuated kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis compared with vehicle. Inhibition of renal lipid accumulation in semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitor-treated mice, together with reduced oxidative stress and L-FABP suppression in proximal tubules, suggested an antifibrotic effect of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition in this CP-AKD model, a representative onco-nephrology. Thus, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitors may be promising candidates for the prevention of chronic kidney disease in patients using CP to treat malignancy.

  7. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant.

  8. Hydrogenation of unactivated enamines to tertiary amines: rhodium complexes of fluorinated phosphines give marked improvements in catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Tin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrogenation of sluggish unactivated enamine substrates, Rh complexes of electron-deficient phosphines are demonstrated to be far more reactive catalysts than those derived from triphenylphosphine. These operate at low catalyst loadings (down to 0.01 mol % and are able to reduce tetrasubstituted enamines. The use of the sustainable and environmentally benign solvent (R-limonene for the reaction is also reported with the amine isolated by acid extraction.

  9. Carboxylate-Assisted Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Amination of Arenes with Biologically Relevant Alkyl Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Tiantian; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Lu, Hongjian

    2016-02-24

    An iridium-catalyzed C-H amination of arenes with a wide substrate scope is reported. Benzamides with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups and linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl azides are all applicable. Cesium carboxylate is crucial for both reactivity and regioselectivity of the reactions. Many biologically relevant molecules, such as amino acid, peptide, steroid, sugar, and thymidine derivatives can be introduced to arenes with high yields and 100 % chiral retention. PMID:26712274

  10. CHANGES IN COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS AND BIOGENIC AMINES PRODUCTION DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED SAUSAGES POLIČAN

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Kalhotka; Olga Cwiková; Veronika Čírtková(Kovářová); Zuzana Matoušová; Jitka Přichystalová

    2012-01-01

    Poličan is classic raw fermented sausage with low acidity. Dry fermented sausages Poličan were used for the analysis and drawn once a week during production from ripening chambers of meat-packing plants. Those sausages ripened for 35 days under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate microorganisms accompanying ripening of fermented sausages Poličan and characterize relationships between activity of microorganisms and content of biogenic amines. ...

  11. Chemoselective N-nitrosation of secondary amines under heterogeneous and mild conditions via in situ generation of HNO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani; Hamid Goudarziafshar; Somaieh Rezaee; Saiedeh Shima Mortazavi

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary amines are chemoselectively subjected to N-nitrosation reaction with treatment of citric acid and NaNO2 in the presence of wet SiO2(50%,w/w)in dichloromethane at room temperatture under heterogeneous conditions.The N-nitrosation method is very simle and products can be easily isolated with good to high yields.

  12. Sociologie et sociolinguistique du franbreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Rafael Eliezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Des enquêtes ont montré que plus de 20 % des adultes israéliens ont quelque connaissance du français. Parmi cette population, 250 000 à 300 000 personnes pouvaient être considérées comme francophones. Le français a affirmé une présence importante – pas toujours reconnue – dès la phase cruciale du développement de cette société. Une immigration de masse suivit la création de l’État (1948 dont la population a quasiment triplé en moins de deux décennies, avec l’arrivée de plus de 200 000 immigrants d’Afrique du Nord et des dizaines de milliers des Balkans et du Moyen-Orient. Beaucoup parmi ces immigrants étaient francophones – le français étant pour eux soit la première langue soit une deuxième qu’ils contrôlaient. C’est depuis lors que la présence du français est devenue démographiquement significative dans la société israélienne, se prolongeant de nos jours dans l’immigration en provenance de France qui se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Comme nous l’avons montré ailleurs (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013, Israël fait l’expérience simultanée de plusieurs francophonies originales qui diffèrent par leurs sources aussi bien que leurs expressions (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013. Un premier modèle est le « français vernaculaire » (voir Boudras-Chapon 2008 amené par les immigrants de classes défavorisées arrivant d’Afrique du nord qui se sont regroupés en Israël. Leur français n’a offert qu’une faible résistance à l’hébreu qui s’est imposée dans le processus d’intégration. Un bilinguisme fonctionnant sur un mode additif au début qui s’est mué progressivement en modèle soustractif. Un second modèle concerne les immigrants de même origine ainsi que des immigrants francophones d’autres pays (pays balkaniques, Turquie ou Egypte formant une strate instruite de classe moyenne, pour qui le français était d’utilisation quotidienne aussi bien que de langue de

  13. Approche épidémiologique du rôle des acides gras sur le vieillissement cutané dans le cadre de l’étude SU.VI.MAX

    OpenAIRE

    Latreille, Julie,

    2013-01-01

    The possible effect of dietary lipids on the photoprotection of the skin has been few investigated so far. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the links between dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on facial skin photoaging in a large population of men and women aged between 45 and 60 years old. An inverse association was found between intakes of olive oil and the severity of photoaging. Concerning n-3 PUFAs, severe photoaging was in...

  14. Volatile amines as criteria for chemical quality assessment. Seafoodplus Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Monique

    2005-01-01

    Volatile amines are the characteristic molecules responsible for the fishy odour and flavour present in fish several days after the catch and they are commonly used as criteria for assessing the fish quality. The nature and the formation of the volatile amines are discussed. Ammonia is present in freshly caught fish, during chilled storage it is formed by endogenous and bacterial enzymes, it is a poor indicator of fish freshness and cannot be considered as an effective marker of fish spoila...

  15. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA bi...

  16. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA bi...

  17. Quantification of biogenic amines by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shulin; Yong HUANG; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the determination of biogenic amines including agmatine, epinephrine, dopamine, tyramine, and histamine in human urine samples. To achieve a high assay sensitivity, the targeted analytes were pre-column labeled by a CL tagging reagent, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI). ABEI-tagged biogenic amines after MCE separation reacted with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of horse...

  18. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stadnik; Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitabl...

  19. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Flasarová; Leona Buňková; Barbora Ivičičová; František Buňka; Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine) during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines ...

  20. The analysis of biogenic amines by standard and novel methods

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Biologically active amines in cheese and fish arising from metabolic activities of food-borne microorganisms have been implicated as the causative agents in many food poisoning outbreaks. An awareness of amine levels in foods today is therefore important in relation to food spoilage and safety. In recent years there has been increased consumer awareness about food composition and safety and a corresponding increase in regulatory action. The food industry requires reliable and cost effecti...

  1. Aromatic amine dehydrogenase, a second tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Govindaraj, S; Eisenstein, E.; Jones, L. H.; Sanders-Loehr, J; Chistoserdov, A Y; Davidson, V L; Edwards, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines including tyramine and dopamine. AADH is structurally similar to methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and possesses the same tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) prosthetic group. AADH exhibits an alpha 2 beta 2 structure with subunit molecular weights of 39,000 and 18,000 and with a quinone covalently attached to each beta subunit. Neither subunit cross-reacted immunologically with antibodies to the correspo...

  2. Levels of histamine and other biogenic amines in high quality red wines.

    OpenAIRE

    Konakovsky, Viktor; Focke, Margarete; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Schmid, Rainer,; Scheiner, Otto; Moser, Peter; Jarisch, Reinhart; Hemmer, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biogenic amines in wine may impair sensory wine quality and cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. In this study, histamine and other biogenic amines were determined by HPLC after amine derivatization to dansyl chloride conjugates in 100 selected high quality red wines made from seven different cultivars. Amine levels varied considerably between different wines. The most abundant amines were putrescine (median 19.4 mg/L, range 2.9-122), histamine (7.2, 0....

  3. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  4. Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W

    2013-06-26

    A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes.

  5. Monitoring of biogenic amines and drugs of various therapeutic groups in urine samples with use of HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Płonka, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous separation and determination of biogenic amines [dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin and its six metabolites (normetanephrine, metanephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol, homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid)] with drugs from different therapeutically groups [analgesics (paracetamol, metamizol), diuretics (furosemide) and antibiotics (cefazolin, fluconazole)] was developed. A chromatographic column with pre-column with octadecylsilane phase (C18e ) and two detectors - diode array serial connected and fluorescence - was used. Gradient elution of mixture of acetate buffer (pH 4.66) and methanol as a mobile phase was applied. The limit of detection (LOD) of 8-10 ng/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 24-30 ng/mL for biogenic amines, as well as the LOD of 50-100 ng/mL and the LOQ of 150-300 ng/mL for drugs, were determined. The applied sample preparation method allowed recoveries of 93% for the biogenic amines and 92% for the drugs to be achieved. The developed procedure has been applied to simultaneous determination of the examined compounds in urine samples and could be used in clinical analysis. PMID:26362402

  6. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  7. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  8. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113. Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  9. Le cas du Haut-Adige ou Tyrol du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Bagini Scantamburlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La situation de cette région italienne est vraiment emblématique des rapports entre « les territoires et l’identité » à cause de la présence de différentes communautés linguistiques autochtones, dont les plus importantes sont les minorités germanophone et latine. S’il est vrai que cette situation existe également dans d’autres régions italiennes, il est incontestable que dans le Haut-Adige/Tyrol du Sud elle présente des caractéristiques très spécifiques et uniques pour l’Italie, car les italo...

  10. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Walther

    2011-01-01

    « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113). Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  11. INDE. Le chant du Mohini Attam, danse classique du Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Contri, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Voici un objet fort précieux, dans le meilleur sens du terme, comme ces guirlandes de joyaux dont sont ornées, en Inde, les divinités que ne cesse de célébrer le Mōhiniyāṭṭam ou « danse de l’Enchanteresse ». La dévotion avec tout l’élan de l’être – l’intellect, l’esprit, sans omettre le corps –, c’est bien un aspect essentiel de cette forme d’expression, ô combien subtile ; c’est également ce qui anime, avec ferveur, la danse et la musique indiennes. Ce nouveau Cd, de la très belle collection...

  12. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  13. L'impossible cartographie du terrorisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Le terrorisme n'existe pas : ou plus exactement, ce n'est pas un concept utilisable par les sciences sociales et la stratégie. En revanche l'usage du terme a une forte signification politique. Pour expliquer ce paradoxe apparent, il est nécessaire d'analyser les usages du terme terrorisme et leurs implications. Nous qu'adversaires en présence comme tiers, victimes, font du terrorisme une forme de conflit spécifique qui aurait sa propre unité et qui pourrait être analysé selon une grille de le...

  14. Du glacier au glacier rocheux, depuis la fin du Petit Âge Glaciaire, au pied du Mont Thabor (Alpes du Nord, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Monnier, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Le glacier rocheux du Thabor-Cheval Blanc, à l’extrême sud de la Savoie (Alpes du Nord françaises), est un spécimen spectaculaire et fascinant. D’après les informations fournies par des documents historiques (cartes et croquis anciens), ce glacier rocheux s’est dévoilé dans le paysage au cours des deux derniers siècles : un vrai glacier se trouvait effectivement à son emplacement à la fin du Petit Âge Glaciaire. L’objectif de cet article est de comprendre comment a pu se produire une évolutio...

  15. Gênes et les réseaux du commerce du sucre à la fin du Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerfelli, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La présente contribution examine le rôle des hommes d’affaires génois dans le commerce du sucre en Méditerranée, à la fin du Moyen Âge. S’ils montrent un désintérêt progressif pour ce trafic lucratif en Orient, notamment dans le royaume de Chypre, ils sont en revanche plus dynamiques en Sicile et surtout dans le royaume de Grenade. Dans cette dernière région, ils s’implantent solidement et obtiennent le monopole de l’exportation du sucre et des fruits secs, qu’ils acheminent jusqu’en Mer du N...

  16. Sorption of mono ethanol amine and mono ethanol aminate of copper(II) and cadmium(II) on hydrated zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of mono ethanol amine and mono ethanol aminate of copper(II) and cadmium(II) on hydrated zirconium dioxide is studied. Influence of ph of equilibrium solution, nature of central cation and outer-sphere anion on sorption of mono ethanol amine on hydrated zirconium dioxide is considered.

  17. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  18. Guanidinylated bioresponsive poly(amido amine)s designed for intranuclear gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiankun; Zhang, Jinmin; Xing, Haonan; Yang, Zhen; Cai, Cuifang; Zhang, Conglu; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Wei, Minjie; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2016-01-01

    Guanidinylated poly(amido amine)s with multiple disulfide linkages (Gua-SS-PAAs) were designed and constructed as nonviral gene carriers. The main chains of these novel carriers were synthesized based on monomers containing guanidino groups (guanidine hydrochloride and chlorhexidine), which could avoid complicated side-chain-modification reactions while introducing the guanidino groups. The synthesized Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, molecular weight, and polydispersity. Furthermore, Gua-SS-PAAs polymers were complexed with pDNA, and the properties of the complexes were determined, including entrapment efficiency, particle size, ζ-potential, atomic force microscopy images, stability, DNA complexation ability, reduction sensitivity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The new Gua-SS-PAAs carriers exhibited higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity compared with two widely used gene delivery carriers, polyethylenimine and lipofectamine 2000. Furthermore, the relationship between the side-chain structure and morphological/biological properties was extrapolated, and the results showed that guanidine in the side chain aids in the improvement of transfection efficiency. In addition, the introduction of guanidino group might confer the new carriers with nuclear localization function compared to carriers without it. PMID:27574429

  19. Effets des contraintes mécaniques du sol sur la limitation des rendements du tournesol

    OpenAIRE

    Mirleau-Thebaud, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    La production de tournesol inclue des interactions complexes entre le génotype et l'environnement tout au long du cycle de la culture. La profondeur de l'enracinement du tournesol est fortement liée au sol, à sa structure et à la disponibilité en eau. La compaction du sol représente un enjeu important dans le contexte actuel de la durabilité des systèmes agricoles, et se caractérise par une diminution de la disponibilité hydrique du sol, une augmentation de la densité apparente et la résistan...

  20. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  1. Development of versatile isotopic labeling reagents for profiling the amine submetabolome by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two new reagents were developed for chemical isotope labeling mass spectrometry (MS). • They could be used to label amine-containing metabolites in a metabolomic sample. • The labeled metabolites could be detected with much improved sensitivity in MS. • One of the reagents could also help generate useful MS/MS spectra for structural analysis. • These reagents should be useful for quantitative metabolomics. - Abstract: Metabolomic profiling involves relative quantification of metabolites in comparative samples and identification of the significant metabolites that differentiate different groups (e.g., diseased vs. controls). Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is an enabling technique that can provide improved metabolome coverage and metabolite quantification. However, chemical identification of labeled metabolites can still be a challenge. In this work, a new set of isotopic labeling reagents offering versatile properties to enhance both detection and identification are described. They were prepared by a glycine molecule (or its isotopic counterpart) and an aromatic acid with varying structures through a simple three-step synthesis route. In addition to relatively low costs of synthesizing the reagents, this reaction route allows adjusting reagent property in accordance with the desired application objective. To date, two isotopic reagents, 4-dimethylaminobenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (DBAA-NHS) and 4-methoxybenzoylamido acetic acid N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester (MBAA-NHS), for labeling the amine-containing metabolites (i.e., amine submetabolome) have been synthesized. The labeling conditions and the related LC–MS method have been optimized. We demonstrate that DBAA labeling can increase the metabolite detectability because of the presence of an electrospray ionization (ESI)-active dimethylaminobenzoyl group. On the other hand, MBAA labeled metabolites can be fragmented

  2. Amine-pillared Nanosheet Adsorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui

    Amine-functionalized solid adsorbents have gained attention within the last decade for their application in carbon dioxide capture, due to their many advantages such as low energy cost for regeneration, tunable structure, elimination of corrosion problems, and additional advantages. However, one of the challenges facing this technology is to accomplish both high CO 2 capture capacity along with high CO2 diffusion rates concurrently. Current amine-based solid sorbents such as porous materials similar to SBA-15 have large pores diffusion entering molecules; however, the pores become clogged upon amine inclusion. To meet this challenge, our group's solution involves the creation of a new type of material which we are calling-amino-pillared nanosheet (APN) adsorbents which are generated from layered nanosheet precursors. These materials are being proposed because of their unique lamellar structure which exhibits ability to be modified by organic or inorganic pillars through consecutive swelling and pillaring steps to form large mesoporous interlayer spaces. After the expansion of the layer space through swelling and pillaring, the large pore space can be functionalized with amine groups. This selective functionalization is possible by the choice of amine group introduced. Our choice, large amine molecules, do not access the micropore within each layer; however, either physically or chemically immobilized onto the surface of the mesoporous interlayer space between each layer. The final goal of the research is to investigate the ability to prepare APN adsorbents from a model nanoporous layered materials including nanosheets precursor material MCM-22(P) and nanoporous layered silicate material AMH-3. MCM-22(P) contains 2-dimensional porous channels, 6 membered rings (MB) openings perpendicular to the layers and 10 MB channels in the plane of the layers. However, the transport limiting openings (6 MB) to the layers is smaller than CO2 gas molecules. In contrast, AMH-3 has

  3. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  4. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  5. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine. PMID:26362807

  6. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine.

  7. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  8. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  9. Base neurobiologique du rôle des récepteurs 5-HT1A dans le mode d'action des antidépresseurs sérotoninergiques

    OpenAIRE

    Gardier, A. M.; Jacquot, C.; Artigas, Francesc

    1995-01-01

    [FR]Les inhibiteurs de recapture sélectifs de la sérotonine (IRSS) bloquent l'activité du transporteur de la 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) dépendante du sodium ; ils augmentent ainsi la concentration des mono-amines dans la fente synaptique. Le long délai (deux à quatre semaines) pour que les propriétés antidépressives se manifestent correspondrait au temps nécessaire à la désensibilisation fonctionnelle des autorécepteurs 5-HT1A des noyaux du raphé. La mesure des concentrations cérébrales extr...

  10. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  11. Direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids : applications in dipeptide synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S.; Yang, Y.; Liu, X.; Ferdousi, F. K.; Batsanov, A.S.; Whiting, A

    2013-01-01

    The direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids has been examined. The reaction was generally slow relative to simple amine-carboxylic acid combinations though proceeded at 65–68 °C generally avoiding racemization. 3,4,5-Trifluorophenylboronic and o-nitrophenylboronic acids were found to be the best catalysts, though for slower dipeptide formations, high catalyst loadings were required and an interesting synergistic catalytic effect between two arylboronic acids ...

  12. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  13. Synthesis of Non-Cytotoxic Poly(Ester-Amine) Dendrimers as Potential Solubility Enhancers for Drugs: Methotrexate as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Guadarrama; María Teresa Ramírez Apan; Jorge A. Cruz-Morales; Delia Soto-Castro

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of two new families of dendrimers based on the esterification of N-alkylated 3-amine-1-propanol with two different cores, adipic acid (1st and 2nd generations) and ethylenediamine (generation 1.5), both with carboxylic acid end groups, offering a wide variety of further modifications at the periphery. According to the cytotoxic evaluation of the dendrimers and their possible degradation products within cell lines, these materials could be considered as innoc...

  14. Acid-base strengths in pyridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    Although pyridine is a solvent with a low dielectric constant, spectrophotometric determinations show simple dissociation without ion pairs as intermediates for some sulfonphthaleins and polynitrophenols in pyridine. The salts of a number of amines and hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid and picric

  15. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  16. Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

    2008-05-12

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation (PNICI) mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. The obtained recoveries of aromatic amines ranged from 92.2 to 98.4% and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) was within the range of 0.7-4.2%. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3 were within the range from 0.02 to 0.20 ng/g. In the present study, the commercially available 54 permanent hair dye, 35 modified or natural henna and 15 dyed hair samples were analysed for the aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable to determine the aromatic amine ingredients and metabolites of these commercial products. PMID:18280687

  17. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  18. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  19. Développements récents en matières de raffinage et de modifications : élimination des contaminants dans les huiles alimentaires et réduction du taux d’acides gras trans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Kock Jan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the general concern for food safety, the removal of minor contaminants (PAH, pesticides, dioxins, PCB’s… from oils and fats has the be examined in detail. Also, in recent years a lot of attention has been given to the lowering of the trans fatty acids content in oils and fats for food products; the reason for this move is the potential negative health impact of trans fatty acids. In general, contaminants can be removed either during neutralization, by adsorption on activated carbon or during the deodorization process. To reach an efficient removal, the process conditions applied need to be optimised to achieve almost complete detoxification but with minimal costs. Traditionally, partially hydrogenated fats were used in nearly all food products because of their interesting melting properties. Nowadays, these products are replaced by trans free alternatives in most food products (margarines, bakery products…. This has created renewed interest for other modification processes: multiple dry fractionation and chemical and enzymatic interesterification. The challenge is to produce trans free fats with the same functionality as the trans rich products, but at comparable cost.

  20. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents. PMID:26832222