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Sample records for acid-induced epileptic seizures

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

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    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  2. Uncaria rhynchophylla and rhynchophylline improved kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures via IL-1β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

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    Ho, Tin-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2014-05-15

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) has been used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. This study reported the major anti-convulsive signaling pathways and effective targets of UR and rhynchophylline (RP) using genomic and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings indicated that UR and RP improved KA-induced epileptic seizures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and neurotrophin signaling pathways were regulated by UR in both cortex and hippocampus of KA-treated rats. KA upregulated the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), which were involved in TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, respectively. However, UR and RP downregulated the KA-induced IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Our findings suggested that UR and RP exhibited anti-convulsive effects in KA-induced rats via the regulation of TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, and the subsequent inhibition of IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. PMID:24636743

  3. Predicting epileptic seizures in advance.

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    Negin Moghim

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6-0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling, is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance.

  4. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

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    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  5. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

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    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai;

    2015-01-01

    algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96%) and...... 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  6. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

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    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  7. Childhood epileptic seizures imitating migraine and encephalitis

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    Kravljanac Ružica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paroxismal events can resemble epileptic seizures, however, some epileptic seizures, especially benign occipital childhood epilepsies can imitate migraine, cycling vomiting or encephalitis. Objective. The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features and outcome in children with benign occipital childhood epilepsies. Methods. Investigation included 18 patients with benign occipital childhood epilepsies hospitalized in the period from 2007 to 2010. The diagnosis was based on clinical and EEG characteristics of seizures, while treatment included acute therapy for seizures and chronic antiepileptic drugs. Prognosis was analyzed in terms of neurological outcome and seizure recurrence rate. Results. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with early onset was diagnosed in 15 children. Vegetative symptoms, mostly ictal vomiting (13, eye deviation and loss of consciousness (13 dominated in the clinical presentation. The most frequent EEG findings showed occipital epileptic discharges. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with late onset was diagnosed in three cases. Seizures were manifested by visual hallucinations, headache and secondary generalized convulsions. All three patients were administered chronic antiepileptic drugs and had good outcome. Conclusion. In our patients, clinical manifestations of benign occipital epilepsies had some similarities with clinical features of migraine and encephalitis. It could explain misdiagnosis in some of them. Knowledge about main features and differences between each of these disorders is crucial for making appropriate diagnosis.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MAIN REASONS FOR MISTAKES IN DIAGNOSTICS OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES AND EPILEPTIC SYNDROMES (CLINICAL PECULIARITIES OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

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    M. B. Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that requires long therapy and continuous careful supervision of the status of the patient. In connection with this, both overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of this disease is extremely dangerous. Overdiagnosis causes ungrounded social "label", limitation in rights, significant decreasing quality of life of the patient, family problems, prescription of long-term anti-epileptic therapy that may cause potential side effects. Underdiagnosis of epilepsy frequently causes further resistance of seizures to therapy, they become more frequent, there appears the possibility of development of epileptic status, life threatening situations, possibility of development of cognitive disorders associated with the disease. A significant progress in epileptology and medical technologies (video electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring, neuroimaging methods, genetic studies that has been marked in recent decades has allowed minimizing errors of physicians. Despite this, certain difficulties still remain in diagnostics of epilepsy. In the author's opinion, there is a range of epileptic seizures visual assessment of which is extremely difficult and is literally impossible without video EEG monitoring. Short, phantom, atypical absences, absences on the outside, epileptic myoclonus of the eyelids with or without absences, myoclonic, tonic, gelastic, focal hyperkinetic seizures, epileptic aura, reversing focal seizures, epileptic spasms, ictal syncopes, negative myoclonus, focal epileptic myoclonus, epileptic seizures arising when closing the eyes, and self-induced seizures can be attributed to such seizures with difficulties in diagnosis. The author reviews each of these types epileptic seizures in details focusing the attention on their diagnostic criteria and characteristics of the clinical and the EEF features that are of utmost importance in the course of performance of differential diagnostics. Own experience of the

  9. Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?

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    Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori laws. We also verify in an animal seizure model the earthquake-driven hypothesis that power law statistics co-exist with characteristic scales, as coupling between constitutive elements increases towards the synchronization regime. These observations point to the universality of the dynamics of coupled threshold oscillators for systems even as diverse as Earth and brain and suggest a general strategy for forecasting seizures, one of neurosciences' grails.

  10. Mortality predictors of epilepsy and epileptic seizures among hospitalized elderly

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    Telma M.R. de Assis; Aroldo Bacellar; Gersonita Costa; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy and epileptic seizures are common brain disorders in the elderly and are associated with increased mortality that may be ascribed to the underlying disease or epilepsy-related causes. Objective To describe mortality predictors of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients.Method Retrospective analysis was performed on hospitalized elderly who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled.Results The mo...

  11. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

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    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in

  12. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

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    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J;

    2001-01-01

    The role of interleukin-6 in hippocampal tissue damage after injection with kainic acid, a rigid glutamate analogue inducing epileptic seizures, has been studied by means of interleukin-6 null mice. At 35mg/kg, kainic acid induced convulsions in both control (75%) and interleukin-6 null (100%) mi...

  13. Ontology and Knowledge Management System on Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

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    Almeida, Pedro; Sales, Francisco; Nogueira, Ana; Dourado, António

    2010-01-01

    A Knowledge Management System developed for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information about Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures is presented. We present an Ontology on Epilepsy and a Web-based prototype that together create the KMS.

  14. Analysis of Seizure EEG in Kindled Epileptic Rats

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    A. K. Sen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Using wavelet analysis we have detected the presence of chirps in seizure EEG signals recorded from kindled epileptic rats. Seizures were induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala and the EEG signals recorded from the amygdala were analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform. A time–frequency representation of the wavelet power spectrum revealed that during seizure the EEG signal is characterized by a chirp-like waveform whose frequency changes with time from the onset of seizure to its completion. Similar chirp-like time–frequency profiles have been observed in newborn and adult patients undergoing epileptic seizures. The global wavelet spectrum depicting the variation of power with frequency showed two dominant frequencies with the largest amounts of power during seizure. Our results indicate that a kindling paradigm in rats can be used as an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy to detect seizures by identifying chirp-like time–frequency variations in the EEG signal.

  15. A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.

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    Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  16. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents

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    Jacobsen, M; Bælum, Jesper; Bonde, J P

    1994-01-01

    exposure to a mixture of organic solvents (mainly cyclohexanone, white spirit, and isopropanol). Epileptic seizures of temporal type were occurring in relation to solvent exposure. The seizures disappeared shortly after stopping exposure but returned just after a short term re-exposure to cyclohexanone...

  17. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

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    Min Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients’ daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients’ physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures’ arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient’s preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

  18. A novel genetic programming approach for epileptic seizure detection.

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    Bhardwaj, Arpit; Tiwari, Aruna; Krishna, Ramesh; Varma, Vishaal

    2016-02-01

    The human brain is a delicate mix of neurons (brain cells), electrical impulses and chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Any damage has the potential to disrupt the workings of the brain and cause seizures. These epileptic seizures are the manifestations of epilepsy. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals register average neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and label changes in activity over large areas. A detailed analysis of these electroencephalograph (EEG) signals provides valuable insights into the mechanisms instigating epileptic disorders. Moreover, the detection of interictal spikes and epileptic seizures in an EEG signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection methods are required, as these epileptic seizures are volatile and unpredictable. This paper deals with an automated detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for feature extraction and proposes a novel genetic programming (GP) approach for classifying the EEG signals. Improvements in the standard GP approach are made using a Constructive Genetic Programming (CGP) in which constructive crossover and constructive subtree mutation operators are introduced. A hill climbing search is integrated in crossover and mutation operators to remove the destructive nature of these operators. A new concept of selecting the Globally Prime offspring is also presented to select the best fitness offspring generated during crossover. To decrease the time complexity of GP, a new dynamic fitness value computation (DFVC) is employed to increase the computational speed. We conducted five different sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model in the classification of different mixtures of normal, interictal and ictal signals, and the accuracies achieved are outstandingly high. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods on same datasets, and these results affirm the potential use of

  19. A novel genetic programming approach for epileptic seizure detection.

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    Bhardwaj, Arpit; Tiwari, Aruna; Krishna, Ramesh; Varma, Vishaal

    2016-02-01

    The human brain is a delicate mix of neurons (brain cells), electrical impulses and chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Any damage has the potential to disrupt the workings of the brain and cause seizures. These epileptic seizures are the manifestations of epilepsy. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals register average neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and label changes in activity over large areas. A detailed analysis of these electroencephalograph (EEG) signals provides valuable insights into the mechanisms instigating epileptic disorders. Moreover, the detection of interictal spikes and epileptic seizures in an EEG signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection methods are required, as these epileptic seizures are volatile and unpredictable. This paper deals with an automated detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for feature extraction and proposes a novel genetic programming (GP) approach for classifying the EEG signals. Improvements in the standard GP approach are made using a Constructive Genetic Programming (CGP) in which constructive crossover and constructive subtree mutation operators are introduced. A hill climbing search is integrated in crossover and mutation operators to remove the destructive nature of these operators. A new concept of selecting the Globally Prime offspring is also presented to select the best fitness offspring generated during crossover. To decrease the time complexity of GP, a new dynamic fitness value computation (DFVC) is employed to increase the computational speed. We conducted five different sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model in the classification of different mixtures of normal, interictal and ictal signals, and the accuracies achieved are outstandingly high. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods on same datasets, and these results affirm the potential use of

  20. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

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    Bialonski, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  1. Epileptic seizures in patients with a posterior circulation infarct

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    Yüksel Kaplan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of seizures and the clinical features of patients with seizures related to a posterior circulation infarct (POCI. METHODS: We reviewed all ischemic stroke patients admitted to our clinic between January 2011 and January 2012. The patients’ database information was retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-five patients with a POCI were included in the study. We reviewed all patients with epileptic seizures related to a POCI. Age, gender, recurrent stroke, risk factors, etiology, radiographic localization, the seizure type and onset time, and the electroencephalographic findings of patients were evaluated. We excluded all patients who had precipitating conditions during seizures such as taking drugs, acid-base disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, and history of epilepsy. RESULTS: Seizures were observed in four patients (3 male, 1 female with a POCI related epileptic seizures (7.2%. The etiology of strokes was cardiac-embolic in 3 patients and vertebral artery dissection in 1 patient. Seizures occurred in 2 patients as presenting finding, in 1 patient within 7 days, and 1 patient within 28 days. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 3 patients and simple partial seizures with secondary generalization in 1 patient. Three patients had cerebellum infarction at the left hemisphere. One patient had lateral medullary infarction at the right side. The electroencephalographic findings of patients were normal. CONCLUSION: Studies involving patients with seizures related to a POCI are novel and few in number. Three patients with seizure had cerebellum infarction. The cerebellum in these patients may contribute via different mechanisms over seizure activity.

  2. Recognition of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a curable neurophobia?

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    O'Sullivan, S S

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) remains challenging. The majority of \\'PNES status\\' cases are likely to be seen in the emergency department or similar non-specialised units, where patients are initially assessed and managed by physicians of varying expertise in neurology.

  3. Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas

    monitoring of their brain waves. More specifically, three issues were investigated: The feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, optimization of automatic seizure detection algorithms, and the link between intra- and extracranial EEG. Regarding feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, neither...... seizure prediction algorithms. More promising results were obtained in the investigating of possible use of an outpatient EEG monitoring device for idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients. Combined with an automatic seizure detection algorithm such a device can give an objective account of the paroxysm...... detected without any false positive detections. This was obtained using a generic algorithm on the signals from only a single frontal channel. Applying the same algorithm architecture on EEG data from two outpatient children monitored for approximately three entire days each, the sensitivity was 90...

  4. Voltage synchronizations between multichannel electroencephalograms during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The underlying dynamics for the electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from humans but especially epilepsy patients are usually not completely known. However, the ictal activity is claimed to be characterized by synchronous oscillations in the brain voltages in the literature. These time dependent interdependencies (synchronization, coupling) between the EEG voltages from epileptogenic and non epileptogenic brain sites of nineteen focal epileptic patients are investigated in this work. It is found that strong synchronizationdesynchronization events occur in alternation during most of the investigated seizures. Thus, these seizures are detected with considerable sensitivity (71 of the 79 seizures).

  5. Automatic Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection Using Matching Pursuit

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    Sorensen, Thomas Lynggaard; Olsen, Ulrich L.; Conradsen, Isa;

    2010-01-01

    An automatic alarm system for detecting epileptic seizure onsets could be of great assistance to patients and medical staff. A novel approach is proposed using the Matching Pursuit algorithm as a feature extractor combined with the Support Vector Machine (SVM) as a classifier for this purpose. The...... combination of Matching Pursuit and SVM for automatic seizure detection has never been tested before, making this a pilot study. Data from red different patients with 6 to 49 seizures are used to test our model. Three patients are recorded with scalp electroencephalography (sEEG) and three with intracranial...

  6. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

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    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww019_video_abstractaww019_video_abstract. PMID:26912639

  7. Inhomogeneous cortical synchronization and partial epileptic seizures

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    Lorena Carolina Vega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with sixty electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization. Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time-evolution of highly synchronized areas.Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and secondary generalization appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms.

  8. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of non-triggered single epileptic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Juarez, I E; Moreno, J; Ladino, L D; Castro, N; Hernandez-Vanegas, L; Burneo, J G; Hernandez-Ronquillo, L; Tellez-Zenteno, J F

    2016-08-16

    Epileptic seizures are one of the main reasons for neurological visits in an emergency department. Convulsions represent a traumatic event for the patient and the family, with significant medical and social consequences. Due to their prevalence and impact, the initial management is of vital importance. Although following the first epileptic seizure, early recurrence diminishes after establishing treatment with antiepileptic drugs, the forecast for developing epilepsy and long-term outcomes are not altered by any early intervention. Detailed questioning based on the symptoms of the convulsions, the patient's medical history and a full electroencephalogram and neuroimaging study make it possible to define the risk of recurrence of the seizure and the possible diagnosis of epilepsy. Epileptic abnormalities, the presence of old or new potentially epileptogenic brain lesions, as well as nocturnal seizures, increase the risk of recurrence. Physicians must assess each patient on an individual basis to determine the most suitable treatment, and explain the risk of not being treated versus the risk that exists if treatment with antiepileptic drugs is established. PMID:27439486

  10. [Classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noachtar, S; Rémi, J

    2012-02-01

    Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options require a revision of the current classification of seizures and epilepsies. Recently, a classification proposal was introduced which reflects the ambivalence of the Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie (ILAE). We suggest that epileptology should utilize the same established systematic approach used in clinical neurology.

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  12. Expression of Glypican-4 in the brains of epileptic patients and epileptic animals and its effects on epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Yanke; Zheng, Fangshuo; Yang, Yong; Xu, Xin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Binglin; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Glypican-4 (Gpc4) has been found to play an important role in enhancing miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). But, the relationship between Gpc4 and epilepsy is still a mystery. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of Gpc4 in patients with epilepsy and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of epilepsy. We also determined if altered Gpc4 expression resulted in increased susceptibility to seizures. Western blotting and immunofluorescent methods were utilized. Gpc4 was significantly increased in patients and epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine injection. According to behavioral studies, downregulation of Gpc4 by Gpc4 siRNA decreased spontaneous seizure frequency, while upregulation of Gpc4 by recombinant Gpc4 overexpression led to a converse result. These findings support the hypothesis that increased expression of Gpc4 in the brain is associated with epileptic seizures. PMID:27425250

  13. Risk of epileptic seizures onset during acute period of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Rudakova; E. Yu. Djachkova; I. G. Kolchu

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the chief cause adults epilepsy. Screening study was performed. Risk factors of early and late after stroke epileptic seizures was studied. It were included 300 patient with different types of stroke, et the age of 41–94. Data of medical history and brain imaging were studied. Results of research were showed: risk of early seizures increase by patients with hemorrhagic stroke, with heart embolic type of ischemic stroke, with combination of cardiac fibrillation and arterial hy...

  14. [Portable Epileptic Seizure Monitoring Intelligent System Based on Android System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wu, Shufeng; Yang, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Yu, Tao; Lu, Chengbiao; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems based on personal computer system can not meet the requirements of portability and home usage. The epilepsy patients have to be monitored in hospital for an extended period of time, which imposes a heavy burden on hospitals. In the present study, we designed a portable 16-lead networked monitoring system based on the Android smart phone. The system uses some technologies including the active electrode, the WiFi wireless transmission, the multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE) algorithm, the back-propagation (BP) neural network algorithm, etc. Moreover, the software of Android mobile application can realize the processing and analysis of EEG data, the display of EEG waveform and the alarm of epileptic seizure. The system has been tested on the mobile phones with Android 2. 3 operating system or higher version and the results showed that this software ran accurately and steadily in the detection of epileptic seizure. In conclusion, this paper provides a portable and reliable solution for epileptic seizure monitoring in clinical and home applications.

  15. [Portable Epileptic Seizure Monitoring Intelligent System Based on Android System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wu, Shufeng; Yang, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Yu, Tao; Lu, Chengbiao; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems based on personal computer system can not meet the requirements of portability and home usage. The epilepsy patients have to be monitored in hospital for an extended period of time, which imposes a heavy burden on hospitals. In the present study, we designed a portable 16-lead networked monitoring system based on the Android smart phone. The system uses some technologies including the active electrode, the WiFi wireless transmission, the multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE) algorithm, the back-propagation (BP) neural network algorithm, etc. Moreover, the software of Android mobile application can realize the processing and analysis of EEG data, the display of EEG waveform and the alarm of epileptic seizure. The system has been tested on the mobile phones with Android 2. 3 operating system or higher version and the results showed that this software ran accurately and steadily in the detection of epileptic seizure. In conclusion, this paper provides a portable and reliable solution for epileptic seizure monitoring in clinical and home applications. PMID:27382736

  16. A Spectral Based Forecasting Tool of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Khammari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to recognize and predict succedent epileptic seizure by using single channel electroencephalogram (EEG analysis is proposed. Spectral analysis of a brain time series of the left frontal FP1-F7 (LF scalp location signal is devoted for seizure prediction and analysis. Important findings showing the presence of preictal spectral changes in studied brain signal are described. Spectral features occurring during the preictal epoch are extracted from the application of sliding spectral windows of raw EEG at different moments in time preceding the seizure onset. The same method is then applied to a couple of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF1 and IMF2 of the raw EEG (FP1-F7 decomposed by the algorithm of empirical mode decomposition. The main prediction features are derived from the changes of amplitudes, frequency and the number of spikes which are of diagnostic values. The sliding spectral windows were computed to trace the amplitude changes of higher harmonics during time interval preceding the seizure onset. Choosing different moments in time aims to identify the best prediction time of seizure onset. Obviously an early prediction time is always desirable but the seizure may result from an abrupt change and so the spectral 'signs of an imminent seizure occur during a very short prediction time. From another viewpoint, it may be advantageous to consider a successive prediction times showing the increase of spike numbers and the predominance of certain waves rather than others when approaching seizure onset. The common prediction features extracted from the analysis of FP1-F7 signal for both patients were mainly the increasing number of spikes of low frequency waves namely delta and theta waves.

  17. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: management and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, K.; Edwards, M.; Robinson, R

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To determine the outcome and identify predictive factors in children with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).
METHOD—The biographies of 35 children with PNES, attending a tertiary paediatric neurology centre, were reviewed.
RESULTS—Thirty five children attending the department between 1987 and 1997 were evaluated at a mean follow up of 4.6 years. The age range was 6-18 years. Twenty four were girls and 11 were boys. Eleven patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy with...

  18. Convulsive Syncope Induced by Ventricular Arrhythmia Masquerading as Epileptic Seizures: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sabu, John; Regeti, Kalyani; Mallappallil, Mary; Kassotis, John; Islam, Hamidul; Zafar, Shoaib; Khan, Rafay; Ibrahim, Hiyam; Kanta, Romana; Sen, Shuvendu; Yousif, Abdalla; Nai, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    It is important but difficult to distinguish convulsive syncope from epileptic seizure in many patients. We report a case of a man who presented to emergency department after several witnessed seizure-like episodes. He had a previous medical history of systolic heart failure and automated implantable converter defibrillator (AICD) in situ. The differential diagnoses raised were epileptic seizures and convulsive syncope secondary to cardiac arrhythmia. Subsequent AICD interrogation revealed ve...

  19. Non Epileptic Seizures Among School Going Children And Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanaraj M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Non epileptic seizures were diagnosed in 20 (F:15, M:5 school children and adolescents by a positive provocative test consisting of induction and termination of the attack with suggestions and saline injection and normal ictal EEG. Patients were followed up for a period of two years. The major provocating factors were (a family problems, mainly conflict between the parents in 25%, (b problems in schooling in 20%, (c combination of both in 30%, (d sexual and physical abuse in 10% and (e undetectable in 15%. The frequency of the attacks were > 1/day in 55%, 1 - 6 / week in 25%, 1 - 3 / month in 15% and occasional in 5%. During follow up, 55% were free from attacks, 10% had recurrence occasionally for one year and free from it during the second year, 10% continued to get attacks and 25% were lost to follow up. In those free from attacks, multiple somatic complaints were reported by 30% of patients.

  20. Patterns of muscle activation during generalized tonic and tonic–clonic epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Wolf, Peter; Sams, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tonic seizures and the tonic phase of tonic–clonic epileptic seizures are defined as “sustained tonic” muscle contraction lasting a few seconds to minutes. Visual inspection of the surface electromyogram (EMG) during seizures contributed considerably to a better understanding and accurat...

  1. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and psychoanalytical treatment: results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraldo de Oliveira Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the occurrence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES is estimated to be between 2 to 33 cases in every 100,000 inhabitants. The number of patients with PNES reaches 19% of those treated as epileptics. Patients with PNES are treated as if they had intractable epilepsy, with unsatisfactory results even after medication treatment is used to its maximum. The aim of this study is to present the effects of individual psychoanalytical treatment in patients with PNES, assessing its impact in the evolution of the clinical picture and its association with sex, time of disease, social, psychological and professional harm, as well as going through with treatment. Methods: The case base was composed of 37 patients with PNES. The diagnosis was reached with video-EEG monitoring. Psychoanalytical treatment was carried out through 12 months of weekly sessions timed for around 50-minutes each, in a total of 48 individual sessions. Results: This study found a high rate of success in the treatment of PNES patients. 29.7% (n=11 of patients had cessation or cure of symptoms and 51.4% (n=19 had a decrease in the number of episodes. There is an association between cessation or decrease in the number of episodes and sex (p<0.01, religion (p<0.01 and concluding treatment (p<0.01. Conclusion: Individual psychoanalytical treatment applied to patients with PNES is considered effective and can be an essential form of assistance for the reduction or cessation of episodes.

  2. Enhanced Susceptibility to Spontaneous Seizures of Noda Epileptic Rats by Loss of Synaptic Zn2+

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Takeda; Masashi Iida; Masaki Ando; Masatoshi Nakamura; Haruna Tamano; Naoto Oku

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the ...

  3. [Correlation between the regional blood volume and epileptic seizures in Papio papio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancri, D; Naquet, R; Basset, J Y; Ménini, C; Lonchampt, M F; Meldrum, B S; Stutzmann, J M

    1979-07-16

    The method of labelling red cells with technetium-99m was used to measured regional blood volume auring different types of epileptic seizures induced in the Baboon Papio papio. During seizures the cerebral blood volume increases and there is simultaneously a decrease of blood volume in nasal and hepatic regions, and a transitory increase of blood volume in the forepaws. PMID:117933

  4. Medical management of epileptic seizures: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma AK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anand K Sarma,1 Nabil Khandker,1 Lisa Kurczewski,2 Gretchen M Brophy2 1Department of Neurology, 2Departments of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science and Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic illnesses. This condition afflicts 2.9 million adults and children in the US, leading to an economic impact amounting to $15.5 billion. Despite the significant burden epilepsy places on the population, it is not very well understood. As this understanding continues to evolve, it is important for clinicians to stay up to date with the latest advances to provide the best care for patients. In the last 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 15 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, with many more currently in development. Other advances have been achieved in terms of diagnostic modalities like electroencephalography technology, treatment devices like vagal nerve and deep-brain stimulators, novel alternate routes of drug administration, and improvement in surgical techniques. Specific patient populations, such as the pregnant, elderly, those with HIV/AIDS, and those with psychiatric illness, present their own unique challenges, with AED side effects, drug interactions, and medical–psychiatric comorbidities adding to the conundrum. The purpose of this article is to review the latest literature guiding the management of acute epileptic seizures, focusing on the current challenges across different practice settings, and it discusses studies in various patient populations, including the pregnant, geriatric, those with HIV/AIDS, comatose, psychiatric, and “pseudoseizure” patients, and offers possible evidence-based solutions or the expert opinion of the authors. Also included is information on newer AEDs, routes of administration, and significant AED-related drug-interaction tables. This review has tried to address only some of these issues that any practitioner who

  5. Changes in physiological tremor associated with an epileptic seizure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duval Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epileptic seizures are associated with motor, sensory, somatosensory or autonomic symptoms that have all been described in varying detail over the years. Of interest in the present report is a case of normal physiological tremor, which to date has never been evaluated prior to and during an epileptic seizure. In fact, there is only anecdotal mention of pre-ictal and ictal changes in clinically noticeable tremor in the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a left-handed, 27-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed seven years previously with partial epileptic seizures, secondarily generalized. Physiological tremor was measured simultaneously on the index finger of both hands of our patient. Electromyography as well as heart rate and respiration were also monitored. A previously performed electroencephalography examination revealed abnormal oscillations focalized to the left primary somatosensory cortex. She was also diagnosed with left frontal neuronal heterotopias. We detected subclinical changes in tremor characteristics, such as amplitude, median power frequency and power dispersion, contralateral to the localization of epileptic activity. Tremor characteristics remained relatively steady ipsilateral to the localization of the epileptic activity. Conclusions Changes in physiological tremor characteristics should be considered as another possible pre-ictal or ictal manifestation. We propose that the network associated with physiological tremor might be more sensitive to abnormal oscillations generated within the central nervous system by epileptic activity from certain structures.

  6. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG. However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here we describe an algorithm we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determine whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures vs. non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.

  7. [Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: issues of comorbidity in the diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, E L; Serli, T; Rezvyi, G

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a case report of seizures in a man of 40 years who was assessed by neurologists and psychiatrists for 15 years. Due to the low efficacy of treatment and permanent health deterioration, the patient was recognized as disabled. Later initial diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures was completed by comorbid diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, type II. Treatment with lamotrigine improved the patient's condition. It has been regarded as a positive effect on organic changes in the brain that are associated with affective and epileptic disorders. PMID:27240050

  8. Detection of Epileptic Seizures with Multi-modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    phase of GTC) and simulated seizures. This was valuable information concerning a seizure detection algorithm, and the findings from this research provided evidence for a change in the definition of these seizures by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Our final study presents a novel...... algorithms for these based on uni- or multimodalities. Regarding seizure detection, the highest potential clinical relevance is for the generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures, as these are associated with an increased risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in unsupervised patients. Several...

  9. Are Epileptic Seizures Quakes of the Brain? An Approach by Means of Nonextensive Tsallis Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Eftaxias, K; Athanasopoulou, L; Kalimeri, M; Potirakis, S M; Balasis, G

    2011-01-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and neurodynamics can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks, a claim further supported by recent evidence. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a shift in emphasis from the large to the small in the search for a dynamical analogy between seizure and earthquake. Our analyses focus on a single epileptic seizure generation and the activation of a single fault (earthquake) and not on the statistics of sequences of different seizures and earthquakes. A central property of the epileptic seizure / earthquake generation is the occurrence of coherent large-scale collective behaviour with very rich structure, resulting from repeated nonlinear interactions among the constituents of the system, res...

  10. Behavioural epileptic seizures: a clinical and intracranial EEG study in 8 children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, M; Bulteau, C; Jalin, C; Jambaque, I; Delalande, O

    2004-12-01

    We report on eight children who underwent prolonged invasive video-EEG recording (IC-EEG) for intractable frontal lobe epilepsy and whose seizures consisted of behaviour changes. Seizures were recorded on a BMSI computer with 128 channels connected to the Gotman software of a stellate system; their identification was made both clinically and by automatic detection of paroxysmal electrical events. Behavioural epileptic seizures (BES) consisted of various clinical signs comprising mood change, sudden agitation, unexpected quietness, and subtle change of awareness or awakening. In 2 patients, seizures consisted in repetitive movements that we referred to as epileptic stereotypes. BES came from the prefrontal areas of the brain. Most of them were overlooked or misdiagnosed as behavioural manifestations, especially in children with mental deficiency and autistic features. Given the improvement of behaviour and mental functions following surgery, we assume that BES may contribute to generate mental and behavioural dysfunction. PMID:15627941

  11. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  12. Real-time detection of epileptic seizures in animal models using reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteneers, Pieter; Verstraeten, David; Nieuwenhuyse, Bregt Van; Stroobandt, Dirk; Raedt, Robrecht; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have investigated the effects of closed-loop anti-epileptic treatments. Most of the current research still is very labour intensive: real-time treatment is manually triggered and conclusions can only be drawn after multiple days of manual review and annotation of the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this paper we propose a technique based on reservoir computing (RC) to automatically and in real-time detect epileptic seizures in the intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) of epileptic rats in order to immediately trigger seizure treatment. The performance of the system is evaluated in two different seizure types: absence seizures from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and limbic seizures from post status epilepticus (PSE) rats. The dataset consists of 452 hours iEEG from 23 GAERS and 2083 hours iEEG from 22 PSE rats. In the default set-up the system detects 0.09 and 0.13 false positives per seizure and misses 0.07 and 0.005 events per seizure for GAERS and PSE rats respectively. It achieves an average detection delay below 1s in GAERS and less than 10s in the PSE data. This detection delay and the number of missed seizures can be further decreased when a higher false positive rate is allowed. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art detection techniques and only a few parameters require optimization on a limited training set. It is therefore suited for automatic seizure detection based on iEEG and may serve as a useful tool for epilepsy researchers. The technique avoids the time-consuming manual review and annotation of EEG and can be incorporated in a closed-loop treatment strategy.

  13. Do seizures and epileptic activity worsen epilepsy and deteriorate cognitive function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Giuliano; Depaulis, Antoine; Tassinari, Alberto; de Curtis, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Relevant to the definition of epileptic encephalopathy (EE) is the concept that the epileptic activity itself may contribute to bad outcomes, both in terms of epilepsy and cognition, above and beyond what might be expected from the underlying pathology alone, and that these can worsen over time. The review of the clinical and experimental evidence that seizures or interictal electroencephalography (EEG) discharges themselves can induce a progression toward more severe epilepsy and a regression of brain function leads to the following conclusions: The possibility of seizure-dependent worsening is by no means a general one but is limited to some types of epilepsy, namely mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and EEs. Clinical and experimental data concur in indicating that prolonged seizures/status epilepticus (SE) are a risky initial event that can set in motion an epileptogenic process leading to persistent, possibly drug-refractory epilepsies. The mechanisms for SE-related epileptogenic process are incompletely known; they seem to involve inflammation and/or glutamatergic transmission. The evidence of the role of recurrent individual seizures in sustaining epilepsy progression is ambiguous. The correlation between high seizure frequency and bad outcome does not necessarily demonstrate a cause-effect relationship, rather high seizure frequency and bad outcome can both depend on a particularly aggressive epileptogenic process. The results of EE studies challenge the idea of a common seizure-dependent mechanism for epilepsy progression/intellectual deterioration.

  14. Real-time Detection of Precursors to Epileptic Seizures: Non-Linear Analysis of System Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesaei, Sahar; Sharafat, Ahmad R

    2014-04-01

    We propose a novel approach for detecting precursors to epileptic seizures in intracranial electroencephalograms (iEEG), which is based on the analysis of system dynamics. In the proposed scheme, the largest Lyapunov exponent of the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) of the segmented EEG signals is considered as the discriminating features. Such features are processed by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify whether the corresponding segment of the EEG signal contains a precursor to an epileptic seizure. When consecutive EEG segments contain such precursors, a decision is made that a precursor is in fact detected. The proposed scheme is applied to the Freiburg dataset, and the results show that seizure precursors are detected in a time frame that unlike other existing schemes is very much convenient to patients, with sensitivity of 100% and negligible false positive detection rates.

  15. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between...... convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. METHODS: In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized......, median frequency (MF), coherence, and duration of the seizures, of the clonic EMG discharges, and of the silent periods between the cloni. Based on wavelet analysis, we distinguished between a low-frequency component (LF 2-8 Hz) and a high-frequency component (HF 64-256 Hz). RESULTS: Duration...

  16. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Maria M I; Peralta, Regina Helena S; Livramento, José A; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Peralta, José M; Vaz, Adelaide J

    2006-01-01

    Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB) with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso), Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf) and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp). ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88) in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54) in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p neurocysticercosis (NC) in patients presenting with epileptic seizures because of the high risk of acquiring NC in our region and its potential cause of epilepsy.

  17. The correlation of small spikes in Rolandic area and epileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUANG Xiao-jun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between small spikes in Rolandic area and epileptic seizures was investigated. In this thesis, small spikes in Rolandic area were found in 118 cases recorded by video electroencephalogram (VEEG monitoring. And the 118 patients were chose to be studied in our research. Among the 118 cases, 62 were male and 56 were female. The youngest was only 3-month-old, and the eldest was 4 years and 5 months old. Eighty-five cases were between 3 months and 2 years old which accounted for 72.03%. There were 101 patients (85.59% having seizures: 42 cases (35.59% of febrile convulsion, 35 (29.66% of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICG and 24 (20.34% of epilepsy; 17 cases (14.41% of non-epileptic seizures. Hence, there is high correlation between infantile small spikes in Rolandic area and epileptic seizures. But it does not indicate any specificity. Whether small spikes in Rolandic area can be used as certain evidence to diagnose epilepsy and locate the onset of lesions requires further study to confirm.

  18. Detection of tonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sigge N.; Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design an algorithm for detection of tonic seizures based on surface electromyography signals from the deltoids. A successful algorithm has a future prospect of being implemented in a wearable device as part of an alarm system. This has already been done...

  19. Dynamic imaging of coherent sources reveals different network connectivity underlying the generation and perpetuation of epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Elshoff

    Full Text Available The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS, an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.

  20. Dynamical analogy between epileptic seizures and seismogenic electromagnetic emissions by means of nonextensive statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Potirakis, Stelios M; Balasis, George

    2012-01-01

    The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and neurodynamics can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. Recently, authors have shown that a dynamical analogy supported by scale-free statistics exists between seizures and earthquakes, analysing populations of different seizures and earthquakes, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a shift in emphasis from the large to the small scale: our analyses focus on a single epileptic seizure generation and the activation of a single fault (earthquake) and not on the statistics of sequences of different seizures and earthquakes. We apply the concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between the tw...

  1. Epileptic seizure classification in EEG signals using second-order difference plot of intrinsic mode functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Ram Bilas; Patidar, Shivnarayan

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterized by transient and unexpected electrical disturbance of the brain. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a commonly used signal for detection of epileptic seizures. This paper presents a new method for classification of ictal and seizure-free EEG signals. The proposed method is based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the second-order difference plot (SODP). The EMD method decomposes an EEG signal into a set of symmetric and band-limited signals termed as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The SODP of IMFs provides elliptical structure. The 95% confidence ellipse area measured from the SODP of IMFs has been used as a feature in order to discriminate seizure-free EEG signals from the epileptic seizure EEG signals. The feature space obtained from the ellipse area parameters of two IMFs has been used for classification of ictal and seizure-free EEG signals using the artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. It has been shown that the feature space formed using ellipse area parameters of first and second IMFs has given good classification performance. Experimental results on EEG database available by the University of Bonn, Germany, are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. [Psychogenic NonEpileptic Seizures: Current Knowledge and Contributions of the Study of Emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutka, Roman; Denis, Anne; Vercueil, Laurent; Hot, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal attacks that can imitate epileptic seizures but do not have a neurological origin. There has been mounting interest these last few years to unravel psychological and neuronal factors that contribute to the development of PNES. The objective of this review is twofold. First, we examine recent contributions of clinical and researches studies to define the main features of PNES. Then, we focus on the possible link between changes in processing of emotional information and the onset of PNES. In this article, we identify promising directions for future research and argue that affective neuroscience may provide original findings to better understand this disease. PMID:27570954

  3. Early Detection of Human Epileptic Seizures Based on Intracortical Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun S; Hochberg, Leigh R; Eskandar, Emad N; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The unpredictability of re-occurring seizures dramatically impacts the quality of life and autonomy of people with epilepsy. Reliable early seizure detection could open new therapeutic possibilities and thus substantially improve quality of life and autonomy. Though many seizure detection studies have shown the potential of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals, reliable early detection of human seizures remains elusive in practice. Here, we examined the use of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from 4×4-mm(2) 96-microelectrode arrays (MEA) for early detection of human epileptic seizures. We adopted a framework consisting of (1) sampling of intracortical LFPs; (2) denoising of LFPs with the Kalman filter; (3) spectral power estimation in specific frequency bands using 1-sec moving time windows; (4) extraction of statistical features, such as the mean, variance, and Fano factor (calculated across channels) of the power in each frequency band; and (5) cost-sensitive support vector machine (SVM) classification of ictal and interictal samples. We tested the framework in one-participant dataset, including 4 seizures and corresponding interictal recordings preceding each seizure. The participant was a 52-year-old woman suffering from complex partial seizures. LFPs were recorded from an MEA implanted in the participant's left middle temporal gyrus. In this participant, spectral power in 0.3-10 Hz, 20-55 Hz, and 125-250 Hz changed significantly between ictal and interictal epochs. The examined seizure detection framework provided an event-wise sensitivity of 100% (4/4) and only one 20-sec-long false positive event in interictal recordings (likely an undetected subclinical event under further visual inspection), and a detection latency of 4.35 ± 2.21 sec (mean ± std) with respect to iEEG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate that intracortical MEA recordings may provide key signals to quickly and

  4. EFFECT OF SEIZURE CONTROL ON IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN EPILEPTIC PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nainian, M.R.; Behere, P.B.; Mohanti, S.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A group of fifty epileptic patients were tested with neuropsychological tools for cognitive functions like memory, intelligence, visuomotor coordination, spatial perception and body schema perception. Patients were on carbamazepine and were tested after three months. Seizure improvement was shown to have different effects on different cognitive functions. Memory and intellectual deficits improved, while no difference was observed in visuomotor coordination, spatial and personal percep...

  5. Properties of functional brain networks correlate frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Jalili; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and...

  6. Properties of functional brain networks correlate with frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegaran, Elham; Joudaki, Amir; Jalili, Mahdi; Rossetti, Andrea O; Frackowiak, Richard S.; Knyazeva, Maria G.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and...

  7. VEGF receptor-2 (Flk-1 overexpression in mice counteracts focal epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litsa Nikitidou

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was first described as an angiogenic agent, but has recently also been shown to exert various neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in the nervous system. These effects of VEGF are mainly mediated by its receptor, VEGFR-2, which is also referred to as the fetal liver kinase receptor 1 (Flk-1. VEGF is up-regulated in neurons and glial cells after epileptic seizures and counteracts seizure-induced neurodegeneration. In vitro, VEGF administration suppresses ictal and interictal epileptiform activity caused by AP4 and 0 Mg(2+ via Flk-1 receptor. We therefore explored whether increased VEGF signaling through Flk-1 overexpression may regulate epileptogenesis and ictogenesis in vivo. To this extent, we used transgenic mice overexpressing Flk-1 postnatally in neurons. Intriguingly, Flk-1 overexpressing mice were characterized by an elevated threshold for seizure induction and a decreased duration of focal afterdischarges, indicating anti-ictal action. On the other hand, the kindling progression in these mice was similar to wild-type controls. No significant effects on blood vessels or glia cells, as assessed by Glut1 and GFAP immunohistochemistry, were detected. These results suggest that increased VEGF signaling via overexpression of Flk-1 receptors may directly affect seizure activity even without altering angiogenesis. Thus, Flk-1 could be considered as a novel target for developing future gene therapy strategies against ictal epileptic activity.

  8. Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qizhi; Carney, Paul R; Yuan Zhen; Jiang Huabei [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu Zhao [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Chen Huanxin; Roper, Steven N [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0265 (United States)], E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu

    2008-04-07

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging imaging modality that has the potential to image the dynamic function of the brain due to its unique ability of imaging biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. Here we report the first application of our finite-element-based PAT for imaging of epileptic seizures in an animal model. In vivo photoacoustic images were obtained in rats with focal seizures induced by microinjection of bicuculline, a GABA{sub A} antagonist, into the neocortex. The seizure focus was accurately localized by PAT as confirmed with gold-standard electroencephalogram (EEG). Compared to the existing neuroimaging modalities, PAT not only has the unprecedented advantage of high spatial and temporal resolution in a single imaging modality, but also is portable and low in cost, making it possible to bring brain imaging to the bedside.

  9. Detection of epileptic seizure in EEG signals using linear least squares preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Zamir, Z

    2016-09-01

    An epileptic seizure is a transient event of abnormal excessive neuronal discharge in the brain. This unwanted event can be obstructed by detection of electrical changes in the brain that happen before the seizure takes place. The automatic detection of seizures is necessary since the visual screening of EEG recordings is a time consuming task and requires experts to improve the diagnosis. Much of the prior research in detection of seizures has been developed based on artificial neural network, genetic programming, and wavelet transforms. Although the highest achieved accuracy for classification is 100%, there are drawbacks, such as the existence of unbalanced datasets and the lack of investigations in performances consistency. To address these, four linear least squares-based preprocessing models are proposed to extract key features of an EEG signal in order to detect seizures. The first two models are newly developed. The original signal (EEG) is approximated by a sinusoidal curve. Its amplitude is formed by a polynomial function and compared with the predeveloped spline function. Different statistical measures, namely classification accuracy, true positive and negative rates, false positive and negative rates and precision, are utilised to assess the performance of the proposed models. These metrics are derived from confusion matrices obtained from classifiers. Different classifiers are used over the original dataset and the set of extracted features. The proposed models significantly reduce the dimension of the classification problem and the computational time while the classification accuracy is improved in most cases. The first and third models are promising feature extraction methods with the classification accuracy of 100%. Logistic, LazyIB1, LazyIB5, and J48 are the best classifiers. Their true positive and negative rates are 1 while false positive and negative rates are 0 and the corresponding precision values are 1. Numerical results suggest that these

  10. Detection of epileptic seizure in EEG signals using linear least squares preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Zamir, Z

    2016-09-01

    An epileptic seizure is a transient event of abnormal excessive neuronal discharge in the brain. This unwanted event can be obstructed by detection of electrical changes in the brain that happen before the seizure takes place. The automatic detection of seizures is necessary since the visual screening of EEG recordings is a time consuming task and requires experts to improve the diagnosis. Much of the prior research in detection of seizures has been developed based on artificial neural network, genetic programming, and wavelet transforms. Although the highest achieved accuracy for classification is 100%, there are drawbacks, such as the existence of unbalanced datasets and the lack of investigations in performances consistency. To address these, four linear least squares-based preprocessing models are proposed to extract key features of an EEG signal in order to detect seizures. The first two models are newly developed. The original signal (EEG) is approximated by a sinusoidal curve. Its amplitude is formed by a polynomial function and compared with the predeveloped spline function. Different statistical measures, namely classification accuracy, true positive and negative rates, false positive and negative rates and precision, are utilised to assess the performance of the proposed models. These metrics are derived from confusion matrices obtained from classifiers. Different classifiers are used over the original dataset and the set of extracted features. The proposed models significantly reduce the dimension of the classification problem and the computational time while the classification accuracy is improved in most cases. The first and third models are promising feature extraction methods with the classification accuracy of 100%. Logistic, LazyIB1, LazyIB5, and J48 are the best classifiers. Their true positive and negative rates are 1 while false positive and negative rates are 0 and the corresponding precision values are 1. Numerical results suggest that these

  11. Ecstatic epileptic seizures: a glimpse into the multiple roles of the insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eGschwind

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecstatic epileptic seizures are a rare but compelling epileptic entity. During the first seconds of these seizures, ecstatic auras provoke feelings of well-being, intense serenity, bliss, and enhanced self-awareness. They are associated with the impression of time dilation, and can be described as a mystic experience by some patients. The functional neuroanatomy of ecstatic seizures is still debated. During recent years several patients presenting with ecstatic auras have been reported by others and us (in total n=49; a few of them in the setting of presurgical evaluation including electrical brain stimulation. According to the recently recognized functions of the insula, and the results of nuclear brain imaging and electrical stimulation, the ecstatic symptoms in these patients seem to localize to a functional network centered around the anterior insular cortex, where we thus propose to locate this rare ictal phenomenon. Here we summarize the role of the multiple sensory, autonomic, affective and cognitive functions of the insular cortex, which are integrated into the creation of self-awareness, and we suggest how this system may become dysfunctional on several levels during ecstatic aura.

  12. Expression of connexin 36 in central nervous system and its role in epileptic seizure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu-fen; WU Jiong-xing; YANG Heng; DONG Xuan-qi; ZHENG Wen; SONG Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the experimental and clinical studies those show the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and the possible role of connexin 36 in epileptic seizure.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from PubMed published in English from 1996 to 2012.Study selection Odginal articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and its role in epilepsy.Results The distribution of connexin 36 is developmentally regulated,cell-specific and region-specific.Connexin 36 is involved in some neuronal functions and epileptic synchronization.Changes in the connexin 36 gene and protein were accompanied by seizures.Selective gap junction blockers have exerted anticonvulsant actions in a variety of experiments examined in both humans end experimental animals.Conclusions Connexin 36 plays an important role in both physiological and pathological conditions in the central nervous system.A better understanding of the role of connexin 36 in seizure activity may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to treating epilepsy.

  13. An Automatic Prediction of Epileptic Seizures Using Cloud Computing and Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Sanjay; Sood, Sandeep K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures. An automatic prediction of seizure can protect the patients from accidents and save their life. In this article, we proposed a mobile-based framework that automatically predict seizures using the information contained in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The wireless sensor technology is used to capture the EEG signals of patients. The cloud-based services are used to collect and analyze the EEG data from the patient's mobile phone. The features from the EEG signal are extracted using the fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT). The Higher Order Spectral Analysis (HOSA) is applied to FWHT coefficients in order to select the features set relevant to normal, preictal and ictal states of seizure. We subsequently exploit the selected features as input to a k-means classifier to detect epileptic seizure states in a reasonable time. The performance of the proposed model is tested on Amazon EC2 cloud and compared in terms of execution time and accuracy. The findings show that with selected HOS based features, we were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 94.6 %. PMID:27628727

  14. IPS Interest in the EEG of Patients after a Single Epileptic Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounach, Jamal; Satte, Amal; Ouhabi, Hamid; El Hessni, Aboubaker

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pathological cerebral activity responses to intermittent rhythmic photic stimulation (IPS) after a single epileptic seizure. Patients and Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven EEGs were performed at the Neurophysiology Department of Mohamed V Teaching Military Hospital in Rabat. Clinical and EEG data was collected. Results. 9.5% of our patients had photoparoxysmal discharges (PPD). Incidence was higher in males than in females, but p value was not significant (p = 0.34), and it was higher in children compared to adults with significant p value (p = 0.08). The most epileptogenic frequencies were within the range 15–20 Hz. 63 patients had an EEG after 72 hours; among them 11 were photosensitive (p = 0.001). The frequency of the PPR was significantly higher in patients with generalized abnormalities than in focal abnormalities (p = 0.001). EEG confirmed a genetic generalized epilepsy in 8 cases among 13 photosensitive patients. Conclusion. PPR is age related. The frequencies within the range 15–20 Hz should inevitably be included in EEG protocols. The presence of PPR after a first seizure is probably more in favor of generalized seizure rather than the other type of seizure. PPR seems independent from the delay Seizure-EEG. Our study did not show an association between sex and photosensitivity. PMID:27635393

  15. An Automatic Prediction of Epileptic Seizures Using Cloud Computing and Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Sanjay; Sood, Sandeep K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures. An automatic prediction of seizure can protect the patients from accidents and save their life. In this article, we proposed a mobile-based framework that automatically predict seizures using the information contained in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The wireless sensor technology is used to capture the EEG signals of patients. The cloud-based services are used to collect and analyze the EEG data from the patient's mobile phone. The features from the EEG signal are extracted using the fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT). The Higher Order Spectral Analysis (HOSA) is applied to FWHT coefficients in order to select the features set relevant to normal, preictal and ictal states of seizure. We subsequently exploit the selected features as input to a k-means classifier to detect epileptic seizure states in a reasonable time. The performance of the proposed model is tested on Amazon EC2 cloud and compared in terms of execution time and accuracy. The findings show that with selected HOS based features, we were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 94.6 %.

  16. Application of approximate entropy on dynamic characteristics of epileptic absence seizure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhou; Ruimei Huang; Ziyi Chen; Xin Chang; Jialong Chen; Lingli Xie

    2012-01-01

    Electroencephalogram signals are time-varying complex electrophysiological signals. Existing studies show that approximate entropy, which is a nonlinear dynamics index, is not an ideal method for electroencephalogram analysis. Clinical electroencephalogram measurements usually contain electrical interference signals, creating additional challenges in terms of maintaining robustness of the analytic methods. There is an urgent need for a novel method of nonlinear dynamical analysis of the electroencephalogram that can characterize seizure-related changes in cerebral dynamics. The aim of this paper was to study the fluctuations of approximate entropy in preictal, ictal, and postictal electroencephalogram signals from a patient with absence seizures, and to improve the algorithm used to calculate the approximate entropy. The approximate entropy algorithm, especially our modified version, could accurately describe the dynamical changes of the brain during absence seizures. We could also demonstrate that the complexity of the brain was greater in the normal state than in the ictal state. The fluctuations of the approximate entropy before epileptic seizures observed in this study can form a goodbasis for further study on the prediction of seizures with nonlinear dynamics.

  17. IPS Interest in the EEG of Patients after a Single Epileptic Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoufiqi, Fatima Zahra; Mounach, Jamal; Satte, Amal; Ouhabi, Hamid; El Hessni, Aboubaker

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pathological cerebral activity responses to intermittent rhythmic photic stimulation (IPS) after a single epileptic seizure. Patients and Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven EEGs were performed at the Neurophysiology Department of Mohamed V Teaching Military Hospital in Rabat. Clinical and EEG data was collected. Results. 9.5% of our patients had photoparoxysmal discharges (PPD). Incidence was higher in males than in females, but p value was not significant (p = 0.34), and it was higher in children compared to adults with significant p value (p = 0.08). The most epileptogenic frequencies were within the range 15-20 Hz. 63 patients had an EEG after 72 hours; among them 11 were photosensitive (p = 0.001). The frequency of the PPR was significantly higher in patients with generalized abnormalities than in focal abnormalities (p = 0.001). EEG confirmed a genetic generalized epilepsy in 8 cases among 13 photosensitive patients. Conclusion. PPR is age related. The frequencies within the range 15-20 Hz should inevitably be included in EEG protocols. The presence of PPR after a first seizure is probably more in favor of generalized seizure rather than the other type of seizure. PPR seems independent from the delay Seizure-EEG. Our study did not show an association between sex and photosensitivity. PMID:27635393

  18. The electrophysiologic character of epileptic seizure%癫痫发作的神经电生理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊玲; 蒋大宗

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is a family of neurological disorders that are common and harmful to human's health. The etiologies of epilepsy and the clinical manifestations of seizures are complex and various. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying seizure generation, lots of researches in the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology of epilepsy have been done over many years. However, no single hypothesis provides a unifying frmnework within which all kinds of epilepsy can be included so far. In fact, the eleetrophysiologic essence of epileptic: seizure is abnormal excess discharges of neurons. On the standpoint of electrophysiology, the reasons of abnormal discharges of neurons are of common character: depolarizing currents with long durations and high amplitudes on cell levels, which is closely related to slow waves with high amplitudes on EEG levels. This can make us understand the mechanism of epileptic seizures better, and is helpful for well control and therapy of seizures.

  19. Enhanced susceptibility to spontaneous seizures of noda epileptic rats by loss of synaptic zn(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Iida, Masashi; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn(2+). The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30-100 mg/kg) and TPEN (1 mg/kg). The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg) was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5-10 mg/kg), an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER. PMID:23951148

  20. Enhanced susceptibility to spontaneous seizures of noda epileptic rats by loss of synaptic zn(2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+ signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn(2+. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30-100 mg/kg and TPEN (1 mg/kg. The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+ measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5-10 mg/kg, an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER.

  1. Interplay between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures in young, but not aged pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorat, Rika; Goerss, Doreen; Brenndörfer, Linda; Schwabe, Lars; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Interictal spike activity is commonly observed in the EEG of patients with epilepsy, but the causal interrelationship between interictal spikes and behavioral seizures is poorly understood. We performed long-term video-EEG monitoring of 16 epileptic rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and five control animals. To quantify the interplay between periods of spikes and seizures, we calculated the time spent with spikes as well as the time spent with seizures for each animal. Within a given subject, we found a significant correlation between these two measures in 7/11 young epileptic rats (aged pilocarpine-treated animals exhibited significant correlation coefficients between spike periods and seizures (>600days, Paged epileptic rats showed a prominent predominance for either spike periods or seizures, which might explain the absence of significant correlation in this population. We found that there is a significant interplay between interictal periods of spikes and behavioral seizures in young epileptic animals, but this association is absent during aging. PMID:26926072

  2. A Novel Constrained Topographic Independent Component Analysis for Separation of Epileptic Seizure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind separation of the electroencephalogram signals (EEGs using topographic independent component analysis (TICA is an effective tool to group the geometrically nearby source signals. The TICA algorithm further improves the results if the desired signal sources have particular properties which can be exploited in the separation process as constraints. Here, the spatial-frequency information of the seizure signals is used to design a constrained TICA for the separation of epileptic seizure signal sources from the multichannel EEGs. The performance is compared with those from the TICA and other conventional ICA algorithms. The superiority of the new constrained TICA has been validated in terms of signal-to-interference ratio and correlation measurement.

  3. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods. PMID:26906674

  4. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  5. Altered functional and structural connectivity networks in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Rong Ding

    Full Text Available Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES are paroxysmal behaviors that resemble epileptic seizures but lack abnormal electrical activity. Recent studies suggest aberrant functional connectivity involving specific brain regions in PNES. Little is known, however, about alterations of topological organization of whole-brain functional and structural connectivity networks in PNES. We constructed functional connectivity networks from resting-state functional MRI signal correlations and structural connectivity networks from diffusion tensor imaging tractography in 17 PNES patients and 20 healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis was employed to compute network properties. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural connectivity networks. We found that PNES patients exhibited altered small-worldness in both functional and structural networks and shifted towards a more regular (lattice-like organization, which could serve as a potential imaging biomarker for PNES. In addition, many regional characteristics were altered in structural connectivity network, involving attention, sensorimotor, subcortical and default-mode networks. These regions with altered nodal characteristics likely reflect disease-specific pathophysiology in PNES. Importantly, the coupling strength of functional-structural connectivity was decreased and exhibited high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate PNES patients from healthy controls, suggesting that the decoupling strength of functional-structural connectivity might be an important characteristic reflecting the mechanisms of PNES. This is the first study to explore the altered topological organization in PNES combining functional and structural connectivity networks, providing a new way to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNES.

  6. All together now: Analogies between chimera state collapses and epileptic seizures

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    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Rummel, Christian; Mormann, Florian; Schindler, Kaspar

    2016-03-01

    Conceptually and structurally simple mathematical models of coupled oscillator networks can show a rich variety of complex dynamics, providing fundamental insights into many real-world phenomena. A recent and not yet fully understood example is the collapse of coexisting synchronous and asynchronous oscillations into a globally synchronous motion found in networks of identical oscillators. Here we show that this sudden collapse is promoted by a further decrease of synchronization, rather than by critically high synchronization. This strikingly counterintuitive mechanism can be found also in nature, as we demonstrate on epileptic seizures in humans. Analyzing spatiotemporal correlation profiles derived from intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) of seizures in epilepsy patients, we found a pronounced decrease of correlation at the seizure onsets. Applying our findings in a closed-loop control scheme to models of coupled oscillators in chimera states, we succeed in both provoking and preventing outbreaks of global synchronization. Our findings not only advance the understanding of networks of coupled dynamics but can open new ways to control them, thus offering a vast range of potential new applications.

  7. All together now: Analogies between chimera state collapses and epileptic seizures.

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    Andrzejak, Ralph G; Rummel, Christian; Mormann, Florian; Schindler, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Conceptually and structurally simple mathematical models of coupled oscillator networks can show a rich variety of complex dynamics, providing fundamental insights into many real-world phenomena. A recent and not yet fully understood example is the collapse of coexisting synchronous and asynchronous oscillations into a globally synchronous motion found in networks of identical oscillators. Here we show that this sudden collapse is promoted by a further decrease of synchronization, rather than by critically high synchronization. This strikingly counterintuitive mechanism can be found also in nature, as we demonstrate on epileptic seizures in humans. Analyzing spatiotemporal correlation profiles derived from intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) of seizures in epilepsy patients, we found a pronounced decrease of correlation at the seizure onsets. Applying our findings in a closed-loop control scheme to models of coupled oscillators in chimera states, we succeed in both provoking and preventing outbreaks of global synchronization. Our findings not only advance the understanding of networks of coupled dynamics but can open new ways to control them, thus offering a vast range of potential new applications.

  8. Clinical analysis of 32 patients with non- epileptic seizures passed for epileptic seizures%非癫痫发作误诊为癫痫发作32例临床分析

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    李玉生; 黄圣明; 黄希顺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and clinical characteristics of non - epileptic seizures misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures. Methods Clinical data of 32 patients with non - epileptic seizures misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among 32 patients , 7 were syncope, 6 were psychic seizure, 4 were paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis, 4 were migraine, 4 were sleep disorder, 3 were acute anxiety attack, 2 were tourette syndrome, and hypopara-thyroidism, hypoglycemia attack was 1 case respectively. Conclusions Clinical doctors should attach much importance to epileptic discrimination; Diagnosis of epilepsy must be prudent, otherwise, it not only delayed treatment, but also brought about psychological and economic burden for the patients themselves and their relatives.%目的 分析非癫痫发作误诊为癫痫发作的原因及特点,以提高癫痫的诊断水平,减少误诊误治.方法 回顾性分析32例非癫痫发作性疾病被误诊为癫痫的临床资料.结果 32例中,7例为晕厥,6例为精神性发作,4例为阵发性运动诱发性运动障碍,4例为偏头痛,4例为睡眠障碍,3例为急性焦虑发作,2例为抽动-秽语综合症,甲状旁腺功能减退症、低血糖发作各l例.结论 临床医生对于癫痫的鉴别应该有足够的认识,诊断一定要慎重,否则不但耽误治疗,还将给患者及其亲属带来不必要的心理和经济负担.

  9. Clinical profile of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in adults: A study of 63 cases

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    Yogesh Patidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate clinical profile and short-term outcome of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES in Indian adult population. Setting and Design: A prospective observational study, conducted at tertiary teaching institute at New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three patients with confirmed PNES were enrolled. The diagnosis was based on witnessing the event during video-electroencephalography (Video-EEG monitoring. A detailed clinical evaluation was done including evaluation for coexistent anxiety or depressive disorders. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of excessive or paucity of movements during PNES attacks. Patients were followed-up to 12 months for their PNES frequency. Statistical Analysis: Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables. Chi-square and Students t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables respectively. Results: The mean age at onset of PNES was 25.44 years; with F:M ratio of 9.5:1. Coexistent epilepsy was present in 13 (20.63% cases. Twenty-two patients (44% with only PNES ( n = 50 had received antiepileptic drugs. Out of 63 patients of PNES 24 (38.1% had predominant motor phenomenon, whereas 39 (61.9% had limp attacks. The common features observed were pre-ictal headache, ictal eye closure, jaw clenching, resistant behavior, ictal weeping, ictal vocalization, and unresponsiveness during episodes. Comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders was seen in 62.3% and 90.16% patients, respectively. Short-term (6-12 months outcome of 45 patients was good (seizure freedom in 46.66% and >50% improvement in 24.44% cases. Conclusion: PNES is common, but frequently misdiagnosed and treated as epileptic seizures. A high index of suspicion is required for an early diagnosis. Proper disclosure of diagnosis and management of the psychiatric comorbidities can improve their outcome. Limitation: Limited sample size and change in seizures frequency as the only parameter for

  10. People with Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A South African perspective

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    Chrisma Pretorius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES is a disabling disorder which has a negative effect on the quality of life of individuals with PNES. A clear understanding of the disorder is necessary, however, to date, research about PNES in South Africa is limited.Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore the demographic variables of individuals with PNES in South Africa, to review the available body of research on PNES, and to compare it with our results.Method: Twenty-two people with PNES, with confirmed video EEG, were recruited by means of convenience sampling from two hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic variables of the participants.Results: Internationally comparable results revealed misdiagnoses and low treatment delivery amongst a primarily female population.Conclusion: This study provided greater insight into individuals with PNES in South Africa, highlighting the need for more information, support, effective treatment and accurate diagnosis of PNES.

  11. Atlanto axial rotatory dislocation in adults: a rare complication of an epileptic seizure--case report.

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    Tarantino, Roberto; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Marotta, Nicola; Missori, Paolo; Viozzi, Ilaria; Landi, Alessandro; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocations (AARDs) are a heterogeneous group of post-traumatic pathologies typical of the pediatric age, and rare in adults. We describe the case of a 34-year-old woman, developing Atlanto Axial Rotatory Fixation (AARF) after a generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure, an extremely rare traumatic cause never described in literature. AARF was detected only 1 month after the accident and nonsurgical treatment was attempted at the beginning. The patient underwent surgery only 2 months after the accident. The best treatment should be conservative reduction within 1 month; when it is not possible, it is advisable to perform surgery as soon as possible. C1-C2 fixation with Harm's technique is the gold standard for fixed luxations. Delay of treatment makes intraoperative reduction more difficult and increase the establishment of the chronic permanent change of neck muscles and ligaments.

  12. A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

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    Choi, Hongyoon; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Changho; Kim, Sangeun; Park, Sungho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression.

  13. An integrative view of mechanisms underlying generalized spike-and-wave epileptic seizures and its implication on optimal therapeutic treatments.

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    Boyuan Yan

    Full Text Available Many types of epileptic seizures are characterized by generalized spike-and-wave discharges. In the past, notable effort has been devoted to understanding seizure dynamics and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, by taking an integrative view of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrate that epileptic seizures can be generated by many different combinations of synaptic strengths and intrinsic membrane properties. This integrative view has important medical implications: the specific state of a patient characterized by a set of biophysical characteristics ultimately determines the optimal therapeutic treatment. Through the same view, we further demonstrate the potentiation effect of rational polypharmacy in the treatment of epilepsy and provide a new angle to resolve the debate on polypharmacy. Our results underscore the need for personalized medicine and demonstrate that computer modeling and simulation may play an important role in assisting the clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment on an individual basis.

  14. Healthcare-seeking behavior of patients with epileptic seizure disorders attending a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata

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    Abhik Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.

  15. Failure of adaptive self-organized criticality during epileptic seizure attacks.

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    Christian Meisel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical dynamics are assumed to be an attractive mode for normal brain functioning as information processing and computational capabilities are found to be optimal in the critical state. Recent experimental observations of neuronal activity patterns following power-law distributions, a hallmark of systems at a critical state, have led to the hypothesis that human brain dynamics could be poised at a phase transition between ordered and disordered activity. A so far unresolved question concerns the medical significance of critical brain activity and how it relates to pathological conditions. Using data from invasive electroencephalogram recordings from humans we show that during epileptic seizure attacks neuronal activity patterns deviate from the normally observed power-law distribution characterizing critical dynamics. The comparison of these observations to results from a computational model exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC based on adaptive networks allows further insights into the underlying dynamics. Together these results suggest that brain dynamics deviates from criticality during seizures caused by the failure of adaptive SOC.

  16. Effect of magnesium oxide on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs against experimental seizures in rats

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    Dhande Priti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study the effect of oral magnesium oxide supplementation alone and on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the animal models of maximal electroshock seizures (MES and chemically (pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]-induced seizures. Methods : Healthy male albino rats were given magnesium oxide (MgO supplementation orally in various doses (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg /day for 4 weeks (day 1 to day 28. On day 0 and day 29, response to MES (180 mA for 0.2 s was tested 1 h after pre-administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine orally. Similarly, in the other groups, the response to PTZ 40 mg/kg i.p. was tested 1 h after pre-administration of oral sodium valproate. Results : Oral administration of MgO in a low dose (500 mg/kg for 4 weeks in healthy rats appears to exert protective effect against MES. High oral doses of MgO (750 and 1000 mg/kg appear to enhance the activity of phenytoin and carbamazepine in the MES model. MgO supplementation was seen to decrease the latency of PTZ-induced seizures. Conclusion : The dose of oral MgO appears to have an inverse relation with the protective effect in MES-induced seizure model. High doses of MgO supplementation given orally appear to enhance the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the MES-induced seizure model.

  17. Etiological prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in hospitalized elderly in a Brazilian tertiary center – Salvador - Brazil

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    Telma Rocha de Assis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy in the elderly has high incidence and prevalence and is often underecognized. Objective To describe etiological prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on elderly patients who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures during hospitalization, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled. They were divided into two age subgroups (median 75 years with the purpose to compare etiologies. Results The most common etiology was ischemic stroke (36.7%, followed by neoplasias (13.3%, hemorrhagic stroke (11.7%, dementias (11.4% and metabolic disturbances (5.5%. The analysis of etiological association showed that ischemic stroke was predominant in the younger subgroup (45% vs 30%, and dementias in the older one (18.9% vs 3.8%, but with no statistical significance (p = 0.23. Conclusion This study suggests that epilepsy and epileptic seizures in the elderly inpatients have etiological association with stroke, neoplasias and dementias.

  18. Maternal epileptic seizure induced by Pentylenetetrazol: Apoptotic neurodegeneration and decreased GABAB1 receptor expression in prenatal rat brain

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    Naseer Muhammad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unrevealed. The hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to epilepsy-induced pathologic changes and often manifests as neuronal death. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal epileptic seizure on apoptotic neuronal death, modulation of GABAB1 receptor (R, and protein kinase A-α (PKA in prenatal rat hippocampal neurons at gestational days (GD 17.5. Seizure was induced in pregnant rat using intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ (40 mg/kg for 15 days. To confirm the seizure electroencephalography (EEG data was obtained by the Laxtha EEG-monitoring device in the EEG recording room and EEG were monitored 5 min and 15 min after PTZ injection. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed significant increased expression of cytochrome-c and caspases-3, while decreased levels of GABAB1R, and PKA protein expression upon ethanol, PTZ and ethanol plus PTZ exposure in primary neuronal cells cultured from PTZ-induced seizure model as compare to non-PTZ treated maternal group. Apoptotic neurodegeneration was further confirmed with Fluoro-Jade B and propidium iodide staining, where neurons were scattered and shrunken, with markedly condensed nuclei in PTZ treated group compared with control. This study for the first time indicate that PTZ-induced seizures triggered activation of caspases-3 to induce widespread apoptotic neuronal death and decreased GABAB1R expression in hippocampal neurons, providing a possible mechanistic link between maternal epilepsy induced neurodegeneration alteration of GABAB1R and PKA expression level during prenatal brain development. This revealed new aspects of PTZ and ethanol's modulation on GABAB1R, learning and memory. Further, explain the possibility that children delivered by epileptic

  19. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures

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    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A.; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  20. Large-Scale Modeling of Epileptic Seizures: Scaling Properties of Two Parallel Neuronal Network Simulation Algorithms

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    Lorenzo L. Pesce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determined the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors. Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers.

  1. Large-scale modeling of epileptic seizures: scaling properties of two parallel neuronal network simulation algorithms.

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    Pesce, Lorenzo L; Lee, Hyong C; Hereld, Mark; Visser, Sid; Stevens, Rick L; Wildeman, Albert; van Drongelen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determined the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons) and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors). Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers. PMID:24416069

  2. Properties of functional brain networks correlate with frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

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    Barzegaran, Elham; Joudaki, Amir; Jalili, Mahdi; Rossetti, Andrea O; Frackowiak, Richard S; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and small-worldness (SW) metrics, respectively. Yet the number of PNES attacks per month correlated with a weakness of local connectedness and a skewed balance between local and global connectedness quantified with SW, all in EEG alpha band. In beta band, patients demonstrated above-normal resiliency, measured with assortativity coefficient, which also correlated with the frequency of PNES attacks. This interictal EEG phenotype may help improve differentiation between PNES and epilepsy. The results also suggest that local connectivity could be a target for therapeutic interventions in PNES. Selective modulation (strengthening) of local connectivity might improve the skewed balance between local and global connectivity and so prevent PNES events. PMID:23267325

  3. Properties of functional brain networks correlate frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

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    Elham eBarzegaran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES. To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and small-worldness metrics, respectively. Yet the number of PNES attacks per month correlated with a weakness of local connectedness and a skewed balance between local and global connectedness quantified with small-worldness, all in EEG alpha band. In beta band, patients demonstrated above-normal resiliency, measured with assortativity coefficient, which also correlated with the frequency of PNES attacks. This interictal EEG phenotype may help improve differentiation between PNES and epilepsy. The results also suggest that local connectivity could be a target for therapeutic interventions in PNES. Selective modulation (strengthening of local connectivity might improve the skewed balance between local and global connectivity and so prevent PNES events.

  4. METALS IN THE METABOLISM OF HIPPOCAMPUS AND ROLE OF ZINC IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

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    O. M. Kuchkovsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological mechanisms of convulsions status during epilepsy or episindrom significantly different from the mechanisms, which were describe for other disorders associated with glutamatergic system, such as schizophrenia (a decrease of glutamate in neurons and increased dopaminergic load, drug addiction and alcoholism (the formation of endogenous opioids and dopamine, strengthening the role of GABA-ergic system. With glutamatergic transmission are сconnect not only convulsive state, but also the realization of higher integrative functions. Therefore, the development of epilepsy, particularly  which caused glutamate, implemented by activating Zn-ergic hippocampal neurons, associate with complex changes in human mental functions. Based on a scientific literature about  of the role of chelating zinc in the mechanisms of glutamatergic transmission, we can  suggest it participation in the mechanisms of formation of epilepsy  convulsions. In experience on animals, was show that in the animal organism of stressing correlative changes observe zinc content and secretory material in the hippocampus, Paneth cells  and B cells of pancreas. The nature of the changes depend on the stressor. When this change of zinc content in the hippocampus and hypothalamus (as the main regulator of stress reaction were multidirectional that this can be explained by the release of metal together with secretory material in the hypothalamus into the bloodstream. Research epileptic activity  of hippocampus by administering to the animal chelate 8 BSQ allowed to establish the dependence between convulsant action  and first  stress condition of the animal. Evocation of stress by 8-BSQ and physical activity, immobilization and alcohol abuse found that the convulsive effect of this reagent during intravitreal research increased in the case of prior exposure by specified kinds of stressors. In this pre-convulsive effect on exertion increased by 266% and the zinc content

  5. Protective role of miR-23b-3p in kainic acid-induced seizure.

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    Zhan, Lianbo; Yao, Yi; Fu, Huajun; Li, Zhenghui; Wang, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; He, Wencan; Zheng, Weihong; Zhang, Yunwu; Zheng, Honghua

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs has been proposed to contribute toward epilepsy. The miRNA miR-23b-3p has been found to protect against neuronal apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we assessed the potential role of miR-23b-3p in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model. We found that miR-23b-3p levels were significantly decreased in the brain cortex of mice and in cultured mouse primary neurons treated with KA. Importantly, supplement of miR-23b-3p agomir by an intacerebroventricular injection alleviated seizure behaviors and abnormal cortical electroencephalogram recordings in KA-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that miR-23b-3p plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy and that miR-23b-3p supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating seizure. PMID:27232518

  6. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: so-called psychiatric comorbidity and underlying defense mechanisms

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    Beghi M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Paola Beffa Negrini,1 Cecilia Perin,1,3 Federica Peroni,1,3 Adriana Magaudda,4 Cesare Cerri,1,3 Cesare Maria Cornaggia1,3 1Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, 2Department of Mental Health, “Guido Salvini” Hospital, Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy; 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Istituti Clinici Zucchi, Carate Brianza, Monza and Brianza, Italy; 4Epilepsy Center, Department of Neuroscience, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Abstract: In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES do not have a unique classification as they can be found within different categories: conversion, dissociative, and somatization disorders. The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the underlying defense mechanisms are different. The literature data show that PNES are associated with cluster B (mainly borderline personality disorders and/or to people with depressive or anxiety disorders. Defense mechanisms in patients with PNES with a prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms are of “neurotic” type; their goal is to lead to a “split”, either vertical (dissociation or horizontal (repression. The majority of patients with this type of PNES have alexithymia traits, meaning that they had difficulties in feeling or perceiving emotions. In subjects where PNES are associated with a borderline personality, in which the symbolic function is lost, the defense mechanisms are of a more archaic nature (denial. PNES with different underlying defense mechanisms have different prognoses (despite similar severity of PNES and need usually a different treatment (pharmacological or psychological. Thus, it appears superfluous to talk about psychiatric comorbidity, since PNES are a different symptomatic expression of specific psychiatric disorders

  7. CORRELATION OF THE SERUM LEVEL OF CARBAMAZEPINE WITH SEIZURE CONTROL AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG EPILEPTICS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

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    Joseph O. Fadare

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder requiring long-term treatment. Seizure control requires adequate blood levels of anti-seizure drugs. Carbarmazepine is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs in Nigeria. This study was carried out to investigate the correlation between serum levels of carbamazepine and seizure control and adverse drug reactions among epileptics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, sixty-nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who had been on treatment with carbamazepine alone or in combination with phenytoin for at least one month were enrolled into the study and divided into two groups based on seizure control. Drug level in pre-dose (steady state venous blood was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Result: The mean serum concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ and carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EP was 13.5±9.3ìg/mL and 6.34±12.61ìg/mL respectively. Patients with good seizure control had mean serum CBZ concentration of 12.7 ± 9.2ìg/mL versus 15.02 ± 9.7ìg/mL among patients with poor seizure control (P=0.33. The serum concentration of CBZ-EP in patients with good seizure control was 8.05 ± 15.2ìg/mL while it was 3.11 ± 3.5ìg/mL in the second group (P=0.122. Drowsiness was the commonest adverse drug reaction (26.1% and it did not necessitate withdrawal of the drug. Conclusion The study showed that serum level of carbamazepine does not correlate with seizure control and adverse drug reactions.

  8. The similarities between the hallucinations associated with the partial epileptic seizures of the occipital lobe and ball lightning observations

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    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. Ball lightning is usually observed during thunderstorms but large number of ball lightning observations is also reported during fine weather without any connection to thunderstorms or lightning. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is photographed very rarely and in many cases the authenticity of them is questionable. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. Indeed, the visual hallucinations associated with simple partial epileptic seizures, during which the patient remains conscious, may also be categorized by a patient unaware of his or her condition as ball lightning observation. Such visual hallucinations may occur as a result of an epileptic seizure in the occipital, temporo-occipital or temporal lobes of the cerebrum [1,2,3]. In some cases the hallucination is perceived as a coloured ball moving horizontally from the periphery to the centre of the vision. The ball may appear to be rotating or spinning. The colour of the ball can be red, yellow, blue or green. Sometimes, the ball may appear to have a solid structure surrounded by a thin glow or in other cases the ball appears to generate spark like phenomena. When the ball is moving towards the centre of the vision it may increase its intensity and when it reaches the centre it can 'explode' illuminating the whole field of vision. During the hallucinations the vision is obscured only in the area occupied by the apparent object. The hallucinations may last for 5 to 30 seconds and rarely up to a minute. Occipital seizures may spread into other regions of the brain giving auditory, olfactory and sensory sensations. These sensations could be buzzing sounds, the smell of burning rubber, pain with thermal perception especially in the arms and the face, and numbness and tingling sensation. In some cases a person may experience only

  9. A Multi-stage System for the Automated Detection of Epileptic Seizures in Neonatal EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joyeeta; Glover, John R.; Ktonas, Periklis Y.; Thitai Kumar, Arun; Mukherjee, Amit; Karayiannis, Nicolaos B.; Frost, James D.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Mizrahi, Eli M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of a 3-stage automated system for neonatal EEG seizure detection. Stage I of the system is the initial detection stage, and identifies overlapping 5-s segments of suspected seizure activity in each EEG channel. In Stage II, the detected segments from Stage I are spatiotemporally clustered to produce multi-channel candidate seizures. In Stage III, the candidate seizures are processed further using measures of quality and context-based rules to e...

  10. Positron emission tomography in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonigal A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aileen McGonigal,1–3 Marie Arthuis,3 Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi,4,5 Fabrice Bartolomei,1–3 Eric Guedj6–8 1Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, INSERM UMR 1106, Marseille, France; 2Aix Marseille University, Faculty of Medicine, Marseille, France; 3Clinical Neurophysiology Department, Timone Hospital, Marseille, France; 4Department of Functional Investigation of the Nervous System, Sleep Clinic, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France; 5USR CNRS 3413, University of Bordeaux, France; 6Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine Department, Timone Hospital, Marseille, France; 7Aix-Marseille University, CERIMED, Marseille, France; 8Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, UMR7289, INT, Marseille, FranceWe have read with interest the recent review entitled “Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging” by Maryam Ejareh dar and Richard AA Kanaan,1 published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Our paper on resting state brain metabolism measured by positron emission tomography (PET was included and discussed.2 We were most surprised to see that the authors of the review seem to have misunderstood the findings of our study, which concerned patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES. The authors state that the 16 patients included in our study “were later found to have PNES with comorbid epilepsy”. This is incorrect, since our study included only patients with PNES in whom comorbid epilepsy was excluded. This crucial point is indeed detailed in the Methods section of our article and clearly stated in the abstract: “in all patients, the diagnosis was subsequently confirmed to be PNES with no coexisting epilepsy.” It is thus on the basis of incorrect understanding of our results that Drs Ejareh dar and Kanaan discuss the possible significance of hypometabolism in the anterior cingulate region described in our paper, and erroneously suggest that interpretation of PET findings is

  11. Dynamics of regional brain activity in epilepsy: a cross-disciplinary study on both intracranial and scalp-recorded epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Ventouras, Errikos; Gatzonis, Stylianos D.; Siatouni, Anna; Tsekou, Hara; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sakas, Damianos E.; Stonham, John

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Recent cross-disciplinary literature suggests a dynamical analogy between earthquakes and epileptic seizures. This study extends the focus of inquiry for the applicability of models for earthquake dynamics to examine both scalp-recorded and intracranial electroencephalogram recordings related to epileptic seizures. Approach. First, we provide an updated definition of the electric event in terms of magnitude and we focus on the applicability of (i) a model for earthquake dynamics, rooted in a nonextensive Tsallis framework, (ii) the traditional Gutenberg and Richter law and (iii) an alternative method for the magnitude-frequency relation for earthquakes. Second, we apply spatiotemporal analysis in terms of nonextensive statistical physics and we further examine the behavior of the parameters included in the nonextensive formula for both types of electroencephalogram recordings under study. Main results. We confirm the previously observed power-law distribution, showing that the nonextensive formula can adequately describe the sequences of electric events included in both types of electroencephalogram recordings. We also show the intermittent behavior of the epileptic seizure cycle which is analogous to the earthquake cycles and we provide evidence of self-affinity of the regional electroencephalogram epileptic seizure activity. Significance. This study may provide a framework for the analysis and interpretation of epileptic brain activity and other biological phenomena with similar underlying dynamical mechanisms.

  12. Comparison study of SPECT, EEG and CT in 50 epileptic patients during interictal seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a comparison study of SPECT, EEG and CT in 50 epileptic patients during interictal. SPECT showed an abnormal rate of 76 per cent. The abnormal findings of EEG conformed to SPECT in 45.6% patients. If CT scan shows a focal abnormality, 85% of local abnormal finding may also be found in SPECT. But not all SPECT abnormal findings were epileptic foci. SPECT, EEG and CT can not be replaced by each other. When using the three examinations at the same time we can know much about epileptic focus from anatomy and physiology

  13. Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh Attila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation.

  14. Lipoma in the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Epileptic Seizures Associated with Expanding Perifocal Edema: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Michiyasu Fuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a rare case of a patient with lipoma presenting with epileptic seizures associated with expanding perifocal edema. The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented with loss of consciousness and convulsions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a calcified mass in the corpus callosum with perifocal edema causing mass effect. An interhemispheric approach was used to biopsy the mass lesion. Histological examination revealed typical adipose cells, along with hamartomatous components. These components contained neurofilament and S-100-positive structures showing marked calcification. Fibrous cells immunoreactive for α-smooth muscle actin and epithelial membrane antigen proliferated with focal granulomatous inflammatory changes. MIB-1 index was approximately 5% in immature cells observed in granulomatous areas. We thus suspected a coexisting neoplastic component. The residual lesion persisted in a dormant state for 2 years following biopsy. Surgical resection of a lipoma is extremely difficult and potentially dangerous. However, in the present case, the lesion was accompanied by atypical, expanding, and perifocal edema. Surgical treatment was inevitable for the purpose of histological confirmation, considering differential diagnoses such as dermoid, epidermoid, and glioma. In the end, anticonvulsant therapy proved effective for controlling epileptic seizures.

  15. Ictal brain SPET during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol: a new diagnostic procedure in drug-resistant epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Bruno, Isabella; Di Giuda, Daniela; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Troncone, Luigi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168 Roma (Italy); Parbonetti, Giovanni; Colicchio, Gabriella [Department of Neurosurgery, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Functional brain imaging plays an important role in seizure focus localisation. However, truly ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies are not routinely performed owing to technical problems associated with the use of tracers and methodological and logistical difficulties. In this study we tried to resolve both of these issues by means of a new procedure: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPET performed during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol, a well-known central and respiratory stimulant. We studied 33 drug-resistant epileptic patients. All patients underwent anamnestic evaluation, neuropsychological and psychodynamic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, interictal and ictal video-EEG monitoring, and interictal and ictal SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. In order to obtain truly ictal SPET, 65 mg of pentylenetetrazol was injected every 2 minutes and, immediately the seizure began, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected. The scintigraphic findings were considered abnormal if a single area of hyperperfusion was present and corresponded to the site of a single area of hypoperfusion at interictal SPET: the ''hypo-hyperperfusion'' SPET pattern. In 27 of the 33 patients (82%), interictal-ictal SPET showed the hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern. Video-EEG showed a single epileptogenic zone in 21/33 patients (64%), and MRI showed anatomical lesions in 19/33 patients (57%). Twenty-two of the 27 patients with hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern underwent ablative or palliative surgery and were seizure-free at 3 years of follow-up. No adverse effects were noted during pharmacologically provoked seizure. It is concluded that ictal brain SPET performed during pharmacologically provoked seizure provides truly ictal images because {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is injected immediately upon seizure onset. Using this feasible procedure it is possible to localise the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability

  16. NeuroKinect: A Novel Low-Cost 3Dvideo-EEG System for Epileptic Seizure Motion Quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Silva Cunha

    motion trajectories when compared to a 2D frame by frame tracking procedure. We conclude that this new approach provides a more comfortable (both for patients and clinical professionals, simpler, faster and lower-cost procedure than previous approaches, therefore providing a reliable tool to quantitatively analyze MOI patterns of epileptic seizures in the routine of EMUs around the world. We hope this study encourages other EMUs to adopt similar approaches so that more quantitative information is used to improve epilepsy diagnosis.

  17. [Effect of citicoline on the development of chronic epileptization of the brain (pentylenetetrazole kindling) and acute seizures reaction of kindled mice C57Bl/6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovsky, K A; Klishina, N V

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on mice C57Bl/6 was studied effects of citicoline (500 mg/kg, i.p.) on development of chronically epileptization of the brain--pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling (30 mg/kg PTZ, i.p. during 24 days) and on acute generalized seizures (i.v., 1% solution of PTZ with the speed of 0.01 ml/s). It was shown that daily injection of citicoline an hour before the introduction of PTZ had no effect on development of chronically epileptization of the brain --PTZ-kindling (the latency of seizures appearance and their severity). However, citicoIine posses anticonvulsive effects on acute seizures in kindled mice. In animals with increased seizure susceptibility of the brain caused by kindling and severity of seizures 2-3 points injection citicoline after 14 days of kindling had anticonvulsive effect, increasing the threshold clonic seizures. Injection of citicoline during 24 days of kindled animals and severity of seizures 3-5 points caused the increase of thresholds as clonic and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Thus, the anticonvulsant effect of citicoline more pronounced in the long-term use.

  18. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  19. Proposing the Design, Application and Performance Analysis of an Intelligent Nanoelectronics System for the Detection and Prognosis of Nervous and Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabzyan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nNanoscience and Nanotechnology has enabled us to produce new atomic, molecular and cluster structures with desired properties in systematic and controlled approaches. Nanoelectronics (or Molecular Electronics circuits which is based on molecular and quantum mechanical concepts and phenomena, can be used to design an intelligent system for the detection and prognosis of the initial electrical signals of the nervous and epileptic seizures. The design of the required power source based on the electrical currents of the nervous system and the location of the installation site are the most important features of the design and application of such an intelligent system. In the design of the molecular components needed for the nanoelectronic circuits of this system, physcochemical theoretical and computational techniques can be used. For the optimal design and performance of this prognosis system, environmental effects such as local electric and magnetic fields, and biochemical environments, should be taken into account. "nIn this article, the idea of the design of an intelligent nanoelectronic system for the detection, prognosis and possible control of epileptic attacks is presented. The phases of the design, application and performance analysis of this system include; 1 Detailed clinical analysis of the epileptic electrical signals prior, during and after the attack. 2 Feasibility study of the simulation of the nervous system and the perturbative effects of the epileptic seizure on it using in vivo nanoprobes. 3 Feasibility study of the usage of electric signals of the nerves of other organs having less complexity compared to brain for faster and more accurate prognosis. 4 Design of an in vivo nanoelectronic circuit for the detection and prognosis of the initial signals of epileptic seizures. 5 Feasibility study of the design and production of nanoelectrodes implantable in the skull for the reduction or extinction of the perturbative nervous signals

  20. Optimal training dataset composition for SVM-based, age-independent, automated epileptic seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaarts, J G; Gommer, E D; Hilkman, D M W; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V H J M; Reulen, J P H

    2016-08-01

    Automated seizure detection is a valuable asset to health professionals, which makes adequate treatment possible in order to minimize brain damage. Most research focuses on two separate aspects of automated seizure detection: EEG feature computation and classification methods. Little research has been published regarding optimal training dataset composition for patient-independent seizure detection. This paper evaluates the performance of classifiers trained on different datasets in order to determine the optimal dataset for use in classifier training for automated, age-independent, seizure detection. Three datasets are used to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier: (1) EEG from neonatal patients, (2) EEG from adult patients and (3) EEG from both neonates and adults. To correct for baseline EEG feature differences among patients feature, normalization is essential. Usually dedicated detection systems are developed for either neonatal or adult patients. Normalization might allow for the development of a single seizure detection system for patients irrespective of their age. Two classifier versions are trained on all three datasets: one with feature normalization and one without. This gives us six different classifiers to evaluate using both the neonatal and adults test sets. As a performance measure, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is used. With application of FBC, it resulted in performance values of 0.90 and 0.93 for neonatal and adult seizure detection, respectively. For neonatal seizure detection, the classifier trained on EEG from adult patients performed significantly worse compared to both the classifier trained on EEG data from neonatal patients and the classier trained on both neonatal and adult EEG data. For adult seizure detection, optimal performance was achieved by either the classifier trained on adult EEG data or the classifier trained on both neonatal and adult EEG data. Our results show that age

  1. TNF-overexpression in Borna disease virus-infected mouse brains triggers inflammatory reaction and epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kramer

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic, TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Revived by Epileptic Seizure Then Disappeared Soon during Treatment with Regional Intravenous Nerve Blockade: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sumitani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, in which symptoms, including burning pain and severe allodynia, were alleviated by using a regional intravenous nerve blockade (Bier block combined with physiotherapy, but reappeared following an epileptic seizure. Symptoms disappeared again following control of epileptic discharges, as revealed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and electroencephalography (EEG results. Although systemic toxicity of a local anesthetic applied by Bier block was suspected as a cause of the first seizure, the patient did not present any other toxic symptoms, and seizures repeatedly occurred after Bier block cessation; the patient was then diagnosed as having temporal symptomatic epilepsy. This case suggests that symptoms of CRPS may be sustained by abnormal brain conditions, and our findings contribute to the understanding of how the central nervous system participates in maintaining pain and allodynia associated with CRPS.

  3. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  4. Epileptic seizure onset detection based on EEG and ECG data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaraqe, Marwa; Ismail, Muhammad; Serpedin, Erchin; Zulfi, Haneef

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel method for seizure onset detection using fused information extracted from multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) and single-channel electrocardiogram (ECG). In existing seizure detectors, the analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary ECG signal is limited to the time-domain or frequency-domain. In this work, heart rate variability (HRV) extracted from ECG is analyzed using a Matching-Pursuit (MP) and Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) algorithm in order to effectively extract meaningful HRV features representative of seizure and nonseizure states. The EEG analysis relies on a common spatial pattern (CSP) based feature enhancement stage that enables better discrimination between seizure and nonseizure features. The EEG-based detector uses logical operators to pool SVM seizure onset detections made independently across different EEG spectral bands. Two fusion systems are adopted. In the first system, EEG-based and ECG-based decisions are directly fused to obtain a final decision. The second fusion system adopts an override option that allows for the EEG-based decision to override the fusion-based decision in the event that the detector observes a string of EEG-based seizure decisions. The proposed detectors exhibit an improved performance, with respect to sensitivity and detection latency, compared with the state-of-the-art detectors. Experimental results demonstrate that the second detector achieves a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 2.6s, and a specificity of 99.91% for the MAJ fusion case. PMID:27057745

  5. The appropriacy of fluency tests in assessing epileptic seizure lateralization in children with partial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to asses executive functions. The literature data are not unequivocal although in a great number of papers is pointed out the importance of the left hemisphere, specially of the left frontal lobes in the mediation of phonological fluency and the right hemisphere in the mediation of nonverbal fluency. This paper considers the suitability of fluency tests for the detection of left versus right seizure laterality. The sample consisted of thirty-two epilepsy patients divided into two groups: LHF-participants with the seizure focus in the left hemisphere (n=16, and DHF-participants with the seizure focus in the right hemisphere (n=16, and K-the control group of t age-matched healthy children (n=50 aged 7-11 years. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the phonological and nonverbal fluency performance was carried out in consideration of the seizure laterality as well as compared to the healthy controls. The results of phonological fluency performance revealed that the performance of the LHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both DHF and K group. The analysis of nonverbal fluency performance revealed that the performance of the DHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both LHF and K group The qualitative analysis obtained valuable data, which could additionally contribute to the neuropsychological evaluation of the left versus right seizure laterality.

  6. A tautology in the classification of generalized non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M; Fujiwara, T; Miyakoshi, M; Yagi, K

    1980-01-01

    Five patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have shown generalized nonconvulsive seizures were presented. The seizure manifestations which occurred spontaneously were documented by simultaneous recording and analyzed in terms of clinical and electroencephalographic correlates. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification, it was possible, on the one hand, to regard them as "atypical complex absences" in which the impairment of consciousness is accompanied by other symptoms, which tend to dominate the clinical picture. They were: hypotonic, hypertonic, myoclonic and akinetic components, respectively. On the other hand, if we give a special weight to the accompanying symptoms, it is entirely possible that they are at the same time diagnosed atonic, axial tonic, bilateral myoclonic and akinetic seizures. The initial impairment of consciousness is common to all the seizure manifestations, and the ictal and interictal EEG expressions are not of diagnostic significance. A question arises as to whether two different nomenclatures were arbitrarily given to a unique ictal manifestation or not as far as the generalized non-convulsive seizures were concerned.

  7. Low-Power Implantable Device for Onset Detection and Subsequent Treatment of Epileptic Seizures: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariqus Salam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in neuro-responsive intracerebral local treatments of seizures, such as focal drug delivery, focal cooling, or electrical stimulation. This mode of treatment requires an effective intracerebral electroencephalographic acquisition system, seizure detector, brain stimulator, and wireless system that consume ultra-low power. This review focuses on alternative brain stimulation treatments for medically intractable epilepsy patients. We mainly discuss clinical studies of long-term responsive stimulation and suggest safer optimized therapeutic options for epilepsy. Finally, we conclude our study with the proposed low-power, implantable fully integrated device that automatically detects low-voltage fast activity ictal onsets and triggers focal treatment to disrupt seizure progression. The detection performance was verified using intracerebral electroencephalographic recordings from two patients with epilepsy. Further experimental validation of this prototype is underway.

  8. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ginkgotoxin exhibit seizure-like behavior that is relieved by pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, GABA and anti-epileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Hui Lee

    2012-11-01

    The etiology of epilepsy is a very complicated, multifactorial process that is not completely understood. Therefore, the availability of epilepsy animal models induced by different mechanisms is crucial in advancing our knowledge and developing new therapeutic regimens for this disorder. Considering the advantages of zebrafish, we have developed a seizure model in zebrafish larvae using ginkgotoxin, a neurotoxin naturally occurring in Ginkgo biloba and hypothesized to inhibit the formation of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. We found that a 2-hour exposure to ginkgotoxin induced a seizure-like behavior in zebrafish larvae. This seizure-like swimming pattern was alleviated by the addition of either pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP or GABA and responded quickly to the anti-convulsing activity of gabapentin and phenytoin, two commonly prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs. Unexpectedly, the ginkgotoxin-induced PLP depletion in our experimental setting did not affect the homeostasis of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, another metabolic pathway playing a crucial role in neural function that also relies on the availability of PLP. This ginkgotoxin-induced seizure behavior was also relieved by primidone, which had been tested on a pentylenetetrazole-induced zebrafish seizure model but failed to rescue the seizure phenotype, highlighting the potential use and complementarity of this ginkgotoxin-induced seizure model for AED development. Structural and morphological characterization showed that a 2-hour ginkgotoxin exposure did not cause appreciable changes in larval morphology and tissues development. In conclusion, our data suggests that this ginkgotoxin-induced seizure in zebrafish larvae could serve as an in vivo model for epileptic seizure research and potential AED screening.

  9. Aspartame has no effect on seizures or epileptiform discharges in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Anderson, G M; Novotny, E J; Ebersole, J S; Sullivan, C M; Gillespie, S M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; APM) on the neurological status of children with well-documented seizures were examined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. We report on 10 children (5 boys, 5 girls, ages 5-13 yr) who were tested for 2 weeks each on APM and placebo (single morning dose, 34 mg/kg). Seven children had generalized convulsions with 4 also having absence episodes. One child had absence seizures and 2 had complex partial seizures only. On each arm of the study, children were admitted to the hospital for a standard 21-lead electroencephalogram (EEG), continuous 24-hour cassette EEG, and determination of biochemical variables in plasma and urine. Subjects completed the Subjects Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (STESS) and parents the Conners Behavior Rating Scale. There were no significant differences between APM and placebo in the standard EEG or 24-hour EEG. No differences were noted for the STESS or the Conners ratings, and no differences were noted for any of the biochemical measures (except for expected increases in phenylalanine and tyrosine after APM). Our findings indicate that, in this group of vulnerable children, APM does not provoke seizures. PMID:7506878

  10. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2005-01-01

    , such as oxidative stress (formation of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxoguanine), neurodegeneration (neuronal accumulation of abnormal proteins), and apoptotic cell death (judged by TUNEL and activated caspase-3). This reduced bystander damage in TgMT mice could be due to antiinflammatory and antioxidant...

  11. Anti-epileptic effects of neuropeptide Y gene transfection into the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Dong; Wenqing Zhao; Wenling Li; Peiyuan Lv; Xiufang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y gene transfection into normal rat brain tissue can provide gene overexpression, which can attenuate the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the neuropeptide Y gene was transfected into brain tissue of rats with kainic acid-induced epilepsy through stereotactic methods. Following these transfections, we verified overexpression of the neuropeptide Y gene in the epileptic brain. Electroencephalograms showed that seizure severity was significantly inhibited and seizure latency was significantly prolonged up to 4 weeks after gene transfection. Moreover, quantitative fluorescent PCR and western blot assays revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was inhibited in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. These findings indicate that neuropeptide Y may inhibit seizures via down-regulation of the functional expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

  12. Ictal technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomographic findings and propagation of epileptic seizure activity in patients with extratemporal epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noachtar, S.; Arnold, S.; Werhahn, K.J. [Department Neurologie, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Yousry, T.A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Bartenstein, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the influence of the propagation of extratemporal epileptic seizure activity on the regional increase in cerebral blood flow, which is usually associated with epileptic seizure activity. Forty-two consecutive patients with extratemporal epilepsies were prospectively evaluated. All patients underwent ictal SPET studies with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and video recordings of habitual seizures and imaging studies including cranial magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2 deoxy-d-glucose. Propagation of epilptic seizure activity (PESA) was defined as the absence of hyperperfusion on ictal ECD SPET in the lobe of seizure onset, but its presence in another ipsilateral or contralateral lobe. Observers analysing the SPET images were not informed of the other results. PESA was observed in 8 of the 42 patients (19%) and was ipsilateral to the seizure onset in five (63%) of these eight patients. The time between clinical seizure onset and injection of the ECD tracer ranged from 14 to 61 s (mean 34 s). Seven patients (88%) with PESA had parieto-occipital epilepsy and one patient had a frontal epilepsy. PESA was statistically more frequent in patients with parieto-occipital lobe epilepsies (58%) than in the remaining extratemporal epilepsy syndromes (3%) (P<0.0002). These findings indicate that ictal SPET studies require simultaneous EEG-video recordings in patients with extratemporal epilepsies. PESA should be considered when interpreting ictal SPET studies in these patients. Patients with PESA are more likely to have parieto-occipital lobe epilepsy than seizure onset in other extratemporal regions. (orig./MG) (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  13. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients. PMID:26126613

  14. MDR-1 and MRP2 gene polymorphisms in Mexican epileptic pediatric patients with complex partial seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eEscalante-Santiago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1 / ABCB1 and MRP2 / ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and reported mutations in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR and patients with good response to anti-epileptic drugs (CTR in a rigorously selected population. We analyzed 22 samples from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy and 7 samples from patients with good response to anti-epileptic drugs. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes. Eleven exons in both genes were genotyped. The concentration of drugs in saliva and plasma was determined. The concentration of valproic acid in saliva was lower in ADR than in CRT. In ABCB1, five reported SNPs and five unreported nucleotide changes were identified; rs2229109 (GA and rs2032582 (AT and AG were found only in the ADR. Of six SNPs associated with the ABCC2 that were found in the study population, rs3740066 (TT and 66744T>A (TG were found only in the ADR. The strongest risk factor in the ABCB1 gene was identified as the TA genotype of rs2032582, whereas for the ABCC2 gene the strongest risk factor was the T allele of rs3740066. The screening of SNPs in ACBC1 and ABCC2 indicates that the Mexican patients with epilepsy in this study display frequently reported ABCC1 polymorphisms; however, in the study subjects with a higher risk factor for drug resistance, new nucleotide changes were found in the ABCC2 gene. Thus, the population of Mexican patients with AED-resistant epilepsy used in this study exhibits genetic variability with respect to those reported in other study populations; however, it is necessary to explore this polymorphism in a larger population of patients with AED-resistant epilepsy.

  15. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation prevents chronic epileptic seizure*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinxu Wang; Xiaoming Wang; Sha Ke; Juan Tan; Litian Hu; Yaodan Zhang; Wenjuan Cui

    2013-01-01

    Although low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation can potentially treat epilepsy, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the influence of low-frequency re-petitive transcranial magnetic simulation on changes in several nonlinear dynamic electroenceph-alographic parameters in rats with chronic epilepsy and explored the mechanism underlying repeti-tive transcranial magnetic simulation-induced antiepileptic effects. An epilepsy model was estab-lished using lithium-pilocarpine intraperitoneal injection into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation for 7 consecutive days. Nonlinear elec-electroencephalographic parameters were obtained from the rats at 7, 14, and 28 days post-stimulation. Results showed significantly lower mean correlation-dimension and Kolmogo-rov-entropy values for stimulated rats than for non-stimulated rats. At 28 days, the complexity and point-wise correlation dimensional values were lower in stimulated rats. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation has suppressive effects on electrical activity in epileptic rats, thus explaining its effectiveness in treating epilepsy.

  16. Correlation between chronological variables of the epileptic seizures and ictal perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ictal SPECT has a high sensitivity to localise the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Much is already known about timing of postictal perfusional patterns, while little data analysing ictal perfusion patterns under a chronological frame exists. This study addresses the issue of typical and atypical perfusion patterns in temporal lobes and correlates them with ictal chronological variables. We prospectively evaluated 53 patients (pts) with unilateral TLE through Video-EEG, MRI, ictal, postictal and interictal SPECT, neuropsychological, social and psychiatric evaluations. All patients underwent antero-mesial temporal lobectomy and had a good post surgical seizure outcome. We analysed 51 ictal and 2 postictal scans: 41 pts (77%) showed typical perfusional patterns (TPP, ie, ictal hyperperfusion or postictal hypoperfusion ipsilateral to the EZ); 12 pts (23%) exhibited atypical perfusion patterns (ATT): 7 pts (13%) with bitemporal hyperperfusion (4 pts showed asymmetric predominantly ipsilateral changes), other 4 pts (8%) had contralateral hyperperfusion (associated to ipsilateral hypoperfusion) and 1 patient (2%) had a normal ictal SPECT scan. The earlier injection group (up to 30 sec from seizure onset) had a greater percentage of TPP (p<0,05). There was a significantly greater ictal electroencephalographic pattern exceeding radionuclide injection in TPP than APP group (p<0,04). Later acquisition of SPECT images (between 2 and 6 hours after injection) did not influence the sensitivity of the SPECT. Ictal perfusion patterns in TLE needs detailed morphological analysis to determine TPP and APP. After electro-clinical correlation, APP discloses conspicuous findings that can also render them lateralising information of EZ. Early injection of radionuclide resulted in a greater percentage of TPP. Later SPECT acquisitions had similar sensitivity to the earlier ones. Finally, greater exceeding time of ictal EEG after radionuclide

  17. [Seizure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Seizure is defined as "a strong shrinkage state of the skeletal muscle which is involuntary, and occurs spasmodically" and it is often accompanied by disturbance of consciousness. The typical disease which causes seizure is epilepsy. But there is many conditions causing seizure. Therefore, diagnosis of epilepsy should be careful. Seizure among eldery increases in an era of an aging population in Japan. The risk of recurrence of seizure or epilepsy in elderly is higher than that in youth. In considering of the treatment of seizure among elderly, differential diagnosis from various condition must be done. PMID:23855204

  18. Phase-Amplitude Coupling Is Elevated in Deep Sleep and in the Onset Zone of Focal Epileptic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mina; Frauscher, Birgit; Gotman, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between different EEG frequency bands have been widely investigated in normal and pathologic brain activity. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is one of the important forms of this interaction where the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations is modulated by the phase of lower frequency activity. Here, we studied the dynamic variations of PAC of high (gamma and ripple) and low (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) frequency bands in patients with focal epilepsy in different sleep stages during the interictal period, in an attempt to see if coupling is different in more or less epileptogenic regions. Sharp activities were excluded to avoid their effect on the PAC. The results revealed that the coupling intensity was generally the highest in stage N3 of sleep and the lowest in rapid eye movement sleep. We also compared the coupling strength in different regions [seizure onset zone (SOZ), exclusively irritative zone, and normal zone]. PAC between high and low frequency rhythms was found to be significantly stronger in the SOZ compared to normal regions. Also, the coupling was generally more elevated in spiking channels outside the SOZ than in normal regions. We also examined how the power in the delta band correlates to the PAC, and found a mild but statistically significant correlation between slower background activity in epileptic channels and the elevated coupling in these channels. The results suggest that an elevated PAC may reflect some fundamental abnormality, even after exclusion of sharp activities and even in the interictal period. PAC may therefore contribute to understanding the underlying dynamics of epileptogenic brain regions. PMID:27536227

  19. Optimized Seizure Detection Algorithm: A Fast Approach for Onset of Epileptic in EEG Signals Using GT Discriminant Analysis and K-NN Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Kh.; Azizi, E.; Haddadnia, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer’s and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. Objective In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures. Signals had been collected from Children’s Hospital Boston with a sampling frequency of 256 Hz through 18 channels in order to assess epilepsy surgery. By selecting effective features from seizure and non-seizure signals of each individual and putting them into two categories, the proposed algorithm detects the onset of seizures quickly and with high sensitivity. Method In this algorithm, L-sec epochs of signals are displayed in form of a third-order tensor in spatial, spectral and temporal spaces by applying wavelet transform. Then, after applying general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) on tensors and calculating mapping matrix, feature vectors are extracted. GTDA increases the sensitivity of the algorithm by storing data without deleting them. Finally, K-Nearest neighbors (KNN) is used to classify the selected features. Results The results of simulating algorithm on algorithm standard dataset shows that the algorithm is capable of detecting 98 percent of seizures with an average delay of 4.7 seconds and the average error rate detection of three errors in 24 hours. Conclusion Today, the lack of an automated system to detect or predict the seizure onset is strongly felt. PMID:27672628

  20. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles o...

  1. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy in a model of acute seizures and in a population of pediatric drug resistant epileptics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marchi

    Full Text Available Targeting pro-inflammatory events to reduce seizures is gaining momentum. Experimentally, antagonism of inflammatory processes and of blood-brain barrier (BBB damage has been demonstrated to be beneficial in reducing status epilepticus (SE. Clinically, a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of drug resistant epilepsies is suspected. However, the use anti-inflammatory drug such as glucocorticosteroids (GCs is limited to selected pediatric epileptic syndromes and spasms. Lack of animal data may be one of the reasons for the limited use of GCs in epilepsy. We evaluated the effect of the CG dexamethasone in reducing the onset and the severity of pilocarpine SE in rats. We assessed BBB integrity by measuring serum S100β and Evans Blue brain extravasation. Electrophysiological monitoring and hematologic measurements (WBCs and IL-1β were performed. We reviewed the effect of add on dexamethasone treatment on a population of pediatric patients affected by drug resistant epilepsy. We excluded subjects affected by West, Landau-Kleffner or Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and Rasmussen encephalitis, known to respond to GCs or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. The effect of two additional GCs, methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone, was also reviewed in this population. When dexamethasone treatment preceded exposure to the convulsive agent pilocarpine, the number of rats developing status epilepticus (SE was reduced. When SE developed, the time-to-onset was significantly delayed compared to pilocarpine alone and mortality associated with pilocarpine-SE was abolished. Dexamethasone significantly protected the BBB from damage. The clinical study included pediatric drug resistant epileptic subjects receiving add on GC treatments. Decreased seizure frequency (≥ 50% or interruption of status epilepticus was observed in the majority of the subjects, regardless of the underlying pathology. Our experimental results point to a seizure-reducing effect of

  2. Study of factors responsible for recurrence of seizures in controlled epileptics for more than 1 years after withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamdhade S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 531 epileptic patients, who had achieved remission mostly for 2 years or more were studied. The mean follow up period was 5 years. Recurrence was noted in 103 patients (19% after gradual withdrawal of AED, over a period of 3-4 months. 424 patients (81% did not have recurrence. The recurrence rate was influenced adversely by factors like adolescent age and later onset seizures, pre-treatment duration of symptoms more than 3 years, pre-treatment precipitating factors like emotional stress, lack of sleep and meals (however, number in each group is small, positive family history of epilepsy, focal neurodeficit, absence and myoclonic plus grandmal type of clinical seizures, paroxysmal generalized spike and wave discharges and generalized short polyspike and wave discharges in the pretreatment EEG, atrophic changes on CT brain scan (in small numbers, head trauma at birth or later and hereditary factors as etiology of epilepsy, and more than 30 number of seizures before achieving the remission. Factors like, sex, frequency of seizures, period of remission i.e. two years or more and number of drugs used to achieve remission, did not have any significant adverse effect. However, in the last parameter 95% remission was achieved by one or a combination of two drugs (72% and 23% respectively.

  3. Perioperafive management of neurosurgical patients with recurrent epileptic seizures%神经外科患者癫痫反复发作处理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冠前; 高丹丹; 林军; 韩松; 吕博川; 粱国标; 魏学忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of recurrent epileptic seizures and perioperative management principles and methods of neurosurgical patients with recurrent epileptic seizures.Methods The clinical data,reasons for aggravated seizures,seizure characteristics,and treatment methods and results of 9 patients with recurrent epileptic seizures were analyzed retrospectively.Results Of all the 9 patients,3 were combined with glioma,1 with arachnoid cyst,1 with cavernous hemangioma and 1 with encephalomalacia; epilepsy history was noted in 7 patients; frontal lobe epilepsy was noted in 7,and temporal lobe epilepsy in 2.The reasons for seizure aggravation included drug-decrement(n=3),recent-diagnosed brain tumor(n=2)and surgical operation during intracranial electrode implantation(n=1); and unknown reason was noted in the other 3.Epileptic seizure types included partial seizure and secondary generalized seizure; the frequency of seizure ranged from 3 minutes of interval to several hours of interval.Patients given multiple antiepileptic drugs,including oral and parenteral administration,received good seizure-control; and levetiracetam showed good curative effect during the treatment.Conclusion Recurrent seizures show drug refractory,and is hard to control.The AEDs having good curative effect in partial seizure should be combined used in these patients with higher dosage than conventional initial dose; intravenous and intramuscular administration can be used; the seizures should be controlled as soon as posible.Levetiracetam has good curative effect on patients with recurrent seizures for its fast oral-absorption,rapid onset of action and good antiepileptic effect.%目的 探讨神经外科患者出现癫痫反复发作的临床特点、处理原则与方法.方法 回顾性分析沈阳军区总医院神经外科自2011年1月至6月收治的9例癫痫反复发作患者的临床资料,分析其加重的原因、发作特点及治疗方法和结果.结果 9

  4. The effect of PTZ-induced epileptic seizures on hippocampal expression of PSA-NCAM in offspring born to kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabzadeh Aliakbar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy can affect the hippocampal neurons in the offspring. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, which is expressed in the developing central nervous system, may play important roles in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. This study was designed to assess the effects of kindling either with or without maternal seizures on hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in rat offspring. Methods Forty timed-pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups: A Kind+/Seiz+, pregnant kindled (induced two weeks prior to pregnancy rats that received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. pentylenetetrazol, PTZ injections on gestational days (GD 14-19; B Kind-/Seiz+, pregnant non-kindled rats that received PTZ injections on GD14-GD19; C Kind+/Seiz-, pregnant kindled rats that did not receive any PTZ injections; and D Kind-/Seiz-, the sham controls. Following birth, the pups were sacrificed on PD1 and PD14, and PSA-NCAM expression and localization in neonates’ hippocampi were analyzed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results Our data show a significant down regulation of hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in the offspring of Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 groups compared to the sham control group. The PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in all parts of the hippocampus, especially in the CA3 region, in Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 group’s newborns on both PD1 and 14. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal seizures but not kindling influence the expression of PSA-NCAM in the offspring’s hippocampi, which may be considered as a factor for learning/memory and cognitive impairments reported in children born to epileptic mothers.

  5. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haejin Lee

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%, APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%, and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%. Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest

  6. Epilepsy in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Epilepsia em pacientes com crises não epilépticas psicogênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luiz Marchetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epilepsy in patients who presented psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES. The evaluation was carried out during intensive VEEG monitoring in a diagnostic center for epilepsy in a university hospital. The difficulties involved in reaching this diagnosis are discussed. Ninety-eight patients underwent intensive and prolonged video-electroencephalographic (VEEG monitoring; out of these, a total of 28 patients presented PNES during monitoring. Epilepsy was defined as present when the patient presented epileptic seizures during VEEG monitoring or when, although not presenting epileptic seizures during monitoring, the patient presented unequivocal interictal epileptiform discharges. The frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES was 50% (14 patients. Our findings suggest that the frequency of epilepsy in patients with PNES is much higher than that of previous studies, and point out the need, at least in some cases, for prolonging the evaluation of patients with PNES who have clinical histories indicating epilepsy.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de epilepsia em pacientes que apresentaram crises não epilépticas psicogênicas (CNEP. Isto foi realizado durante monitoração intensiva por video-EEG num centro diagnóstico de epilepsia em um hospital universitário. As dificuldades envolvidas para se chegar a este diagnóstico são discutidas. Noventa e oito pacientes foram submetidos a monitoração intensiva por video-EEG; 28 destes pacientes apresentaram CNEP durante a monitoração. Epilepsia foi considerada presente quando o paciente apresentou crises epilépticas durante a avaliação pelo video-EEG ou quando, apesar da não ocorrência de crises epilépticas durante a avaliação, descargas epilépticas interictais inequívocas estavam presentes. A frequência de epilepsia em pacientes com CNEP foi 50% (14 pacientes. Nossos achados sugerem que a frequência de epilepsia em

  7. Counterpoint to “What Is an Epileptic Seizure?” By D’Ambrosio and Miller

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, F. Edward; Bertram, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    D’Ambrosio and Miller argue that brief (i.e., one to a few seconds), rhythmic electrographic events accompanied by behavioral arrest, which they have observed in rats after lateral fluid percussion (i.e., in an animal model of traumatic brain injury), should be considered seizures in this model of posttraumatic epilepsy (1). A counter argument is that these events are not characteristic of the seizures seen clinically in posttraumatic epilepsy or in other forms of acquired epilepsy. Furthermo...

  8. Neonatal seizures-part 1: Not everything that jerks, stiffens and shakes is a fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Anthony R; Pilling, Elizabeth L; Alix, James J P

    2015-08-01

    The neonatal period is the most frequent time of life to have epileptic seizures. However, neonates can also exhibit unusual movements that are not epileptic seizures. Differentiating between epileptic and non-epileptic movements can be difficult. Many neonatal seizures exhibit few or no clinical features at all. This article is for the benefit of paediatric trainees and reviews the published evidence on which neonatal movements are likely to be epileptic seizures and which are not. We also discuss epileptic seizure classification.

  9. Fibromyalgia and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (pFibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described. PMID:27238051

  10. TNF-Overexpression in Borna Disease Virus-Infected Mouse Brains Triggers Inflammatory Reaction and Epileptic Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Katharina; Schaudien, Dirk; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Juergen A.; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus i

  11. 依达拉奉对海人酸致痫大鼠认知功能的影响%The effect of edaravone on cognitive function of kainic acid-induced epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠卿; 孟丽; 冯荣芳; 张志英; 岳月红; 尹楠; 刘昌林; 郭宗成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of edaravone on cognitive function of kainic acid-induced epileptic rats.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats ( weight 260±20g) , were randomly divided into three groups:①sham operation group ( n=6):administrated 0.9%saline the same volume as model group;②model group ( n=12):kainic acid ( 4μg· kg-1 ) was administrated in the right hippocampal CA3 region via stereotactic technique.③edaravone ( n=12): kainic acid ( 4μg · kg-1 · d-1 ) was administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region via stereotactic technique, and immediately edaravone ( 10mg · kg-1 ) was administrated once daily i.p.until the time point of the sacrificed.The three groups of rats, respectively, were evaluated Morris water maze test in order to test cognitive function and learning capacity, at 24 h, 8w after operation.Results The escape latency periods in all rats at the beginning of place navigation test (PNT) at 24h were no significantly extended(P>0.05), and which in rats of model and edaravone groups was obviously prolonged in the PNT at 8w compared with the sham group( P0.05) ,the former was shortened, the latter decreased significantly in the model and edaravone groups at 8w SPT ( P>0.05) .The swimming time in the original platform quadrant in all rats was prolonger ( P<0.05) and the times of wear ring increased significantly compared with the model group( P<0.05) .Conclusion Repeated, chronic seizures can cause the declining of cognitive function, learning and memory capacity, edaravone can partly protect cognitive function.%目的:观察依达拉奉对海人酸( KA)致痫大鼠认知功能的影响。方法选用成年健康雄性Wistar大鼠30只,体质量260±20g,随机分为3组:①假手术组(sham)(n=6):右侧海马CA3区注入等量的生理盐水;②模型组(KA)(n=12):右侧海马CA3区注入KA 4μg· kg-1(4μg·μl-1);③依达拉奉组(n=12):右侧海马CA3区注入KA 4

  12. Synchrotron X-ray microtransections: a non invasive approach for epileptic seizures arising from eloquent cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyatos, B.; Nemoz, C.; Chabrol, T.; Potez, M.; Bräuer, E.; Renaud, L.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Estève, F.; David, O.; Kahane, P.; Laissue, J. A.; Depaulis, A.; Serduc, R.

    2016-06-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray (SRX) microbeams deposit high radiation doses to submillimetric targets whilst minimizing irradiation of neighboring healthy tissue. We developed a new radiosurgical method which demonstrably transects cortical brain tissue without affecting adjacent regions. We made such image-guided SRX microtransections in the left somatosensory cortex in a rat model of generalized epilepsy using high radiation doses (820 Gy) in thin (200 μm) parallel slices of tissue. This procedure, targeting the brain volume from which seizures arose, altered the abnormal neuronal activities for at least 9 weeks, as evidenced by a decrease of seizure power and coherence between tissue slices in comparison to the contralateral cortex. The brain tissue located between transections stayed histologically normal, while the irradiated micro-slices remained devoid of myelin and neurons two months after irradiation. This pre-clinical proof of concept highlights the translational potential of non-invasive SRX transections for treating epilepsies that are not eligible for resective surgery.

  13. Hypnopompic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Amer M; Lüders, Hans O

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between epilepsy and sleep is complex and bidirectional. Ictal awakening is probably a common and well-described phenomenon. In this small observational study we describe arousal from sleep as the only, or at least main, manifestation of some epileptic seizures. We coin the term "hypnopompic seizures" to describe this entity. Five patients with intractable epilepsy were monitored by continuous video-electroencephalogram. Four of them had left temporal lobe epilepsy and one patient had generalised epilepsy. Hypnopompic seizures accounted for 30-100% of their seizure types captured during monitoring. All the seizures occurred during stage II sleep and were brief. Hypnopompic seizures are extremely subtle and may be underdiagnosed and underreported. Future larger studies are needed to shed some light on this unique entity and its neuropathophysiology. Epileptologists should be aware of this type of seizure and careful review of electroencephalograms during the transition from sleep to arousal is imperative to capture these seizures. Physicians, patients and families also need to be aware of such a subtle manifestation of seizures. Improved awareness of hypnopompic seizures and subtle seizures, in general, help guide accurate and early diagnosis, thorough monitoring and appropriate management. PMID:21030341

  14. Effect of saikosaponin-a on epileptic seizures in refractory epilepsy rats%柴胡皂苷a对难治性癫痫大鼠痫性发作的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炜; 孟春想; 史国军; 范穗强; 洪雨; 陈伟军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of saikosaponin-a (SSa) on epileptic seizures of refractory epilepsy rats induced by pilocarpine. Methods Except for the control group (A), 48 Sprague-Dawley refractory epilepsy model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely the model group (B), sodium valproate group (C), low and high dose of SSa group (D and E).Croup A and B were given with the same amount of saline by lavage.and group C was administrated with sodium valproale 200 mg/kg.Group D and E were given intraperitoneal injection of 1.09 mg/kg and 2.18 mg/kg SSa, respectively. At 4 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment, the frequency, average lime and the degree of epileptic seizure in RE rats were evaluated. Results There was no epileptic seizure in group A,but more epileptic seizure was observed in group B(P>0.05). Epileptic seizures were decreased in group C, D and E when compared with group B (P<0.05). The reduction of epileptic seizure was most apparent in group E. Conclusion SSa has a prominent antiepiletic effect to decrease epileptic seizure in rats.%目的 探讨柴胡皂苷a(SSa)对匹罗卡品致难治性癫痫模型大鼠痫性发作的影响.方法 将制备成功的48只SD难治性癫痫大鼠模型随机分为模型组(B)、丙戊酸钠组(C)、柴胡皂苷a低剂量组(D)和高剂量组(E)4组,每组各12只,另有空白对照组(A)12只.A、B组给予等量生理盐水,C组H用量为200 mg/kg,D、E组用药浓度依次为1.09 mg/kg、2.18 mg/kg,A、B、C组灌胃给药,D、E组腹腔注射给药.分别观察给药4周、8周后痫性发作次数、平均发作时间及发作级别的变化.结果 痫性发作方面,A组无痫性发作,B组大鼠痫性发作明显(P>0.05),C、D、E组大鼠痫性发作均有不同程度的减轻(P<0.05),E组大鼠痫性发作减轻最明显.结论 柴胡皂苷a能减轻难治性癫痫大鼠的痫性发作,有明显的抗癫痫作用.

  15. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity Regulates Brain Expression of P-Glycoprotein in the Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB activity on the seizure susceptibility, brain damage, and P-gp expression in kainic acid- (KA- induced seizure rats. Male SD rats were divided into saline control group (NS group, KA induced epilepsy group (EP group, and epilepsy group intervened with NF-κB inhibitor-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate salt (PDTC group or with dexamethasone (DEX group. No seizures were observed in the rats of NS group. Compared with NS group, increased P-gp expression and NF-κB activation in the rat brain of the EP group were observed after KA micro-injection. Both PDTC and DEX pre-treatment significantly increased the latency to grade III or V seizure onset compared to EP group but failed to show neuron-protective effect as the number of survival neurons didn't significantly differ from that in EP group. Furthermore, PDTC pre-treatment significantly decreased P-gp expression along with NF-κB activation in the hippocampus CA3 area and amygdala complex of rats compared with the EP group, implying that NF-κB activation involved in the seizure susceptibility and seizure induced brain P-gp over-expression. Additionally, DEX pre-treatment only decreased P-gp expression level without inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting NF-κB independent pathway may also participate in regulating seizure induced P-gp over-expression.

  16. Epileptic Encephalopathies in Adults and Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Kural

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic encephalopathies are motor-mental retardations or cognitive disorders secondary to epileptic seizures or epileptiform activities. Encephalopaties due to brain damage, medications, or systemic diseases are generally not in the scope of this definition, but they may rarely accompany the condition. Appropriate differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures as well as subclinical electroencephalographic discharges are crucial for management of seizures and epileptiform discharges and relative regression of cognitive deterioration in long-term followup. Proper antiepileptic drug, hormonal treatment, or i.v. immunoglobulin choice play major role in prognosis. In this paper, we evaluated the current treatment approaches by reviewing clinical electrophysiological characteristics of epileptic encephalopathies.

  17. A method for removing artefacts from continuous EEG recordings during functional electrical impedance tomography for the detection of epileptic seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a portable, non-invasive medical imaging method, which could be employed to image the seizure onset in subjects undergoing assessment prior to epilepsy surgery. Each image is obtained from impedance measurements conducted with imperceptible current at tens of kHz. For concurrent imaging with video electroencephalogram (EEG), the EIT introduces a substantial artefact into the EEG due to current switching at frequencies in the EEG band. We present here a method for its removal, so that EIT and the EEG could be acquired simultaneously. A low-pass analogue filter for EEG channels (−6 dB at 48 Hz) and a high-pass filter (−3 dB at 72 Hz) for EIT channels reduced the artefact from 2–3 mV to 50–300 µV, but still left a periodic artefact at about 3 Hz. This was reduced to less than 10 µV with a software filter, which subtracted an artefact template from the EEG raw traces. The EEG was made clinically acceptable at four times its acquisition speed. This method could enable EIT to become a technique for imaging on telemetry units alongside EEG, without interfering with routine EEG reporting

  18. A 1.83 μJ/Classification, 8-Channel, Patient-Specific Epileptic Seizure Classification SoC Using a Non-Linear Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Altaf, Muhammad Awais; Yoo, Jerald

    2016-02-01

    A non-linear support vector machine (NLSVM) seizure classification SoC with 8-channel EEG data acquisition and storage for epileptic patients is presented. The proposed SoC is the first work in literature that integrates a feature extraction (FE) engine, patient specific hardware-efficient NLSVM classification engine, 96 KB SRAM for EEG data storage and low-noise, high dynamic range readout circuits. To achieve on-chip integration of the NLSVM classification engine with minimum area and energy consumption, the FE engine utilizes time division multiplexing (TDM)-BPF architecture. The implemented log-linear Gaussian basis function (LL-GBF) NLSVM classifier exploits the linearization to achieve energy consumption of 0.39 μ J/operation and reduces the area by 28.2% compared to conventional GBF implementation. The readout circuits incorporate a chopper-stabilized DC servo loop to minimize the noise level elevation and achieve noise RTI of 0.81 μ Vrms for 0.5-100 Hz bandwidth with an NEF of 4.0. The 5 × 5 mm (2) SoC is implemented in a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process consuming 1.83 μ J/classification for 8-channel operation. SoC verification has been done with the Children's Hospital Boston-MIT EEG database, as well as with a specific rapid eye-blink pattern detection test, which results in an average detection rate, average false alarm rate and latency of 95.1%, 0.94% (0.27 false alarms/hour) and 2 s, respectively. PMID:25700471

  19. Overexpression of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I leads to susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizure in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter,and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters.With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1),the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.Though displaying no spontaneous seizure activity,these mice exhibit altered electroencephalographic patterns and increased susceptibility to seizure induced by kainic acid.In addition,the GABAA receptor and glutamate transporters are up-regulated in transgenic mice,which perhaps reflects a compensatory or corrective change to the elevated level of GAT1.These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission,and seizure susceptibility can be altered by neurotransmitter transporters.

  20. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  1. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  2. Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTague, Amy; Cross, J Helen

    2013-03-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy is defined as a condition where the epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment seen, over and above that which would be expected from the underlying pathology alone. The epilepsy syndromes at high risk of this are a disparate group of conditions characterized by epileptic seizures that are difficult to treat and developmental delay. In this review, we discuss the ongoing debate regarding the significance of inter-ictal discharges and the impact of the seizures themselves on the cognitive delay or regression that is a common feature of these syndromes. The syndromes also differ in many ways and we provide a summary of the key features of the early-onset epileptic encephalopathies including Ohtahara and West syndromes in addition to later childhood-onset syndromes such as Lennox Gastaut and Doose syndromes. An understanding of the various severe epilepsy syndromes is vital to understanding the rationale for treatment. For example, the resolution of hypsarrhythmia in West syndrome is associated with an improvement in cognitive outcome and drives treatment choice, but the same cannot be applied to frequent inter-ictal discharges in Lennox Gastaut syndrome. We discuss the evidence base for treatment where it is available and describe current practice where it is not. For example, in West syndrome there is some evidence for preference of hormonal treatments over vigabatrin, although the choice and duration of hormonal treatment remains unclear. We describe the use of conventional and newer anti-epileptic medications in the various syndromes and discuss which medications should be avoided. Older possibly forgotten treatments such as sulthiame and potassium bromide also have a role in the severe epilepsies of childhood. We discuss hormonal treatment with particular focus on the treatment of West syndrome, continuous spike wave in slow wave sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus in slow wave

  3. Current understanding and neurobiology of epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvin, Stéphane; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2016-08-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a group of diseases in which epileptic activity itself contributes to severe cognitive and behavioral impairments above and beyond what might be expected from the underlying pathology alone. These impairments can worsen over time. This concept has been continually redefined since its introduction. A few syndromes are considered epileptic encephalopathies: early myoclonic encephalopathy and Ohtahara syndrome in the neonatal period, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, West syndrome or infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome during infancy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-and-waves during sleep, and Landau-Kleffner syndrome during childhood. The inappropriate use of this term to refer to all severe epilepsy syndromes with intractable seizures and severe cognitive dysfunction has led to confusion regarding the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we review our current understanding of those epilepsy syndromes considered to be epileptic encephalopathies. Genetic studies have provided a better knowledge of neonatal and infantile epilepsy syndromes, while neuroimaging studies have shed light on the underlying causes of childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Apart from infantile spasm models, we lack animal models to explain the neurobiological mechanisms at work in these conditions. Experimental studies suggest that neuroinflammation may be a common neurobiological pathway that contributes to seizure refractoriness and cognitive involvement in the developing brain. PMID:26992889

  4. Epileptic seizures and EEG features in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus Crises epilépticas e características do EEG em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Carreiro Vieira-Karuta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus is more incident in female affecting different systems including the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to check the incidence of seizures and electroencephalographic features in these patients. METHOD: It was analyzed all patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus referred to the Pequeno Príncipe Hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, in the year of 2007. The patients were submitted to EEG and subdivided into two groups according to the presence or absence of epileptic seizures. Mann-Whitney statistical test was used. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases were included, there were 73.45% female, with an age between 3 and 28 years (µ=17.00 years; s=5.01 years. Seizures (13/26.50% were the most frequent manifestation followed by headache (13/26.50% and ischemic stroke (6/12.25%. Cerebral vasculites were the most frequent alteration in neuroimage. The abnormalities of EEG were characterized by asymmetry of the electric cerebral activity, diffuse disorganized background activity, focal epileptiform discharges in the right central-temporal region, generalized paroxysmal of 3 Hz spike-waves, and bursts of theta-delta slowness activity in the right parietal-occiptal region. The statistic analysis showed no significantly difference between age of onset of symptoms and the risk of seizures (p 0.675 as well as between time of the disease and the risk of seizures (p 0.436. CONCLUSION: Neurologic manifestations, in special epileptic seizures, are frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Age of onset of symptoms and the time of disease did not increase the risk of epileptic seizures in this disease.INTRODUÇÃO: Lupus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil é doença mais freqüente no sexo feminino afetando múltiplos sistemas, incluindo o sistema nervoso central. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a incidência de crises epilépticas e de alterações eletrencefalográficas nestes pacientes. M

  5. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  6. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  7. Current issues on epileptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, J

    2000-05-01

    Issues linked to epileptic women are being reviewed. Ovarian steroid hormones have a number of effects on the brain that predispose to epileptic activity. In particular, estradiol produces changes in the hippocampus synapses predisposing hyperexcitability associated with seizures. Also, menses and menopause periods, in which there are changing levels of steroid ovarian hormones, are associated with a particular appearing of seizures (catamenial epilepsy) and with phenotypic changes of previous ones. Epilepsy can affect the reproductive system, inducing endocrinal abnormalities (through disruption of cortical regulation of hypothalamus hormone release, and changes in the central nervous system concentration of steroid hormones induced by antiepileptics), infertility (linked to abnormalities in menstrual cycle or to the occurrence of polycytic ovaries, particularly in association with valproate treatment), and sexual disfunction (namely related to physiologic defects). Oral hormonal contraceptives should be performed using a pill with > 50mg of estrogen in order to prevent its potential loss of efficacy induced by enzyme-inducing antiepileptics. Concerning pregnancy, some topics should be discussed with, and advised to epileptic women, including: the possibility of withdrawal antiepileptics and the need of folic acid supplementation when planning a pregnancy; the risk of increased seizure frequency during pregnancy, and of the occurrence of obstetric complications; the increased risk of teratogenesis associated with antiepileptic therapy (mainly if in polytherapy); the need of vitamin K supplementation during the last month of pregnancy in order to avoid newborn haemorrhages; and the general absence of risk of breastfeeding even under sustained antiepileptic therapy. PMID:10828312

  8. Cell signaling underlying epileptic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri eBozzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a complex disease, characterized by the repeated occurrence of bursts of electrical activity (seizures in specific brain areas. The behavioral outcome of seizure events strongly depends on the brain regions that are affected by overactivity. Here we review the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the generation of seizures in epileptogenic areas. Pathways activated by modulatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, involving the activation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs and the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs will be first discussed in relation to the occurrence of acute seizure events. Activation of immediate early genes has been proposed to lead to long-term molecular and behavioral responses induced by acute seizures. We also review deleterious consequences of seizure activity, focusing on the contribution of apoptosis-associated signaling pathways to the progression of the disease. A deep understanding of signaling pathways involved in both acute and long-term responses to seizures continues to be crucial to unravel the origins of epileptic behaviors and ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for the cure of epilepsy.

  9. Ohtahara syndrome: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DEFINITION Ohtahara syndrome (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression bursts, is the earliest developing form of epileptic encephalopathy. ETHIOLOGY It considered to be a result of static structural developing brain damage. CLINICAL PICTURE Variable seizures develop mostly within the first 10 days of life, but may occur during the first hour after delivery. The most frequently observed seizure type are epileptic spasms, which may be either generalized and symmetrical or lateralized. The tonic spasms may occur in clusters or singly, while awake and during sleep alike. The duration of spasms is up to 10 seconds, and the interval between spasms within cluster ranges from 9 to 15 seconds. In one third of cases, other seizure types include partial motor seizures or hemiconvulsions The disorder takes a progressively deteriorating course with increasing frequency of seizures and severe retardation of psychomotor development. DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP In the initial stage of Ohtahara syndrome, interictal EEG shows a pattern of suppression-burst with high-voltage paroxysmal discharges separated by prolonged periods of nearly flat tracing that last for up to 18 seconds. PROGNOSIS AND THREATMENT Half of the reported children having Ohtahara syndrome die in infancy. Anticonvulsant helps little in controlling the seizures and halting the deterioration of psychomotor development. Severe psychomotor retardation is the rule. With time, the disorder may evolve into West syndrome or partial epilepsy. Psychomotor development may be slightly better if the infants do not develop West and later Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  10. 黄竹定痫胶囊对癫痫模型大鼠癫痫发作的影响%Influence of Huangzhu Dingxian Capsules on Epileptic Seizure of Epilepsy Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 范文涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of Huangzhu Dingxian capsules on epileptic seizure of amyl tetrazolium ( PTZ ) -induced epilepsy rats, and to discuss its antiepileptic mechanism. Methods: The high-dose group was given Huangzhu Dingxian capsules 6 mL,3 times/day, and the small-dose group given Huangzhu Dingxian capsules 2 mL,3 times/day, continuously for 28 d. Valproic acid sodium group was given valproic acid sodium 400 mg/kg,3 times/day, continuously for 28 d. Normal control group and model control group were given physiological saline,3 times/d, 1 mL/time, continuously for 28 d. The body weight, seizure level and duration of change were observed. Results : The weight gain and seizure level were reduced, and the attack last time was shortened. It showed that Huangzhu Dingxian capsules had good resistance to epilepsy action. The high-dose group and the small-dose group had significant differences in antiepileptic effect and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Huangzhu Dingxian-oapsules could significantly inhibit PTZ-induced epilepsy.%目的:研究黄竹定痫胶囊对戊四唑(PTZ)点燃型癫痫大鼠癫痫发作的影响,探讨黄竹定痫胶囊抗癫痫作用机理.方法:大剂量组灌服黄竹定痫胶囊6mL,3次/d;小剂量组灌服黄竹定痫胶囊2mL,3次/d;持续28 d.丙戊酸钠组灌服丙戊酸钠400 mg/kg,3次/d,连续28 d.正常对照组、模型对照组连续28 d灌服生理盐水,3次/d,1mL/次,持续28 d.观察癫痫大鼠体重、惊厥发作级别及持续时间的变化.结果:PTZ点燃癫痫大鼠体重增加,惊厥发作级别降低,发作持续时间缩短.表明黄竹定痫胶囊具有良好的抗癫痫作用:而中药大剂量组与小剂量组比较有显著性差异,表明黄竹定痫胶囊抗癫痫的作用与剂量成正相关.结论:黄竹定痫胶囊能显著抑制大鼠戊四唑点燃发作.

  11. Value of video-electroencephalography for the diagnosis of children with non-epileptic seizures%视频脑电图在小儿非癫痫发作诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邵军

    2013-01-01

    Objeaive To study the value ofvideo-electroencephalography(VEEG) for the diagnosis of children with non-epileptic seizures (NES).Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out in 280 patients with NES diagnosed by VEEG surveillance.All the patients underwent routine electroencephalography (EEG),VEEG,CT and MRI examination.Results Routine EEG was normal in 183 cases,and abnormal in 97 cases.VEEG recording was normal in 207 cases(73.9%,207/280),and abnormal in 73 cases(26.1%,73/280).The somatic NES was in 210 cases (75.0%,210/280),and psychogenic NES was in 70 cases (25.0%,70/280).NES combined with epilepsy were in 22 cases,MRI found 20 cases (90.9%,20/22) and head CT found 14 cases (63.6%,14/22).In the combined diagnosis,MRI was higher than CT in detecting focus (P < 0.05).Conclusions VEEG is the important means of diagnosing children with NES,which is also important to differentiate with epilepsy.Combined with cranial imaging studies,it improves the identification of abnormal discharge and epilepsy,and further reveals the structural features of the epileptic discharge lesions is an important qualitative means of epilepsy etiological diagnosis.%目的 探讨视频脑电图(VEEG)在小儿非癫痫发作(NES)诊断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析280例NES患儿的临床资料,所有患儿均进行常规脑电图(EEG)、VEEG、头颅CT和MRI检查. 结果 常规EEG上发作期见到正常脑电波183例,异常脑电波97例;VEEG正常207例(73.9%,207/280),异常73例(26.1%,73/280).躯体性NES患儿210例(75.0%,210/280),心因性NES患儿70例(25.0%,70/280),NES合并癫痫者22例,其中MR[检查发现病灶20例(90.9%,20/22),头颅CT检查发现病灶14例(63.6%,14/22),对于合并性诊断,MR[的病灶检出率高于CT,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 VEEG是诊断儿童NES的重要手段,同时也是与癫痫发作进行鉴别的有效客观检查方法.结合头颅影像学检查更能进一步提高与癫痫异常

  12. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced...

  13. Transient epileptic amnesia: clinical report of a cohort of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Quaranta, Davide; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia is a seizure disorder, usually with onset in the middle-elderly and good response to low dosages of antiepileptic drugs. We describe the clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and neuroimaging features of 11 patients with a temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by amnesic seizures as the sole or the main symptom. We outline the relevance of a detailed clinical history to recognize amnesic seizures and to avoid the more frequent misdiagnoses. Moreover, the response to monotherapy was usually good, although the epileptic disorder was symptomatic of acquired lesions in the majority of patients.

  14. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  15. Glycolysis in energy metabolism during seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Yang; Jiongxing Wu; Ren Guo; Yufen Peng; Wen Zheng; Ding Liu; Zhi Song

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that glycolysis increases during seizures, and that the glycolytic metabolite lactic acid can be used as an energy source. However, how lactic acid provides energy for seizures and how it can participate in the termination of seizures remains unclear. We reviewed possible mechanisms of glycolysis involved in seizure onset. Results showed that lactic acid was involved in seizure onset and provided energy at early stages. As seizures progress, lactic acid reduces the pH of tissue and induces metabolic acidosis, which terminates the seizure. The specific mechanism of lactic acid-induced acidosis involves several aspects, which include lactic acid-induced inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme 6-diphosphate kinase-1, inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, activation of the acid-sensitive 1A ion channel, strengthening of the receptive mechanism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, and changes in the intra- and extracellular environment.

  16. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukimath, S P; Patil, P S

    2015-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393

  17. [Epileptic seizures complicated by Takotsubo syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garea Garcia-Malvar, M J; Gonzalez-Silva, Y; Epureanu-Epureanu, V

    2014-11-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de takotsubo es un trastorno caracterizado por disfuncion ventricular reversible, dolor precordial de tipo anginoso y cambios electrocardiograficos sin evidencia de obstruccion coronaria en coronariografia. Se desencadena por estres, y es frecuente tras crisis epilepticas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente que inicia esta miocardiopatia tras una crisis epileptica al finalizar su sesion de hemodialisis. Caso clinico. Mujer de 55 años en hemodialisis por insuficiencia renal cronica, con epilepsia secundaria a lesion residual frontoparietal derecha por un hematoma que preciso evacuacion quirurgica. Tras una sesion de hemodialisis experimenta una crisis epileptica focal con generalizacion secundaria y, horas despues de esta, dolor centrotoracico. En seriacion enzimatica se objetiva elevacion de troponina I y, electrocardiograficamente, ondas T negativas en derivaciones precordiales (V2-V6). Se realiza coronariografia, cuyo resultado es normal, y se demuestran alteraciones de la contractilidad, confirmadas como de caracter transitorio en un estudio ecocardiografico seriado. Todos los datos anteriores hacen sospechar el diagnostico de sindrome de takotsubo. Conclusion. Las complicaciones cardiacas son una de las causas de morbimortalidad en la epilepsia, y entre ellas se encuentra el sindrome de takotsubo. La incidencia real de dicho sindrome se desconoce, pero dada su implicacion en la mortalidad de causa cardiaca en la epilepsia es importante sospecharlo ante la presencia de disfuncion cardiaca tras una crisis epileptica.

  18. Increased excitability and metabolism in pilocarpine induced epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Paul, Jes; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-09-01

    We have evaluated the acetylcholine esterase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the muscle, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin and T3 content in the serum of epileptic rats. Acetylcholine esterase and malate dehydrogenase activity increased in the muscle and decreased in the heart of the epileptic rats compared to control. Insulin and T3 content were increased significantly in the serum of the epileptic rats. Our results suggest that repetitive seizures resulted in increased metabolism and excitability in epileptic rats. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment prevents the occurrence of seizures there by reducing the impairment on peripheral nervous system.

  19. On the Centrality of the Focus in Human Epileptic Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, Christian; Elger, Christian E; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for specific cortical and subcortical large-scale human epileptic networks to be involved in the generation, spread, and termination of not only primary generalized but also focal onset seizures. The complex dynamics of such networks has been studied with methods of analysis from graph theory. In addition to investigating network-specific characteristics, recent studies aim to determine the functional role of single nodes---such as the epileptic focus---in epileptic brain networks and their relationship to ictogenesis. Utilizing the concept of betweenness centrality to assess the importance of network nodes, previous studies reported the epileptic focus to be of highest importance prior to seizures, which would support the notion of a network hub that facilitates seizure activity. We performed a time-resolved analysis of various aspects of node importance in epileptic brain networks derived from long-term, multi-channel, intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from an epil...

  20. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, S.; Zschocke, J.; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T.; Klepper, J; Müller, A.; Heep, A; Bartmann, P.; Franz, A R

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  1. The functional organization of human epileptic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Petr; Duque, Juliano J; Brinkmann, Ben; Van Gompel, Jamie; Stead, Matt; St Louis, Erik K; Halamek, Josef; Jurak, Pavel; Worrell, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    The function and connectivity of human brain is disrupted in epilepsy. We previously reported that the region of epileptic brain generating focal seizures, i.e., the seizure onset zone (SOZ), is functionally isolated from surrounding brain regions in focal neocortical epilepsy. The modulatory effect of behavioral state on the spatial and spectral scales over which the reduced functional connectivity occurs, however, is unclear. Here we use simultaneous sleep staging from scalp EEG with intracranial EEG recordings from medial temporal lobe to investigate how behavioral state modulates the spatial and spectral scales of local field potential synchrony in focal epileptic hippocampus. The local field spectral power and linear correlation between adjacent electrodes provide measures of neuronal population synchrony at different spatial scales, ∼1 and 10 mm, respectively. Our results show increased connectivity inside the SOZ and low connectivity between electrodes in SOZ and outside the SOZ. During slow-wave sleep, we observed decreased connectivity for ripple and fast ripple frequency bands within the SOZ at the 10 mm spatial scale, while the local synchrony remained high at the 1 mm spatial scale. Further study of these phenomena may prove useful for SOZ localization and help understand seizure generation, and the functional deficits seen in epileptic eloquent cortex. PMID:27030735

  2. NPY 通过小胶质细胞介导的神经免疫途径对大鼠癫痫发作行为学影响%The inhibiting effe ct of NPY on the epileptic seizures of rats by acting on microglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦军; 贾东召; 陈涛平; 吴永波; 常军英; 邢兆国; 张淑丽; 王道爱; 王彦志; 穆卫卢; 李炎

    2015-01-01

    seizure of rats by acting on microglia.Methods The primary cortex microglia of rats was cultured and purified, morphology of microglia were observed through immunocyto-chemistry staining, Primary cerebral cortical microglia of rats was divided into control group, LPS group, NPY+LPS group, NPY group and BIBP3226+NPY+LPS group.Microglia cells in control group were incubated with serum-free medium for 6 h;microglia cells in LPS group were incubated with serum-free medium including LPS( final concentration 100 ng/mL) for 6 h;microglia cells in NPY+LPS group were incubated with serum-free medium including NPY( final concentration 1μmol/L) for 0.5 h firstly, then continued the incubation for 6 h after adding LPS (final concentration 100 ng/mL);microglia cells in NPY group were incubated in serum-free medium including NPY ( final concentration 1 μmol/L ) for 6 h; microglia cells in BIBP3226+NPY+LPS group were incubated in serum-free medium including BIBP3226 ( final concentration 1 μmol/L ) which was NPY Y1 receptor blocking reagent for 0.5 h, then we incubated them for 0.5 h after adding NPY (final concentra-tion 1μmol/L) ,at last the cells were incubated for 6 h after adding LPS with the final concentration 100 ng/mL.20 adult SD rats were divided into control group,LPS group,NPY+LPS group and BIBP3226+NPY+LPS group,every group included five rats.The levels of epileptic seizure of rats in each group were observed after microglia conditioned mediums were injected re-spectively into ventricle of the adult rats.Behaviors of the rats in every group were observed, and epilepsy degree was evalua-ted based on Diehl’ s method.Results In 20 minutes, all the 5 rats in LSP group and BIBP3226+NPY+LPS group appeared severe epileptic seizure.There were 4 rats in NPY+LPS group appeared mild epileptic seizures in the same time.There was no rat appeared epileptic seizure in control group.The degrees of epileptic seizure of LPS group were significantly higher than that of the control group

  3. Prevalence of Migraine Headache in Epileptic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena Jabbehdari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which a physician might come across in his career life. On the other hand, migraine is common disorders in society chronic headache such as migraine in epileptic patients give ride to difficulties in seizure treatment due to altering the sleeping pattern and calmness disarrangement. Therefore, early diagnosis and suitable treatment in epileptic patients is definitely inevitable, and it will help in a more desirable patients' treatment. So we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of migraine in epileptic patients and relation between these two disorders. Number of 150 epileptic patients attended to neurology clinic of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital and Iranian Epilepsy Association between June 2010 to May 2011 were fulfilled the questionnaire, and the data has been assessed by SPSS software. In this study, we used MS-Q (migraine screening -questionnaire designed for early diagnosis of migraine in the general population. From all patients filling the questionnaire, the prevalence of migraine (with or without aura was as follows: 23 persons had criteria compatible with migraine with aura; 26 patients had migraine without aura. Migraine was more common in these patients: persons with academic degrees, women, patients who were used 2 antiepileptic drugs, and patients with high BMI. In this study, we showed that migraine in epileptic patients is more prevalent than the general population. Thus, early diagnosis and efficient treatment of migraine headache in these patients is mandatory. More studies are needed for evaluation of this issue.

  4. 红藻氨酸诱导癫痫发作大鼠脑内GLAST表达的动态研究%Expression of glutamate transporter GLAST in rat brains following kainic acid induced seizure activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓红; 黄远桂; 杨金升; 夏峰; 刘惠铃

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To observe expression of glutamate transporter GLAST in rat brains following KA induced seizure activity.Methods:GLAST expression in rat brains following KA injection was studied by immunocytochemistry staining with guinea pig anti-glutamate transporter GLAST polyclonal antibody. Results:GLAST-immunoreactive cells were found in both neurons and astroglia. After KA treatment,a rapid increase of GLAST-positive immunoreactive cells in cerebellum was observed which began at 30 min post-injection, reached a peak at 3 h and then a decrease trend was followed. The GLAST immunoreactivity in cerebellum was lower than that of controls by 12 h and returned to normal level by 72 h after KA injection. The GLAST-positive astrocytes in hippocampus region had a similar increase within 3~6 h following KA treatment and this change was prominent in CA3 .Conclusion:GLAST expression in rat brains following KA-induced seizure activity had a rapid and transient upregulation which may be a protective response of cells to injury, and this change would allow the scavenging of excess extracelluar glutamate and prevention of excitotoxicity. It could also have a significant role in controlling levels of excitability in limbic circuitry.%目的:观察红藻氨酸(kainic acid ,KA)诱导大鼠癫痫发作时脑内谷氨酸转运蛋白亚型GLAST表达的变化。方法:用豚鼠抗GLAST多克隆抗体及免疫细胞化学ABC法观察KA注射后不同时间脑内GLAST的表达。结果:KA注射后1 h,小脑分子层和蒲肯野氏细胞层的GLAST免疫反应强度开始增加,至3 h达高峰(P<0.01),随后呈下降趋势,12 h时低于发作前水平(P<0.05),72 h恢复正常。海马区表达的GLAST阳性星形胶质细胞于KA注射后3~6 h内亦有相应的升高,以CA3区改变最明显(P<0.05)。结论:KA诱导大鼠癫痫发作时脑内GLAST的表达早期呈现快速上调,其机理可能是细胞对损伤的一种保护性反应,有

  5. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility.

  6. Seizures after stroke : a prospective clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanuka A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of epilepsy in elderly. However, there have been very few prospective studies to define the incidence, pattern and outcome of seizures in stroke. Most studies are based on retrospective analysis of hospital records. Hence, we planned this prospective study to see the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of seizures in stroke and their outcome, from a north Indian tertiary care centre. Over a span of approximately 6 years, 269 consecutive patients with stroke were studied and followed up. Thirty-five (13% of these developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, during mean follow up period of 15.9 months. Twenty of these had infarctions while 15 had haemorrhages. Involvement of the cortical region was seen in most of the patients with seizures. In these patients, 86% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas on CT scan of the brain. Twenty-seven (77% developed early seizures, two third of them had immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients with early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 50% of late onset seizures developed epilepsy. No specific EEG pattern was found in those who later developed epilepsy. In the present study, early onset seizures after stroke were rather common and did not affect outcome and did not recur even when not treated with anti-epileptics. Late onset seizures were less common but were associated with recurrent seizures.

  7. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.; Buckmaster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristi...

  8. Low-frequency hippocampal stimulation increases the extracellular γ-aminobutyrate level in the brain, inhibits the epileptic seizures and after discharges of the amygdala in pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epileptic rats%低频海马电刺激增加耐药性颞叶癫痫大鼠脑细胞外液γ-氨基丁酸含量和抑制癫痫发作及杏仁核后放电

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国锋; 刘晓英; 洪震; 唐太峰

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立多药耐药性颞叶癫痫模型,以杏仁核后放电频率、癫痫发作频率、海马细胞外液γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)浓度为指标,观察海马电刺激治疗耐药性颞叶癫痫的疗效及可能机制.方法 选用Wistar大鼠120只,制作慢性杏仁核点燃癫痫模型,模型制作成功后,应用经典抗癫痫药苯妥英钠和苯巴比妥进行筛选,根据癫痫大鼠对药物的反应区别出耐药性癫痫大鼠及药物敏感大鼠,将耐药性癫痫大鼠分为耐药对照组(n=8)及海马刺激组(n=8),对耐药性癫痫大鼠进行低频海马电刺激,用微透析方法收集脑组织细胞外液,采用高效液相色谱法检测海马电刺激后GABA含量的变化.结果 海马刺激组经过2周的低频电刺激后,癫痫发作受到明显抑制,杏仁核后放电频率及波幅降低,8:00-9:00 am和8:00-9:00 pm 2个时段的GABA浓度(μg/ml)分别为32.69±7.80、35.76±6.27,2个时段的GABA浓度(μg/ml)都明显高于耐药对照组(26.58±6.87,t=-21.45,P=0.000;31.50 ±4.87,t=-15.74,P=0.000),差异具有统计学意义.结论 低频电刺激海马可以明显抑制点燃模型的癫痫发作,抑制耐药性颞叶癫痫模型的后放电,降低杏仁核后放电频率及波幅、缩短后放电持续时间,该作用可能是通过增加脑细胞外液GABA浓度而实现的.%Objective To establish a multi-drug resistant model of temporal lobe epilepsy and observe the effect of hippocampal stimulation on pharmacoresistant epileptic rats and its possible mechanism with the use of indexes including after discharges (AD) of the amygdalae,the stimulus-induced seizures and the extracellular levels of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA).Methods Totally,120 Wistar rats were used for the amygdaloid kindled model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of amygaloid basal lateral nucleus.Based on the successful kindled model of epilepsy,we selected the pharmacoresistant and pharmacosensitive epileptic rats according to their response to

  9. Automatic multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system for detection of motor seizures from electromyographic data and motion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to develop a non-invasive automatic method for detection of epileptic seizures with motor manifestations. Ten healthy subjects who simulated seizures and one patient participated in the study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and motion sensor features were extracted as energy...

  10. [The role of the nurse in the patient education of young epileptic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danse, Marion; Goujon, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    An epileptic seizure in a child is a major source of anxiety and turns the family's everyday life upside down. Through therapeutic education, the nurse guides the families towards the autonomous management of the seizures, antiepileptic treatments, adaptations to daily life and potential comorbidities. PMID:26100481

  11. The role of antiepileptic drugs in free radicals generation and antioxidant levels in epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Elshebiny, Hosam Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Abdel-Azim; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki

    2016-01-01

    Many risk factors are encountered during the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, the effect of seizure frequency on free radical generation and antioxidants levels in epileptic patients was evaluated. This study was carried out on 15 healthy controls (GI) and 60 epileptic patients treated with mono- or poly-therapy of carbamazepine, valproic acid, or phenytoin. The treated epileptic patients were divided into 2 main groups according to the seizure frequency: controlled seizure patients GII (n = 30) and uncontrolled seizure patients GIII (n = 30). GII included the GIIA subgroup (n = 15) which had been seizure free for more than 12 months and the GIIB subgroup (n = 15) which had been seizure free for a period from 6 to12 months. GIII included GIIIA (n = 15) and GIIIB (n = 15) for patients which had a seizure frequency of less than and more than four times/month, respectively. In comparison to the control group (GI), the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde/creatinine ratio were significantly increased in GIIB, GIIIA, and GIIIB, while vitamins A and E levels were significantly decreased in GIIIB. Serum NO levels had significant negative correlations with serum vitamin E in the GIIA and GIIB groups, and with vitamin A in the GIIIA and GIIIB groups. However, serum NO had positive correlation with urinary MDA/Cr ratio. The imbalance between free radical generation and antioxidant system in epileptic patients may be a factor in seizure frequency.

  12. The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Genetic Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbarou, Rolla; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric epileptic encephalopathies represent a clinically challenging and often devastating group of disorders that affect children at different stages of infancy and childhood. With the advances in genetic testing and neuroimaging, the etiologies of these epileptic syndromes are now better defined. The various encephalopathies that are reviewed in this article include the following: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy or Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, West syndrome, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome), Landau-Kleffner syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep. Their clinical features, prognosis as well as underlying genetic etiologies are presented and updated. PMID:27544470

  13. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  14. The role of local field potential coupling in epileptic synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiongxing Wu; Heng Yang; Yufeng Peng; Liangjuan Fang; Wen Zheng; Zhi Song

    2013-01-01

    This review hopes to clearly explain the following viewpoints: (1) Neuronal synchronization underlies brain functioning, and it seems possible that blocking excessive synchronization in an epileptic neural network could reduce or even control seizures. (2) Local field potential coupling is a very common phenomenon during synchr in networks. Removal of neurons or neuronal networks that are coupled can significantly alter the extracellular field potential. Interventions of coupling mediated by local field potentials could result in desynchronization of epileptic seizures. (3) The synchronized electrical activity generated by neurons is sensitive to changes in the size of the extracellular space, which affects the efficiency of field potential transmission and the threshold of cell excitability. (4) Manipulations of the field potential fluctuations could help block synchronization at seizure onset.

  15. Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Khan, Shariq Ali; Agrawal, Abhishek; Allan H Friedman; McDonagh, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these p...

  16. Crisis epilépticas generalizadas asociadas a intoxicación pasiva por cocaína en un lactante Generalized epileptic seizures in an infant due to passive exposure to cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aguilera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Las crisis convulsivas sin fiebre en lactantes implican un diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Caso clínico. Lactante mujer de 7 meses que presenta, estando afebril, dos crisis generalizadas tónico-clónicas breves en 23 horas. Su desarrollo psicomotor y estaturo-ponderal seguía un curso normal. Se obtuvo analítica de sangre, ecografía cerebral y electroencefalograma, normales. Debido a una situación sociofamiliar desfavorable, se realizaron tóxicos en orina, positivos para cocaína en dos muestras sucesivas; se negativizaron en 48 horas. Estuvo en contacto con humo ambiental horas previas al inicio de las crisis. Sin crisis en los siguientes 6 meses, con desarrollo normal, sigue bajo vigilancia por asistencia social. Discusión. La inhalación pasiva de humo de cocaína se asocia a crisis convulsivas en lactantes. Este riesgo es casi desconocido en nuestro país, a pesar del aumento del consumo de crack. Ante una primera crisis epiléptica afebril en cualquier edad, se debe incluir de forma rutinaria la detección de tóxicos en orina.Background. The differential diagnosis of afebrile seizures in the first year of life is extensive. Case report. A 7-month old infant presented two afebrile generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 23 hours; her psychomotor and growth development followed a normal course. Laboratory analysis, cerebral echography and electroencephalogram were normal. Urine toxicology was positive for cocaine on two occasions. A negative urine sample was obtained 48 hours later. The parents denied drug abuse but explained a recent exposure to smoke some hours before the episode. The patient had no seizures in the following six months, with normal psychomotor development. Discussion. Passive inhalation of cocaine is associated with seizures in infants. There is no perception of the risk of passive exposure to cocaine in our country, despite the increasing consumption of crack in young adults. Urine toxicology should be

  17. Music and its association with epileptic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and epileptic seizures is complex and intriguing. Musical processing within the human brain recruits a network which involves many cortical areas that could activate as part of a temporal lobe seizure or become hyperexcitable on musical exposure as in the case of musicogenic epilepsy. The dichotomous effect of music on seizures may be explained by modification of dopaminergic circuitry or counteractive cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis. Research has explored the utility of music as a therapy in epilepsy and while limited studies show some evidence of an effect on seizure activity; further work is required to ascertain its clinical potential. Sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs, e.g., carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, appear to effect pitch perception particularly in native-born Japanese, a rare but important adverse effect, particularly if a professional musician. Temporal lobe surgery for right lateralizing epilepsy has the capacity to effect all facets of musical processing, although risk and correlation to resection area need further research. There is a need for the development of investigative tools of musical processing that could be utilized along the surgical pathway. Similarly, work is also required in devising a musical paradigm as part of electroencephalography to improve surveillance of musicogenic seizures. These clinical applications could aid the management of epilepsy and preservation of musical ability. PMID:25725912

  18. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  19. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was based...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  20. Electroencephalographic characterization of seizure activity in the synapsin I/II double knockout mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etholm, Lars; Lindén, Henrik; Eken, Torsten;

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the behavioral and electrophysiological development of seizure activity in mice genetically depleted of synapsin I and synapsin II (SynDKO mice), based on combined video and surface EEG recordings. SynDKO mice develop handling-induced epileptic seizures...... countable, the number of myoclonic jerks was significantly correlated to the number of such EEG complexes. Furthermore, some EEG recordings revealed epileptic regular discharges without clear behavioral seizure correlates. Our findings suggest that seizure behavior in SynDKO mice is not solely determined...

  1. Influence of normal versus slow antiepileptic drugs withdrawal on seizure recurrence in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of normal and slow antiepileptic drugs(AEDs) withdrawal on recurrence of epilepsy. Methods Epileptic patients with seizure-free more than 2 years were recruited to the study. They were first divided into normal

  2. OUTCOME AND TRANSFORMATION OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN CHILDREN (DATA OF SVT. LUKA'S INSTITUTE OF CHILD NEUROLOGY & EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to definition, febrile seizures — benign, age-dependent, genetically predisposed condition in which the brain is susceptible to epileptic seizures, occurring in response to the fever. The article presents the outcome and trans­formation of febrile seizures in children by data of Svt. Luka's Institute of child neurology & epilepsy. The authors found, thatfebrile seizures can occur at onset of 21 epileptic syndromes with different etiologic factors and outcome. The clini­cal characteristics, EEG and neuroimaging data, as well as the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs and prognosis of dif­ferentforms of epilepsy with febrile seizures in history are described in detail.  

  3. Dopey's seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

  4. Advances in management of neonatal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Mathur, Amit M

    2014-06-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants, continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  5. Oxidative Status in Epileptic Children Using Carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tutanc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing attention towards the relationship between oxidative stress and epilepsy. The effect of antiepileptic drugs on oxidant status is of major interest. Antiepileptic drugs can increase levels of free radicals, which consequently might lead to seizures. Carbamazepine (CBZ is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: Therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of CBZ on total antioxidant status, total oxidant stress, and oxidative stress index. Patients and Methods: The study included 40 epileptic patients and 31 healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age. Serum CBZ level, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status were measured. Oxidative stress index was also calculated both in controls and patients. Results: In the epileptic group, decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity, increased total oxidative stress and oxidative stress index levels were found. Positive correlation between plasma CBZ levels and total oxidant status was observed. Conclusions: Antioxidant action could not be playing any role in antiepileptic effect of CBZ. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress induced by CBZ could be the cause of CBZ-induced seizures. Therefore combining CBZ with antioxidants could be beneficial.

  6. Analysis of Epileptic Discharges from Implanted Subdural Electrodes in Patients with Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Iimura

    Full Text Available Almost two-thirds of patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS have epilepsy, and half of them require surgery for it. However, it is well known that scalp electroencephalography (EEG does not demonstrate unequivocal epileptic discharges in patients with SWS. Therefore, we analyzed interictal and ictal discharges from intracranial subdural EEG recordings in patients treated surgically for SWS to elucidate epileptogenicity in this disorder.Five intractable epileptic patients with SWS who were implanted with subdural electrodes for presurgical evaluation were enrolled in this study. We examined the following seizure parameters: seizure onset zone (SOZ, propagation speed of seizure discharges, and seizure duration by visual inspection. Additionally, power spectrogram analysis on some frequency bands at SOZ was performed from 60 s before the visually detected seizure onset using the EEG Complex Demodulation Method (CDM.We obtained 21 seizures from five patients for evaluation, and all seizures initiated from the cortex under the leptomeningeal angioma. Most of the patients presented with motionless staring and respiratory distress as seizure symptoms. The average seizure propagation speed and duration were 3.1 ± 3.6 cm/min and 19.4 ± 33.6 min, respectively. Significant power spectrogram changes at the SOZ were detected at 10-30 Hz from 15 s before seizure onset, and at 30-80 Hz from 5 s before seizure onset.In patients with SWS, seizures initiate from the cortex under the leptomeningeal angioma, and seizure propagation is slow and persists for a longer period. CDM indicated beta to low gamma-ranged seizure discharges starting from shortly before the visually detected seizure onset. Our ECoG findings indicate that ischemia is a principal mechanism underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis in SWS.

  7. Immunological findings in epileptic and febrile convulsion patients before and under treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, A; Verri, A P; Nespoli, L; Moglia, A; Botta, M G

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin levels of 86 epileptic patients have been evaluated in order to investigate the relationship between epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and humoral immunity. The results confirm a high incidence of immunological disorders in the epileptic and febrile convulsion patients. These abnormalities were not related to clinical type of epilepsy nor to the therapy; the common feature seems the early onset of seizures and antiepileptic treatment. PMID:6791931

  8. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli;

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain...... tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large...... fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis....

  9. Correlation between level of serum prolactin and epileptic discharges of electroencephalogram from 24 to 36 hours after epileptic onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Hu; Wanli Dong; Min Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Researchers discovered that serum prolactin could rise following an epileptic seizure. The prolactin level might reach three times more than basic level within 30 minutes and decrease to the normal value 2 hours after the seizure occurred. The mechanism might result in an increase of serum prolactin concentrations with the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.OBJ ECTIVE:To probe into the correlation between changes of serum prolactin and incidence of epileptic discharges of electroencephalogram (EEG) at 24-36 hours after epileptic onset of patients with secondary epilepsy.DESIGN: Clinical observational study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Hospital affiliated to Soochow University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 patients with secondary epilepsy were selected from the Department of Neurological Emergency or Hospital Room of the First Hospital affiliated to Soochow University from November 2005 to April 2006. There were 14 males and 7 females aged from 25 to 72 years. All patients met International League Anti-epileptic (ILAE) criteria in 1981 for secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure through CT or MRI and previous EEG. All patients were consent. Primary diseases included cerebral trauma (3 cases),tumor (2 cases), stroke (7 cases) and intracranial infeion (9 cases).METHODS: Venous blood of all patients was collected at 24-36 hours after epileptic onset. Serum prolactin kit (Beckman Coulter, Inc in USA) was used to measure value of serum prolactin according to kit instruction.Then, value of serum prolactin was compared with the normal value (male: 2.64-13.13 mg/L; female: 3.34-26.72 mg/L); meanwhile, EEG equipment (American Nicolet Incorporation) was used in this study.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Abnormal rate of serum prolactin of patients with secondary epilepsy; ②Comparison between normal and abnormal level of serum prolactin and incidence of EEG epileptic discharge of patients with secondary epilepsy.RESULTS :All 21 patients with

  10. Computed tomographic study in young epileptics in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases like neurocysticercosis and neurotuberculosis are endemic in Indian subcontinent and are important causes of epilepsy. Epileptic children are prone to have poor school performance, higher levels of anxiety and depression apart from low self esteem. These treatable condition could be easily picked up on neuroimaging like cranial computed tomography (CT scan and treated accordingly at an earliest. Objectives: To assess the role of cranial computed tomography scan in children having epilepsy. Material and Methods: Seventy two children between the age of 1 month and 14 years were prospectively enrolled, who had atleast two unprovoked seizures greater than 24 hours apart, and all those children where seizures result from acute central nervous system insult were meticulously excluded. Diagnosis of epilepsy was based on detailed history, thorough clinical examination, routine laboratory tests with additional specific tests like electroencephalogram (EEG and CT scan brain. Results: Males constituted 62.5% and females 37.5% of our sample (p=0.247. The EEG was abnormal in 68.1% of all subjects, among which EEG was abnormal in 69.8% of generalized seizures, 64.7% in partial seizures and 1% in undetermined seizures. The spectrum of various seizure types in our study was generalized seizures in 73.6%, partial seizures in 23.6% & undetermined seizures in 2.8%. The incidence of these lesions in hospitalized young epileptics was 31.9%, in order of their frequency, it was cerebral atrophy and dilated ventricle (18.8% each; calcifications (15.5%; encephalomalacia and pachygyria (9.4% each; HIE changes, tuberous sclerosis (6.3% each; leucodystrophy, thin corpus callosum, large cisterna magna, granuloma and periventricular leukomalacia (3.1% each. The intracranial structural lesions were present in 22.6% of generalized seizures, 64.7% of partial seizures, none of undetermined seizures (p=0.004. Conclusion: Abnormal cranial CT scan

  11. Recognition of Epileptic EEG Using Probabilistic Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Lie, Donald Yu-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that greatly impair patients' daily lives. A classifier for automated epileptic EEG detection and patient monitoring can be very important for epilepsy diagnosis and patients' quality of life, especially for rural areas and developing countries where medical resources are limited. This paper describes our development of an accurate and fast EEG classifier that can differentiate the EEG data of healthy people from that of epileptic patients, and also detect patients' status (i.e., interictal vs. ictal). We deployed Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and fed it with 38 features extracted from the EEG data. The resulting PNN EEG classifier achieves an impressive accuracy greater than 96 as indicated by cross-validation. This prototype classifier is therefore suitable for automated epilepsy detection/diagnosis and seizure monitoring. It may even facilitate seizure prediction.

  12. Complete remission of epileptic psychosis after temporal lobectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Renato Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female patient with refractory complex partial seizures since 15 years of age, recurrent postictal psychotic episodes since 35 which evolved to a chronic refractory interictal psychosis and MRI with right mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS. After a comprehensive investigation (video-EEG intensive monitoring, interictal and ictal SPECT, and a neuropsychological evaluation including WADA test she was submitted to a right temporal lobectomy. Since then, she has been seizure-free with remission of psychosis, although with some persistence of personality traits (hiperreligiosity, viscosity which had been present before surgery. This case supports the idea that temporal lobectomy can be a safe and effective therapeutic measure for patients with MTS, refractory epilepsy and recurrent postictal epileptic psychosis or interictal epileptic psychosis with postictal exacerbation.

  13. ROLE OF MRI IN EVALUATION OF SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avadhesh Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Seizure is a paroxysmal alteration in neurologic function resulting from abnormal excessive neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures unprovoked by an acute systemic or neurologic insult.1 An epileptic seizure is a clinical manifestation of abnormal, excessive neuronal activity arising in the grey matter of the cerebral cortex. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective studies of 100 patients with clinical impression of seizures were examined by 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. RESULT A total of 100 patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The age range of patients was from neonate to elderly with male predominance, male 64 (64% and female 36 (36%. GTCS was the most common clinical diagnosis constituting (80% cases. The common abnormalities were cerebral infarction with gliosis (16%, infections – NCC (7% and tuberculoma (10%, cerebral atrophy (1%, developmental cortical malformations (2%, venous thrombosis (4%, low-grade glioma (9%, meningioma (3%. CONCLUSION MRI is the investigation of choice in patients with seizure disorder. The sensitivity of MRI in detecting abnormalities in patients with seizure disorder is in part associated to the underlying pathologies and by the MRI techniques and experience of the interpreting physician. Accurate diagnosis of the cause of seizure is crucial for finding an effective treatment. With its high spatial resolution, excellent inherent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging capability and lack of ionizing radiation, MR imaging has emerged as a versatile tool in the evaluation of patients with seizure disorder.

  14. Dopey's seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

  15. Effect of the interictal spike and waves of epileptic seizure on theta oscillation in hippocampal CA1: A Gabor wavelet and Hilbert transform study%Gabor小波变换和希尔伯特变换研究海马区癫痫发作间期尖波对theta振荡能量特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国亚; 陈小刚; 周欣花; 李文文; 葛曼玲

    2011-01-01

    背景:Theta振荡是海马区神经活动具有代表性的特征,也是从更为微观领域研究癫痫与认知关系的重要切入点.目的:分析海马区癫痫发作间期尖波对Theta振荡能量特性的影响.方法:采用法国马赛地中海大学医学院提供的8只致痫大鼠和10例患者脑电数据,同时采集相应致痫大鼠在注射致痫药物无发作间期尖波出现时的脑电数据作对照.利用Gabor小波变换和希尔伯特变换分别提取Theta振荡在尖波作用前、后的能量,并将这两种方法提取Theta振荡能量的结果进行比较.结果与结论:癫痫组Theta能量动态特性:癫痫发作间期尖波削弱了Theta振荡能量,而在经历癫痫发作间期后的较长时间,Theta振荡能量得到恢复.推测脑默认网络的连接强度受到癫痫状态的影响,存在变弱的可能.而默认网络的减弱,是认知功能下降的一种病理基础.%BACKGROUND: Theta oscillation is a representative characteristic of neural activity in hippocampus and serves as the starting point for the study of epilepsy and cognition in micro-ways.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the interictal spike and waves of epileptic seizure on theta oscillation in hippocampal CA1.METHODS: The iEEG data of 8 epileptic rats and 10 patients from School of Medicine, Mediterranean University, Marseilles,France were collected, and their corresponding iEEG data without spike and waves as controls. Gabor wavelet and Hilbert transform were used for extraction of the power of theta oscillation before and after the spike waves. The outcomes of Gabor wavelet and Hilbert transform were compared.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Dynamic characteristics of theta power in epilepsy group: Epileptic interictal spike and waves weaken the theta oscillation power, but after a long period of spike and waves, theta oscillation power recovered. It is speculated that the brain's default network connection strength is affected by status epilepticus

  16. 心因性非癫痫性发作儿童个性特征与父母养育方式的相关性分析%Analysis of correlation between personality characteristics and parental rearing pattern in children with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查彩慧; 欧婉杏; 陈嘉慧; 汪玲华; 李志斌; 麦坚凝

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the correlation between personality characteristics and parental rearing pattern in children with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).[Methods]Forty-three consecutive patients with PNES and Forty-three matched patients were recruited from patients in our hospital between 2006 and 2009.The following questionnaires were used as outcome variables: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality characteristics, Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran(EMBU) for rearing pattern.Correlation analysis were carried out between them.[Results]On comparison with the control group, the present children with PNES showed higher TP and TN scores of EPQ (P<0.01).The subscale scores of EMBU were lower in emotional warmth and understanding (father) and higher in punishment and sternness (father), excessive interference (father), excessive interference and overprotection (mother), rejection and deny (father and mother) than that of control children (P<0.01).The level of psychoticism, extrovisio-introvision, neuroticism and lie was positively correlated with some factors of EMBU and it was negatively correlated with the other factors in children with PNES.[Conclusion]The dyfunctional rearing pattern from their parents should prevent child with PNES from forming favourable personality characteristics.%[目的]探讨心因性非癫痫性发作(psychogenic non-epileptic seizures,PNES)儿童个性特征与父母教养方式的相关性. [方法]采用艾森克个性问卷(Eysenck Peersonality Questionnaire,EPQ)、父母养育方式问卷(EgmaMinncn av Bardndosnauppforstran,EMBU)对43例PNES儿童和43名正常对照组儿童进行评估,并作相关分析. [结果]PNES儿童EPQ中TP、TN分量表得分明显高于对照组儿童,差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01);EMBU中父亲的情感温暖与理解因子得分低于对照组儿童,父亲的惩罚严厉因子、过分干涉因子、母亲的过分干涉与过度保护因子、父母亲的拒绝否

  17. 以癫痫发作为主的脑内海绵状血管畸形的手术治疗%Surgical Treatment of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Presenting Epileptic Seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 吴俊; 彭磊; 王硕; 桑林; 郑重; 解飞; 葛留锁; 马延山

    2014-01-01

      结论对于合并癫痫的海绵状血管畸形患者应早期进行手术。术中应完整切除海绵状血管畸形病灶(包括病灶周边的胶质瘢痕层和含铁血黄素层),同时行皮层热灼术。%Objective To provide effective surgical methods for patients with cavernous malformation complicated with epilepsy. Methods Twenty-seven patients with cavernous malformation complicated with epilepsy in our department were retrospectively analyzed. Simultaneously, we compared different epilepsy prognosis and other relevant factors between patients accepted total resection (including the gliotic and hemosiderin-stained brain tissue adjacent to the lesions) and patients accepted total resection combined with cortex thermocoagulation. Results ① Prognosis of patients treated with total resection combined with cortex thermocoagulation was much better than those who only accepted total resection (P=0.036). ②Prognosis of patients whose course of epilepsy is less than 1 year was much better than those whose course is more than 1 year (P=0.022).③There were no statistical signiifcances for epilepsy prognosis in sex, age, the lobe where the cavernous malformation located, different epilepsy seizures, whether preoperative application of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and postoperative Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS). Conclusion The analysis of outcome showed that patients with cavernous malformation complicated with epilepsy beneifted signiifcantly from early surgery. And at the same time, in order to achieve better effect from the surgery, total resection of cavernous malformation (including the gliotic hemosiderin-stained brain tissue adjacent to the lesions) must be adopted, and cortex thermocoagulation treatment should be applied.

  18. Immune-mediated steroid-responsive epileptic spasms and epileptic encephalopathy associated with VGKC-complex antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Jehan; Brenner, Tanja; Gill, Deepak; Troedson, Christopher; Sinclair, Adriane J; Brilot, Fabienne; Vincent, Angela; Lang, Bethan; Dale, Russell C

    2011-11-01

    Autoantibodies that bind to voltage-gated potassium-channel complex proteins (VGKC-complex antibodies) occur frequently in adults with limbic encephalitis presenting with cognitive impairment and seizures. Recently, VGKC-complex antibodies have been described in a few children with limbic encephalitis, and children with unexplained encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus. We report a case of infantile-onset epileptic spasms and developmental delay compatible with epileptic encephalopathy. Our patient was a female infant, aged 4 months at presentation. She had evidence of immune activation in the central nervous system with elevated cerebrospinal fluid neopterin and mirrored oligoclonal bands, which prompted testing for autoantibodies. VGKC-complex antibodies were elevated (201 pmol/L, normalVGKC-complex antibodies might represent a marker of immune therapy responsiveness in a subgroup of patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

  19. Similarities in Mechanisms and Treatments for Epileptic and Nonepileptic Myoclonus

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Mathews, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    Myoclonus is a disordered movement that may be an ictal phenomenon or may be due to various injuries in brain and spinal cord motor structures. Many epileptic and nonepileptic myoclonic conditions are associated with abnormalities in inhibitory neurotransmission. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-receptor antagonists may trigger myoclonus. Several antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) effective against myoclonic seizures [valproic acid (VPA), clonazepam (CZP), levetiracetam (LEV)] enhance GABAergic neur...

  20. Clinical features of Todd's post-epileptic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rolak, L A; Rutecki, P; Ashizawa, T; Harati, Y

    1992-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty nine patients with generalised tonic-clonic seizures were prospectively evaluated. Fourteen were identified who had transient focal neurological deficits thought to be Todd's post-epileptic paralysis (PEP). Eight of these 14 patients had underlying focal brain lesions associated with the postictal deficits. All patients with PEP were weak, but there was wide variation in the pattern (any combination of face, arm, leg), severity (plegia to mild), tone (spastic, flaccid, ...

  1. Effect of serotonin depletion on seizures learning-memory in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats%脑内5-羟色胺减少对致痫大鼠癫痫发作及学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓钗; 黄华品; 林婉挥; 陈圣根

    2012-01-01

    目的:于中脑正中中缝核局部微量注射5,7-二羟色胺(5,7-DHT),探讨5-羟色胺(5-HT)与癫痫的关系及匹罗卡品(PILO)致痫大鼠学习记忆改变的可能机制.方法:成年SD大鼠随机分为PILO组、PILO+5,7-DHT组、空白对照组三组,然后根据是否出现癫痫持续状态(SE)再将PILO组分成:PILO+ SE组和PILO-SE组两亚组;利用视频脑电图观察大鼠癫痫发作及皮层脑电变化;运用Morris水迷宫测评大鼠空间学习记忆水平;最后运用免疫组化法观察大鼠中缝核5-HT能神经元.结果:大鼠予以5,7-DHT( PILO+ 5,7- DHT组)处理后造模成功率、死亡率及慢性期自发性发作频率均增高;与空白组比较PILO+ SE组中缝核5-HT能神经元数目有所下降(P<0.05),而PILO+5,7-DHT组下降更明显(P<0.01);与空白组比较PILO+ SE组平均逃避潜伏期延长、穿越平台次数减少、原平台象限停留时间缩短(P<0.05),而与PILO+ SE组比较PILO+ 5,7-DHT组变化不明显.结论:脑内5-H水平的降低容易诱发癫痫发作,尚不能认为癫痫大鼠合并认知功能障碍与脑内5-HT水平下降有关.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between serotonin(5-HT)and epilepsy and the mechanism of learning-memory in pi-locaipine(PILO)-induced epileptic rats after5,7-dihydroxytryplamine (5,7-DHT) microinjection in median raphe nucleus. Methods: Adult S D rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: PIL0 group, PTL0 + 5,7-DHT group, vehicle control group; PIL0 group was divided into two groups by status epilepticus(SE): PIL0+ SE group and HL0-SE group. The rats' seizures and cortex electroencephalography(EEG) were observed by vedio EEC. The rats' spatial learning-memory was evaluated by Morris water maze. Finally, serotonergic neuron in raphe nuclei was observed by immunohistochemisty. Results: After treatment of 5,7-DHT (PIL0 + 5,7-DHT group), the success rate, the mortality and the frequency of chronic spontaneous seizures in pilocarpine

  2. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce eGreyson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. 55% of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients’ reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time.

  3. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Thyrion; R. Raedt; J. Portelli; P. van Loo; W.J. Wadman; G. Glorieux; B.N. Lambrecht; S. Janssens; K. Vonck; P. Boon

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  4. Is an epilepsy presurgical evaluation necessary for mid-grade and high-grade brain tumors presenting with seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Hajo M; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-12-01

    Patients with epilepsy caused by mid-grade and high-grade tumors do not usually undergo formal presurgical epilepsy evaluations before tumor resection. However, a minority of these patients may benefit significantly from just such a structured presurgical evaluation especially when seizure freedom or seizure reduction is a surgical aim in addition to total tumor resection. Typical cases comprise patients with multifocal tumors, tumors with bilateral extension, tumors over eloquent cortex, and the need for differentiation of spells of an uncertain nature, for example, epileptic versus psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. If they are epileptic, the definition of the epileptic lesion versus the epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex can be another reason for monitoring. In addition to noninvasive recordings, invasive studies that use subdural or depths electrodes can be of special importance in these patients, leading to an exact delineation of the epileptogenic zone, usually extending beyond the epileptic lesion, and allow safe differentiation of epileptic from eloquent cortex.

  5. Correlation Dimension Maps of EEG from Epileptic Absences

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, C; Andrade, A; Foreid, J P; Ducla-Soares, E

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The understanding of brain activity, and in particular events such as epileptic seizures, lies on the characterisation of the dynamics of the neural networks. The theory of non-linear dynamics provides signal analysis techniques which may give new information on the behaviour of such networks. Methods: We calculated correlation dimension maps for 19-channel EEG data from 3 patients with a total of 7 absence seizures. The signals were analysed before, during and after the seizures. Phase randomised surrogate data was used to test chaos. Results: In the seizures of two patients we could distinguish two dynamical regions on the cerebral cortex, one that seemed to exhibit chaos whereas the other seemed to exhibit noise. The pattern shown is essentially the same for seizures triggered by hyperventilation, but differ for seizures triggered by light flashes. The chaotic dynamics that one seems to observe is determined by a small number of variables and has low complexity. On the other hand, in the seizures ...

  6. Death from seizures induced by chronic alcohol abuse--does it exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S

    2007-01-01

    In a forensic setting, deaths due to seizures, either epileptic or other, present a well-known problem. Cause of death is rarely established on the basis of physical evidence, but on circumstantial evidence such as tongue biting or discharge of urine or faeces. Seizures have several different...

  7. Timing of temporal and frontal seizures in relation to the circadian phase : A prospective pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Wytske A.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; van der Palen, Job; van Regteren, Renate; Grootemarsink, Bertine E.; de Weerd, Al W.

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence that epileptic seizures occur in diurnal or 24-h patterns. A study in rat models of partial epilepsy showed circadian seizure patterns, and in humans circadian rhythmicity in interictal discharges has been found, suggesting that circadian rhythm may play a role in epilepsy.

  8. Electroencephalographic features of familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Hamamoto, Yuji; Ogawa, Fukie; Matsuki, Naoaki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujita, Michio

    2014-08-01

    A feline strain of familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) with typical limbic seizures was identified in 2010, and have been maintained as a novel animal model of genetic epilepsy. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of FSECs. On scalp EEG under sedation, FSECs showed sporadic, but comparatively frequent interictal discharges dominantly in the uni- or bilateral temporal region. Bemegride activation was performed in order to evaluate the predisposition of epileptogenicity of FSECs. The threshold doses of the first paroxysmal discharge, clinical myoclonus and generalized convulsion in FSECs were significantly lower than those in control cats. Chronic video-intracranial EEG monitoring revealed subclinical or clinical focal seizures with secondarily generalization onset from the unilateral amygdala and/or hippocampus. Clinical generalized seizures were also recorded, but we were unable to detect the onset site. The results of the present study show that FSECs resemble not only feline kindling or the kainic acid model and El mouse, but also human familial or sporadic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, our results indicate that FSECs are a natural and valuable model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24893833

  9. Locked bilateral posterior fracture-dislocation of the shoulder in an epileptic patient: case report

    OpenAIRE

    CAUTERO, ENRICO; GERVASI, ENRICO

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral posterior dislocation of the shoulder, often secondary to seizures, is uncommon, while bilateral posterior fracture-dislocations is rarer still: 0.6 cases among a population of 100,000 people per year. The scientific literature contains very few published reports of cases of bilateral posterior fracture-dislocation of the shoulder, a condition that tends to be sustained by epileptic patients during seizures. The authors presented a case of bilateral posterior fracture-dislocation of...

  10. The Life Time Prevalence of Childhood Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P AlizadehTaheri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Seizure is the most common pediatric neurologic disorder. Epidemiological studies of childhood epilepsy are of importance to compare incidence and prevalence rates, age distribution, inheritance, seizure types, epilepsy syn­dromes and treatment strategies. Since there is little information about prevalence of childhood seizure in Iran, this study was aimed to determine the life time prevalence of childhood seizure and some of its determining factors in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: In this cross sectional study, 2500 male and female students, aged 12 years or younger, studying in fifth grade of primary schools in district one of Ministry of Education were assessed by filling a preliminary questionnaire. Those who were categorized by the author as having a history of any form of seizure were assessed by a second questionnaire. The clinical form of seizure, the presumptive cause, positive family history and use of anti-convulsant drugs were recorded."nResults: The life time prevalence of seizure was 32/1000 population which was more prevalent in boys .Generalized seizure was the most common clinical form. Approximately 60% of cases reported febrile convulsion as the presumptive cause stated by the physician. Positive family history was reported in 29.6% of cases. Anti epileptic drugs were taken by 54% of students with a positive history of seizure."nConclusion: The results of this study show that the life time prevalence of seizure is relatively high in Iranian community, although the other factors were in concordance with other communities.

  11. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on the serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nuan; Yu, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity. Clinical treatment of epilepsy includes symptomatic treatment, etiological treatment, surgery and prevention. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients, and to examine the correlation between these effects and secondary cerebrovascular events. A total of 68 epileptic patients, diagnosed between May 2012 and May 2014, were included in the present study. The study included 8 cases of autonomic seizures, 10 cases of absence seizures, 13 cases of complex partial seizures, 28 cases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and 9 cases of simple partial seizures. The patients received appropriate AED treatment according to the characteristics of epileptic seizure and the treatment guidance. The differences in the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in these patients, and the differences in the secondary cerebrovascular events in these patients after 1 year follow-up were analyzed. The difference in the AEDs used by various epileptic patients was statistically significant (P0.05). The difference in the incidence of cerebrovascular events in these groups at follow up was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The multifactorial logistic regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were the independent risk factors for epilepsy with secondary cerebrovascular events [folate: odds ratio (OR)=0.536, P=0.039; vitamin: OR=0.382, P=0.041]. In conclusion, various AEDs may decrease the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 and affect the secondary cerebrovascular events in various epileptic patients. Thus, regular supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 may be an option.

  12. Controlling Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  13. Regionally specific expression of high-voltage-activated calcium channels in thalamic nuclei of epileptic and non-epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Ehling, Petra; Cerina, Manuela; Meuth, Patrick; Zobeiri, Mehrnoush; Meuth, Sven G; Pape, Hans-Christian; Budde, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The polygenic origin of generalized absence epilepsy results in dysfunction of ion channels that allows the switch from physiological asynchronous to pathophysiological highly synchronous network activity. Evidence from rat and mouse models of absence epilepsy indicates that altered Ca(2+) channel activity contributes to cellular and network alterations that lead to seizure activity. Under physiological circumstances, high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels are important in determining the thalamic firing profile. Here, we investigated a possible contribution of HVA channels to the epileptic phenotype using a rodent genetic model of absence epilepsy. In this study, HVA Ca(2+) currents were recorded from neurons of three different thalamic nuclei that are involved in both sensory signal transmission and rhythmic-synchronized activity during epileptic spike-and-wave discharges (SWD), namely the dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the ventrobasal thalamic complex (VB) and the reticular thalamic nucleus (NRT) of epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. HVA Ca(2+) current densities in dLGN neurons were significantly increased in epileptic rats compared with non-epileptic controls while other thalamic regions revealed no differences between the strains. Application of specific channel blockers revealed that the increased current was carried by L-type Ca(2+) channels. Electrophysiological evidence of increased L-type current correlated with up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of a particular L-type channel, namely Cav1.3, in dLGN of epileptic rats. No significant changes were found for other HVA Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, pharmacological inactivation of L-type Ca(2+) channels results in altered firing profiles of thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons from non-epileptic rather than from epileptic rats. While HVA Ca(2+) channels influence tonic and burst firing in ACI and WAG

  14. Downregulated GABA and BDNF-TrkB Pathway in Chronic Cyclothiazide Seizure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclothiazide (CTZ has been reported to simultaneously enhance glutamate receptor excitation and inhibit GABAA receptor inhibition, and in turn it evokes epileptiform activities in hippocampal neurons. It has also been shown to acutely induce epileptic seizure behavior in freely moving rats. However, whether CTZ induced seizure rats could develop to have recurrent seizure still remains unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 46% of the CTZ induced seizure rats developed to have recurrent seizure behavior as well as epileptic EEG with a starting latency between 2 weeks and several months. In those chronic seizure rats 6 months after the seizure induction by the CTZ, our immunohistochemistry results showed that both GAD and GAT-1 were significantly decreased across CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus studied. In addition, both BDNF and its receptor TrkB were also decreased in hippocampus of the chronic CTZ seizure rats. Our results indicate that CTZ induced seizure is capable of developing to have recurrent seizure, and the decreased GABA synthesis and transport as well as the impaired BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway may contribute to the development of the recurrent seizure. Thus, CTZ seizure rats may provide a novel animal model for epilepsy study and anticonvulsant drug testing in the future.

  15. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  16. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  17. Synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA transporters as targets for anti-epileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; Clausen, Rasmus P; Larsson, Orla M;

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of the GABA transporter subtype GAT1 by the clinically available anti-epileptic drug tiagabine has proven to be an effective strategy for the treatment of some patients with partial seizures. In 2005, the investigational drug EF1502 was described as possessing activity at both GAT1 and...

  18. De novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B S; Riesch, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    channel KV1.2, in six isolated patients with epileptic encephalopathy (one mutation recurred three times independently). Four individuals presented with febrile and multiple afebrile, often focal seizure types, multifocal epileptiform discharges strongly activated by sleep, mild to moderate intellectual...

  19. Anti-epileptic drug changes and quality of life in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M.; Leijten, F.S.S.; Sander, J.W.; Uijl, S.G.; Egberts, A.C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Changes in anti-epileptic drug (AED) regimens may indicate unsatisfactory treatment results such as insufficient seizure control or adverse effects. This inference underlies epilepsy management and research, yet current studies often do not account for AED changes. We assessed AED change

  20. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Masashi; Kurokawa, Haruna; Shimada, Akinori; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Hajime; Morita, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS.

  1. Long-term neurological outcome of term-born children treated with two or more anti-epileptic drugs during the neonatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Mariska J.; Roze, Elise; van der Veere, Christa N.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neonatal seizures may persist despite treatment with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Objective: To determine in term-born infants with seizures that required two or more AEDs, whether treatment efficacy and/or the underlying disorder were related to neurological outcome. Design/met

  2. Hidden Markov chain modeling for epileptic networks identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cam, Steven; Louis-Dorr, Valérie; Maillard, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The partial epileptic seizures are often considered to be caused by a wrong balance between inhibitory and excitatory interneuron connections within a focal brain area. These abnormal balances are likely to result in loss of functional connectivities between remote brain structures, while functional connectivities within the incriminated zone are enhanced. The identification of the epileptic networks underlying these hypersynchronies are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the brain mechanisms responsible for the development of the seizures. In this objective, threshold strategies are commonly applied, based on synchrony measurements computed from recordings of the electrophysiologic brain activity. However, such methods are reported to be prone to errors and false alarms. In this paper, we propose a hidden Markov chain modeling of the synchrony states with the aim to develop a reliable machine learning methods for epileptic network inference. The method is applied on a real Stereo-EEG recording, demonstrating consistent results with the clinical evaluations and with the current knowledge on temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24110697

  3. Neuropeptide Y gene transfection inhibits post-epileptic hippocampal synaptic reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhang; Wenqing Zhao; Wenling Li; Changzheng Dong; Xinying Zhang; Jiang Wu; Na Li; Chuandong Liang

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous neuropeptide Y has antiepileptic effects; however, the underlying mechanism and optimal administration method for neuropeptide Y are still unresolved. Previous studies have used intracerebroventricular injection of neuropeptide Y into animal models of epilepsy. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus expression vector carrying the neuropeptide Y gene was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats, while the ipsilateral hippocampus was injected with kainic acid to establish the epileptic model. After transfection of neuropeptide Y gene, mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampal CA3 region of epileptic rats was significantly suppressed, hippocampal synaptophysin (p38) mRNA and protein expression were inhibited, and epileptic seizures were reduced. These experimental findings indicate that a recombinant adeno-associated virus expression vector carrying the neuropeptide Y gene reduces mossy fiber sprouting and inhibits abnormal synaptophysin expression, thereby suppressing post-epileptic synaptic reconstruction.

  4. Validity of the assessment of personality disorders for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures%儿童个性特征测定在心因性非癫痫性发作鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延萍; 凌如娟; 马杰

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童个性特征评估在心因性非癫痫性发作(PNES)、癫痫(EP)和健康对照(NC)之间鉴别诊断中的应用.方法 选取本中心心理专科和神经内科收诊的106例PNES患儿、138例EP患儿和139例儿童保健科健康体检的NC儿童作为研究对象.采用艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)和Piers-Harris儿童自我意识量表(PHCSS)对各组儿童进行评估,并进行比较分析.结果 PNES组患儿的个性缺陷程度明显高于EP组和NC组儿童,尤其焦虑(6.34±2.58)、合群(6.06±2.64)、幸福与满足(4.60±2.34)三个自我意识分量表评分明显低于EP组和NC组儿童,TP(59.23±8.22)和TN(56.16±8.27)两个艾森克个性问卷分量表评分明显高于EP组和NC组儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).焦虑分量表在鉴别诊断PNES组和NC组儿童时表现出了良好的判别能力,灵敏度和特异度分别为74.1%和72.6%,ROC曲线下面积达0.825.TP分量表在鉴别诊断PNES组和EP组儿童时表现出了较好的判别能力,灵敏度和特异度分别为52.8%和97.1%,ROC曲线下面积达0.789.结论 PNES患儿自我意识水平明显低于EP组和NC组患儿,个性多偏神经质和精神质,建议根据其心理特点和性格特征进行鉴别诊断和干预.%Objective To examine the ability of the assessment of personality to differentiate patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from normal controls (NC) and epileptic seizures (ES).Methods Patients were recruited from mental health department of our center.In all,106 children with PNES and 138 children with EP completed questionnaires including Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale (PHCSS).Both questionnaires were also completed by 139 healthy volunteers from children health care clinic.The results of three groups were compared to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the assessment of personality.Results Subjects with PNES reported significantly greater degree

  5. Detecting Epileptic Seizure from Scalp EEG Using Lyapunov Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  6. Detecting epileptic seizure from scalp EEG using Lyapunov spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Huong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toi, Vo Van

    2012-01-01

    One of the inherent weaknesses of the EEG signal processing is noises and artifacts. To overcome it, some methods for prediction of epilepsy recently reported in the literature are based on the evaluation of chaotic behavior of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. These methods reduced noises, but they were hazardous to patients. In this study, we propose using Lyapunov spectrum to filter noise and detect epilepsy on scalp EEG signals only. We determined that the Lyapunov spectrum can be considered as the most expected method to evaluate chaotic behavior of scalp EEG recordings and to be robust within noises. Obtained results are compared to the independent component analysis (ICA) and largest Lyapunov exponent. The results of detecting epilepsy are compared to diagnosis from medical doctors in case of typical general epilepsy.

  7. [Visual epileptic seizures. Signs and symptoms, and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cuevas, Montserrat; Toledo, Manuel; Santamarina, Estevo; Sueiras-Gil, María; Cambrodí-Masip, Roser; Sarria, Silvana; Quintana, Manuel; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2015-03-16

    Introduccion. Los fenomenos visuales pueden ser sintomas de crisis epilepticas, aunque con un significado clinico y una relacion con el foco epileptogeno incierto. Objetivo. Describir las implicaciones clinicas de las crisis epilepticas visuales segun su semiologia en adultos. Pacientes y metodos. Durante un año se recoge consecutivamente a pacientes que describian semiologia visual como manifestacion principal de sus crisis y se clasifican los sintomas visuales segun las caracteristicas de la descripcion. Resultados. Se incluye a 78 pacientes con una edad media de 43,5 años. El 97% de los casos eran epilepsias focales. Entre el 63% de las epilepsias sintomaticas, el 57% eran vasculares. Las crisis visuales eran, en un 81,9%, el aura previa a la crisis, y en un 17,9%, crisis visuales aisladas. La coexistencia de crisis visuales y otro tipo de crisis se asocio a farmacorresistencia (p = 0,021). Los sintomas visuales fueron: alucinaciones simples (55,1%), ilusiones (23,1%), alucinaciones complejas (15,4%) y perdida de vision (6,4%). La localizacion lobar de las lesiones era occipital (24,4%), temporoparietooccipital (21,8%), temporal (9%), parietal (3,8%) y frontal (1,3%). Las lesiones occipitales se asociaron con alucinaciones visuales simples (p < 0,001), y las ilusiones visuales y alucinaciones visuales complejas, con lesiones de la encrucijada temporoparietooccipital (p < 0,05). Del 55,1% de los pacientes con lesion unilateral en la resonancia magnetica, el 33% referia los sintomas en el hemicampo visual contralateral. Conclusiones. Las crisis visuales se presentan, principalmente, como auras epilepticas. Las alucinaciones simples se relacionan con el origen occipital, mientras que las alucinaciones complejas se asocian con regiones cerebrales mas anteriores. La aparicion de fenomenos visuales lateralizados nos orienta a un origen en el hemisferio contralateral.

  8. FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR CONTROL OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Jianhang

    Nearly 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy and one-third of them do not respond well to any antiepileptic drugs. Given the large population of patients experiencing drug resistant epilepsy, increased attention has been paid over the last two decades to the development of electrical stimulat...

  9. [Diagnosis and certification of the ability of epileptic patients to drive motor vehicles: cases consulted by the author].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent diagnostic problem. It is also difficult to certify whether an epileptic patient is able to drive a motor vehicle. With the advent of efficient anti-epileptic treatment, a general practice of refusing epileptic patients driving license should be seriously reconsidered. However, the matter should be given careful consideration not to jeopardize public safety and patients' rights. The aim of the study was to highlight the problems encountered in rediagnosing and certifying people with diagnosed epilepsy or pseudoepileptic seizures. The authors discuss the diagnosis and certification procedures in persons with epileptic seizures after severe craniocerebral trauma. They also analyze a case of diagnosed epilepsy suggesting the syncope in a patient with cardiac defect; a case of psychogenous pseudoepileptic seizures and the course of the disease in a patient with febrile convulsions in childhood. The problems result from the fact that reliable medical histories are not available and thus the retroassessment of the clinical picture of epileptic seizures is not possible. Missing results of timely laboratory tests (EEG, ECG) and diagnostic errors concerning earlier episodes, especially epilepsy diagnosed inconsiderately, are additional obstacles. PMID:12577810

  10. Seizure onset detection based on a Uni- or multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (UISA/MISA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter; Henriksen, Jonas; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2010-01-01

    An automatic Uni- or Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (UISA/MISA) system is highly applicable for onset detection of epileptic seizures based on motion data. The modalities used are surface electromyography (sEMG), acceleration (ACC) and angular velocity (ANG). The new proposed automatic algorithm on motion data is extracting features as "log-sum" measures of discrete wavelet components. Classification into the two groups "seizure" versus "non-seizure" is made based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The algorithm performs with a sensitivity of 91-100%, a median latency of 1 second and a specificity of 100% on multi-modal data from five healthy subjects simulating seizures. The uni-modal algorithm based on sEMG data from the subjects and patients performs satisfactorily in some cases. As expected, our results clearly show superiority of the multi-modal approach, as compared with the uni-modal one. PMID:21096611

  11. Optogenetically induced seizure and the longitudinal hippocampal network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Osawa

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure is a paroxysmal and self-limited phenomenon characterized by abnormal hypersynchrony of a large population of neurons. However, our current understanding of seizure dynamics is still limited. Here we propose a novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarges using optogenetics, and report on investigation of directional network dynamics during seizure along the septo-temporal (ST axis of hippocampus. Repetitive pulse photostimulation was applied to the rodent hippocampus, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 was expressed, under simultaneous recording of local field potentials (LFPs. Seizure-like afterdischarges were successfully induced after the stimulation in both W-TChR2V4 transgenic (ChR2V-TG rats and in wild type rats transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors carrying ChR2. Pulse frequency at 10 and 20 Hz, and a 0.05 duty ratio were optimal for afterdischarge induction. Immunohistochemical c-Fos staining after a single induced afterdischarge confirmed neuronal activation of the entire hippocampus. LFPs were recorded during seizure-like afterdischarges with a multi-contact array electrode inserted along the ST axis of hippocampus. Granger causality analysis of the LFPs showed a bidirectional but asymmetric increase in signal flow along the ST direction. State space presentation of the causality and coherence revealed three discrete states of the seizure-like afterdischarge phenomenon: 1 resting state; 2 afterdischarge initiation with moderate coherence and dominant septal-to-temporal causality; and 3 afterdischarge termination with increased coherence and dominant temporal-to-septal causality. A novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarge was developed using optogenetics, which was advantageous in its reproducibility and artifact-free electrophysiological observations. Our results provide additional evidence for the potential role of hippocampal septo-temporal interactions in seizure dynamics in vivo

  12. GABAergic inhibition shapes interictal dynamics in awake epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt; Villette, Vincent; Tressard, Thomas; Malvache, Arnaud; Reichinnek, Susanne; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cossart, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures and brief, synchronous bursts called interictal spikes that are present in-between seizures and observed as transient events in EEG signals. While GABAergic transmission is known to play an important role in shaping healthy brain activity, the role of inhibition in these pathological epileptic dynamics remains unclear. Examining the microcircuits that participate in interictal spikes is thus an important first step towards addressing this issue, as the function of these transient synchronizations in either promoting or prohibiting seizures is currently under debate. To identify the microcircuits recruited in spontaneous interictal spikes in the absence of any proconvulsive drug or anaesthetic agent, we combine a chronic model of epilepsy with in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and multiunit extracellular recordings to map cellular recruitment within large populations of CA1 neurons in mice free to run on a self-paced treadmill. We show that GABAergic neurons, as opposed to their glutamatergic counterparts, are preferentially recruited during spontaneous interictal activity in the CA1 region of the epileptic mouse hippocampus. Although the specific cellular dynamics of interictal spikes are found to be highly variable, they are consistently associated with the activation of GABAergic neurons, resulting in a perisomatic inhibitory restraint that reduces neuronal spiking in the principal cell layer. Given the role of GABAergic neurons in shaping brain activity during normal cognitive function, their aberrant unbalanced recruitment during these transient events could have important downstream effects with clinical implications. PMID:26280596

  13. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOMES IRENIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2% presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0% had circulating parasite products, as tested by capture ELISA. Only 1 case was positive for antibodies and antigens. We found that the frequency of seropositivity was related to the time without epileptic seizure. We conclude that cysticercosis is endemic in the region of Mulungu do Morro and that it is related to a benign form of epilepsy.

  14. A signal processing based analysis and prediction of seizure onset in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V; Hussaini, Jamal; Hussaini, Jalal; Delaviz, Ali; Delaviz, Fatemeh; Habibi, Shaghayegh; Ramezanpoor, Sara

    2016-01-01

    One of the main areas of behavioural neuroscience is forecasting the human behaviour. Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain becomes disrupted, causing seizures or periods of unusual behaviour, sensations and sometimes loss of consciousness. An estimated 5% of the world population has epileptic seizure but there is not any method to cure it. More than 30% of people with epilepsy cannot control seizure. Epileptic seizure prediction, refers to forecasting the occurrence of epileptic seizures, is one of the most important but challenging problems in biomedical sciences, across the world. In this research we propose a new methodology which is based on studying the EEG signals using two measures, the Hurst exponent and fractal dimension. In order to validate the proposed method, it is applied to epileptic EEG signals of patients by computing the Hurst exponent and fractal dimension, and then the results are validated versus the reference data. The results of these analyses show that we are able to forecast the onset of a seizure on average of 25.76 seconds before the time of occurrence.

  15. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game-induced seizures: a neglected health problem in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2006-08-01

    As the Internet has become rapidly and widely integrated into society, Internet addiction has become a growing psychosocial problem. However, epileptic seizure, another out-of-the-ordinary health problem, is often neglected in this regard. Ten patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing the newest genre of electronic games -- Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) -- were investigated. Patients were predominantly male young adults, and most of the events were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and absences. These patients should be categorized into idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Even though photosensitivity was an important factor, behavioral and higher mental activities also seemed to be significant seizure precipitants. Results demonstrated that MMORPG-induced seizures were not analogous to the ordinary video game-induced seizures. Significantly, an epileptic seizure warning did not always appear on the websites of MMORPGs and instructions for the software. While the prevalence of MMORPG-induced seizures remains unknown, it may exceed our expectations and impact our society. Not only for clinical neurologists but also for the primary physicians, educators, sociologists, and global online game publishers, there should be an awareness of this special form of reflex seizures in order to provide an appropriate health warning to MMORPG players.

  16. EEG-confirmed epileptic activity in a cat with VGKC-complex/LGI1 antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakozdy, Akos; Glantschnigg, Ursula; Leschnik, Michael; Hechinger, Harald; Moloney, Teresa; Lang, Bethan; Halasz, Peter; Vincent, Angela

    2014-03-01

    A 5-year-old, female client-owned cat presented with acute onset of focal epileptic seizures with orofacial twitching and behavioural changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral temporal lobe hyperintensities and the EEG was consistent with ictal epileptic seizure activity. After antiepileptic and additional corticosteroid treatment, the cat recovered and by 10 months of follow-up was seizure-free without any problem. Retrospectively, antibodies to LGI1, a component of the voltage-gated potassium channel-complex, were identified. Feline focal seizures with orofacial involvement have been increasingly recognised in client-owned cats, and autoimmune limbic encephalitis was recently suggested as a possible aetiology. This is the first report of EEG, MRI and long-term follow-up of this condition in cats which is similar to human limbic encephalitis.

  17. Two epileptic syndromes, one brain: childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; Coniglio, Antonella; El-Malhany, Nadia; Casarelli, Livia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS), or benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), are the most common forms of childhood epilepsy. CAE and BCECTS are well-known and clearly defined syndromes; although they are strongly dissimilar in terms of their pathophysiology, these functional epileptic disturbances share many features such as similar age at onset, overall good prognosis, and inheritance factors. Few reports are available on the concomitance of CAE and BCECTS in the same patients or the later occurrence of generalized epilepsy in patients with a history of partial epilepsy. In most cases described in the literature, absence seizures always started after the onset of benign focal epilepsy but the contrary has never occurred yet. We describe two patients affected by idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome with typical absences, who experienced BCECTS after remission of seizures and normalization of EEG recordings. While the coexistence of different seizure types within an epileptic syndrome is not uncommon, the occurrence of childhood absence and BCECTS in the same child appears to be extremely rare, and this extraordinary event supports the hypothesis that CAE and BCECTS are two distinct epileptic conditions. However, recent interesting observations in animal models suggest that BCECTS and CAE could be pathophysiologically related and that genetic links could play a large role.

  18. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  19. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark H; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L; Blaha, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a "closed-loop" system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the "CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database" which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  20. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a ‘closed-loop’ system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998, Ben-Menachem, 2001, while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between EEG electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the ‘CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database’ which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events.

  1. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure Parvaneh KARIMZADEH, Alireza REZAYI*, Mansoureh TOGHA, Farzad AHMADABADI, Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR, Eznollah AZARGASHB, Fatemeh KHODAEI Abstract How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Rezayi A, Togha M, Ahmadabadi F, Derakhshanfar H, Azargashb E, Khodaei F. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:20-25. Objective Some studies suggest that detection of epileptic discharge is unusual during the first postictal week of febrile seizure and others believe that EEGs carried out on the day of the seizure are abnormal in as many as 88% of the patients. In this study, we intend to compare early and late EEG abnormalities in febrile seizure. Materials & Methods EEG was recorded during daytime sleep, 24-48 hours (early EEG and 2 weeks (late EEG after the seizure in 36 children with febrile seizure (FS, aged between 3 months and 6 years. EEGs that showed generalized or focal spikes, sharp, spike wave complex, and slowing were considered as abnormal EEG. Abnormalities of the first EEG were compared with those of second EEG. Results The most common abnormal epileptiform discharges recorded in the early EEG were slow waves (27.6% and sharp waves in late EEG (36%. Distribution of abnormalities in early and late EEG showed no significant statistical difference. Conclusion The early and late EEG recording had the same results in patient with febrile seizure.

  2. Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie; Fisher, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon's contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found a significant negative correlation between the mean number of seizures and the fraction of the moon illuminated by the sun (rho=-0.09, P<0.05) in 1571 seizures recorded in a dedicated epilepsy inpatient unit over 341 days. This correlation disappeared when we controlled for the local clarity of the night sky, suggesting that it is the brightness of the night and the contribution the moon phase makes to nocturnal luminance, rather than the moon phase per se, that may influence the occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  3. Copeptin as a serum biomarker of febrile seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stöcklin

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of febrile seizures in children presenting after paroxysmal episodes associated with fever, is hampered by the lack of objective postictal biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether FS are associated with increased levels of serum copeptin, a robust marker of arginine vasopressin secretion.This was a prospective emergency-setting cross-sectional study of 161 children between six months and five years of age. Of these, 83 were diagnosed with febrile seizures, 69 had a febrile infection without seizures and nine had epileptic seizures not triggered by infection. Serum copeptin and prolactin levels were measured in addition to standard clinical, neurophysiological, and laboratory assessment.NCT01884766.Circulating copeptin was significantly higher in children with febrile seizures (median [interquartile range] 18.9 pmol/L [8.5-36.6] compared to febrile controls (5.6 pmol/L [4.1-9.4]; p < 0.001, with no differences between febrile and epileptic seizures (21.4 pmol/L [16.1-46.6]; p = 0.728. In a multivariable regression model, seizures were the major determinant of serum copeptin (beta 0.509; p < 0.001, independently of clinical and baseline laboratory indices. The area under the receiver operating curve for copeptin was 0.824 (95% CI 0.753-0.881, significantly higher compared to prolactin (0.667 [0.585-0.742]; p < 0.001. The diagnostic accuracy of copeptin increased with decreasing time elapsed since the convulsive event (at 120 min: 0.879 [0.806-0.932] and at <60 min: 0.975 [0.913-0.997].Circulating copeptin has high diagnostic accuracy in febrile seizures and may be a useful adjunct for accurately diagnosing postictal states in the emergency setting.

  4. The role of astroglia in the epileptic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eLosi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies comprise a family of multifactorial neurological disorders that affect at least 50 million people worldwide. Despite a long history of neurobiological and clinical studies the mechanisms that lead the brain network to a hyperexcitable state and to the intense, massive neuronal discharges reflecting a seizure episode are only partially defined. Most epilepsies of genetic origin are related to mutations in ionic channels that cause neuronal hyperexcitability. However, idiopathic epilepsies of unclear origin represent the majority of these brain disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that in the epileptic brain neurons are not the only players. Indeed, the glial cell astrocyte is known to be morphologically and functionally altered in different types of epilepsy. Although it is unclear whether these astrocyte dysfunctions can have a causative role in epileptogenesis, the hypothesis that astrocytes contribute to epileptiform activities recently received a considerable experimental support. Notably, currently used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, that act mainly on neuronal ion channels, are ineffective in a large group of patients. Clarifying astrocyte functions in the epileptic brain tissue could unveil astrocytes as novel therapeutic targets. In this review we present first a short overview on the role of astrocytes in the epileptic brain starting from the historical observations on their fundamental modulation of brain homeostasis, such as the control of water content, ionic equilibrium and neurotransmitters concentrations. We then focus our review on most recent studies that hint at a distinct contribution of these cells in the generation of focal epileptiform activities.

  5. A low-power implantable event-based seizure detection algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Ward, Matthew P.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2009-01-01

    Closed-loop neurostimulation has shown great promise as an alternate therapy for over 30% of the epileptic patient population that remain non-responsive to other forms of treatment. We present an event-based seizure detection algorithm that can be implemented in real-time using low power digital CMOS circuits to form an implantable epilepsy prosthesis. Seizures are detected by classifying and marking out 'events' ...

  6. "Are You Saying She's Mentally Ill Then?" Explaining Medically Unexplained Seizures in Clinical Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Catherine; Lian, Olaug S

    2016-01-01

    Bodily phenomena that are difficult to identify, localize, explain and cure with the aid of modern biomedical knowledge and technology leave ample room for cultural influence. That makes them a perfect case for studying the cultural dimension of medical knowledge and practice. Building on this assumption we qualitatively explore the communication between neurologists and women with seizure disorders of uncertain etiology, often labeled psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), in a specialis...

  7. Video games are exciting: a European study of videogame‐induced seizures and epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    KASTELEIJN‐NOLST TRENITE, D.G.; A. Martins da Silva; Ricci, S; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Lopes, J.(Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Bettencourt, M.; Oosting, J; SEGERS, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Epileptic Disord. 2002 Jun;4(2):121-8. Video games are exciting: a European study of video game-induced seizures and epilepsy. Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, Martins da Silva A, Ricci S, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Lopes J, Bettencourt M, Oosting J, Segers JP. Department of Neurology, Medical Centre Alkmaar, PO Box 501, 1800 AM, The Netherlands. Abstract BACKGROUND: Video game seizures have been reported in photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients with...

  8. MOTHERS’ EXPERIENCE REGARDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAIRY PRODUCTS AND THEIR CHILDREN’S SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAH Razieh; Mohammad Hosein RAJAEE; Sedighah AKHAVAN KARBASI

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveEpilepsy is one of the most important problems in neurology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products and seizures of the epileptic children based on their mothers' experience.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive- analytic study, mothers' experience regarding the relationship between dairy products and seizures of their children was evaluated via a questionnaire. This research was done in the pediatric neurology clinic of Shaheed Sadoughi Medic...

  9. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  10. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle; Bialonski, Stephan; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database.

  11. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    CERN Document Server

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database.

  12. The Lombrosian prejudice in medicine. The case of epilepsy. Epileptic psychosis. Epilepsy and aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Enrico; Fazio, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    In the nineteenth century, epilepsy became subject of experimental research. Lombroso established a relationship between epilepsy and criminality believing in the existence of epileptoid traits and atavism. He tried to demonstrate the common origin of epilepsy, criminality, and genius; factors deteriorating the CNS would act upon centers, which control behavior and ethics. This impairment would cause a lack of control on the lower nervous centers, reducing restraints of instincts and criminal behavior. He described developmental frontal cortex lesions in epileptic patients (today Taylor's dysplasia) and these observations supported the erroneous conviction of a relationship between criminality and epilepsy. Neurological, behavioral, and criminological sciences analyzed Lombroso's doctrine, whereas it was controversial that epileptic patients should be prone to violent actions and aggressive behavior. Today, there is an international panel of experts on epilepsy, which suggests five relevant criteria to determine if a crime committed with aggressiveness could result from epileptic seizures.

  13. The Lombrosian prejudice in medicine. The case of epilepsy. Epileptic psychosis. Epilepsy and aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Enrico; Fazio, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    In the nineteenth century, epilepsy became subject of experimental research. Lombroso established a relationship between epilepsy and criminality believing in the existence of epileptoid traits and atavism. He tried to demonstrate the common origin of epilepsy, criminality, and genius; factors deteriorating the CNS would act upon centers, which control behavior and ethics. This impairment would cause a lack of control on the lower nervous centers, reducing restraints of instincts and criminal behavior. He described developmental frontal cortex lesions in epileptic patients (today Taylor's dysplasia) and these observations supported the erroneous conviction of a relationship between criminality and epilepsy. Neurological, behavioral, and criminological sciences analyzed Lombroso's doctrine, whereas it was controversial that epileptic patients should be prone to violent actions and aggressive behavior. Today, there is an international panel of experts on epilepsy, which suggests five relevant criteria to determine if a crime committed with aggressiveness could result from epileptic seizures. PMID:21538126

  14. Cerebral perfusion alterations in epileptic patients during peri-ictal and post-ictal phase: PASL vs DSC-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Francesca B; Farace, Paolo; Manganotti, Paolo; Zoccatelli, Giada; Bongiovanni, Luigi G; Golay, Xavier; Beltramello, Alberto; Osculati, Antonio; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo F

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) MRI is a method to study brain perfusion that does not require the administration of a contrast agent, which makes it a valuable diagnostic tool as it reduces cost and side effects. The purpose of the present study was to establish the viability of PASL as an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI) and other perfusion imaging methods in characterizing changes in perfusion patterns caused by seizures in epileptic patients. We evaluated 19 patients with PASL. Of these, the 9 affected by high-frequency seizures were observed during the peri-ictal period (within 5hours since the last seizure), while the 10 patients affected by low-frequency seizures were observed in the post-ictal period. For comparison, 17/19 patients were also evaluated with DSC-MRI and CBF/CBV. PASL imaging showed focal vascular changes, which allowed the classification of patients in three categories: 8 patients characterized by increased perfusion, 4 patients with normal perfusion and 7 patients with decreased perfusion. PASL perfusion imaging findings were comparable to those obtained by DSC-MRI. Since PASL is a) sensitive to vascular alterations induced by epileptic seizures, b) comparable to DSC-MRI for detecting perfusion asymmetries, c) potentially capable of detecting time-related perfusion changes, it can be recommended for repeated evaluations, to identify the epileptic focus, and in follow-up and/or therapy-response assessment.

  15. Cerebral perfusion alterations in epileptic patients during peri-ictal and post-ictal phase: PASL vs DSC-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Francesca B; Farace, Paolo; Manganotti, Paolo; Zoccatelli, Giada; Bongiovanni, Luigi G; Golay, Xavier; Beltramello, Alberto; Osculati, Antonio; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo F

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) MRI is a method to study brain perfusion that does not require the administration of a contrast agent, which makes it a valuable diagnostic tool as it reduces cost and side effects. The purpose of the present study was to establish the viability of PASL as an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI) and other perfusion imaging methods in characterizing changes in perfusion patterns caused by seizures in epileptic patients. We evaluated 19 patients with PASL. Of these, the 9 affected by high-frequency seizures were observed during the peri-ictal period (within 5hours since the last seizure), while the 10 patients affected by low-frequency seizures were observed in the post-ictal period. For comparison, 17/19 patients were also evaluated with DSC-MRI and CBF/CBV. PASL imaging showed focal vascular changes, which allowed the classification of patients in three categories: 8 patients characterized by increased perfusion, 4 patients with normal perfusion and 7 patients with decreased perfusion. PASL perfusion imaging findings were comparable to those obtained by DSC-MRI. Since PASL is a) sensitive to vascular alterations induced by epileptic seizures, b) comparable to DSC-MRI for detecting perfusion asymmetries, c) potentially capable of detecting time-related perfusion changes, it can be recommended for repeated evaluations, to identify the epileptic focus, and in follow-up and/or therapy-response assessment. PMID:23623332

  16. Research of the serum level of neuron-specific enolase in children with various types of seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relevance between the level changes of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE and neuronal damage in various seizure types of children with epilepsy. Methods According to the classification criteria of seizure types formulated by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE in 1981, 190 children with epilepsy were enrolled including tonic-clonic seizure group (41 cases, tonic seizure group (34 cases, clonic seizure group (22 cases, myoclonic seizure group (12 cases, atonic seizure group (17 cases, absence seizure group (22 cases, simple partial seizure group (21 cases and complex partial seizure group (21 cases, and 64 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The long-range vedio-electroencephalogram (VEEG was operated and the blood samples were collected from these cases within 72 h after their seizures. Results The serum NSE levels of epileptic children were significantly higher than control group (P = 0.000. Among these seizure groups, serum NSE in myoclonic seizure group [(32.42 ± 6.62 ng/ml] was significantly higher than the other types, except for tonic-clonic seizure group (P = 0.062. There was no significant difference among the other types (P > 0.05, for all. According to rank correlation analysis, there was positive corrlation between serum NSE levels and VEEG abnormal intensity (rs = 0.613, P = 0.000. Conclusion The serum NSE were markedly increased in children with epilepsy after seizures, suggesting that a certain degree of neuronal damage may result from seizures; the higher NSE levels were, the more serious neuronal damage caused by epileptiform discharges was. The serum NSE levels in myoclonic seizure group and tonic-clonic seizure group were significantly higher than other seizure types, indicating the two kinds of seizures may result in greater neuronal damage.

  17. [Bilateral Dislocation Fracture of the Humeral Head (Right AO 11C3.3; Left AO 11A1.3) without Direct Trauma Due to First Clinical Manifestation of Seizure - a Case Report and Review of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, M M; Pennekamp, P H; Müller, M C; Kabir, K; Burger, C; Wirtz, D C; Schmolders, J

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of fractures among epileptics is frequent and mostly occurs by direct trauma due to falls caused by seizures. The risk of fractures is estimated to be 50 % higher in epileptics than in the general population. Most of the fractures affect the proximal femora and the hip joint. Dorsal shoulder dislocations occur frequently in epileptics. If they occur bilaterally, this is pathognomonic for seizuring. Besides this, shoulder dislocation and bilateral dislocation fractures of the humeral head, however, are far more rare even among epileptics but pathognomonic for seizure. In this case report we present a female patient with bilateral dislocation fracture of the humeral head due to first clinical manifestation of a tonic-clonic seizure without direct trauma.

  18. The Clinical and Neurophysiological Features of Epileptic Syndromes Associated with Benign Focal Epileptiform Discharges of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermolaenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign focal epileptiform discharge of childhood (BFEDC is an age-dependent pattern determined in electroencephalograms (EEGs, which is associated with idiopathic benign focal epilepsy (BFE. Studies of BFE revealed symptomatic phenocopies in patients with cerebral struc- tural abnormalities in such conditions as infantile cerebral palsy and malformations. Some arguments against the «benign» nature of BFEDC are presented, since BFEDC may impair various cognitive functions and behavior (e.g., cause epileptic encephalophathies. Objective. To determine the clinical and neurophysiological features of epileptic syndromes associated with prolonged epileptiform activity during sleep in children and adolescents, as well as approaches to rational therapy. Patients and Methods. A total of 1862 children aged 2–18 admitted to the specialized Department of Psychoneurology of the Voronezh Regional Children Clinical Hospital No 1 in 2004–2007, who had epileptic seizures and non-epileptic neurological disorders, were exam- ined. The children underwent assessment of the neurological status, neuropsychological assessment, and video-EEG monitoring. The spike- wave index (SWI was calculated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain was performed to register the epileptiform activity during sleep. Results and Discussion. It was demonstrated that when ISW of BFEDC patterns is >30%, evolution into epileptic encephalopathy was observed in 66% of patients (including epilepsy with electrical status epilepticus in sleep in 49% of patients and cognitive epileptiform disinte- gration in 17% of patients. The results prove the justification of prescribing antiepileptic drugs to patients with SWI ≥30% even if they have no epileptic seizures. Duo-therapy with valproate and ethosuximide or levetiracetam is most the effective therapy. Further prospective studies for children with BFEDC will give new insight into this area. 

  19. Differential diagnosis of seizure disorders: a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Meike; Howell, Stephen J; Reuber, Markus

    2007-08-01

    "Taking the history" remains the most important diagnostic tool in the assessment of people who have lost consciousness. The distinction of epileptic and non-epileptic seizures (NES) is particularly difficult and relevant. Whereas epileptic seizures can usually be controlled with antiepileptic drugs, NES are considered an expression of psychosocial distress and may improve with psychotherapy. The recording of typical seizures with simultaneous video and electroencephalography (EEG) can produce almost complete certainty about the diagnosis but access to video-EEG is limited, the test is very expensive and often video-EEG fails to capture typical seizures. A German research group used conversation analysis (CA) to examine patients' descriptions of seizures to their doctors. They found that certain linguistic and interactional features clustered together and that these clusters were usually concordant with particular medical diagnoses. This study was undertaken to establish whether the observations made in German-speaking patients could be replicated in English speakers presenting to a less specialised epilepsy service. The findings presented here are based on transcripts of interviews with 11 patients admitted to a neurology ward in England because their consultant felt unable to make a clear diagnosis clinically. Transcripts were only analysed if the diagnosis of epilepsy or NES had been proven with video-EEG. The medical diagnosis was only disclosed to the linguist once a linguistic hypothesis of the diagnosis had been formulated to ensure that the linguist's decision would not be influenced by factors not contained in the 30-min-interview between doctor and patient. The linguist predicted the correct diagnosis in all cases. PMID:17482737

  20. Physics of the Brain: Interaction of the Optical-Fiber-Guided Multi-Ultraviolet-Photon Beams with the Epilepsy Topion, (the Seizure Onset Area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    A novel method for the possible prevention of epileptic seizures is proposed, based on the multi-ultraviolet-photon beam interaction with the epilepsy topion, (nonlinear coupling of an ultra high frequency mode to the brain beta phonons). It is hypothesized that epilepsy is a chaotic-dynamics phenomenon: small electrical changes in the epilepsy-topion lead, (within the 10s of milliseconds), to the onset of chaos, (seizure--excessive electrical discharge), and subsequent cascading into adjacent areas. The ultraviolet photons may control the imbalance of sodium and potassium ions and, consequently, may prove to be efficient in the prevention of epileptic seizures. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.

  1. Using Lorenz plot and Cardiac Sympathetic Index of heart rate variability for detecting seizures for patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jesper; Beniczky, Sandor; Johansen, Peter; Sidenius, Per; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Tachycardia is often seen during epileptic seizures, but it also occurs during physical exercise. In order to assess whether focal epileptic seizures can be detected by short term moving window Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, we modified the geometric HRV method, Lorenz plot, to consist of only 30, 50 or 100 R-R intervals per analyzed window. From each window we calculated the longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) variability of Lorenz plot to retrieve the Cardiac Sympathetic Index (CSI) as (L/T) and "Modified CSI" (described in methods), and compared the maximum during the patient's epileptic seizures with that during the patient's own exercise and non-seizure sessions as control. All five analyzed patients had complex partial seizures (CPS) originating in the temporal lobe (11 seizures) during their 1-5 days long term video-EEG monitoring. All CPS with electroencephalographic correlation were selected for the HRV analysis. The CSI and Modified CSI were correspondently calculated after each heart beat depicting the prior 30, 50 and 100 R-R intervals at the time. CSI (30, 50 and 100) and Modified CSI (100) showed a higher maximum peak during seizures than exercise/non-seizure (121-296%) for 4 of the 5 patients within 4 seconds before till 60 seconds after seizure onset time even though exercise maximum HR exceeded that of the seizures. The results indicate a detectable, sudden and inordinate shift towards sympathetic overdrive in the sympathovagal balance of the autonomic nervous system just around seizure-onset for certain patients. This new modified moving window Lorenz plot method seems promising way of constructing a portable ECG-based epilepsy alarm for certain patients with epilepsy who needs aid during seizure.

  2. Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg, into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

  3. A Review of Traditional and Novel Treatments for Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Systematic Review and Expert Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel; Casanova, Manuel F.; Brown, Gregory L.; Martin, Victoria; Edelson, Stephen; Coben, Robert; Lewine, Jeffrey; Slattery, John C.; Lau, Chrystal; Hardy, Paul; Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.; MacFabe, Derrick; Adams, James B

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have undergone carefully controlled trials ...

  4. Targeting Pannexin1 Improves Seizure Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marcelo F.; Veliskova, Jana; Patel, Naman K.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Caille, Dorothee; Charollais, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Scemes, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures. PMID:21949881

  5. Targeting pannexin1 improves seizure outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F Santiago

    Full Text Available Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1 is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K(+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures.

  6. How Sleep Activates Epileptic Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  7. How sleep activates epileptic networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  8. Uncontrolled seizures resulting from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicating neurobrucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Faraji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of stroke caused by thrombosis in venous sinuses of the brain. In this study, we reported on a patient with venous sinus thrombosis and brucellosis who presented with uncontrolled seizure despite being treated with anti-epileptic drugs at high doses. The case was a 33-year-old woman with a history of controlled complex partial seizure who presented with headache, asthenia, and uncontrolled seizure for one month. She was febrile and a brain CT scan indicated hemorrhagic focus in the left posterior parietal and the temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography also proved venous sinus thrombosis in the left transverse sinus. Besides [In addition], a laboratory assessment confirmed brucellosis. Following the treatment with anti-coagulant, anti-brucellosis, and anti-epileptic agents, the patient was discharged in good condition with medical orders. Clinical suspicion and accurate evaluation of a patient′s history is the most important clue in diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, especially in uncontrolled seizure in patients who had previously been under control.

  9. Uncontrolled seizures resulting from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicating neurobrucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Fardin; Didgar, Farshid; Talaie-Zanjani, Afsoon; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of stroke caused by thrombosis in venous sinuses of the brain. In this study, we reported on a patient with venous sinus thrombosis and brucellosis who presented with uncontrolled seizure despite being treated with anti-epileptic drugs at high doses. The case was a 33-year-old woman with a history of controlled complex partial seizure who presented with headache, asthenia, and uncontrolled seizure for one month. She was febrile and a brain CT scan indicated hemorrhagic focus in the left posterior parietal and the temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography also proved venous sinus thrombosis in the left transverse sinus. Besides [In addition], a laboratory assessment confirmed brucellosis. Following the treatment with anti-coagulant, anti-brucellosis, and anti-epileptic agents, the patient was discharged in good condition with medical orders. Clinical suspicion and accurate evaluation of a patient's history is the most important clue in diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, especially in uncontrolled seizure in patients who had previously been under control. PMID:24250168

  10. Effect of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea on DNA fragmentation in pentylenetetrazole induced experimental epileptic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monami Mondal (Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a restrained neurological disorder, with a constant neuronal damage, ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling situations. It leads to oxidative brain damages through DNA fragmentation. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ is a convulsant used to produce experimental epileptic animals. Investigation proved; antioxidant enriched Spinacea oleracea (SO or spinach, a commonly available herb, has a modulatory role on the damaging effects of free radicals. Methods The study was conducted with twenty-four adult male Holtzman strain albino rats (200-250gm. These rats were divided into groups of Control, SO treated control, PTZ induced experimental epileptic group and SO pretreated PTZ induced experimental epileptic group. The epileptic model was prepared by intraperitoneal administration of PTZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous leaf extract of SO was orally given at a dose of 400 mg /kg body weight, for fourteen consecutive days. After the behavioral study serum and brain tissue samples were collected for the estimation of nitric oxide (NO, DNA fragmentation and antioxidants level. Results Pretreatment with SO leaf extract showed significant decrease in the seizure score, ictal phase, serum NO level, LPO levels and rate of DNA fragmentation. The interictal phase, SOD, CAT, GSH activity of different parts of the brain were significantly increased in SO pretreated PTZ induced group. Conclusion SO is found to play a vital role to provide protection against the oxidative damage of epileptic brain by amending the levels of antioxidants and serum NO level.

  11. Complex Partial Seizure as a Manifestation of Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia: The Needle Recovered From Haystack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Khairil Amir; Ahmed, Mohamed H; Dunphy, Louise; Behnam, Yousif

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with acute onset expressive dysphasia and right hemi-paresis with no prior history of seizure. He developed clusters of stereotypical complex partial seizures which were refractory to anti-epileptic agents. He was not known to have diabetes and his brain MRI was normal. His random blood sugar measurement on admission to hospital was 30 mmol/L with HbA1c measurement of 14.8%. His seizures terminated completely when his hyperglycemia was corrected with insulin and rehydration therapy. PMID:27222677

  12. Nonepileptic seizures: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies. Epidemiology and healthcare utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid in the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES; these should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control, and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600

  13. Relationship between seizure frequency and number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampus throughout the life of rats with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Lent, Roberto; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between seizure frequency and cell death has been a subject of controversy. To tackle this issue, we determined the frequency of seizures and the total number of hippocampal cells throughout the life of rats with epilepsy using the pilocarpine model. Seizure frequency varied in animals with epilepsy according to which period of life they were in, with a progressive increase in the number of seizures until 180 days (sixth months) of epileptic life followed by a decrease (330 days-eleventh month) and subsequently stabilization of seizures. Cell counts by means of isotropic fractionation showed a reduction in the number of hippocampal neuronal cells following 30, 90, 180 and 360 days of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in rats compared to their controls (about 25%-30% of neuronal cell reduction). In addition, animals with 360 days of SRS showed a reduction in the number of neuronal cells when compared with animals with 90 and 180 days of seizures. The total number of hippocampal non-neuronal cells was reduced in rats with epilepsy after 30 days of SRS, but no significant alteration was observed on the 90th, 180th and 360th days. The total number of neuronal cells was negatively correlated with seizure frequency, indicating an association between occurrence of epileptic seizures throughout life and neuronal loss. In sum, our results add novel data to the literature concerning the time-course of SRS and hippocampal cell number throughout epileptic life.

  14. The study of ictal brain SPECT during seizures induced by clonidine and sleep-deprivation in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of combined clonidine and sleep-deprivation induced seizures for ictal brain SPECT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Fifty-two epilepsy patients were given oral clonidine plus sleep-deprivation to induce seizures with video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring. Forty-seven patients were selected as control group, whose seizures were induced by sleep-deprivation only. 99Tcm-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) was injected within 30 s since a clinical sign and/or a typical EEG discharge of epilepsy was recognized. Brain SPECT was performed 30 min after 99Tcm-ECD injection. χ2-test was performed by using software SPSS 10.0. Results: One to two hr after oral intake of clonidine plus sleep-deprivation, 75% (39/52) patients were induced seizures, including 92.3% (36/39) with subclinical seizures and 7.7% (3/39) with clinical seizures. Ictal brain SPECT localized the lesions with high uptake of 99Tcm-ECD in 37 (94.9%) patients. In control group, 38.3% (18/47) were induced epileptic seizures, including 77.8% (14/18) with subclinical seizures and 22.2% (4/18) with clinical seizures. The induction rate of epileptic seizures in clonidine plus sleep-deprivation group was significantly higher than that of control group (χ2 = 13.614, P2 = 1.253, P>0.05). Conclusions: The combination of oral intake of clonidine and sleep-deprivation could increase the induction rate of epileptic seizures and it is effective for epilepsy SPECT imaging. (authors)

  15. 磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶/蛋白激酶B信号转导通路与针刺保护癫痫继发海马神经元损伤的关系%PI 3 K/Akt Signaling Pathway Contributed to the Protective Effect of Acupuncture Intervention on Epileptic Seizure-induced Injury of Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells in Epilepsy Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 昂文平; 沈德凯; 刘向国; 杨永清; 马允

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the protective effect of acupuncture stimulation on pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA 1 and CA 3 regions and to analyze the involvement of phosphatidy linositol-3-kinase (PI 3 K) /protein kinase B(PKB or Akt) signaling pathway in the acupuncture effect in epilepsy rats. Methods A total of 120 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, LY 294002 (a specific antagonist for PI 3 K/Akt signaling) group, acupuncture + LY 294002 group and acupuncture group (n = 24 in each group, 12 for H. E. staining, and 12 for electron microscope observation). Epilepsy model was established by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 5 μL). Manual acupuncture stimulation was applied to "Baihui" (GV20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) once daily for 5 days. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO, 5 μL, a control solvent) was given to rats of the normal, model and acupuncture groups, and LY 294002 (5 μL, dissolved in DMSO) given to rats of the LY 294002 and acupuncture+LY 294002 groups by lateral ventricular injection. Four hours and 24 h after modeling, the hippocampus tissues were sampled for observing pathological changes of CA 1 and CA 3 regions after H. E. staining under light microscope and for checking ultrastructural changes of the pyramidal cells under transmission electron microscope. Results In comparison with the normal control group, the numbers of pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA3 region in the model group were decreased significantly 4 h and 24 h after epileptic seizure (P0. 05). Findings of the light microscope and electron microscope showed that the injury severity of pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA 1 and CA 3 regions was moderate 4 h after epileptic seizure and even worse 24 h after seizure in the model group, LY 294002 group and acupuncture + LY 294002 group, but relatively lighter in the acupuncture group. These results suggested an elimination of the acupuncture effect after blocking the PI 3 K/Akt signaling pathway by lateral

  16. A computational platform for continuous seizure anticipation, monitoring and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakakis, Giorgos; Pediaditis, Matthew; Stavrinidis, George; Konstantinidis, George; Kritsotakis, Vangelis; Tsakanikas, Vasilis; Ligerakis, Michael; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Vorgia, Pelagia; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    The development of platforms that are able to continuously monitor and handle epileptic seizures in a non invasive manner is of great importance as they would improve the quality of life of drug resistant epileptic patients. In this work, a device and a computational platform is presented for acquiring low noise electroencephalographic signals, for the detection/prediction of epileptic seizures and the storage of ictal activity in an electronic personal health record. In order to develop this platform, a systematic clinical protocol was established including a number of drug resistant children from the University Hospital of Heraklion. Dry electrodes with innovative micro-spike design were proposed in order to increase the signal to noise ratio of the recorded EEG signals. A wearable low cost platform and its corresponding wireless communication protocol was developed focus on minimizing the interference with the patient's body. A computational subsystem with advanced algorithms provides detection/anticipation of upcoming seizure activity and aims to protect the patient from an accident due to a seizure or to improve his/her social life. Finally, the seizure activity information is stored in an electronic health record for further clinical evaluation. PMID:27225563

  17. Weighted and directed interactions in evolving large-scale epileptic brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Epilepsy can be regarded as a network phenomenon with functionally and/or structurally aberrant connections in the brain. Over the past years, concepts and methods from network theory substantially contributed to improve the characterization of structure and function of these epileptic networks and thus to advance understanding of the dynamical disease epilepsy. We extend this promising line of research and assess—with high spatial and temporal resolution and using complementary analysis approaches that capture different characteristics of the complex dynamics—both strength and direction of interactions in evolving large-scale epileptic brain networks of 35 patients that suffered from drug-resistant focal seizures with different anatomical onset locations. Despite this heterogeneity, we find that even during the seizure-free interval the seizure onset zone is a brain region that, when averaged over time, exerts strongest directed influences over other brain regions being part of a large-scale network. This crucial role, however, manifested by averaging on the population-sample level only – in more than one third of patients, strongest directed interactions can be observed between brain regions far off the seizure onset zone. This may guide new developments for individualized diagnosis, treatment and control.

  18. Modeling and analyzing non-seizure EEG data for patients with epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawkins, W.F.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.; Daw, C.S.; Hively, L.M.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    We present nonlinear analysis of non-seizure electroencephalogram (EEG) time series data from four epileptic patients. A non-seizure state is a period that is free of any part of an epileptic seizure, including the transition to a fully developed episode. EEG measurements are typically contaminated with a large amount of non- neurophysiological source information, generally called artifact, which arises, for example, from eye movement, muscle tension, and physical motion. The first objective of this study is to gain some insight into how much variability in analysis results to be expected from patients having similar clinical characteristics. The second objective is to investigate the impact of eye movement on the analysis results. A special feature presented here is the introduction and testing of a filter for eye movement artifact. The third objective is to determine if neurophysiological activity as viewed from two adjacent channels appears dynamically to be the same.

  19. Differential suppression of seizures via Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, David P D; Nanobashvili, Avtandil; Sørensen, Andreas Vehus;

    2005-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) prominently inhibits epileptic seizures in different animal models. The NPY receptors mediating this effect remain controversial partially due to lack of highly selective agonists and antagonists. To circumvent this problem, we used various NPY receptor knockout mice...... with the same genetic background and explored anti-epileptic action of NPY in vitro and in vivo. In Y2 (Y2-/-) and Y5 (Y5-/-) receptor knockouts, NPY partially inhibited 0 Mg2+-induced epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. In contrast, in double knockouts (Y2Y5-/-), NPY had no effect, suggesting...... that in the hippocampus in vitro both receptors mediate anti-epileptiform action of NPY in an additive manner. Systemic kainate induced more severe seizures in Y5-/- and Y2Y5-/-, but not in Y2-/- mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, kainate seizures were aggravated by administration of the Y5 antagonist L-152...

  20. Seizure Prediction: Science Fiction or Soon to Become Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Dean R; Karoly, Philippa J; Peterson, Andre D H; Kuhlmann, Levin; Lai, Alan; Goodarzy, Farhad; Cook, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the field of epileptic seizure prediction. We argue that seizure prediction is possible; however, most previous attempts have used data with an insufficient amount of information to solve the problem. The review discusses four methods for gaining more information above standard clinical electrophysiological recordings. We first discuss developments in obtaining long-term data that enables better characterisation of signal features and trends. Then, we discuss the usage of electrical stimulation to probe neural circuits to obtain robust information regarding excitability. Following this, we present a review of developments in high-resolution micro-electrode technologies that enable neuroimaging across spatial scales. Finally, we present recent results from data-driven model-based analyses, which enable imaging of seizure generating mechanisms from clinical electrophysiological measurements. It is foreseeable that the field of seizure prediction will shift focus to a more probabilistic forecasting approach leading to improvements in the quality of life for the millions of people who suffer uncontrolled seizures. However, a missing piece of the puzzle is devices to acquire long-term high-quality data. When this void is filled, seizure prediction will become a reality.

  1. A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ping Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. METHODOLOGY: This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn, statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. CONCLUSION: We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system.

  2. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila.

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    Arunesh Saras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bang sensitive (BS Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like phenotypes resembling, in some aspects, those of human seizure disorders such as epilepsy. The BS mutant parabss1, caused by a gain-of-function mutation of the voltage-gated Na+ channel gene, is extremely seizure-sensitive with phenotypes that have proven difficult to ameliorate by anti-epileptic drug feeding or by seizure-suppressor mutation. It has been presented as a model for intractable human epilepsy. Here we show that cacophony (cacTS2, a mutation of the Drosophila presynaptic Ca++ channel α1 subunit gene, is a particularly potent seizure-suppressor mutation, reverting seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 and other BS mutants. Seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 may be suppressed by as much as 90% in double mutant combinations with cacTS2. Unexpectedly, we find that parabss1 also reciprocally suppresses cacTS2 seizure-like phenotypes. The cacTS2 mutant displays these seizure-like behaviors and spontaneous high-frequency action potential firing transiently after exposure to high temperature. We find that this seizure-like behavior in cacTS2 is ameliorated by 85% in double mutant combinations with parabss1.

  3. Delta opioid receptors expressed in forebrain GABAergic neurons are responsible for SNC80-induced seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUNG, Paul CHU SIN; BOEHRER, Annie; STEPHAN, Aline; MATIFAS, Audrey; SCHERRER, Gregory; DARCQ, Emmanuel; BEFORT, Katia; KIEFFER, Brigitte L.

    2014-01-01

    The delta opioid receptor (DOR) has raised much interest for the development of new therapeutic drugs, particularly to treat patients suffering from mood disorders and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the prototypal DOR agonist SNC80 induces mild epileptic seizures in rodents. Although recently developed agonists do not seem to show convulsant properties, mechanisms and neuronal circuits that support DOR-mediated epileptic seizures remain to be clarified. DORs are expressed throughout the nervous system. In this study we tested the hypothesis that SNC80-evoked seizures stem from DOR activity at the level of forebrain GABAergic transmission, whose inhibition is known to facilitate the development of epileptic seizures. We generated a conditional DOR knockout mouse line, targeting the receptor gene specifically in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain (Dlx-DOR). We measured effects of SNC80 (4.5, 9, 13.5 and 32 mg/kg), ARM390 (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) or ADL5859 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) administration on electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded in Dlx-DOR mice and their control littermates (Ctrl mice). SNC80 produced dose-dependent seizure events in Ctrl mice, but these effects were not detected in Dlx-DOR mice. As expected, ARM390 and ADL5859 did not trigger any detectable change in mice from both genotypes. These results demonstrate for the first time that SNC80-induced DOR activation induces epileptic seizures via direct inhibition of GABAergic forebrain neurons, and supports the notion of differential activities between first and second-generation DOR agonists. PMID:25447299

  4. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Latka, M; Kozik, A; West, B J; Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous, pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  5. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-05-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  6. Seizures and movement disorders induced by hyperglycemia without ketosis in elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Younes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKHG may increase the probability of seizures and movement disorders.We describe a series of 14 elders admitted for seizures and movement disorders linked to NKHG.Twelve patients developed motor seizures and two others movement disorders. Glucose levels varied 9.28 to 32 mmol/l, while osmolarity values varied from 302.28 to 328 mosmol/l. All patients responded well to insulin therapy and four of them needed anti-epileptic drugs.Seizures or movement disorders in elderly with NKHG could be misdiagnosed as neurological diseases. Blood glucose must be audited whenever patients with seizures or movement disorders are encountered, as the condition may quickly resolve when NKHG is controlled.

  7. Mozart's music in children with drug-refractory epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Toro, Annacarmela; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Ferrarioli, Giuseppe; Pisano, Simone; Viggiano, Andrea; Verrotti, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in both adults and young patients. In this prospective, open-label study, we evaluated the effect of listening to a set of Mozart's compositions, according to the Tomatis method, on sleep quality and behavioral disorders, including auto-/hetero-aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity, in a group of children and adolescents with drug-resistant epilepsy. The study group was composed of 11 outpatients (7 males and 4 females), between 1.5years and 21years of age (mean age: 11.9years), all suffering from drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy (n=11). All of them had a severe/profound intellectual disability associated with cerebral palsy. During the study period, each patient had to listen to a set of Mozart's compositions 2h per day for fifteen days for a total of 30h, which could be distributed over the day depending on the habits and compliance of each patient. The music was filtered by a device preferably delivering higher sound frequencies (>3000Hz) according to the Tomatis principles. The antiepileptic drug therapy remained unchanged throughout the study period. During the 15-day music therapy, 2 out of 11 patients had a reduction of 50-75% in seizure recurrence, and 3 out of 12 patients had a reduction of 75-89%. Overall, 5 (45.4%) out of 11 patients had a ≥50% reduction in the total number of seizures, while the percentage decrease of the total seizure number (11/11) compared with baseline was -51.5% during the 15-day music therapy and -20.7% in the two weeks after the end of treatment. All responders also had an improvement in nighttime sleep and daytime behavior. PMID:26093514

  8. : Seizure onset zone imaging

    OpenAIRE

    David, Olivier; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Job, Anne-Sophie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Hoffmann, Dominique,; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localize the seizure onset zone and connected neuronal networks in surgical candidates suffering from intractable focal epilepsy. The concept of an epileptogenicity index has been proposed recently to represent the likelihood of various regions being part of the seizure onset zone. It quantifies low-voltage fast activity, the electrophysiological signature of seizure onset usually assessed visually by neurologists. Here, we re...

  9. A novel seizure detection algorithm informed by hidden Markov model event states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Steven; Wulsin, Drausin; Ung, Hoameng; Blevins, Tyler; Brown, Mesha-Gay; Fox, Emily; Litt, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Recently the FDA approved the first responsive, closed-loop intracranial device to treat epilepsy. Because these devices must respond within seconds of seizure onset and not miss events, they are tuned to have high sensitivity, leading to frequent false positive stimulations and decreased battery life. In this work, we propose a more robust seizure detection model. Approach. We use a Bayesian nonparametric Markov switching process to parse intracranial EEG (iEEG) data into distinct dynamic event states. Each event state is then modeled as a multidimensional Gaussian distribution to allow for predictive state assignment. By detecting event states highly specific for seizure onset zones, the method can identify precise regions of iEEG data associated with the transition to seizure activity, reducing false positive detections associated with interictal bursts. The seizure detection algorithm was translated to a real-time application and validated in a small pilot study using 391 days of continuous iEEG data from two dogs with naturally occurring, multifocal epilepsy. A feature-based seizure detector modeled after the NeuroPace RNS System was developed as a control. Main results. Our novel seizure detection method demonstrated an improvement in false negative rate (0/55 seizures missed versus 2/55 seizures missed) as well as a significantly reduced false positive rate (0.0012 h versus 0.058 h-1). All seizures were detected an average of 12.1 ± 6.9 s before the onset of unequivocal epileptic activity (unequivocal epileptic onset (UEO)). Significance. This algorithm represents a computationally inexpensive, individualized, real-time detection method suitable for implantable antiepileptic devices that may considerably reduce false positive rate relative to current industry standards.

  10. The psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Vozikis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that leads to occasional epileptic seizures, affecting the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the current psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece and to identify the main differences as compared to a former similar research. Material and Methods: A sample of 91 questionnaires, from a total of 350 inpatients with epilepsy at a Public Hospital, during the years 2008 to 2009 (response rate 26%. For data analysis, we used simple descriptive statistical analysis (at significance level of α=5% and α=10% and factor analysis, using SPSS 16.0. Results: Our research showed that the quality of life of people with epilepsy in Greece seems to have improved significantly during the last decade, as their crises have been reduced by 15,7% and their employment has increased by 13% . Conclusions: All that mean that these people are no longer been placed in the margin of society and they succeed in living a normal life with the certain limitations of their disease.

  11. Epileptic neuronal networks: methods of identification andclinical relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann eStefan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine evidence for the concept that epileptic activityshould be envisaged in terms of functional connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks,Basic concepts regarding structure and dynamics of neuronal networks are briefly described.Particular attention is given to approaches that are derived, or related, to the concept ofcausality, as formulated by Granger. Linear and non linear methodologies aiming atcharacterizing the dynamics of neuronal networks applied to EEG/MEG and combined EEG/fMRI signals in epilepsy are critically reviewed. The relevance of functional dynamicalanalysis of neuronal networks with respect to clinical queries in focal cortical dysplasias,temporal lobe epilepsies and "generalized epilepsies is emphasized. In the light of theconcepts of epileptic neuronal networks, and recent experimental findings, the dichotomicclassification in focal and generalized epilepsy is re-evaluated. It is proposed that so-called"generalized epilepsies", such as absence seizures, are actually fast spreading epilepsies, theonset of which can be tracked down to particular neuronal networks using appropriatenetwork analysis. Finally new approaches to delineate epileptogenic networks are discussed.

  12. Epileptic neuronal networks: methods of identification and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Hermann; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine evidence for the concept that epileptic activity should be envisaged in terms of functional connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks. Basic concepts regarding structure and dynamics of neuronal networks are briefly described. Particular attention is given to approaches that are derived, or related, to the concept of causality, as formulated by Granger. Linear and non-linear methodologies aiming at characterizing the dynamics of neuronal networks applied to EEG/MEG and combined EEG/fMRI signals in epilepsy are critically reviewed. The relevance of functional dynamical analysis of neuronal networks with respect to clinical queries in focal cortical dysplasias, temporal lobe epilepsies, and "generalized" epilepsies is emphasized. In the light of the concepts of epileptic neuronal networks, and recent experimental findings, the dichotomic classification in focal and generalized epilepsy is re-evaluated. It is proposed that so-called "generalized epilepsies," such as absence seizures, are actually fast spreading epilepsies, the onset of which can be tracked down to particular neuronal networks using appropriate network analysis. Finally new approaches to delineate epileptogenic networks are discussed.

  13. Epileptic nystagmus: A case report and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Uk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Even though the localizing value of epileptic nystagmus seems limited in previous reports, the fast phase of epileptic nystagmus was almost always directed away from the epileptic focus that mostly arose from the posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere.

  14. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Focused ultrasound-mediated suppression of chemically-induced acute epileptic EEG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong-An

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, which is attributed to uncontrollable abnormal hyper-excitability of neurons. We investigated the feasibility of using low-intensity, pulsed radiation of focused ultrasound (FUS to non-invasively suppress epileptic activity in an animal model (rat, which was induced by the intraperitonial injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ. Results After the onset of induced seizures, FUS was transcranially administered to the brain twice for three minutes each while undergoing electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. An air-backed, spherical segment ultrasound transducer (diameter: 6 cm; radius-of-curvature: 7 cm operating at a fundamental frequency of 690 KHz was used to deliver a train of 0.5 msec-long pulses of sonication at a repetitive rate of 100 Hz to the thalamic areas of the brain. The acoustic intensity (130 mW/cm2 used in the experiment was sufficiently within the range of safety guidelines for the clinical ultrasound imaging. The occurrence of epileptic EEG bursts from epilepsy-induced rats significantly decreased after sonication when it was compared to the pre-sonication epileptic state. The PTZ-induced control group that did not receive any sonication showed a sustained number of epileptic EEG signal bursts. The animals that underwent sonication also showed less severe epileptic behavior, as assessed by the Racine score. Histological analysis confirmed that the sonication did not cause any damage to the brain tissue. Conclusions These results revealed that low-intensity, pulsed FUS sonication suppressed the number of epileptic signal bursts using acute epilepsy model in animal. Due to its non-invasiveness and spatial selectivity, FUS may offer new perspectives for a possible non-invasive treatment of epilepsy.

  16. Cognitive functions of epileptic patients on monotherapy with phenobarbitone and healthy controls

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    Mônica M. Bigarella

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measurements have indicated that heredity, cerebral damage, psycho-social aspects, ictal and inter-ictal phenomena and antiepileptic drugs may interfere in the cognitive dysfunction of epileptic patients. In the present study objective methods included immediate and late recall and recognition of pictures, Stroop test and auditory selection. Twenty patients with symptomatic localized epilepsy aged 17-52 years (27±10, mean ±sd were compared to age and socially matched healthy controls. Patients were on therapeutic serum concentrations (25±12 m/mi of phenobarbitone and had active epilepsy with 1.94 generalized tonic-clonic, 0.85 simple partial and 6.28 complex partial seizures monthly (means. Patients performed worse than controls in all 6 tests (p<0.05 to p<0.001, indicating a generalized cognitive deficit related to seizures and/or barbiturate therapy. We suggest further studies should be carried out in populations with uniform monotherapeutic regimens and epileptic syndromes in order to isolate factors related to the cognitive dysfunction of epileptic patients.

  17. Epileptic Pattern Recognition and Discovery of the Local Field Potential in Amygdala Kindling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Yin-Lin; Su, Alvin Wen-Yu; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2016-03-01

    Epileptogenesis, which occurs in an epileptic brain, is an important focus for epilepsy. The spectral analysis has been popularly applied to study the electrophysiological activities. However, the resolution is dominated by the window function of the algorithm used and the sample size. In this report, a temporal waveform analysis method is proposed to investigate the relationship of electrophysiological discharges and motor outcomes with a kindling process. Wistar rats were subjected to electrical amygdala kindling to induce temporal lobe epilepsy. During the kindling process, different morphologies of afterdischarges (ADs) were found and a recognition method, using template matching techniques combined with morphological comparators, was developed to automatically detect the epileptic patterns. The recognition results were compared to manually labeled results, and 79%-91% sensitivity was found. In addition, the initial ADs (the first 10 s) of different seizure stages were specifically utilized for recognition, and an average of 85% sensitivity was achieved. Our study provides an alternative viewpoint away from frequency analysis and time-frequency analysis to investigate epileptogenesis in an epileptic brain. The recognition method can be utilized as a preliminary inspection tool to identify remarkable changes in a patient's electrophysiological activities for clinical use. Moreover, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting behavioral seizure stages from the early epileptiform discharges.

  18. Neo-Timm staining in the thalamus of chronically epileptic rats

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    Hamani C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is an important modulator of seizures and is severely affected in cholinergic models of epilepsy. In the present study, chronically epileptic rats had their brains processed for neo-Timm and acetylcholinesterase two months after the induction of status epilepticus with pilocarpine. Both controls and pilocarpine-treated animals presented neo-Timm staining in the anterodorsal nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, reticular nucleus, most intralaminar nuclei, nucleus reuniens, and rhomboid nucleus of the thalamus, as well as in the zona incerta. The intensity of neo-Timm staining was similar in control and pilocarpine-treated rats, except for the nucleus reuniens and the rhomboid nucleus, which had a lower intensity of staining in the epileptic group. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy, zinc seems to modulate glutamate release and to decrease seizure activity. In this context, a reduction of neo-Timm-stained terminals in the midline thalamus could ultimately result in an increased excitatory activity, not only within its related nuclei, but also in anatomical structures that receive their efferent connections. This might contribute to the pathological substrate observed in chronic pilocarpine-treated epileptic animals.

  19. De novo loss-of-function mutations in CHD2 cause a fever-sensitive myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy sharing features with Dravet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suls, Arvid; Jaehn, Johanna A; Kecskés, Angela;

    2013-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by infantile onset of therapy-resistant, fever-sensitive seizures followed by cognitive decline. Mutations in SCN1A explain about 75% of cases with Dravet syndrome; 90% of these mutations arise de novo. We studied a cohort of nine Dravet...... CHD2 mutation was identified in an epileptic proband of a second (stage 2) cohort. All three individuals with a CHD2 mutation had intellectual disability and fever-sensitive generalized seizures, as well as prominent myoclonic seizures starting in the second year of life or later. To explore...

  20. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

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    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  1. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C; LaCoursiere, Christopher M; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  2. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Meyer

    Full Text Available Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting, and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development.

  3. Viruses and febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    We conclude that viral infections are the main cause of febrile seizures, with an important role for influenza A, HHV-6 and HHV-7. We showed that several viral infections not only contribute to initial febrile seizures, but also to recurrences. Viruses could not be detected in the CSF of children wi

  4. FEBRILE SEIZURE AND ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConsidering the controversial results in present day literature regarding the relationship between febrile seizures and anemia and the high rate of such seizures in children, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between pediatric febrile seizures and anemia.Material and MethodsIn this case-control study, conducted in 2003, 60 children with febrile seizure(cases and 60 febrile children without seizure(controls were evaluated in the Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital; all patients were matched for age, sex, type of feeding, and use of supplemental iron. Thirty-six (60% and 39 (65% of the patients in case and control groups respectively were male, and the remaining female. Levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell indices were determined in all children and Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze data.ResultsOf the case group, 13.3% (6 male, 2 female and of controls, 20% (9 male, 3 female of children had anemia (p= 0.327, the condition being more common in male children aged over 6 months. Febrile seizures were found to occur mostly between the ages of 6 to 24 months.ConclusionThe risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children seems to be less than that in children who do not suffer from the condition.Keywords:Febrile seizure, Anemia, Children

  5. MOTHERS’ EXPERIENCE REGARDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAIRY PRODUCTS AND THEIR CHILDREN’S SEIZURES

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    Razieh FALLAH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveEpilepsy is one of the most important problems in neurology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products and seizures of the epileptic children based on their mothers' experience.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive- analytic study, mothers' experience regarding the relationship between dairy products and seizures of their children was evaluated via a questionnaire. This research was done in the pediatric neurology clinic of Shaheed Sadoughi Medical Sciences University- Yazd- Iran in 2007.ResultsOne hundred and forty eight mothers with an age range of 17-52 years (mean ± SD: 31.6 ± 6.6 years were evaluated. Their children were 58.5% boys and 41.5% girls with an age range of 1-18 years (mean ± SD: 6.6 ± 4.2 years.The most common dairy products which provoked seizure based on mothers' experience, were milk and ice cream. The effect of different kinds of dairy products was not different between males and female children. Mothers who experienced the effect of dried whey (kashk in Persian on seizure were younger than others. Lack of correlation between milk and ice cream on seizures was reported in educated mothers.ConclusionParent education on the diet of their epileptic children is necessary. On the other hand, extracting of suspicious food ingredients and testing them on animal models, should be done by other researches.Keywords:Seizure, Dairy products, Epilepsy

  6. INTRACTABLE SEIZURE DISORDERS: EFFICACY OF THE CLASSIC KETOGENIC DIET

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    P. Karimzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low carbohydrate, adequate protein diet,developed in the 1920s for the management of intractable seizure disorders in children. To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of the classic ketogenic diet, we analyzed records of the children started on the diet from 1999 to 2006 at the Mofid children's hospital.Materials & MethodsThe subjects were 87 children, mean age 55 months. Before initiation of the diet, 55% of the patients had seizures, at least 1-4 times per day, 36% - 5 or more per day and 9% - 2 to 4 times per week. Mean number of Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs tried for them was 8 and 67% were receiving three or more drugs.ResultsThe ketogenic diet showed drastic improvement, with at least 50% reduction in seizure frequency in 87% of our patients, 39% of whom showed complete seizure control in the third month. After one year, in 80% of the patients who returned, improvement continued, with 26% of them being seizure free; besides, 23% had one AED decreased, 36% had two or three AEDs decreased, and 25% (one child had all AEDs discontinued. Of the 30 improved cases, 20%, at the end of the first year, had improved behavior as well, and 23% of them had become more alert. The median diet duration of the improved group was 15 months.ConclusionThe improvement in our patients, low side effects, and the duration of diet by families reveal that the ketogenic diet can still be a very useful alternative therapy in certain epileptic children.

  7. Ultrastructural changes to rat hippocampus in pentylenetetrazol- and kainic acid-induced status epilepticus: A study using electron microscopy.

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    Zhvania, Mzia G; Ksovreli, Mariam; Japaridze, Nadezhda J; Lordkipanidze, Tamar G

    2015-07-01

    A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus model in rats was used in the study. The brains were studied one month after treatment. Ultrastructural observations using electron microscopy performed on the neurons, glial cells, and synapses, in the hippocampal CA1 region of epileptic brains, demonstrated the following major changes over normal control brain tissue. (i) There is ultrastructural alterations in some neurons, glial cells and synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. (ii) The destruction of cellular organelles and peripheral, partial or even total chromatolysis in some pyramidal cells and in interneurons are observed. Several astrocytes are proliferated or activated. Presynaptic terminals with granular vesicles and degenerated presynaptic profiles are rarely observed. (iii) The alterations observed are found to be dependent on the frequency of seizure activities following the PTZ treatment. It was observed that if seizure episodes are frequent and severe, the ultrastructure of hippocampal area is significantly changed. Interestingly, the ultrastructure of CA1 area is found to be only moderately altered if seizure episodes following the status epilepticus are rare and more superficial; (iv) alterations in mitochondria and dendrites are among the most common ultrastructural changes seen, suggesting cell stress and changes to cellular metabolism. These morphological changes, observed in brain neurons in status epilepticus, are a reflection of epileptic pathophysiology. Further studies at the chemical and molecular level of neurotransmitter release, such as at the level of porosomes (secretory portals) at the presynaptic membrane, will further reveal molecular details of these changes.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Idiopathic Tonic-Clonic Seizure

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    Behnaz Sedighi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders severely affect the quality of life of epileptic patients. Due to the lack of adequate research, in the present study we assessed psychiatric disorders in patients with idiopathic tonic-clonic seizure. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-cross-sectional research was conducted on 170 patients using the SCL-90-R questionnaire and the results were analyzed by t-test and χ2 test. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients was 38.8%. In order, the highest frequency belonged to obsessive compulsive, depression and interpersonal sensitivity 46.5%. Conclusion: Mental disorders are present in a high percentage of epileptic patients, which shows the need for psychological evaluation.

  9. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H;

    2000-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are major zinc binding proteins in the CNS that could be involved in the control of zinc metabolism as well as in protection against oxidative stress. Mice lacking MT-I and MT-II (MT-I + II deficient) because of targeted gene inactivation were injected with kainic acid (KA)...

  10. Accelerometry-based home monitoring for detection of nocturnal hypermotor seizures based on novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppens, Kris; Karsmakers, Peter; Van de Vel, Anouk; Bonroy, Bert; Milosevic, Milica; Luca, Stijn; Croonenborghs, Tom; Ceulemans, Berten; Lagae, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal home monitoring of epileptic children is often not feasible due to the cumbersome manner of seizure monitoring with the standard method of video/EEG-monitoring. We propose a method for hypermotor seizure detection based on accelerometers attached to the extremities. From the acceleration signals, multiple temporal, frequency, and wavelet-based features are extracted. After determining the features with the highest discriminative power, we classify movement events in epileptic and nonepileptic movements. This classification is only based on a nonparametric estimate of the probability density function of normal movements. Such approach allows us to build patient-specific models to classify movement data without the need for seizure data that are rarely available. If, in the test phase, the probability of a data point (event) is lower than a threshold, this event is considered to be an epileptic seizure; otherwise, it is considered as a normal nocturnal movement event. The mean performance over seven patients gives a sensitivity of 95.24% and a positive predictive value of 60.04%. However, there is a noticeable interpatient difference. PMID:24122607

  11. Synaptic vesicle protein2A decreases in amygdaloid-kindling pharmcoresistant epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Li-kun; Wu, Guo-feng

    2015-10-01

    Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) involvement has been reported in the animal models of epilepsy and in human intractable epilepsy. The difference between pharmacosensitive epilepsy and pharmacoresistant epilepsy remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to observe the hippocampus SV2A protein expression in amygdale-kindling pharmacoresistant epileptic rats. The pharmacosensitive epileptic rats served as control. Amygdaloid-kindling model of epilepsy was established in 100 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The kindled rat model of epilepsy was used to select pharmacoresistance by testing their seizure response to phenytoin and phenobarbital. The selected pharmacoresistant rats were assigned to a pharmacoresistant epileptic group (PRE group). Another 12 pharmacosensitive epileptic rats (PSE group) served as control. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine SV2A expression in the hippocampus tissue samples from both the PRE and the PSE rats. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that SV2A was mainly accumulated in the cytoplasm of the neurons, as well as along their dendrites throughout all subfields of the hippocampus. Immunoreactive staining level of SV2A-positive cells was 0.483 ± 0.304 in the PRE group and 0.866 ± 0.090 in the PSE group (P kindling rats.

  12. Treadmill exercise prevents GABAergic neuronal loss with suppression of neuronal activation in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Baek-Vin; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizure and loss of neuronal cells by abnormal rhythmic firing of neurons in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal loss in relation with neuronal activation using pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, control and treadmill exercise group, pilocarpine-induced epilepsy group, and pilocarpine-i...

  13. [A study of 95 families having at least two epileptic children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, B; Patry, G

    1979-01-01

    This report concerns a study of 95 families in which at least two of the children had epilepsy (a total of 210 cases). A total of 45 p. 100 of the patients were from 60 p. 100 of the families and had an intellectual level below the average, and 32 p. 100 of them had an IQ below 70. The family history was the same whether the children were mentally deficient or not. There was no family history of mental deficiency in those families where the epileptic children had a normal IQ but there was a positive family history in 25 p. 100 of families having at least one mentally deficient and epileptic child. The persistence of seizures after 5 years of treatment is seen much more frequently in mentally deficient children than in those with normal intelligence. Finally, the position of the child within the family has no influence and epilepsy may be found in any of the children. PMID:115068

  14. Lorazepam : an adjuvant therapy in patients with seizure and heliotaxis.

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    Oomman A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of reflex epilepsy. Five percent of epileptics are photosensitive, i.e. they show photoconvulsive response (PCR during intermittent photic stimulation. Patients with photogenic or photosensitive epilepsy have seizures with flickering light. They also exhibit heliotaxis. Sodium valproate and ethosuximide are the common drugs used. Even though benzodiazepines are useful, the specific effect of lorazepam is not mentioned. We report 5 cases of photosensitive epilepsy with inadequate response to usual antiepileptic drugs who had complete or near complete remission with lorazepam.

  15. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation

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    Ali DELPISHEH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Delpisheh A, Veisani Y, Sayehmiri K, Fayyazi A. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3:30-37. AbstractObjectiveFebrile seizures (FSs are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children.Materials & MethodsOn the computerized literature valid databases, the FS prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects model. A metaregression analysis was introduced to explore heterogeneity between studies. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using Stata10.ResultsThe important viral or bacterial infection causes of FSs were; recent upper respiratory infection 42.3% (95% CI: 37.2%–47.4%, gastroenteritis21.5% (95% CI: 13.6%–29.4%, and otitis media infections15.2% (95% CI: 9.8%- 20.7% respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of FS among other childhood convulsions was 47.9% (95% CI: 38.8–59.9%. The meta–regression analysis showed that the sample size does not significantly affect heterogeneity for the factor ‘prevalence FS’.ConclusionsAlmost half of all childhood convulsions among Iranian children are associated with Febrile seizure. ReferencesFelipe L, Siqueira M. febrile seizures: update on diagnosis and management. Siqueira LFM. 2010;56 (4:489–92.Oka E, Ishida S, Ohtsuka Y, Ohtahara S. Neuroepidemiological Study of Childhood Epilepsy by Application of International Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes (ILAE, 1989. Epilepsia. 1995;36 (7:658–61.Shi X, Lin Z, Ye X, Hu Y, Zheng F, Hu H. An epidemiological survey of febrile convulsions among pupils in the Wenzhou region. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Feb;14 (2:128–30.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child

  16. Treating Lennox–Gastaut syndrome in epileptic pediatric patients with third-generation rufinamide

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    Jessica Gresham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Gresham1, Lea S Eiland2,3, Allison M Chung2,41Auburn University, Harrison School of Pharmacy (AUHSOP, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, AUHSOP, 3University of Alabama, School of Medicine, Huntsville Regional Medical Campus, 4University of South Alabama School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Mobile, Alabama, USAAbstract: Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS is a rare but debilitating pediatric epileptic encephalopathy characterized by multiple intractable seizure types. Treatment of LGS is challenging because of the small number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs which are effective for this syndrome, as well as the need for polytherapy in the majority of patients. This review focuses on the treatment of LGS with rufinamide, a recently approved third-generation AED with reported efficacy as adjunctive therapy for LGS. All relevant papers identified through a PubMed search on the treatment of LGS with rufinamide were reviewed. To date, the literature suggests improvements in seizure frequency for pediatric patients with LGS on rufinamide. Rufinamide appears to be especially effective for atonic or drop attack seizures. Rufinamide also displays a favorable adverse event profile compared with the older anticonvulsants, as well as a minimal number of drug interactions, making it a promising option for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS.Keywords: epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, pediatrics, seizure, rufinamide

  17. Mechanism of Seizure Termination

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and organized according to membranes, synapses, networks, and circuits are reviewed by researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

  18. Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

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    José F. Tellez-Zenteno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available José F. Tellez-Zenteno1, Cesar Serrano-Almeida2, Farzad Moien-Afshari11Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.Keywords: epilepsy, gelastic seizures, epilepsy surgery, hypothalamic hamartoma, intractable epilepsy

  19. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

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    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  20. A Case of Fahr Syndrome Presenting with Seizures

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    Mustafa Calik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fahr syndrome is characterized with calcification in basal ganglia, dentate nucleus of cerebellum and centrum semiovale. Frequent clinical findings include Parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, chorea, ataxia, dementia, and mood disorders. 13 years old male was admitted with generalized tonic-clonic seizures in our clinic. His neurological examination was normal. No abnormalities were determined in biochemical and hormonal examinations. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated alterations in signal intensity suggestive of extensive calcifications in basal ganglia, thalami, periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale. Although, extra pyramidal system findings are the most common signs in Fahr syndrome, we aimed to point out that some of the patients might also present with epileptic seizures.

  1. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on astrocyte expression and glutamine synthetase activity in the hippocampal region of epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiling Zhang; Shuqiu Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that astrocyte dysfunction plays a central role in inhibiting epileptic seizures and that regulation of astrocyte function may be a new target for treatment of epilepsy.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder (GLSP) on astrocyte morphology and ghitamine synthetase (GS) activity in the hippocampal region of epileptic rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled animal experiment was performed at the Function Laboratory, College of Basic Medicine, Jiamusi University between October and December 2006.MATERIALS: A total of 30 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to three groups (n = 10): control,model, and GLSP. GLSP was sourced from Jiamusi Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Planting Base and prepared to 30 g/L with physiological saline before use. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (10 g/L) was provided by Sigma Company, USA.METHODS: The control group received intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intragastric (i.g.) physiological saline.Following epilepsy induction by i.p. administration of PTZ (35 mg/kg), rats from the model and GLSP groups were ig injected with physiological saline and GLSP (300 mg/kg), respectively. Each compound was administered once per day, for a total of 28 successive days. Epileptic seizure convulsions were graded 0-5. A higher grade indicated more severe epilepsy. Only those rats showing stage 2 or higher convulsions at least 5 times successively were included in further experiments.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immediately after injection, seizure activity was monitored for 30 minutes to determine the latent period and seizure duration; simultaneously, astrocyte numbers and GS activity in the hippocampal region of rats with epilepsy were detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: All 30 rats were included in the final analysis. On day 28, following PTZ administration epileptic seizures were not found in the control group. In the GLSP group, rats exhibited rhythmic head nodding or facial spasms

  2. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

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    Mathew Jobin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P Aά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P Aά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.

  3. A RECURRENT ELMAN NEURAL NETWORK - BASED APPROACH TO DETECT THE PRESENCE OF EPILEPTIC ATTACK IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG SIGNALS

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    Mr.S.Sundaram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic attack persons are detected largely on the analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The EEG signals recordings generate very bulk data which require a skilled and careful analysis. This method can be automated based on Elman Neural Network by using a time frequency domain characteristics of EEG signal called Approximate Entropy (ApEn. This method consists of EEG collection of data, extraction and classification. EEG data from normal persons and epileptic affected persons was collected, digitized and then fed into the Elman neural network. This proposed system proposes a neural-network-based automated epileptic EEG detection system that uses approximate entropy (ApEn as the input feature. Approximate Entropy (ApEn [1] is a statistical parameter that measures the predictability of the current amplitude values of a physiological signal based on its previous amplitude values. It is known that the value of the Approximate Entropy drops sharply during an epileptic attack[2]and this fact is used in the proposed system. Type of a neural network namely, Elman neural network is considered in this paper. The experimental results portray that this proposed approach efficiently detects the presence of epileptic seizures[3] in EEG signals and showed a reasonable accuracy.

  4. Transient changes in the limbic histaminergic system after systemic kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Sallmen, Tina; Karlstedt, Kaj; Panula, Pertti

    2005-10-01

    Increased brain histamine is reported to protect against convulsions. We used systemic kainic acid (KA) administration to study possible changes of the histaminergic system in rat brain in status epilepticus (SE). Robust increases in brain histamine concentrations and numbers of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were detected in the piriform cortex (Pir) and amygdala after KA injection, suggesting a reactive increase, which is opposite to other published aminergic transmitter responses. These changes, lasting several weeks, might be coupled to a mechanism unrelated to the anticonvulsive function of histamine. Transient increases in mRNA expression of H(3) receptor isoforms with a full-length third intracellular loop, coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were detected first in the hippocampal CA3c area, followed by the Pir and amygdala and then the hippocampal CA1 area. These results suggest that histamine and H3 receptors, which also control the release of GABA and glutamate, might be involved in convulsive SE.

  5. Seizures Induced by Music

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    A. O. Ogunyemi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  6. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART I

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    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghofrani M. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART I. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 1- 5. The approach to a child who has experienced a first unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizure is challenging and at the same time controversial.How to establish the diagnosis, ways and means of investigation and whether treatment is appropriate, are different aspects of this subject.In this writing the above mentioned matters are discussed.References1. Bluvstein JS, Moshe SL. First unprovoked seizure CurrentManagement in child Neurology, third ed. 2005.P.89-92.2. Hirtz D, Berg A, Bettis D, et al. Practice Parameter: treatment of the child with a first unprovoked seizure. American Academy of Neurology 2003;60:166-175.3. Verity GM, Ross EN, Golding J. Epilepsy in the first ten years of life: finding of the child health and education study. Br Med J 1992;305:857-861.4. Camfiled CS, Camfield PB, Gordon K, et al. Incidence of epilepsy in childhood and adolescence: A populationbasedstudy in Nova Scotia from 1977 to 1985. Epilepsia 1996;37:19-23.5. Hauser W, Annegers J, Kurland L. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizure in Rochester, Minnisota, 1935- 1984. Epilepsia 1993;34:453-468.6. Jallon P, Goumaz M, Haenggeli G, Morabia A. Incidenceof first epileptic seizure in the canton of Geneve Switzerland. Epilepsia 1997;38:547-552.7. Camfiled PR, Camfiled CS. Pediatric Epilepsy: An overview. Swaiman’s pediatric Neurology, 5th ed, 2012. P.703-710.8. Gowers WB. Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive diseases; their causes, symptoms and treatment. London: J&A Churchill,1881. P.242.9. Goddard GV, Mc Intyre DC, Leech CK. A permanent change in brain function resulting from daily electrical stimulation- Exp Neural 1969;25:295-330.10. Berg AT, Shinnar S. Do seizures beget seizure? An assessment of the clinical evidence in human. J ClinicalNeurophysiol 1993: 14: 102-110.11. Wasterlain CG. Recurrent seizures in developing brain

  7. A STUDY OF EPILEPTIC PSYCHOSES - 150 CASES

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    Swamy, H. Satyanarayana; Mallikarjunaiah, M.; Bhatti, Ranbir S.; Kaliaperumal, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and fifty patients of epileptic psychosis, registered over a period of five years in neuropsychiatry clinics at NIMHANS were studied. Patients with organic causes which may produce both epilepsy and psychosis were excluded. The epileptic psychosis ratio to epilepsy was 1:23 and the epileptic psychosis ratio to psychosis was 1:75. The mean age at the onset of epilepsy was 19.4 years, while the mean age at the onset of psychosis was 29 years and thus the mean duration of epi...

  8. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

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    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  9. MOTHERS’ EXPERIENCE REGARDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAIRY PRODUCTS AND THEIR CHILDREN’S SEIZURES

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    FALLAH Razieh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveEpilepsy is one of the most important problems in neurology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products and seizures of the epileptic children based on their mothers' experience.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive- analytic study, mothers' experience regarding the relationship between dairy products and seizures of their children was evaluated via a questionnaire. This research was done in the pediatric neurology clinic of Shaheed Sadoughi Medical Sciences University- Yazd- Iran in 2007.ResultsOne hundred and forty eight mothers with an age range of 17-52 years (mean ± SD: 31.6 ± 6.6 years were evaluated. Their children were 58.5% boys and 41.5% girls with an age range of 1-18 years (mean ± SD: 6.6 ± 4.2 years.The most common dairy products which provoked seizure based on mothers' experience, were milk and ice cream. The effect of different kinds of dairy products was not different between males and female children. Mothers who experienced the effect of dried whey (kashk in Persian on seizure were younger than others. Lack of correlation between milk and ice cream on seizures was reported in educated mothers.ConclusionParent education on the diet of their epileptic children is necessary. On the other hand, extracting of suspicious food ingredients and testing them on animal models, should be done by other researches.

  10. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  11. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    response were the number of anti-epileptic drugs (β = -0.27, P = 0.05) and sleep quality (β = 0.30, P = 0.03). In conclusion, we show that children with acute stress-sensitive seizures have a decreased cortisol response to stress. These results support our hypothesis that stress-sensitivity of seizures is associated with alterations of the stress response, thereby providing a first step in unravelling the mechanisms behind the seizure-precipitating effects of stress. Increased knowledge of the relation between stress and seizures in childhood epilepsy might benefit our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying epilepsy and ictogenesis in general, and provide valuable clues to direct the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy. PMID:26049086

  12. 热性惊厥相关癫痫患者抗癫痫药物治疗疗效及与电压依赖性钠通道α1亚基基因突变的关系%Efficacy of anti-epileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and the relation with voltage-gated sodium channel α1-subunit gene mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐; 何娜; 刘晓蓉; 黎冰梅; 徐海清; 石奕武; 高玫梅; 易咏红; 廖卫平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of seizure control by anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (EFS +),and explore the proper medication choice in early stage of EFS + and its relation with voltage-gated sodium channel α1-subunit (SCN1A) gene mutations.Methods In 202 patients with EFS +,the data of detected voltage-gated SCN1A gene mutations and their treatment history by AEDs were retrospectively reviewed.The comparative analysis of efficacy of seizure control was performed in each AED administrated and further compared between EFS + patients with or without SCN1A gene mutations.Results Nine AEDs were administered in more than 10 cases,including valproate (VPA),topiramete (TPM),clonazepam (CNZ),phenobarbital (PB),levetiracetam (LEV),lamotrigine (LTG),carbamazepine (CBZ),oxcarbazepine (OXC) and phenytoin (PHT).Combined therapy was predominant (166/202,82.2%).Compared with other AEDs,the improvement rates were the highest in VPA (169/187,90.4%),TPM (111/120,92.5%) and CNZ (69/78,88.5% ;P =0.000),and were lowest in PHT and LTG (0 and 8.9% (4/45); P < 0.01).The improvement rate (58.1% (25/43) and 44.7% (21/47)) and no change rate (39.5% (17/43) and 48.9% (23/47)) of PB and LEV were approximately intermediate,without statistically significant difference between them but with statistically significant difference with others (P < 0.01).The aggravation rats of LTG and CBZ were the highest (57.8% (26/45) and 36.7% (18/49)) followed by OXC and PHT(33.3% (15/45) and 26.9% (7/26)).All of them showed statistically significant difference compared with others (P < 0.01).The aggravation rate of LTG in patients with SCN1A mutations (13/16,81.3%) was significantly higher than those without SCN1A mutations (13/29,44.8%),and there was statistically significant difference between them (x2 =5.607,P =0.018); similarly,the aggravation rates of CBZ,OXC and PHT showed an increased tendency,but no significant

  13. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; C. SANDT; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  14. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors.

  15. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  16. Evaluating therapeutic outcome in epileptic patients using the changes of interval and duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seizure frequency is in abnormal distribution, and it is not enough to express the trend of concentration using means, and its median loses a lot of information, thus it lacks of a standard for evaluating the therapeutic effects based on seizure frequency.OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for evaluating the therapeutic effects on anti-epileptic drugs using changes of interval and duration of seizure.DESIGN: A prospective cohort study.SETTING: Zhumadian Psychiatric Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients and inpatients suffering from epilepsy attending firstly visited Zhumadian Psychiatric Hospital from June 2001 to June 2002 were enrolled. They were diagnosed as epileptic according to the International Classification of Epileptic Seizure by International League Against Epilepsy (1981) based on the clinical history, physical examination, and investigations. The interval time was no more than 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects, and the study was approved by the hospital ethical committee.METHODS: ① For the first visit and each follow-up, the following data were recorded, including general demographic information, seizure type, the date and time of ictus, the duration of ictus, and inducement or situation related, according to which the following indexes could be calculated, including seizure styles,interval, duration, cluster frequency and cluster duration. The information from the first review was noted as annals A. The second interview was taken at the end of the evaluating period; the information from the second review was noted as annals B. The third interview was taken within two weeks after the second one;the information from the third review was noted as annals C. The annals B or the annals C were respectively compared with the annals A in the light of the same types or the same styles of the same patient. Summation of the scores of interval change and duration change of the same type or the same style and 5 of basic score

  17. Febrile and other occasional seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, T; Carmant, L

    2013-01-01

    Seizures with fever that result from encephalitis or meningitis usually occur late in the course of febrile illness, and are focal and prolonged. Febrile seizures are by far the most common affecting 5% of the population, followed by posttraumatic seizures and those observed in the setting of a toxic, infectious, or metabolic encephalopathy. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation of the three most common forms, due to fever, trauma, and intoxication. Febrile seizures carry no cognitive or mortality risk. Recurrence risk is increased by young age, namely before 1 year of age. Febrile seizures that persist after the age of 6 years are usually part of the syndrome of Generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus. These febrile seizures have a strong link with epilepsy since non-febrile seizures may occur later in the same patient and in other members of the same family with an autosomal dominant transmission. Complex febrile seizures, i.e., with focal or prolonged manifestations or followed by focal defect, are related to later mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis; risk factors are seizure duration and brain malformation. Prophylactic treatment is usually not required in febrile seizures. Early onset of complex seizures is the main indication for AED prophylaxis. Early posttraumatic seizures, i.e., within the first week, are often focal and indicate brain trauma: contusion, hematoma, 24 hours amnesia, and depressed skull fracture are major factors of posttraumatic epilepsy. Prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is not effective. Various psychotropic drugs, including antiepileptics, may cause seizures.

  18. Clinical profile of patients with nascent alcohol related seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE in the same. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG and at least computed tomography (CT scan. Results: A total of 27 patients (27% who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001. Twenty-two patients (22% had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029. One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest. Conclusion: CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures. IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1% who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.

  19. Crowdsourcing reproducible seizure forecasting in human and canine epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Joost; Abbot, Drew; Adkins, Phillip; Bosshard, Simone C.; Chen, Min; Tieng, Quang M.; He, Jialune; Muñoz-Almaraz, F. J.; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma; Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Hills, Michael; Wu, Wei; Korshunova, Iryna; Cukierski, Will; Vite, Charles; Patterson, Edward E.; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    See Mormann and Andrzejak (doi:10.1093/brain/aww091) for a scientific commentary on this article.   Accurate forecasting of epileptic seizures has the potential to transform clinical epilepsy care. However, progress toward reliable seizure forecasting has been hampered by lack of open access to long duration recordings with an adequate number of seizures for investigators to rigorously compare algorithms and results. A seizure forecasting competition was conducted on kaggle.com using open access chronic ambulatory intracranial electroencephalography from five canines with naturally occurring epilepsy and two humans undergoing prolonged wide bandwidth intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring. Data were provided to participants as 10-min interictal and preictal clips, with approximately half of the 60 GB data bundle labelled (interictal/preictal) for algorithm training and half unlabelled for evaluation. The contestants developed custom algorithms and uploaded their classifications (interictal/preictal) for the unknown testing data, and a randomly selected 40% of data segments were scored and results broadcasted on a public leader board. The contest ran from August to November 2014, and 654 participants submitted 17 856 classifications of the unlabelled test data. The top performing entry scored 0.84 area under the classification curve. Following the contest, additional held-out unlabelled data clips were provided to the top 10 participants and they submitted classifications for the new unseen data. The resulting area under the classification curves were well above chance forecasting, but did show a mean 6.54 ± 2.45% (min, max: 0.30, 20.2) decline in performance. The kaggle.com model using open access data and algorithms generated reproducible research that advanced seizure forecasting. The overall performance from multiple contestants on unseen data was better than a random predictor, and demonstrates the feasibility of seizure forecasting in canine and

  20. Transcriptional response of polycomb group genes to status epilepticus in mice is modified by prior exposure to epileptic preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eReynolds

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of the brain to brief, non-harmful seizures can activate protective mechanisms that temporarily generate a damage-refractory state. This process, termed epileptic tolerance, is associated with large-scale down-regulation of gene expression. Polycomb group proteins are master controllers of gene silencing during development that are re-activated by injury to the brain. Here we explored the transcriptional response of genes associated with polycomb repressor complex (PRC 1 (Ring1A and Ring1B and Bmi1 and PRC2 (Ezh1, Ezh2 and Suz12, as well as additional transcriptional regulators Sirt1, Yy1 and Yy2, in a mouse model of status epilepticus. Findings were contrasted to changes after status epilepticus in mice previously given brief seizures to evoke tolerance. Real-time quantitative PCR showed status epilepticus prompted an early (1 h increase in expression of several genes in PRC1 and PRC2 in the hippocampus, followed by down-regulation of many of the same genes at later times points (4 , 8 and 24 h. Spatio-temporal differences were found among PRC2 genes in epileptic tolerance, including increased expression of Ezh2, Suz12 and Yy2 relative to the normal injury response to status epilepticus. In contrast, PRC1 complex genes including Ring 1B and Bmi1 displayed differential down-regulation in epileptic tolerance. The present study characterizes polycomb group gene expression following status epilepticus and shows prior seizure exposure produces select changes to PRC1 and PRC2 composition that may influence differential gene expression in epileptic tolerance.

  1. CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW - ONSET EPILETIC SEIZURES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalapathi Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most familiar neurological disorders which can cause bodily injury and death from inadequately treated or untreated cases. The imaging and EEG of new onset seizures is done with different indications, to identify an acute illness as the underline course for the seizure and possible neurological deficit. To this purpose we have evaluated new onset seizures in adult patients in correlation with their clinical profile, Electroencephalography (EEG and Computerized tomography (CT imaging of brain. METHODS: This cro ss sectional study was studied in 100 adult patients, presenting with seizures attending the Emergency department, General Medicine and Neurology wards and OPD of Tertiary care teaching hospital during the period of March 2006 to March 2008. All the patien ts were examined clinically and subjected to CT imaging of brain and EEG. Other necessary blood investigations were also done. Correlation between various seizures and CT scan brain and EEG were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data . RESULTS: 63% of patients were in the age group of 20 - 39 years, 63% were males and 37% were females. 65% presented with GTCS, 35% with partial seizures. CT scan was found abnormal in 49.2% patients in GTCS, 71.4% in partial seizures. EEG showed abnormal p attern in 39% patients. 40% of the patients with partial seizures had epileptic form discharges. 33% patients had focal lesions on CT brain with normal EEG. CONCLUSION: Generalized Tonic clonic seizures were the commonest type of seizures was present, seen mostly in male patients. CT scan brain was abnormal in 57% of the patients. Neurocysticercosis and calcified granuloma were the commonest causes for seizures up to 3 rd decade of life. Majority of the patients with focal lesions on CT scan brain had epileptic form discharges on EEG which indicate a strong correlation of EEG with CT findings. Initiating the treatment with antiepileptic drugs was

  2. Naringenin ameliorates kainic acid-induced morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungha; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-10-19

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated whether intraperitoneal injections of naringenin could mimic naringin-induced effects against GCD caused by intrahippocampal KA injections in mice. Our results showed that treatment with naringenin delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and attenuated KA-induced GCD by inhibiting activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in both neurons and reactive astrocytes in the DG. In addition, its administration attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from microglial activation in the DG following KA treatment. These results suggest that naringenin may be an active metabolite of naringin and help prevent the progression of epileptic insults in the hippocampus in vivo; therefore, naringenin may be a beneficial metabolite of naringin for the treatment of epilepsy.

  3. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguière, François

    2013-10-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes could predict the localizability of the seizure-onset zone by intracranial electroencephalography investigation and outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients with non-contributive magnetic resonance imaging findings were included. All patients underwent intracerebral electroencephalography investigation through stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography) and magnetoencephalography with delineation of the spiking volume using volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes. We evaluated the spatial congruence between the spiking volume determined by magnetoencephalography and the localization of the seizure-onset zone determined by stereo-electroencephalography. We also evaluated the outcome of stereo-electroencephalography and surgical treatment according to the extent of the spiking volume (focal, lateralized but non-focal or non-lateralized). For all patients, we found a spatial overlap between the seizure-onset zone and the spiking volume. For patients with a focal spiking volume, the seizure-onset zone defined by stereo-electroencephalography was clearly localized in all cases and most patients (6/7, 86%) had a good surgical outcome. Conversely, stereo-electroencephalography failed to delineate a seizure-onset zone in 57% of patients with a lateralized spiking volume, and in the two patients with bilateral spiking volume. Four of the 12 patients with non-focal spiking volumes were operated upon, none became seizure

  4. Rufinamide: treatment of seizures associated with Lennox and ndash;Gastaut syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Allu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rufinamide (RUF is FDA-approved for adjunctive management of seizures related with Lennox and ndash;Gastaut syndrome (LGS. This new anti-epileptic drug (AED adds to the AEDs previously used for LGS together with valproic acid, lamotrigine, felbamate, and topiramate. Its mechanism of action includes preventive the excessive firing of sodium-dependent action potentials, but RUF also exhibits a broad spectrum of action in animal models. The plasma concentration of other AEDs does not change by the RUF. Dizziness, nausea, diplopia, and ataxia vomiting and somnolence are most common adverse effects taking place with RUF. Status epilepticus has been reported, but were uncommon (0.9%. A recent randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of RUF in patients with LGS and generalized seizures, including atypical absence and tonic-atonic seizures, showed a 32.7% median percentage decreased in total seizures and a 42.5% median percentage decreased in tonic-atonic seizures. RUF also considerably decreased seizure severity. RUF has been studied as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in adults and adolescents. In a study of three healthy volunteers, an oral dose of 600 mg RUF recognized high absorption and monoexponential elimination with a mean half-life (t and frac12; of 9 hrs. Excretion was mainly renal (85% and complete (98% within 7 days. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 937-942

  5. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damasceno, D.D. [Departamento de Desenvolvimento Educacional,Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Barbacena, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, A.J. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Doretto, M.C.; Almeida, A.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR) and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group). The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively). The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40) and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40) for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

  6. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Damasceno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group. The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively. The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40 and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40 for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

  7. Anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of nifedipine in rats prone to audiogenic seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium ion participates in the regulation of neural transmission and the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters. It is also involved in epileptic events, cardiac arrhythmias and abnormal conduction of stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, on epileptic seizures and on reperfusion arrhythmias in rats prone to audiogenic epileptic seizures (Wistar audiogenic rats, WAR) and in normal Wistar rats (N = 6/group). The seizure severity index was applied after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 or 40 mg/kg nifedipine (N20 and N40 groups, respectively). The Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function, as well as the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias after ligature and release of the left coronary artery in rats treated or not with nifedipine. We found that nifedipine treatment decreased seizure severity (0.94 ± 0.02 for WAR; 0.70 ± 0.10 for WAR + N20; 0.47 ± 0.08 for WAR + N40) and increased the latent period (13 ± 2 s for WAR; 35 ± 10 s for WAR + N20; 48 ± 7 s for WAR + N40) for the development of seizures in WAR. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of the reperfusion arrhythmias were lower in WAR and normal Wistar rats injected with nifedipine. In WAR, these effects were mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in heart rate. Thus, our results indicate that nifedipine may be considered to be a potential adjuvant drug for epilepsy treatment, especially in those cases associated with cardiac rhythm abnormalities

  8. Consecutive 15 min is necessary for focal low frequency stimulation to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zhenghao; Xu, Cenglin; Ying, Xiaoying; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Shihong; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is emerging as a new option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. The stimulation duration may influence the anti-epileptic effect of LFS but is poorly studied. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-epileptic effect of focal LFS with different stimulation duration on amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats. We found 15 and 30 min but not 1 or 5 min LFS delivered immediately after the kindling stimulation slowed the progression of behavioral seizure stages and reduced mean afterdischarge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. In fully kindled animals, 15 and 30min rather than 1 and 5 min LFS decreased the incidence of generalized seizures and the average seizure stage as well as shortened the cumulative generalized seizure duration (GSD). Meanwhile, EEG analysis showed 15 and 30 min LFS specifically lowered the power in delta band. However, if 15min LFS delivered intermittently by 5 min interval, it had no suppressing effect on kindling rat. Thus, it is likely that consecutive 15 min is necessary for LFS to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats, indicating the stimulation duration may be a key fact affecting the clinical effect of LFS on epilepsy.

  9. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  10. Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4% of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years and 2/3 rd (60.7% were males. Majority (>80% cases were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7% cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%. Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032. Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

  11. Foetal outcome and frequency of seizure occurrence in epilepsy complicating pregnancy: a cross-sectional study from Madurai, India

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    Indumathi Sivaji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy during pregnancy is a complicated situation for the mother and the baby. It is also a major therapeutic challenge because most of the drugs treating epilepsy have adverse effects on the growing foetus. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of epilepsy on pregnancy, the fetal outcome and frequency of seizure occurrence among pregnant women. Methods Epileptic patients admitted in department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBG, GRH, Madurai, Tamilnadu, was considered. Detailed obstetric history was recorded. History of seizures (age of onset, type, disease free interval, and history of status epilepticus were also obtained. Results Majority of the epileptic mothers newborns birth weight was between 2.5 -3 kg. followed by 2.49 kg, >3 kg and <2 kg. 94.6% of the babies had good 1 min Apgar score and 93.2% of the babies had good 5 min Apgar score. Increase in frequency of seizures occurrence were observed in 16(21.3% of cases. Conclusion Fetal outcome was relatively good among pregnant epileptic mothers in majority of the cases. Special importance should be given disease free interval and frequency of seizures. Regular intake of antiepileptic drug and more frequent antenatal visits should be continued.

  12. De novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B S; Riesch, Erik; Djémié, Tania; Müller, Stephan; Møller, Rikke S; Maher, Bridget; Hernandez-Hernandez, Laura; Synofzik, Matthis; Caglayan, Hande S; Arslan, Mutluay; Serratosa, José M; Nothnagel, Michael; May, Patrick; Krause, Roland; Löffler, Heidrun; Detert, Katja; Dorn, Thomas; Vogt, Heinrich; Krämer, Günter; Schöls, Ludger; Mullis, Primus E; Linnankivi, Tarja; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Sterbova, Katalin; Craiu, Dana C; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Korff, Christian M; Weber, Yvonne G; Steinlin, Maja; Gallati, Sabina; Bertsche, Astrid; Bernhard, Matthias K; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Gonzalez, Michael; Züchner, Stephan; Palotie, Aarno; Suls, Arvid; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Biskup, Saskia; Wolff, Markus; Maljevic, Snezana; Schüle, Rebecca; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Lerche, Holger; Lemke, Johannes R

    2015-04-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified four different de novo mutations in KCNA2, encoding the potassium channel KV1.2, in six isolated patients with epileptic encephalopathy (one mutation recurred three times independently). Four individuals presented with febrile and multiple afebrile, often focal seizure types, multifocal epileptiform discharges strongly activated by sleep, mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech development and sometimes ataxia. Functional studies of the two mutations associated with this phenotype showed almost complete loss of function with a dominant-negative effect. Two further individuals presented with a different and more severe epileptic encephalopathy phenotype. They carried mutations inducing a drastic gain-of-function effect leading to permanently open channels. These results establish KCNA2 as a new gene involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders through two different mechanisms, predicting either hyperexcitability or electrical silencing of KV1.2-expressing neurons. PMID:25751627

  13. Ictal but not interictal epileptic discharges activate astrocyte endfeet and elicit cerebral arteriole responses.

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    Marta eGomez-Gonzalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Activation of astrocytes by neuronal signals plays a central role in the control of neuronal activity-dependent blood flow changes in the normal brain. The cellular pathways that mediate neurovascular coupling in the epileptic brain remain, however, poorly defined. In a cortical slice model of epilepsy, we found that the ictal, seizure-like discharge, and only to a minor extent the interictal discharge, evokes both a Ca2+ increase in astrocyte endfeet and a vasomotor response. We also observed that rapid ictal discharge-induced arteriole responses were regularly preceded by Ca2+ elevations in endfeet and were abolished by pharmacological inhibition of Ca2+ signals in these astrocyte processes. Under these latter conditions, arterioles exhibited after the ictal discharge only slowly developing vasodilations. The poor efficacy of interictal discharges, compared with ictal discharges, to activate endfeet was confirmed also in the intact in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. Although the possibility of a direct contribution of neurons, in particular in the late response of cerebral blood vessels to epileptic discharges, should be taken into account, our study supports the view that astrocytes are central for neurovascular coupling also in the epileptic brain. The massive endfeet Ca2+ elevations evoked by ictal discharges and the poor response to interictal events represent new information potentially relevant to interpret data from diagnostic brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance, utilized in the clinic to localize neural activity and to optimize neurosurgery of untreatable epilepsies.

  14. Sleep-related epileptic behaviors and non-REM-related parasomnias: Insights from stereo-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Steve A; Proserpio, Paola; Terzaghi, Michele; Pigorini, Andrea; Sarasso, Simone; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Tassi, Laura; Nobili, Lino

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade, many clinical and pathophysiological aspects of sleep-related epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal behaviors have been clarified. Advances have been achieved in part through the use of intracerebral recording methods such as stereo-electroencephalography (S-EEG), which has allowed a unique "in vivo" neurophysiological insight into focal epilepsy. Using S-EEG, the local features of physiological and pathological EEG activity in different cortical and subcortical structures have been better defined during the entire sleep-wake spectrum. For example, S-EEG has contributed to clarify the semiology of sleep-related seizures as well as highlight the specific epileptogenic networks involved during ictal activity. Moreover, intracerebral EEG recordings derived from patients with epilepsy have been valuable to study sleep physiology and specific sleep disorders. The occasional co-occurrence of NREM-related parasomnias in epileptic patients undergoing S-EEG investigation has permitted the recordings of such events, highlighting the presence of local electrophysiological dissociated states and clarifying the underlying pathophysiological substrate of such NREM sleep disorders. Based on these recent advances, the authors review and summarize the current and relevant S-EEG literature on sleep-related hypermotor epilepsies and NREM-related parasomnias. Finally, novel data and future research hypothesis will be discussed.

  15. GABRB3 mutations: a new and emerging cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Apostolos; McTague, Amy; Trump, Natalie; Ambegaonkar, Gautam; Ngoh, Adeline; Meyer, Esther; Scott, Richard H; Kurian, Manju A

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 gene (GABRB3) encodes the β3-subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor, which mediates inhibitory signalling within the central nervous system. Recently, GABRB3 mutations have been identified in a few patients with infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We report the clinical and electrographic features of a novel case of GABRB3-related early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Our patient presented with neonatal hypotonia and feeding difficulties, then developed pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by multiple seizure types from 3 months of age. Electroencephalography demonstrated ictal generalized and interictal multifocal epileptiform abnormalities. Using a SureSelectXT custom multiple gene panel covering 48 early infantile epileptic encephalopathy/developmental delay genes, a novel de novo GABRB3 heterozygous missense mutation, c.860C>T (p.Thr287Ile), was identified and confirmed on Sanger sequencing. GABRB3 is an emerging cause of early-onset epilepsy. Novel genetic technologies, such as whole-exome/genome sequencing and multiple gene panels, will undoubtedly identify further cases, allowing more detailed electroclinical delineation of the GABRB3-related genotypic and phenotypic spectra.

  16. Early-life epileptic encephalopathy secondary to SZT2 pathogenic recessive variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Charu; Angle, Brad; Millichap, John J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in genetic testing have led to the identification of increasing numbers of novel gene mutations that underlie infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Recently, a mutagenesis screen identified a novel gene, SZT2, with no known protein function that has been linked to epileptogenesis in mice. Thus far, two clinical reports have identified children with different recessive mutations in SZT2 and varying clinical phenotypes. One case report described patients with epileptic encephalopathy and the other noted patients with cognitive deficiencies, but normal MRI and no epilepsy. This case report identifies novel mutations (a compound heterozygous frameshift and a nonsense variant) in the SZT2 gene with distinct clinical and radiographic findings relative to those previously reported. Our patient presented with intractable epilepsy at 2 months of age. Seizures were refractory to numerous antiepileptic medications and the patient finally achieved seizure cessation at age 3 years with a combination of divalproex and lamotrigine. Our patient had similar facial dysmorphisms (macrocephaly, high forehead, and down-slanted palpebral fissures) to a previous case with truncating mutation. While developmental delay and cognitive deficiencies were present, our case had unique MRI findings suggesting migrational abnormalities not previously reported in other cases. PMID:27248490

  17. Effect of topiramate on interleukin 6 expression in the hippocampus of amygdala-kindled epileptic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, FEI; CHEN, XU-QIN; BAO, GUAN-SHUI; HUA, YIN; WANG, ZHE-DONG; BAO, YI-CHUAN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in expression and the possible functions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in electrical kindling of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in epileptic rats. Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the BLA of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were then subjected to chronic electrical stimulation through the electrodes to induce kindling. The seizure characteristics and behavioral changes of the rats were observed, and electroencephalograms were recorded during and following kindling. The IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampi of the rats was analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and control and topiramate (TPM)-treated groups were compared. The mean time-period required for kindling was 13.50±3.99 days, and the afterdischarge duration (ADD) measured between 21,450 and 119,720 msec. The expression of IL-6 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the kindled rats. TPM was able to depress the seizures and decrease the IL-6 level in the kindled rats. In conclusion, IL-6 mRNA was upregulated in the hippocampi of epileptic rats, and IL-6 may have participated in the process of kindling. PMID:24348794

  18. Regression of nodules on cranial computerized tomography (CCT) scans in 4 focal epileptic patients

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    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Huh, Choon Woong [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Epilepsy can be defined as a paroxysmal, excessive, neuronal discharge within the brain originating from either cortical or sugcortical regions. The incidence of epilepsy is increasing possibly due to the survival of persons who should have died of brain injuries or other cerebral abnormalities acquired in early life. The use of antibiotics and improvement in the medical care have saved many children who might have died of meningitis, brain abscess, encephalitis, severe head injuries, etc. CCT scan is new radiologic procedure for defining cranial and intracranial structures and also an useful procedure for evaluation and follow-up (FU) of patient with focal seizure disorder. Recently we experienced nodules which were isodense or hypodense on initial non contrasted CT (NECT) and scans became hyperdense of the enhancement in 4 cases of focal epileptic seizure. Nearly complete disappearance or regression of the epileptic foci occurred on the FU CT scans in 2 cases. Operation was performed in 2 cases. The tissue specimen obtained from the CT nodule revealed cerebral edema in one case and localized gliosis and congestion in the other. All the patients showed marked clinical improvement when the CT nodule improved. Review of literature failed to disclose any previous report on such observation.

  19. NAPB - a novel SNARE-associated protein for early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J; Allen, N M; Gorman, K M; Shahwan, A; Ennis, S; Lynch, S A; King, M D

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing has accelerated the identification of disease genes in many rare genetic disorders including early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). While many of these disorders are caused by neuronal channelopathies, the role of synaptic and related neuronal proteins are increasingly being described. Here, we report a 6-year-old girl with unexplained EOEE characterized by multifocal seizures and profound global developmental delay. Recessive inheritance was considered due to parental consanguinity and Irish Traveller descent. Exome sequencing was performed. Variant prioritization identified a homozygous nonsense variant in the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, beta (NAPB) gene resulting in a premature stop codon and 46% loss of the protein. NAPB plays a role in soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-complex dissociation and recycling (synaptic vesicle docking). Knockout mouse models of the murine ortholog Napb have been previously reported. These mice develop recurrent post-natal epileptic seizures in the absence of structural brain changes. The identification of a disease-causing variant in NAPB further recognizes the importance of the SNARE complex in the development of epilepsy and suggests that this gene should be considered in patients with unexplained EOEE. PMID:26235277

  20. Encephalitis with refractory seizures, status epilepticus, and antibodies to the GABAA receptor: A case series, characterisation of the antigen, and analysis of the effects of antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Petit-Pedrol (Mar); T. Armangue (Thaís); X. Peng (Xiaoyu); L. Bataller (Luis); T. Cellucci (Tania); R. Davis (Rebecca); L. McCracken (Lindsey); E. Martinez-Hernandez (Eugenia); W.P. Mason (Warren); M.C. Kruer (Michael); D.G. Ritacco (David); W. Grisold (Wolfgang); M.J. Meaney; C. Alcalá (Carmen); P.A.E. Sillevis Smitt (Peter); M.J. Titulaer (Maarten); R. Balice-Gordon (Rita); F. Graus (Francesc); J. Dalmau (Josep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Increasing evidence suggests that seizures and status epilepticus can be immune-mediated. We aimed to describe the clinical features of a new epileptic disorder, and to establish the target antigen and the effects of patients' antibodies on neuronal cultures. Methods: In this

  1. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  2. Assessment of compliance-relevant indispensable knowledge to cope with epilepsy in epileptic patients in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yan-chun; XIA Feng; HUANG Yuan-gui; LI Ning-xiu; ZHENG Shu-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge level related to compliance in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with epilepsy were tested in the city of Xi'an with a knowledge questionnaire containing 21 questions related to compliance. Results: Over 39.5% of patients did not know that epilepsy is the result of abnormal firing of neurons, while 29.9% were uncertain or did not realize that epilepsy attacks can bring up accidents such as traffic accidents, drowning and trauma. A total of 36.6% of responders thought that the best therapy for epilepsy could be found in Traditional Chinese Medicine. As many as 36.8% of tested patients were uncertain or did not know that frequent epilepsy attacks can affect their intelligence. Up to 36% were unaware of the possible consequence of sudden withdrawal of anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Among responders, 39.1% did not know the right treatment method of epilepsy. That AED can control seizure attacks were doubted in 57.5% of epileptic patients. Furthermore, 32.2% did not know whether the disease could be cured. Conclusion: In this group of epileptic patients, generally they do not have enough indispensable knowledge to cope with epilepsy. They urgently need for proper health education besides effective AED to control seizure attacks and improve their quality of life.

  3. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn metabolic errors (IME and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Charged Amino Acids on Uncontrolled Seizures

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    Hossein Ali Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system. The prevalence of epilepsy throughout the world is 0.5 to 1%, and the same rate is 7.8 per 1000 in Kerman. Almost 20 to 30% of epileptic patients do not respond properly to common medications. The present study investigated patients who did not respond to common and, even in some cases, adjuvant therapies, with two seizures or more per week, regardless of the type of the inflicted epilepsy. Methodology. The participants of the present double-blind study were randomly selected into three 10-member groups of uncontrolled epileptic patients (arginine, glutamic acid, and lysine. The patients used amino acid powder dissolved in water (three times the daily need every day for two weeks before breakfast. The number of seizures was recorded one week prior to commencing amino acid use, as well as the first and the second weeks subsequent to use. Results. A total of 32 patients were studied in three groups. The decline rates of seizures were 53%, 41%, and 13%, and the P value was 0.013, 0.027, and 0.720, respectively. Conclusion. Administration of the charged amino acids, arginine, and glutamic acid can decrease the seizures of patients suffering from uncontrolled epilepsy.

  5. Effects of eslicarbazepine acetate on acute and chronic latrunculin A-induced seizures and extracellular amino acid levels in the mouse hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Paredes, Germán; Loureiro, Ana I; Wright, Lyndon C; Sierra-Marcuño, Germán; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Background Latrunculin A microperfusion of the hippocampus induces acute epileptic seizures and long-term biochemical changes leading to spontaneous seizures. This study tested the effect of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a novel antiepileptic drug, on latrunculin A-induced acute and chronic seizures, and changes in brain amino acid extracellular levels. Hippocampi of Swiss mice were continuously perfused with a latrunculin A solution (4 μM, 1 μl/min, 7 h/day) with continuous EEG and videotap...

  6. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Peeyush Kumar, T; Khan, Reas S; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of Bacopa monnieri and its active component, bacoside A, on motor deficit and alterations of GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats were investigated. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline in the cerebellum of epileptic rats revealed a significant decrease in B(max) compared with control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of GABA(A) receptor subunits-GABA(Aalpha1), GABA(Aalpha5,) and GABA(Adelta)-was downregulated (Pbacoside A reversed these changes to near-control levels. Our results suggest that changes in GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit are induced by the occurrence of repetitive seizures. Treatment with B. monnieri and bacoside A prevents the occurrence of seizures thereby reducing the impairment of GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit.

  7. Parental Anxiety and Quality of Life of Epileptic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YONG LI; CHENG-YE JI; JIONG QIN; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Methods Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Results Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P<0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P=0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Conclusion Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.

  8. How Do Parents Think about the Effect of Food and Alternative Medicine on their Epileptic Children?

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    Alipasha Meysamie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Parents of epileptic children are willing to know if specific foods precipitate or aggravate their kids seizures. Nonetheless conclusive data are limited. Alternative medicine has become a popular approach to many diseases in the world and there are limited data about this approach to epilepsy in Iran. We tried to evaluate attitude of parents of epileptic children to food-epilepsy relationship and alternative therapeutic approach to epilepsy. Methods:We carried out a cross-sectional study with analytic aspect at Childrens Medical Center, Tehran, Iran in 2008, by asking the parents of epileptic children to fill out a valid and excellently reliable questionnaire. We collected parents` attitude and analyzed it using SPSS software. Findings:One-hundred and fifty one families participated in the study. Fifty-nine of participants (39.1% believed that foods had no effect on epilepsy. Fifty one cases (33.8% said that foods might have negative or positive effect on epilepsy and 27.1% (41 cases had no idea. Higher percent of parents believed in food-epilepsy relation in cases that fathers had educational levels above high school graduation. Sixteen cases (10.6% said that alternative medicine might improve epilepsy and 55% had no idea about efficacy of this approach to epilepsy. Conclusion:Compared with previous published study from Iran, parents of epileptic children believed less in food-epilepsy relation. Majority of parents either believed that foods had no effect on epilepsy or had no idea. More than half of parents had no idea about efficacy of alternative medicine to epilepsy. Only a few of them believed in ameliorating effects of alternative medicine on epilepsy.

  9. From cognitive networks to seizures: stimulus evoked dynamics in a coupled cortical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Ermentrout, Bard; Bodner, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neuropathologies worldwide. Seizures arising in epilepsy or in seizure disorders are characterized generally by uncontrolled spread of excitation and electrical activity to a limited region or even over the entire cortex. While it is generally accepted that abnormal excessive firing and synchronization of neuron populations lead to seizures, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying human epileptic seizures, the mechanisms of transitions from normal to paroxysmal activity, or about how seizures spread. Further complication arises in that seizures do not occur with a single type of dynamics but as many different phenotypes and genotypes with a range of patterns, synchronous oscillations, and time courses. The concept of preventing, terminating, or modulating seizures and/or paroxysmal activity through stimulation of brain has also received considerable attention. The ability of such stimulation to prevent or modulate such pathological activity may depend on identifiable parameters. In this work, firing rate networks with inhibitory and excitatory populations were modeled. Network parameters were chosen to model normal working memory behaviors. Two different models of cognitive activity were developed. The first model consists of a single network corresponding to a local area of the brain. The second incorporates two networks connected through sparser recurrent excitatory connectivity with transmission delays ranging from approximately 3 ms within local populations to 15 ms between populations residing in different cortical areas. The effect of excitatory stimulation to activate working memory behavior through selective persistent activation of populations is examined in the models, and the conditions and transition mechanisms through which that selective activation breaks down producing spreading paroxysmal activity and seizure states are characterized. Specifically, we determine critical parameters and architectural

  10. [EEG analysis and prognosis in 125 cases of non-hyperpyretic seizures occurring in children under three (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson-Dollfus, D; Szeibert, J; Parain, D; Senant, J; Menard, J F

    1981-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1970 recordings were made from 125 children aged 1-36 months who had had a first epileptic seizure (non-hyperthermic). 100 of these children were followed up for from 5 to 20 years: 35 had had their first seizure before 1 year of age and 65 between the age of 1 and 3. Hypsarrythmia was more frequent under 1 year of age, whereas short diffuse spike and wave bursts were observed only after 1 year. However, localized spikes, asymmetrical or slow tracings as well as normal tracings were observed in both groups, without significant difference. A fatal outcome is more frequent when the first seizure took place before the age of 1 year. However, in our sample the intellectual development of the surviving children does not depend on the time of the first seizure. In any case the prognosis is unfavorable, since only 31 of the children followed up developed normally. PMID:7345501

  11. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

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    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  12. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  13. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  14. Seizure detection using the phase-slope index and multichannel ECoG

    KAUST Repository

    Rana, Puneet

    2012-04-01

    Detection and analysis of epileptic seizures is of clinical and research interest. We propose a novel seizure detection and analysis scheme based on the phase-slope index (PSI) of directed influence applied to multichannel electrocorticogram data. The PSI metric identifies increases in the spatio-temporal interactions between channels that clearly distinguish seizure from interictal activity. We form a global metric of interaction between channels and compare this metric to a threshold to detect the presence of seizures. The threshold is chosen based on a moving average of recent activity to accommodate differences between patients and slow changes within each patient over time. We evaluate detection performance over a challenging population of five patients with different types of epilepsy using a total of 47 seizures in nearly 258 h of recorded data. Using a common threshold procedure, we show that our approach detects all of the seizures in four of the five patients with a false detection rate less than two per hour. A variation on the global metric is proposed to identify which channels are strong drivers of activity in each patient. These metrics are computationally efficient and suitable for real-time application. © 2006 IEEE.

  15. Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Neonatal Seizure Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvili, M. B.; Mesbah, Mostefa; Boashash, Boualem

    2007-12-01

    There are a number of automatic techniques available for detecting epileptic seizures using solely electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been the primary diagnosis tool in newborns. The electrocardiogram (ECG) has been much neglected in automatic seizure detection. Changes in heart rate and ECG rhythm were previously linked to seizure in case of adult humans and animals. However, little is known about heart rate variability (HRV) changes in human neonate during seizure. In this paper, we assess the suitability of HRV as a tool for seizure detection in newborns. The features of HRV in the low-frequency band (LF: 0.03-0.07 Hz), mid-frequency band (MF: 0.07-0.15 Hz), and high-frequency band (HF: 0.15-0.6 Hz) have been obtained by means of the time-frequency distribution (TFD). Results of ongoing time-frequency (TF) research are presented. Based on our preliminary results, the first conditional moment of HRV which is the mean/central frequency in the LF band and the variance in the HF band can be used as a good feature to discriminate the newborn seizure from the nonseizure.

  16. Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Neonatal Seizure Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boashash

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of automatic techniques available for detecting epileptic seizures using solely electroencephalogram (EEG, which has been the primary diagnosis tool in newborns. The electrocardiogram (ECG has been much neglected in automatic seizure detection. Changes in heart rate and ECG rhythm were previously linked to seizure in case of adult humans and animals. However, little is known about heart rate variability (HRV changes in human neonate during seizure. In this paper, we assess the suitability of HRV as a tool for seizure detection in newborns. The features of HRV in the low-frequency band (LF: 0.03–0.07 Hz, mid-frequency band (MF: 0.07–0.15 Hz, and high-frequency band (HF: 0.15–0.6 Hz have been obtained by means of the time-frequency distribution (TFD. Results of ongoing time-frequency (TF research are presented. Based on our preliminary results, the first conditional moment of HRV which is the mean/central frequency in the LF band and the variance in the HF band can be used as a good feature to discriminate the newborn seizure from the nonseizure.

  17. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

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    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    convulsion. Iranian j pathol 2009;4(4:157-60.Mollah MA, DEy PR, Tarafdar SA, Akhter S, Ahmed S, Hassan T, et al. Zinc in CSF of patients with febrile convulsion. Indian J Pediatr 2002;69(10:859-61.Auvichayapat P, Auvichayapat N, Jedsrisuparp A, Thinkhamrop B, Sriroj S, Piyakulmala T, et al. Incidence of febrile seizures in thalassemic patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87(8:970-3.Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Prenatal and perinatal antecedents of febrile seizures. Ann Neurol 1990;27(2:127-31.Udani V.Pediatric epilepsy - An Indian perspective. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72(4:309-13.Ehsanipour F, Talebi-Taher M, Harandi N, Kani k. Serum zinc level in children with febrile convulsion and its comparison with that of control group. Iranian J Pediatr 2009;199:65-8.Heydarian F, Ashrafzadeh F, Kam S. Simple febrile seizure: The role of serum sodium levels in prediction of seizure recurrence during the first 24 hours. Iran J Child Neurol 2009;3(2:31-4.Jun-Hwa Lee, Jeong Hyun Kim. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels Measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Preschool Children with Febrile and Afebrile Seizures. Ann Lab Med 2012;32(3:190-3.Heydarian F, Ashrafzadeh F, Ghasemian A. Serum zinc level in patient with simple febrile seizure. Iran J Child Neurol 2010;4(2:41-3.Garty B, Olomucki R, Lerman ST, Nitzan M. Cerebrospinal fluid zinc concentration in febrile convulsion. Arch Dis Child 1995;73(4:338-41.Daoud AS, Batieha A, Abu-Ekteish F, Gharaibeh N, Ajlouni S, HijaziS. Iron status: a possible risk factor for the first febrile seizure. Epilepsia 2002;43(7:740-3.Ganesh R, Janakiraman L, Meenakshi B. Serum zinc levels are low in children with simple febrile seizures compared with those in children with epileptic seizures and controls. Ann Trop Paediatr 2011;31(4:345-9.Cho WJ, Son BH, Kim SW. Levels of Sodium and Zinc concentration in febrile convulsion. Korean Child Neural Soc1999;7(2:214-9.Burtis carl A, Ashwood, Edwhard R; Brun, David E. Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry. 6th

  18. Refractory seizures in children

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    Seyed Ebrahim Mansoorinejad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is described as a heterogeneous clinical syndrome results from various cerebral destructions. It is categorized to partial and generalized forms. Degree of neural system impairment and affected area determine the severity and pattern of symptoms. Patients might experience sensory, motor, or both signs and symptoms. About 60% of epileptic patients suffer from partial type. It is estimated that up to 30% of epilepsy cases would not be controlled adequately despite sufficient and proper management. Anacyclus pyrethrum, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Paeonia officinalis, Rosa Damascena and Nigella Sativa are some of herbal drugs which have antiepileptic effect. Natural agents are valuable sources to treat chronic diseases and a huge number of world`s population believe herbs are effective and safe for daily primary health care needs. There is not enough evidence about their efficacy and safety obtained from randomized control trials.

  19. Abnormal expression and spatiotemporal change of Slit2 in neurons and astrocytes in temporal lobe epileptic foci: A study of epileptic patients and experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Liu, Guang-Wei; Pan, Yu-Min; Shen, Lan; Li, Cheng-Shan; Xi, Zhi-Qin; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Liang; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2010-04-01

    Repellent guidance molecules provide targeting information to outgrowing axons along predetermined pathways during development. These molecules may also play a role in synaptic reorganization in the adult brain and thereby promote epileptogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the expression of Slit2, one of repellent guidance molecules, in temporal lobe epileptic foci from epileptic patients and experimental animals. Thirty-five temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and fifteen histological normal temporal lobes from controls were selected. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into six groups, including five groups with epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine administration and one control group. Temporal lobe tissue samples were taken from rats at 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days post-seizure and from controls. Expression of Slit2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. Slit2 was mainly expressed in neurons in human controls and in both neurons and astrocytes in TLE patients. Slit2 expression was significantly higher in TLE patients as compared with the controls. Slit2-positive cells were mainly neurons in the rat temporal lobe tissues of the control group, the acute period group, and the latent period group, while the Slit2-positive cells were mainly astrocytes in chronic phase. Compared with controls, Slit2 expression in animals in the TLE group gradually decreased from days 1 to 14 post-seizure, but then increased over the levels seen in controls, to peak levels at days 30 and 60. These results suggest that Slit2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TLE.

  20. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  1. Assessing Anticonvulsant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Datura Stramonium Seed on PTZ-Induced Seizures in the Male Mice

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    S Namvar Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect social, economic and biological aspects of the human life. Many epileptic patients have uncontrolled seizures and medication-related side effects despite adequate pharmacological treatment. The use of plant extracts is proposed as a therapeutic modality in order to treat different diseases. Datura plant has long been used in the traditional medicine in regard with some nervous disorders like epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to provide a scientific basis investigating the effect of Datura aqueous extract on PTZ-induced seizures in the male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male mice were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including: one control group, one sham group and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed via gavage for 30 days, and the sham group received stilled water via gavage. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 35 mg/kg, i.p were injected into control, sham and experimental groups 30 minutes after gavage in order to induce the seizure. Then latency time of seizure onset, seizure duration and seizure phases were measured and recorded in the experimental, sham and control groups. The data analysis was carried out via one way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.  Moreover, difference less than 0.05 (P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study findings revealed that the aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed produced a significant effect on PTZ-induced seizure. In addition, Datura increases latency time of seizure onset (P˂0.01, inhibits progress of seizure stages (P˂0.05 and decreases seizure duration (P˂0.001. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that extract of this plant has anticonvulsant effects on PTZ-induced seizure. As a result, it seems to be beneficial to the epilepsy treatment.

  2. Clinical utility of adjunctive retigabine in partial onset seizures in adults

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    Rejdak K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Konrad Rejdak1, Jarogniew J Luszczki2,3, Barbara Blaszczyk4, Roman Chwedorowicz5, Stanislaw J Czuczwar2,51Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, 2Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, 3Isobolography Analysis Laboratory, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, High School of Economics and Law, Kielce, 5Department of Physiopathology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, PolandAbstract: In ~30% of epileptic patients, full seizure control is not possible, which is why the search for novel antiepileptic drugs continues. Retigabine exhibits a mechanism of action that is not shared by the available antiepileptic drugs. This antiepileptic enhances potassium currents via Kv7.2–7.3 channels, which very likely results from destabilization of a closed conformation or stabilization of the open conformation of the channels. Generally, the pharmacokinetics of retigabine are linear and the drug undergoes glucuronidation and acetylation. Results from clinical trials indicate that, in the form of an add-on therapy, retigabine proves an effective drug in refractory epileptic patients. The major adverse effects of the add-on treatment are dizziness, somnolence, and fatigue. This epileptic drug is also considered for other conditions – neuropathic pain, affective disorders, stroke, or even Alzheimer’s disease.Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy, seizure control

  3. Persistence of cortical sensory processing during absence seizures in human and an animal model: evidence from EEG and intracellular recordings.

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    Mathilde Chipaux

    Full Text Available Absence seizures are caused by brief periods of abnormal synchronized oscillations in the thalamocortical loops, resulting in widespread spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs in the electroencephalogram (EEG. SWDs are concomitant with a complete or partial impairment of consciousness, notably expressed by an interruption of ongoing behaviour together with a lack of conscious perception of external stimuli. It is largely considered that the paroxysmal synchronizations during the epileptic episode transiently render the thalamocortical system incapable of transmitting primary sensory information to the cortex. Here, we examined in young patients and in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS, a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, how sensory inputs are processed in the related cortical areas during SWDs. In epileptic patients, visual event-related potentials (ERPs were still present in the occipital EEG when the stimuli were delivered during seizures, with a significant increase in amplitude compared to interictal periods and a decrease in latency compared to that measured from non-epileptic subjects. Using simultaneous in vivo EEG and intracellular recordings from the primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS and non-epileptic rats, we found that ERPs and firing responses of related pyramidal neurons to whisker deflection were not significantly modified during SWDs. However, the intracellular subthreshold synaptic responses in somatosensory cortical neurons during seizures had larger amplitude compared to quiescent situations. These convergent findings from human patients and a rodent genetic model show the persistence of cortical responses to sensory stimulations during SWDs, indicating that the brain can still process external stimuli during absence seizures. They also demonstrate that the disruption of conscious perception during absences is not due to an obliteration of information transfer in the thalamocortical system

  4. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir; Pinar Tektürk; Zehra Oya Uyguner; Betül Baykan

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkab...

  5. Seizures induced by playing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  6. Seizure activity post organophosphate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, John

    2009-01-01

    Electrographic seizures are a feature of organophosphate anticholinesterase intoxication. Clinical studies of pesticide poisonings suggest that seizures are more common in children than in adults. Since flaccid paralysis, a characteristic sign of organophosphate poisoning, can mask convulsions, the most reliable indicator of seizures is the electroencephalogram, but this has not been widely used in clinical studies. Seizures can rapidly progress to status epilepticus, contributing to mortality and, in survivors, to neuronal damage and neurological impairment. Anticonvulsant drugs can significantly reduce the lethal and toxic effects of these compounds. A benzodiazepine, usually diazepam, is the treatment currently indicated for control of seizures. Animal studies have indicated that the early phase of seizure activity (0-5 min after seizure onset) is purely cholinergic, predominantly involving muscarinic mechanisms. Seizure activity subsequently progresses through mixed cholinergic and noncholinergic modulation (5-40 min) into a final noncholinergic phase. Neuropathology caused by seizures is most likely associated with glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Future prospects for improved treatments include new benzodiazepines, glutamate receptor antagonists, antimuscarinics with additional antiglutamatergic activity and adenosine receptor antagonists.

  7. Phenomenology and psychiatric origin of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

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    Ristić Aleksandar J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES is a sudden change in a person's behavior, perception, thinking, or feeling that is usually time limited and resembles, or is mistaken for, epilepsy but does not have the characteristic electroencephalographic (EEG changes that accompanies a true epileptic seizure [1]. It is considered that PNES is a somatic manifestation of mental distress, in response to a psychological conflict or other Stressors [2]. A wide spectrum of clinical presentation includes syncope, generalized tonic-clonic seizure, simple and complex partial seizure, myoclonic seizure, frontal lobe seizures and status epilepticus [3]. Coexistence of epilepsy and PNES is seen in approximately 9% of cases [5]. Between 25-30% of patients referred to tertiary centers and initially diagnosed as refractory epilepsy were on further examination diagnosed as PNES [6,7]. In DSM-IV [12] PNES are usually categorized under conversion disorder with seizures or convulsions. However, psychiatric basis of PNES may be anxiousness (panic attack, somatization or factitious disorder, simulation, dissociative disorders and psychosis [1]. AIM The aim of the study was to establish clinical phenomenology and EEG characteristics as well as basic psychiatric disorder in patients with PNES. METHOD In a retrospective study covering the period from January 1st 1999 till April 31 st 2003, 24 patients (22 female, 2 male treated at the Institute of Neurology in Belgrade were analyzed. PNES were defined as sudden change in behavior incoherent with epileptiform activity registered on EEG. Possible PNES were determined on the basis of history data and clinical examination during the attack but definitive confirmation was established only by the finding of no ictal EEG changes during typical seizure of each patient. Patients with coexisting epilepsy were included in the study, too. At least two standard EEG (range 2-6, median 4 were performed at the beginning of

  8. ANTI-CONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF GANAXOLONE ALONE A ND IN COMPARISON WITH STANDARD ANTI-EPILEPTIC DRUGS IN RODENT MODELS

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    Subhani Basha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Presently, treatment of epilepsy with standa rd anti-epileptic drugs is associated with a number of shortcomings invi ting us to study newer agents that would overcome these problems or search for the dr ugs or substances, which would enhance the efficacy or reduce the dose or toxicity of these standard anti-epileptic drugs. Ganaxolone (GNX (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one, a synthetic analog of the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone and a positive a llosteric modulator of GABA A receptors, may represent a new treatment approach for epilep sy. AIM: To evaluate the effect of Ganaxolone on maximal electroshock (MES induced and Pen tylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions and also their effect in combination with co nventional antiepileptic drugs (CAEDs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wister strain albino rats weighing 200-250 gm were used. Effects of Ganaxolone (5 &10 mg/kg alone and in combination with standard drugs were studied in MES and PTZ induced seizure model s. Abolition of tonic hind limb extension was an index of anticonvulsant activity in MES, while for PTZ seizures; failure to observe c lonus for 5sec duration for 30min was the index. F ollowing that, percentage inhibition was calculated. STATISTICS: ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls Multiple Compar ison Test was used for analysis of data between the groups . RESULTS : In MES seizures, significant anti- epileptic activity was observed with 10mg of Ganaxolone compared to control group but has less activity when compared to that of P henobarbitone. In PTZ induced convulsions, the anti-epileptic effect of Sodium Valproate was h igher than Ganaxolone, but both were statistically significant as compared to contr ol. In PTZ-induced seizures, augmented effect s were obtained when Ganaxolone was combined wi th sodium valproate i.e. 55%. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a lead for potential benefit of adding Ganaxolone to Sodium Valproate in the treatment of epilepsy

  9. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eleonora; Esposito, Vincenzo; Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pierpaolo; Giangaspero, Felice; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Onorati, Paolo; Trettel, Flavia; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Poly(A+) RNA was extracted from the temporal lobe (TL) of medically intractable epileptic patients which underwent surgical TL resection. Injection of this mRNA into Xenopus oocytes led to the expression of ionotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), kainate (KAI) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). Membrane currents elicited by GABA inverted polarity at −15 mV, close to the oocyte's chloride equilibrium potential, were inhibited by bicuculline, and were potentiated by pentobarbital and flunitrazepam. These basic characteristics were also displayed by GABA currents elicited in oocytes injected with mRNAs isolated from human TL glioma (TLG) or from mouse TL. However, the GABA receptors expressed by the epileptic TL mRNA exhibited some unusual properties, consisting in a rapid current run-down after repetitive GABA applications and a large EC50 (125 μM). AMPA alone evoked very small or nil currents, whereas KAI induced larger currents. Nevertheless, upon cyclothiazide treatment, AMPA elicited substantial currents that, like the KAI currents, were inhibited by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Furthermore, the glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) agonist, ATPA, failed to evoke an obvious current although both RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed GluR5 expression in the epileptic TL. Oocytes injected with mouse TL or human TLG mRNAs generated KAI and AMPA currents similar to those evoked in oocytes injected with epileptic TL mRNA but, in contrast to these, the mouse TL and human TLG oocytes were also responsive to ATPA. Our findings are in accord with the concept that both a depression of GABA inhibition and a dysfunction of the KAI-receptor system maintain a high neuronal excitability that results in epileptic seizures. PMID:12409614

  10. Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

  11. Insights into the mechanisms of absence seizure generation provided by EEG with Functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick William Carney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Absence seizures are brief epileptic events characterized by loss of awareness with subtle motor features. They may be very frequent, and impact on attention, learning and memory. A number of pathophysiological models have been developed to explain the mechanism of absence seizure generation which rely heavily on observations from animal studies. Studying the structural and functional relationships between large-scale brain networks in humans is only practical with non-invasive whole brain techniques. EEG with functional MRI (EEG-fMRI is one such technique that provides an opportunity to explore the interactions between brain structures involved in AS generation. A number of fMRI techniques including event-related analysis, time course analysis and functional connectivity have identified a common network of structures involved in AS seizures. This network comprises the thalamus, midline and lateral parietal cortex (the default mode network [DMN], caudate nuclei and the reticular structures of the pons. The main component displaying an increase in BOLD signal relative to the resting state, in group studies, is the thalamus while the most consistent cortical change is reduced BOLD signal in the DMN. Time course analysis shows that, rather than some structures being activated or inactivated during AS, there appears to be increase in activity across components of the network preceding or following the electro-clinical onset of the seizure. The earliest change in BOLD signal occurs in the DMN, prior to the onset of epileptiform events. This region also shows altered functional connectivity in patients with absence seizures. Hence it appears that engagement of this network is central to absence seizures. In this review we will explore the insights EEG-fMRI studies into the mechanisms of AS and considers how the DMN is likely to be the major large scale brain network central to both seizure generation and the seizure manifestations.

  12. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Rezayi A, Togha M, Ahmadabadi F, Derakhshanfar H, Azargashb E, Khodaei F. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:20-25.ObjectiveSome studies suggest that detection of epileptic discharge is unusual during the first postictal week of febrile seizure and others believe that EEGs carried out on the day of the seizure are abnormal in as many as 88% of the patients. In thisstudy, we intend to compare early and late EEG abnormalities in febrile seizure.Materials & Methods EEG was recorded during daytime sleep, 24-48 hours (early EEG and 2 weeks (late EEG after the seizure in 36 children with febrile seizure (FS, aged between 3 months and 6 years. EEGs that showed generalized or focal spikes, sharp, spike wave complex, and slowing were considered as abnormal EEG.Abnormalities of the first EEG were compared with those of second EEG.ResultsThe most common abnormal epileptiform discharges recorded in the early EEG were slow waves (27.6% and sharp waves in late EEG (36%. Distribution of abnormalities in early and late EEG showed no significant statistical difference.ConclusionThe early and late EEG recording had the same results in patient with febrile seizure. Reference:Hauser WA, Kurland LT. The epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Epilepsia 1975;16(1:1-66.Freeman JM. Febrile seizures: a consensus of their significance, evaluation, and treatment. Pediatrics 1980;66(6:1009.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 2004;89(8:751-6.ILAE. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy, International League against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34(4:592-6.Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, Kurland LT. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1987;316(9:493-8.Berg AT, Shinnar S, Darefsky AS, Holford TR, Shapiro ED, Salomon ME, et al. Predictors of recurrent febrile

  13. Results of Non-contrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children

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    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Nafisi Moghadam R, Fallah Tafti M, Salmani Nodoushan M. Results of Noncontrast Brain Computed Tomography Scans of 1-18 Year Old Epileptic Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 33-38.ObjectiveThe advent of computed tomography (CT scan revolutionized the diagnosticevaluation of neurologic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain CTresults of epileptic children.Materials & MethodsIn a descriptive cross-sectional study, noncontrast brain CT scan of 150 consecutive1-18 year old epileptic children whom were referred to pediatric neurology clinic ofShahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, from May 2008 to October 2010 inYazd-Iran, evaluated.ResultsSixty two girls and 88 boys with mean age of 6.6 ± 4.3 years were evaluated.In 38 (25.3 % children, seizure onset age was under one year and 38 others hadabnormal mental / developmental status. Fifty three children (35.3 % and 97 (64.7%had partial and generalized seizures, respectively. Partial seizures were more prevalentin children with seizure onset in < 1 year [41.5% (22/53 vs. 16.5% (16/97] Result of CT was normal in 74 % (n=111. Among the patients with abnormalresults, 18(46% had brain atrophy, 10 (25.6% structural CNS dysgenesia, six (15.4%intracranial calcification, three (7.8% hydrocephaly and two had (5.2% brain tumor.Abnormal brain CT was more prevalent in patients with seizure onset in less than oneyear of age [60.5% (23 of 38 vs. 14.3% (16 of 112, p = 0.003], partial epilepsy [51% (27of 53 vs. 12% (12/97], and abnormal developmental status [ 81.5% (31 of 38 vs.7% (8of 112]. Mean age of seizure onset in epileptic children with abnormal brain CT scanwas less (M ± SD:1/17 ± 0.6 years versus 4.02±1.9 years.ConclusionBrain CT scan might be considered in evaluation of epileptic children with partialseizures, seizure onset in less than one year of age or neurodevelopmental delay.ReferencesJagoda A, Gupta K. The emergency department

  14. International veterinary epilepsy task force recommendations for systematic sampling and processing of brains from epileptic dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matiasek, Kaspar; Pumarola I Batlle, Martí; Rosati, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    to add substantial data on patients with complete clinical work-up. This may be due to sparse training in epilepsy pathology and or due to lack of neuropathological guidelines for companion animals.The protocols introduced herein shall facilitate systematic sampling and processing of epileptic brains...... and therefore increase the efficacy, reliability and reproducibility of morphological studies in animals suffering from seizures.Brain dissection protocols of two neuropathological centres with research focus in epilepsy have been optimised with regards to their diagnostic yield and accuracy......, their practicability and their feasibility concerning clinical research requirements.The recommended guidelines allow for easy, standardised and ubiquitous collection of brain regions, relevant for seizure generation. Tissues harvested the prescribed way will increase the diagnostic efficacy and provide reliable...

  15. Neuronal conditional knockout of NRSF decreases vulnerability to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Zhejin Sheng; Lei Cai; Kai Zhao; Yu Tian; Jian Fei

    2012-01-01

    Neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF),also known as repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor,has been reported to modulate neuronal excitability and acts as endogenous anticonvulsant in kainic acid-induced or kindling-evoked seizure activity.However,whether NRSF functions in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity has never been studied.To investigate the role of endogenous NRSF in the epileptogenesis induced by PTZ,in our experiment,NRSF neuronal conditional knockout mice (NRSF cKO) were adopted,in which NRSF was specifically deleted in neurons by the Cre-loxP system.Seizure threshold for PTZ,including the dose-response convulsions and the threshold dose,was compared between NRSF cKO and control mice.The threshold dose of PTZ that induced clonic and tonic seizures was significantly higher in NRSF cKO mice compared with the control.Similarly,the median lethal dose (LD50) of PTZ in NRSF cKO mice was also considerably higher than that of the control mice.These results revealed that NRSF cKO mice are of higher resistance to convulsions induced by PTZ.Our work first demonstrated the function of NRSF in PTZ-induced seizure and provided new evidence for differential pathways in diverse types of seizure.

  16. Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A.; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders. PMID:27281030

  17. Relationship among eye condition sensitivities,photosensitivity and epileptic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-xian; CAI Xiang; LIU Xiao-yan; QIN Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Background Electroencephalogram(EEG)activity in normal subjects and epileptic patients is often closely related to the eye's status such as eye opened(EO),eye closure(ECL)and eyes closed(EC).ECL is the period immediately after closing of the eyes and only Iasts for Jess than 3 seconds if the eyes remain closed.EC is the pened as long as the eyes are closed.Epileptiform changes on EEG induced by ECL or EC are called the changes of ECL sensitivity(ECLS)or EC sensitivity (ECS).ECLS occurs mainly but not exclusively in photosensitive patients and ECS has been seen rarely in photosensitive patients.This study aimed to investigate the relationships among ECLS,ECS.photosensitivity and epilepsy syndromes in children.Methods EEG records from child patients in the EEG Department of Peking University First Hospital dudng the period of May 2005 to Mav 2007 were examined for the presence of ECLS or ECS.Open-close eye tests and intermittent photic stimulations were carried out during video-EEG monitoring for examining ECLS.ECS and photosensitivity.Results Based on ECLS and ECS on their EEGs,30 patients were divided into ECLS group (16 cases)and ECS group (14 cases).There were more boys than girls in the two groups.The mean age of initial detection of ECLS and ECS was 10 years.and the average onset age of seizures was 9 years.The epilepsy syndromes in the ECLS group included idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy,Panayiotopoulos syndrome,symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy,juvenile myoclonic epilepsy,juvenile absence epilepsy,eyelid myoclonia with absences,epilepsy with grand mal on awakening and pure photosensitive epilepsy with mainly generalized tonic clonic seizures.Those in the ECS group were iuvenile myoclonic epilepsy,idiopathic photosensitive occipital Iobe epilepsy,Panayiotopoulos syndrome and Gastaut type-idiclpathic children occipital epilepsy.Photosensitivity was detected in 88%of Patients with ECLS and 29%of patients with ECS.Conclusions ECLS and ECS are

  18. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fridley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric epileptiform encephalopathies are a group of neurologically devastating disorders related to uncontrolled ictal and interictal epileptic activity, with a poor prognosis. Despite the number of pharmacological options for treatment of epilepsy, many of these patients are drug resistant. For these patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, motor and/or neuropsychological deterioration is common. To prevent these secondary consequences, surgery is often considered as either a curative or a palliative option. Magnetic resonance imaging to look for epileptic lesions that may be surgically treated is an essential part of the workup for these patients. Many surgical procedures for the treatment of epileptiform encephalopathies have been reported in the literature. In this paper the evidence for these procedures for the treatment of pediatric epileptiform encephalopathies is reviewed.

  19. Millimeter-scale epileptiform spike propagation patterns and their relationship to seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleer, Ann C.; Blanco, Justin A.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Viventi, Jonathan; Contreras, Diego; Litt, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Current mapping of epileptic networks in patients prior to epilepsy surgery utilizes electrode arrays with sparse spatial sampling (∼1.0 cm inter-electrode spacing). Recent research demonstrates that sub-millimeter, cortical-column-scale domains have a role in seizure generation that may be clinically significant. We use high-resolution, active, flexible surface electrode arrays with 500 μm inter-electrode spacing to explore epileptiform local field potential (LFP) spike propagation patterns in two dimensions recorded from subdural micro-electrocorticographic signals in vivo in cat. In this study, we aimed to develop methods to quantitatively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of epileptiform activity at high-resolution. Approach. We topically administered a GABA-antagonist, picrotoxin, to induce acute neocortical epileptiform activity leading up to discrete electrographic seizures. We extracted features from LFP spikes to characterize spatiotemporal patterns in these events. We then tested the hypothesis that two-dimensional spike patterns during seizures were different from those between seizures. Main results. We showed that spatially correlated events can be used to distinguish ictal versus interictal spikes. Significance. We conclude that sub-millimeter-scale spatiotemporal spike patterns reveal network dynamics that are invisible to standard clinical recordings and contain information related to seizure-state.

  20. Focal inhibitory seizure with prolonged deficit in adult Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupy, Jerome; Bonnet, Charlotte; Arnould, Jean-Simon; Fernandez, Philippe; Marchal, Cecile; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder often related to varying degrees of motor impairment. The phenomenon of prolonged ictal paresis is a rare seizure sign that can be due to lesions affecting the centro-parietal lobe. Focal inhibitory motor seizures can be difficult to differentiate from other clinical entities such as stroke, migraine or postictal paresis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old patient suffering from Sturge-Weber syndrome, admitted due to prolonged right-sided hemiparesis following a usual seizure. Repeated EEGs during the prolonged deficit showed only intermittent left fronto-parietal sharp waves. (99m)Tc HMPAO-brain SPECT performed seven days after the last seizure showed a vast area of parieto-occipital hyperperfusion in the left hemisphere. Aggressive antiepileptic therapy dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and scintigraphic images, which corroborated the diagnosis of ictal paresis. This case highlights the role of SPECT in the evaluation of Sturge-Weber syndrome, not only to investigate progressive neurological deterioration, but also exacerbation of seizures or prolonged neurological deficits. In fact, it may be possible to document ongoing epileptic activity using SPECT, despite a non-contributory EEG, which may be of help in adapting a therapeutic strategy.

  1. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew S; Berkovic, Samuel F; Cossette, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Dlugos, Dennis; Eichler, Evan E; Epstein, Michael P; Glauser, Tracy; Goldstein, David B; Han, Yujun; Heinzen, Erin L; Hitomi, Yuki; Howell, Katherine B; Johnson, Michael R; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Lu, Yi-Fan; Madou, Maura R Z; Marson, Anthony G; Mefford, Heather C; Esmaeeli Nieh, Sahar; O'Brien, Terence J; Ottman, Ruth; Petrovski, Slavé; Poduri, Annapurna; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Sherr, Elliott H; Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K; Bautista, Jocelyn F; Berkovic, Samuel F; Boro, Alex; Cascino, Gregory D; Consalvo, Damian; Crumrine, Patricia; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Epstein, Michael P; Fiol, Miguel; Fountain, Nathan B; French, Jacqueline; Friedman, Daniel; Geller, Eric B; Glauser, Tracy; Glynn, Simon; Haut, Sheryl R; Hayward, Jean; Helmers, Sandra L; Joshi, Sucheta; Kanner, Andres; Kirsch, Heidi E; Knowlton, Robert C; Kossoff, Eric H; Kuperman, Rachel; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H; McGuire, Shannon M; Motika, Paul V; Novotny, Edward J; Ottman, Ruth; Paolicchi, Juliann M; Parent, Jack M; Park, Kristen; Poduri, Annapurna; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Shellhaas, Renée A; Sherr, Elliott H; Shih, Jerry J; Singh, Rani; Sirven, Joseph; Smith, Michael C; Sullivan, Joseph; Lin Thio, Liu; Venkat, Anu; Vining, Eileen P G; Von Allmen, Gretchen K; Weisenberg, Judith L; Widdess-Walsh, Peter; Winawer, Melodie R

    2013-09-12

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown. Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115). We sequenced the exomes of 264 probands, and their parents, and confirmed 329 de novo mutations. A likelihood analysis showed a significant excess of de novo mutations in the ∼4,000 genes that are the most intolerant to functional genetic variation in the human population (P = 2.9 × 10(-3)). Among these are GABRB3, with de novo mutations in four patients, and ALG13, with the same de novo mutation in two patients; both genes show clear statistical evidence of association with epileptic encephalopathy. Given the relevant site-specific mutation rates, the probabilities of these outcomes occurring by chance are P = 4.1 × 10(-10) and P = 7.8 × 10(-12), respectively. Other genes with de novo mutations in this cohort include CACNA1A, CHD2, FLNA, GABRA1, GRIN1, GRIN2B, HNRNPU, IQSEC2, MTOR and NEDD4L. Finally, we show that the de novo mutations observed are enriched in specific gene sets including genes regulated by the fragile X protein (P < 10(-8)), as has been reported previously for autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23934111

  2. Functional MRI evidence for language plasticity in adult epileptic patients: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Cousin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Cousin1, Monica Baciu1, Cédric Pichat1, Philippe Kahane2, Jean-François Le Bas31UMR CNRS/UPMF 5105, Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition; 2Laboratoire de Neurophysiopathologie de l’Epilepsie, CHU Grenoble; 3Unité IRM, CHU Grenoble, FranceAbstract: The present fMRI study explores the cerebral reorganisation of language in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the age of seizures onset (early or late and the hippocampal sclerosis (associated or not. Seven right-handed control volunteers and seven preoperative adult epileptic patients performed a rhyme decision (language condition and a visual detection (control condition tasks in visually presented words and unreadable characters, respectively. All patients were left hemisphere dominant for language. Appropriate statistical analyses provided the following preliminary results: (1 patients compared with healthy subjects showed lower degree of hemispheric lateralization with supplementary involvement of the right hemisphere; (2 the degree of hemispheric specialization depends on the considered region; (3 patients with early seizures show signs of temporal and parietal reorganization more frequently than patients with late onset of seizures; (4 patients with early seizures show a tendency for intra-hemispheric frontal reorganisation; (5 associated hippocampal sclerosis facilitates the inter-hemispheric shift of temporal activation. Although our patients were left hemisphere predominant for language, the statistical analyses indicated that the degree of lateralization was significantly lower than in healthy subjects. This result has been considered as the indication of atypical lateralization of language.Keywords: language, fMRI, plasticity, temporal epilepsy, age, hippocampal sclerosis

  3. Reciprocal neuron-astrocyte signaling in epileptic seizure generation and propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Cammarota, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The idea that astrocytes – the main population of glial cells in the brain – are active partners of neurons in many aspects of brain functions represented a Copernican Revolution in neurobiology. Astrocytes, which were for many years considered just like the cement (from Greek glia i.e. glue) that keeps neuronal cells together, have now been moved from the periphery to the centre of the universe of information processing in the brain providing a radically different point of obs...

  4. Patients with epilepsy and patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katherine; Piazzini, Ada; Chiesa, Valentina;

    2011-01-01

    and neuropsychological functions among patients with PNES, patients with epilepsy associated with PNES and patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We evaluated 66 consecutive in-patients with video-EEG recordings: 21 patients with epilepsy, 22 patients with PNES and 10 patients with epilepsy associated with PNES; 13 patients....... We observed fewer mood and anxiety disorders in patients with PNES compared with those with epilepsy. We did not find statistically significant differences in neuropsychological profiles among the 3 patient groups. CONCLUSION: This study can help to contribute to a better understanding of the impact...

  5. Ecstasy intoxication as an unusual cause of epileptic seizures in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Steven; Lemmens, Francis; Eerdekens, Kim; Penders, Joris; Poesen, Koen; Desmet, Koen; Vermeersch, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    In light of the widespread use of ecstasy, it is surprising that only few cases of intoxicated young children have been reported. Patients almost invariably present with convulsions accompanied by sympathetic signs and symptoms such as hyperthermia. Two new cases of toddlers intoxicated with ecstasy are described. The first patient, a 19-month-old boy, presented with convulsions but no sympathetic signs. The pediatrician's suspicion was raised because of the absence of a postictal state. The second patient, a 20-month-old girl, had a more typical presentation with convulsions and hyperthermia. Her story illustrates the fact that immunoassays for toxicological screening can easily miss traces of additional illicit drugs present in the urine such as cocaine. The presence of other illicit drugs provides clues to the child's risky environment and should lead to further investigation. Finally, we review the available literature on ecstasy intoxication to summarize the key presenting manifestations.

  6. Resuscitation of sudden cardiac death caused by acute epileptic seizures:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana-Oliviana Geavlete; Oana Ionita; Leonard Mandes; Iulia Kulcsar; Emanuel Stoica; Radu Ciudin; Cezar Macarie; Ovidiu Chioncel

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic long QT syndrome in pediatric patients is a life-threatening condition. Sometimes, this pathology can be misdiagnosed and erroneously managed as generalized epilepsy due to similar clinical manifestations. The presented case discusses a 13-year-old female patient with generalized epilepsy since the age of 4, admitted for two episodes of resuscitated cardiac arrest due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. The final diagnosis of congenital long QT was established and due to the patient's high-risk profile for future cardiac events, implantable cardiac defibrillator was subsequently indicated. Early recognition of congenital long QT and timing of cardiac therapy were crucial and potentially lower the incidence of fatal dysrhythmias commonly associated this condition. In high-risk patients, both medical and interventional therapy can be life-saving.

  7. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Jaenisch; Lutz Liebmann; Madlen Guenther; Hübner, Christian A; Christiane Frahm; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show...

  8. [Effect of partial and generalised epileptic seizures on sleep architecture in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Edith; Vega-Flores, Germán; Contreras-Cisneros, Bernardo; Martínez, Adrián; Rivera-García, Ana P

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La alteracion del sueño producido por las crisis epilepticas se conoce; sin embargo, aun se tiene poca informacion de la alteracion en el sueño por el tipo de crisis epileptica. Materiales y metodos. Se evaluo la arquitectura del sueño de ratas en registros polisomnograficos de 36 horas tras inducirles crisis epilepticas parciales y generalizadas. Para la induccion de las crisis epilepticas se aplicaron in situ 50-100 UI de penicilina G sodica en la amigdala del lobulo temporal. Resultados. Las crisis parciales y generalizadas provocaron el aumento en la latencia del sueño de ondas lentas (SOL) y sueño de movimiento oculares rapidos (MOR). El numero de episodios de las fases de vigilia, SOL y sueño MOR disminuyo y la duracion media de los episodios de la vigilia y del SOL aumento, mientras que la del sueño MOR disminuyo. El porcentaje total del sueño MOR disminuyo significativamente. Durante el primer periodo de luz, las crisis parciales y generalizadas provocaron el incremento de la vigilia y la reduccion de las fases del SOL y sueño MOR. En el periodo de oscuridad, aumento el SOL, disminuyo la vigilia y no hubo cambios en el sueño MOR. En el segundo periodo de luz los porcentajes de las fases de vigilia y SOL regresaron a los valores control y el porcentaje del sueño MOR continuo disminuido. Conclusion. Los cambios en la organizacion del sueño dependen del tipo de crisis epileptica que se presenta. Las crisis epilepticas generalizadas provocaron mayor deterioro en el sueño MOR.

  9. Characterization of language and phonological working memory in patients with myoclonic astatic epileptic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara; Kutscher, Kellen; Frizzo, Ana Cláudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myrian de Lima; Fernandes, Regina Maria França; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2010-02-01

    The course of myoclonic astatic epileptic syndrome (MAES) is variable and little information is available about cortical functions in the presence of the disease. The objective of the present study was to assess the phonological working memory (PWM) and the verbal language of six patients between 8 and 18 years old, on treatment for at least 5 years, and good control of seizures, diagnosed in the Service of Epilepsy of Hospital of Clinics of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo University in Brazil. The Test of Repetition of Meaningless Words was used to assess PWM. Video-recorded of language samples were collected during spontaneous and directed activities for the study of verbal language and pragmatics. A qualitative analysis showed that all patients presented deficits in the execution of the PWM test and only one patient showed poor mastery of all aspects studied. These finds contribute to strategies of treatment for language problems of patients with MAES, focusing on PWA.

  10. Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocation in Adults: A Rare Complication of an Epileptic Seizure—Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    TARANTINO, Roberto; DONNARUMMA, Pasquale; MAROTTA, Nicola; MISSORI, Paolo; VIOZZI, Ilaria; LANDI, Alessandro; DELFINI, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocations (AARDs) are a heterogeneous group of post-traumatic pathologies typical of the pediatric age, and rare in adults. We describe the case of a 34-year-old woman, developing Atlanto Axial Rotatory Fixation (AARF) after a generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure, an extremely rare traumatic cause never described in literature. AARF was detected only 1 month after the accident and nonsurgical treatment was attempted at the beginning. The patient underwent surgery only 2 months after the accident. The best treatment should be conservative reduction within 1 month; when it is not possible, it is advisable to perform surgery as soon as possible. C1–C2 fixation with Harm's technique is the gold standard for fixed luxations. Delay of treatment makes intraoperative reduction more difficult and increase the establishment of the chronic permanent change of neck muscles and ligaments. PMID:24201098

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of an EEG Epileptic Record Based on MultiresolutionWavelet Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Rosenblatt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the dynamics associated with electroencephalogram (EEG signal combining an orthogonal discrete wavelet transform analysis with quantifiers originated from information theory is reviewed. In addition, an extension of this methodology based on multiresolution quantities, called wavelet leaders, is presented. In particular, the temporal evolution of Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity evaluated with different sets of multiresolution wavelet coefficients are considered. Both methodologies are applied to the quantitative EEG time series analysis of a tonic-clonic epileptic seizure, and comparative results are presented. In particular, even when both methods describe the dynamical changes of the EEG time series, the one based on wavelet leaders presents a better time resolution.

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of Clinical Epileptic EEG by Approximate Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-su; XIA Yang; XU Hong-ru; ZHOU Dong; YAO De-zhong

    2005-01-01

    By the means of computing approximate entropy (ApEn) of video-EEG from some clinical epileptic, ApEn of EEG with epileptiform discharges is found significantly different from that of EEG without epileptiform discharges, (p=0. 002). Meanwhile, dynamic ApEn shows consistent change of EEG signal withdischarges of epileptic waves inside. These results suggest that ApEn may be a useful tool for automatic recognition and detection of epileptic activity and for understanding epileptogenic mechanism.

  13. MicroRNA-Mediated Downregulation of the Potassium Channel Kv4.2 Contributes to Seizure Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are bursts of excessive synchronized neuronal activity, suggesting that mechanisms controlling brain excitability are compromised. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.2, a major mediator of hyperpolarizing A-type currents in the brain, is a crucial regulator of neuronal excitability. Kv4.2 expression levels are reduced following seizures and in epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Kv4.2 mRNA is recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex shortly after status epilepticus in mice and after kainic acid treatment of hippocampal neurons, coincident with reduction of Kv4.2 protein. We show that the microRNA miR-324-5p inhibits Kv4.2 protein expression and that antagonizing miR-324-5p is neuroprotective and seizure suppressive. MiR-324-5p inhibition also blocks kainic-acid-induced reduction of Kv4.2 protein in vitro and in vivo and delays kainic-acid-induced seizure onset in wild-type but not in Kcnd2 knockout mice. These results reveal an important role for miR-324-5p-mediated silencing of Kv4.2 in seizure onset.

  14. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  15. Change of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhu; Cheng-Shan Li; Yuan-Ye Wang; Sheng-Nian Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To To investigate the changes of MicroRNA-134, CREB and p-CREB expression in epileptic rat brains in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy, providing new ideas for clinical treatment. Methods: Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups randomly, including control group, six hours after seizure group, 24-hour group, three-day group, one-week group, two-week group, four-week group, and eight-week group. All groups were placed under a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model except the control group, and all rats were decapitated in different points of time. Brain specimens were taken for quantitative PCR experiments, immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments. The results of the epilepsy model groups and the control group were compared. Results: There were no significant differences between the six hours after seizure group, the 24-hour group and the control group about the MicroRNA-134 levels. MicroRNA-134 in the hippocampus tissue of the three-day group significantly reduced compared with the control group; same result was observed with the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. The CREB and p-CREB levels in the three-day group’s rat hippocampus significantly increased compared with the control group; and the high levels of CREB and p-CREB were constantly maintained in the one-week, two-week, four-week and eight-week groups. Conclusions: The MicroRNA-134 level of the epileptic rat hippocampus is significantly lower than normal after three days, and continues to maintain a low level; while CREB and p-CREB levels are rsignificantly increased after three days, and continue to remain at a high level. MicroRNA-134 plays a role in inhibiting synaptic plasticity by inhibiting CREB and p-CREB expressions.

  16. NEONATAL SEIZURES: ETIOLOGY AND FREQUENCY

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    F. Eghbalian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the etiology and frequency of neonatal seizure in hospitalized neonates.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 1295 neonates with seizures admitted to neonatal and NICU wards in our center. Data was collected on age, sex, birth weight, serum levels of calcium, glucose, and sodium, CT scan findings, history of maternal opium abuse, blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture, and analyzed using SPSS 13.ResultsOf a total of 1295 patients, 34 (2.62% had seizure. Mean age was 14.03 ± 10.05 days (range, 1 to 29 days; twenty-five (73.5% neonates were boys and 9 (26.5% were girls. Of 34 neonates with neonatal seizures, 12 (35.3%, 11 (32.4%, 9 (26.5%, 7 (20.6%, and 3 (8.8% had hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia, respectively.Maternal addiction, meningitis, and sepsis were found in 3 (8.8%, 1 (2.9% and 1 (2.9% of neonates, respectively.ConclusionThe incidence rate of neonatal seizure in the neonates in our NICU and neonatal ward was 2.62%. Common causes of seizure in this study included hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia. Maternal ddiction, meningitis and sepsis had the lowest prevalence.Keywords:Neonate, Seizure, Etiologies.

  17. Differential Effect of Neuropeptides on Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Epileptic Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledri, Marco; Sørensen, Andreas T; Madsen, Marita G; Christiansen, Søren H; Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Cifra, Alessandra; Bengzon, Johan; Lindberg, Eva; Pinborg, Lars H; Jespersen, Bo; Gøtzsche, Casper R; Woldbye, David P D; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

    2015-07-01

    Development of novel disease-modifying treatment strategies for neurological disorders, which at present have no cure, represents a major challenge for today's neurology. Translation of findings from animal models to humans represents an unresolved gap in most of the preclinical studies. Gene therapy is an evolving innovative approach that may prove useful for clinical applications. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), gene therapy treatments based on viral vectors encoding NPY or galanin have been shown to effectively suppress seizures. However, how this translates to human TLE remains unknown. A unique possibility to validate these animal studies is provided by a surgical therapeutic approach, whereby resected epileptic tissue from temporal lobes of pharmacoresistant patients are available for neurophysiological studies in vitro. To test whether NPY and galanin have antiepileptic actions in human epileptic tissue as well, we applied these neuropeptides directly to human hippocampal slices in vitro. NPY strongly decreased stimulation-induced EPSPs in dentate gyrus and CA1 (up to 30 and 55%, respectively) via Y2 receptors, while galanin had no significant effect. Receptor autoradiographic binding revealed the presence of both NPY and galanin receptors, while functional receptor binding was only detected for NPY, suggesting that galanin receptor signaling may be impaired. These results underline the importance of validating findings from animal studies in human brain tissue, and advocate for NPY as a more appropriate candidate than galanin for future gene therapy trials in pharmacoresistant TLE patients. PMID:26134645

  18. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy;

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations...... in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many...

  19. Automatic seizure detection: going from sEEG to iEEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas; Remvig, Line Sofie; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg;

    2010-01-01

    Several different algorithms have been proposed for automatic detection of epileptic seizures based on both scalp and intracranial electroencephalography (sEEG and iEEG). Which modality that renders the best result is hard to assess though. From 16 patients with focal epilepsy, at least 24 hours...... band widening of the feature extraction is performed. This means that algorithms for sEEG should not be discarded for use on iEEG - they should be properly adjusted as exemplified in this paper....

  20. Crises não-epilépticas: clínica e terapêutica Nonepileptic seizures: clinical features and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nogueira Mendes de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutir as crises ou os eventos paroxísticos que simulem crises epilépticas, enfatizando as diferenças semiológicas entre elas e as perspectivas terapêuticas. Realizamos uma revisão da literatura, selecionando artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Bireme, a partir dos unitermos: "non-epileptic seizures", "psychogenic seizures". As crises não-epilépticas (CNE podem ser classificadas em fisiológicas (síncope, migrânea, ataque isquêmico transitório e em psicogênicas (voluntárias ou não. O padrão-ouro para a diferenciação entre as crises epilépticas e as CNE é o videoeletroencefalograma, mas vários dados semiológicos podem auxiliar esse processo. O tratamento das CNE baseia-se em psicoterapia e em farmacoterapia direcionadas aos transtornos psiquiátricos comórbidos. Apesar de a alta prevalência das CNE e de sua elevada morbidade, são escassos os estudos na literatura nacional. São muitos os desafios diagnósticos e terapêuticos. Assim, o psiquiatra atentar-se à sua ocorrência, evitando iatrogenia, como o uso desnecessário de drogas antiepilépticas.To discuss paroxysmal events that mimic epileptic seizures with emphasis on their semiologic differences and therapeutic perspectives. We did a narrative review of the literature based on selected papers in Medline and Bireme after searching for the uniterms "non-epileptic seizures" and "psychogenic seizures". Nonepileptic seizures (NES can be classified in physiological (syncope, migraine, transitory ischemic attack and psychogenic (voluntary or involuntary. The gold-standard in the differentiation of epileptic and nonepileptic seizures is the video-electroencefalogram, but many semiologic features can contribute to this process. The treatment of NES is based mainly on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy directed to comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite the high prevalence and elevated morbidity of the NES, there are just few studies on this subject in the Brazilian

  1. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine

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    Mingrui eZhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP. Epileptiform events were induced with blue light illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events. Epileptiform events including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges were induced with blue light illumination. This model can be induced in vivo with both whole brain and focal illumination to provide high spatio-temporal control of the site of ictal onset. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model that may have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and in novel light-based therapeutic interventions.

  2. Time-variant coherence between heart rate variability and EEG activity in epileptic patients: an advanced coupling analysis between physiological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-variant coherence analysis between the heart rate variability (HRV) and the channel-related envelopes of adaptively selected EEG components was used as an indicator for the occurrence of (correlative) couplings between the central autonomic network (CAN) and the epileptic network before, during and after epileptic seizures. Two groups of patients were investigated, a group with left and a group with right hemispheric temporal lobe epilepsy. The individual EEG components were extracted by a signal-adaptive approach, the multivariate empirical mode decomposition, and the envelopes of each resulting intrinsic mode function (IMF) were computed by using Hilbert transform. Two IMFs, whose envelopes were strongly correlated with the HRV’s low-frequency oscillation (HRV-LF; ≈0.1 Hz) before and after the seizure were identified. The frequency ranges of these IMFs correspond to the EEG delta-band. The time-variant coherence was statistically quantified and tensor decomposition of the time-frequency coherence maps was applied to explore the topography-time-frequency characteristics of the coherence analysis. Results allow the hypothesis that couplings between the CAN, which controls the cardiovascular-cardiorespiratory system, and the ‘epileptic neural network’ exist. Additionally, our results confirm the hypothesis of a right hemispheric lateralization of sympathetic cardiac control of the HRV-LF. (paper)

  3. Occipital seizures imitating migraine aura.

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Sharoqi, I A; Agathonikou, A

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported in which symptoms of occipital seizures resembled the visual aura of migraine. Careful recording of the characteristics and timing of such visual effects will often resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  4. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

  5. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, Pınar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

  6. The contribution of the lateral posterior and anteroventral thalamic nuclei on spontaneous recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza Fulvio Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats is characterised by the occurrence of spontaneous seizures (SRSs during the chronic period that recur 2-3 times per week during the whole animal life. In a previous study on brain metabolism during the chronic period of the pilocarpine model it was possible to observe that, among several brain structures, the lateral posterior thalamic nuclei (LP showed a strikingly increased metabolism. Some evidences suggest that the LP can participate in an inhibitory control system involved in the propagation of the seizures. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of LP in the expression and frequency of spontaneous seizures observed in the pilocarpine model. Ten adult male rats presenting SRSs were monitored for behavioural events by video system one month before and one month after LP ibotenic acid lesion. Another group of chronic epileptic rats (n=10 had the anteroventral thalamic nuclei (AV lesioned by ibotenic acid. After the surgical procedure, the animals were sacrified and the brains were processed for histological analysis by the Nissl method. The LP group seizure frequency was 3.1±1.9 before ibotenic acid injection and showed an increase (16.3±7.2 per week after LP lesion. No changes in SRSs frequency were observed in the AV group after ibotenic lesion in these nuclei. These results seem to suggest that LP play a role in the seizure circuitry inhibiting the expression of spontaneous seizures in the pilocarpine model.

  7. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J

    2010-05-01

    Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics. PMID:20463875

  8. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Ullah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics.

  9. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. PMID:25506793

  10. [What the patient's history tells us about their nonepileptic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Gülich, E; Bartolomei, F; McGonigal, A

    2014-10-01

    The aetiology of "psychogenic" non-epileptic seizures (NES) remains poorly understood and the differentiation of NES from epilepsy can be a difficult. In the first part of this review article we focus on recent insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of NES. We summarise a number of studies demonstrating the importance of abnormalities of emotion regulation in patients with NES. Evidence for abnormal emotion regulation comes from both self-report and experimental studies of pre-conscious cognitive processes. These studies show that NES are not the only manifestation of abnormal mental processing in these patients and that excessive social threat avoidance and emotional dysregulation are also evident between seizures and may therefore contribute to disability beyond the seizures themselves. In the second part of this review, we describe the findings of a number of studies, which have examined differences between the communication behaviour of patients with NES and those with epilepsy. We argue, that, whilst these studies initially aimed to help clinicians with the differential diagnosis of NES and epilepsy, close sociolinguistic analysis of patient's talk can also provide clues about the aetiology of NES. We conclude that the interaction of patient with NES with the doctor can be interpreted as a manifestation of avoidance and a demonstration of helplessness perhaps intended to secure active support from the doctor. In the third part of this review, we suggest that a close reading of a transcript of the interaction between a patient with NES and her doctor (and perhaps attentive listening to how patients' talk about themselves and their disorder) can yield clues to the causes of NES in individual cases. PMID:25306078

  11. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  12. Clinical and electroencephalographic polymorphism of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kholin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI are a rare epileptic syndrome that occurs in the first 6 months of life and is characterized by multiple continuous electroencephalographic and electroclinical focal ictal patterns with involvement of different independent areas of both hemispheres and with arrested psychomotor development. Is proposed the definition of this epileptic syndrome as: «malignant epilepsy of infancy with migrating multifocal seizures» or «Coppola-Dulac syndrome». The paper describes an observation of 19 MMPSI patients examined and treated at Departament of Psychoneurology №2, Russian Children Clinical Hospital. Video-EEG monitoring showed that all the patients had very frequent and polymorphous seizures — at least 5 types in every child with ictal patterns originating from different areas of both hemispheres. The infants with MMPSI were found to have 4 subtypes of the syndrome: (1 a classicform with drug-resistant migrating status epilepticus (SE of migrating multifocal seizures and with absolutely poor prognosis (n = 7; (2 a severe mixed form (MMPSI + early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME with a combination of electroclinical characteristics of MMPSI with migrating multifocal SE and EME with chaotic erratic myoclonus and a suppression-burst pattern with diffuse polyspikewaves on EEG (n = 5; (3 a moderate type with reverse evolution to monofocal or multifocal epilepsy with a decrease in seizure frequency and better prognosis of life and psychomotor development (n = 5; (4 a subtle form manifesting itself as slightly identified minimal motor and inhibitory seizures, subclinical migrating multifocal SE pattern on EEG, multiple partial awakenings during sleep due to ictal patterns, and as severely delayed psychomotor development (n = 2. MMPSI is a severe form of SE in infancy with high drug resistance. At the same time, only the injection form of valproate (convulex could stabilize progressive worsening

  13. Inhibitory effects of recombinant neurotoxin BmK IM on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小华; 彭方; 章军建; 李文鑫; 曾宪春; 刘辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the inhibitory effects of recombinant Chinese scorpion neurotoxin BmK IM on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and the possible mechanism.Methods After purifying recombinant BmK IM from an E. coli cell line, its toxicity (both LD50 and minimum lethal dose) on rats was determined. BmK IM was then microinjected into the CA3 region of the right hippocampus and its ability to inhibit the effects of an intraperitoneal injection of PTZ was assessed. The effects of BmK IM on the electrophysiological properties of isolated CA3 pyramidal neurons were then studied using whole-cell patch clamp techniques.Results BmK IM can significantly prolong the latent period of epileptic seizures, decrease the degree of seizures, and decrease the frequency of epileptiform discharges induced by PTZ. At the same time, 24h after injection of BmK IM into the hippocampal tissue, BmK IM significantly reduces the concentration of the neurotransmitter glutamate and alleviates PTZ-induced lesions in the hippocampus. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings indicate that BmK IM inhibits INa of rat hippocampal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. BmK IM significantly shifts the activation curve of INa in a positive direction, indicating that BmK IM enhances the threshold potential of INa.Conclusions BmK IM has significant anti-epileptic properties, and may prove useful as a drug in the therapy of epilepsy. The inhibitory effects of BmK IM on seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol might depend on reductions in the release of presynaptic glutamate via the blocking of Na+ channels.

  14. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Pradeep P.; Kalita, Jayantee [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)], E-mail: drukmisra@rediffmail.com

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  15. Bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation in a young patient due to seizure activity:a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh Kumar Meena; Devi Sahai Meena; Prateek Behera; Om Singh Meel

    2014-01-01

    Various musculoskeletal injuries are well known complications of epilepsy either because of direct trauma or because of unbalanced forceful muscle contraction. We report a case of non-traumatic bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation due to seizure activity induced by neurocysticercosis of the brain, which was managed conservatively and obtained reasonable good outcome. This case highlights the importance of proper evaluation in young non-osteoporotic patients who have experienced an epileptic attack without any previous history. It is also imperative to mention that these patients should be thoroughly examined neurologically to find out the exact etiology and should be treated accordingly to prevent future seizure activity.

  16. Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Faten; Benquet, Pascal; Pasnicu, Anca; Biraben, Arnaud; Wendling, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can modulate the activity in the epileptic brain and that a decrease of seizures can be achieved in "responding" patients. In most of these studies, the choice of stimulation parameters is critical to obtain desired clinical effects. In particular, the stimulation frequency is a key parameter that is difficult to tune. A reason is that our knowledge about the frequency-dependant mechanisms according to which DBS indirectly impacts the dynamics of pathological neuronal systems located in the neocortex is still limited. We address this issue using both computational modeling and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) data. We developed a macroscopic (neural mass) model of the thalamocortical network. In line with already-existing models, it includes interconnected neocortical pyramidal cells and interneurons, thalamocortical cells and reticular neurons. The novelty was to introduce, in the thalamic compartment, the biophysical effects of direct stimulation. Regarding clinical data, we used a quite unique data set recorded in a patient (drug-resistant epilepsy) with a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In this patient, DBS strongly reduced the sustained epileptic activity of the FCD for low-frequency (LFS, 70 Hz) while intermediate-frequency stimulation (IFS, around 50 Hz) had no effect. Signal processing, clustering, and optimization techniques allowed us to identify the necessary conditions for reproducing, in the model, the observed frequency-dependent stimulation effects. Key elements which explain the suppression of epileptic activity in the FCD include: (a) feed-forward inhibition and synaptic short-term depression of thalamocortical connections at LFS, and (b) inhibition of the thalamic output at HFS. Conversely, modeling results indicate that IFS favors thalamic oscillations and entrains epileptic dynamics.

  17. Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten eMina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS can modulate the activity in the epileptic brain and that a decrease of seizures can be achieved in responding patients. In most of these studies, the choice of stimulation parameters is critical to obtain desired clinical effects. In particular, the stimulation frequency is a key parameter that is difficult to tune. A reason is that our knowledge about the frequency-dependant mechanisms according to which DBS indirectly impacts the dynamics of pathological neuronal systems located in the neocortex is still limited. We address this issue using both computational modeling and intracerebral EEG (iEEG data.We developed a macroscopic (neural mass model of the thalamocortical network. In line with already-existing models, it includes interconnected neocortical pyramidal cells and interneurons, thalamocortical cells and reticular neurons. The novelty was to introduce, in the thalamic compartment, the biophysical effects of direct stimulation. Regarding clinical data, we used a quite unique data set recorded in a patient (drug-resistant epilepsy with a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD. In this patient, DBS strongly reduced the sustained epileptic activity of the FCD for low-frequency (LFS, < 2 Hz and high-frequency stimulation (HFS, > 70 Hz while intermediate-frequency stimulation (IFS, around 50 Hz had no effect.Signal processing, clustering and optimization techniques allowed us to identify the necessary conditions for reproducing, in the model, the observed frequency-dependent stimulation effects. Key elements which explain the suppression of epileptic activity in the FCD include a feed-forward inhibition and synaptic short-term depression of thalamocortical connections at LFS, and b inhibition of the thalamic output at HFS. Conversely, modeling results indicate that IFS favors thalamic oscillations and entrains epileptic dynamics.

  18. A hierarchical approach for online temporal lobe seizure detection in long-term intracranial EEG recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Pin-Tzu; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiueh, Herming

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Around 1% of the world's population is affected by epilepsy, and nearly 25% of patients cannot be treated effectively by available therapies. The presence of closed-loop seizure-triggered stimulation provides a promising solution for these patients. Realization of fast, accurate, and energy-efficient seizure detection is the key to such implants. In this study, we propose a two-stage on-line seizure detection algorithm with low-energy consumption for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Approach. Multi-channel signals are processed through independent component analysis and the most representative independent component (IC) is automatically selected to eliminate artifacts. Seizure-like intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) segments are fast detected in the first stage of the proposed method and these seizures are confirmed in the second stage. The conditional activation of the second-stage signal processing reduces the computational effort, and hence energy, since most of the non-seizure events are filtered out in the first stage. Main results. Long-term iEEG recordings of 11 patients who suffered from TLE were analyzed via leave-one-out cross validation. The proposed method has a detection accuracy of 95.24%, a false alarm rate of 0.09/h, and an average detection delay time of 9.2 s. For the six patients with mesial TLE, a detection accuracy of 100.0%, a false alarm rate of 0.06/h, and an average detection delay time of 4.8 s can be achieved. The hierarchical approach provides a 90% energy reduction, yielding effective and energy-efficient implementation for real-time epileptic seizure detection. Significance. An on-line seizure detection method that can be applied to monitor continuous iEEG signals of patients who suffered from TLE was developed. An IC selection strategy to automatically determine the most seizure-related IC for seizure detection was also proposed. The system has advantages of (1) high detection accuracy, (2) low false alarm, (3) short

  19. Sporadic infantile epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in PCDH19 resembles Dravet syndrome but mainly affects females.

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    Christel Depienne

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Dravet syndrome (DS is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41 probands were screened for micro-rearrangements with Illumina high-density SNP microarrays. A hemizygous deletion on chromosome Xq22.1, encompassing the PCDH19 gene, was found in one male patient. To confirm that PCDH19 is responsible for a Dravet-like syndrome, we sequenced its coding region in 73 additional SCN1A-negative patients. Nine different point mutations (four missense and five truncating mutations were identified in 11 unrelated female patients. In addition, we demonstrated that the fibroblasts of our male patient were mosaic for the PCDH19 deletion. Patients with PCDH19 and SCN1A mutations had very similar clinical features including the association of early febrile and afebrile seizures, seizures occurring in clusters, developmental and language delays, behavioural disturbances, and cognitive regression. There were, however, slight but constant differences in the evolution of the patients, including fewer polymorphic seizures (in particular rare myoclonic jerks and atypical absences in those with PCDH19 mutations. These results suggest that PCDH19 plays a major role in epileptic encephalopathies, with a clinical spectrum overlapping that of DS. This disorder mainly affects females. The identification of an affected mosaic male strongly supports the hypothesis that cellular interference is the pathogenic mechanism.

  20. Sporadic infantile epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in PCDH19 resembles Dravet syndrome but mainly affects females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depienne, Christel; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Cheuret, Emmanuel; Poirier, Karine; Trouillard, Oriane; Benyahia, Baya; Quelin, Chloé; Carpentier, Wassila; Julia, Sophie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Gautier, Agnès; Rivier, François; Meyer, Sophie; Berquin, Patrick; Hélias, Marie; Py, Isabelle; Rivera, Serge; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Nabbout, Rima; Leguern, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41 probands were screened for micro-rearrangements with Illumina high-density SNP microarrays. A hemizygous deletion on chromosome Xq22.1, encompassing the PCDH19 gene, was found in one male patient. To confirm that PCDH19 is responsible for a Dravet-like syndrome, we sequenced its coding region in 73 additional SCN1A-negative patients. Nine different point mutations (four missense and five truncating mutations) were identified in 11 unrelated female patients. In addition, we demonstrated that the fibroblasts of our male patient were mosaic for the PCDH19 deletion. Patients with PCDH19 and SCN1A mutations had very similar clinical features including the association of early febrile and afebrile seizures, seizures occurring in clusters, developmental and language delays, behavioural disturbances, and cognitive regression. There were, however, slight but constant differences in the evolution of the patients, including fewer polymorphic seizures (in particular rare myoclonic jerks and atypical absences) in those with PCDH19 mutations. These results suggest that PCDH19 plays a major role in epileptic encephalopathies, with a clinical spectrum overlapping that of DS. This disorder mainly affects females. The identification of an affected mosaic male strongly supports the hypothesis that cellular interference is the pathogenic mechanism.

  1. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation.

  2. CHD2 mutations are a rare cause of generalized epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisano, Marina; Striano, Pasquale; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Giordano, Lucio; Traverso, Monica; Accorsi, Patrizia; Cappelletti, Simona; Claps, Dianela Judith; Vigevano, Federico; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (CHD2) gene mutations have been reported in patients with myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (MAE), as well as in patients with Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes and other epileptic encephalopathies featuring generalized epilepsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CHD2 mutations in a series of patients with MAE. Twenty patients affected by MAE were included in the study. We analyzed antecedents, age at onset, seizure semiology and frequency, EEG, treatment, and neuropsychological outcome. We sequenced the CHD2 gene with Sanger technology. We identified a CHD2 frameshift mutation in one patient (c.4256del19). He was a 17-year-old boy with no familial history for epilepsy and normal development before epilepsy onset. Epilepsy onset was at 3years and 5months: he presented with myoclonic-atonic seizures, head drops, myoclonic jerks, and absences. Interictal EEGs revealed slow background activity associated with generalized epileptiform abnormalities and photoparoxysmal response. His seizures were highly responsive to valproic acid, and an attempt to withdraw it led to seizure recurrence. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed moderate intellectual disability. Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 2 is not the major gene associated with MAE. Conversely, CHD2 could be responsible for a proper phenotype characterized by infantile-onset generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity, which might overlap with MAE, Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes.

  3. Osthole suppresses seizures in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres-Mach, Marta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Mazol, Irena; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of osthole {[7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one]--a natural coumarin derivative} in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. The antiseizure effects of osthole were determined at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after its systemic (i.p.) administration. Time course of anticonvulsant action of osthole revealed that the natural coumarin derivative produced a clear-cut antielectroshock activity in mice and the experimentally-derived ED(50) values for osthole ranged from 259 to 631 mg/kg. In conclusion, osthole suppresses seizure activity in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. It may become a novel treatment option following further investigation in other animal models of epilepsy and preclinical studies. PMID:19236860

  4. Characterization of long-range functional connectivity in epileptic networks by neuronal spike-triggered local field potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopour, Beth A.; Staba, Richard J.; Stern, John M.; Fried, Itzhak; Ringach, Dario L.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Quantifying the relationship between microelectrode-recorded multi-unit activity (MUA) and local field potentials (LFPs) in distinct brain regions can provide detailed information on the extent of functional connectivity in spatially widespread networks. These methods are common in studies of cognition using non-human animal models, but are rare in humans. Here we applied a neuronal spike-triggered impulse response to electrophysiological recordings from the human epileptic brain for the first time, and we evaluate functional connectivity in relation to brain areas supporting the generation of seizures. Approach. Broadband interictal electrophysiological data were recorded from microwires adapted to clinical depth electrodes that were implanted bilaterally using stereotactic techniques in six presurgical patients with medically refractory epilepsy. MUA and LFPs were isolated in each microwire, and we calculated the impulse response between the MUA on one microwire and the LFPs on a second microwire for all possible MUA/LFP pairs. Results were compared to clinical seizure localization, including sites of seizure onset and interictal epileptiform discharges. Main results. We detected significant interictal long-range functional connections in each subject, in some cases across hemispheres. Results were consistent between two independent datasets, and the timing and location of significant impulse responses reflected anatomical connectivity. However, within individual subjects, the spatial distribution of impulse responses was unique. In two subjects with clear seizure localization and successful surgery, the epileptogenic zone was associated with significant impulse responses. Significance. The results suggest that the spike-triggered impulse response can provide valuable information about the neuronal networks that contribute to seizures using only interictal data. This technique will enable testing of specific hypotheses regarding functional connectivity

  5. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.)

  6. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzukawa, Junko; Sugimoto, Tateo; Araki, Atsushi (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.).

  7. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents with seizures in Irbid, Northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwash, R H; Hussein, M J; Matloub, F F

    2000-09-01

    In Jordan, individuals with epilepsy commonly attend neuropsychiatric clinics. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy among adolescents. The study included 101 epileptic adolescents who attended the neurology clinic at the Princess Basma Teaching Hospital in Northern Jordan and 101 non-epileptic controls. Sociodemographic characteristics and all relevant clinical data were collected through interviewing the cases and controls. Identification of the symptoms of anxiety and depression was made according to DSM-IV criteria. The patients were age and sex matched with the controls. The controls had achieved a significantly better education (> 12 years education) than the patients with epilepsy. The adolescents with epilepsy were also shown to be disadvantaged in their living circumstances. Some of them were dependent on their parents in some daily physical activities, such as bathing, which might be a sign of overprotection by their parents. Those with epilepsy had a significantly higher tendency to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression than the control group. Moreover these psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety symptoms, were more likely to happen when seizures had not been properly medically controlled. Overprotective parental behaviour towards their ill children could also delay their psychosocial maturation. Therefore, counselling of patients and parents about epilepsy is an important factor in the control of seizures and their sequelae. PMID:10985998

  8. YouTube as a potential learning tool to help distinguish tonic-clonic seizures from nonepileptic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Louwai; Adcock, Jane E; Sen, Arjune

    2014-08-01

    Medical students are increasingly turning to the website YouTube as a learning resource. This study set out to determine whether the videos on YouTube accurately depict the type of seizures that a medical student may search for. Two consultant epileptologists independently assessed the top YouTube videos returned following searches for eight terms relating to different categories of seizures. The videos were rated for their technical quality, concordance of diagnosis with an epileptologist-assigned diagnosis, and efficacy as a learning tool for medical education. Of the 200 videos assessed, 106 (63%) met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Technical quality was generally good and only interfered with the diagnostic process in 8.5% of the videos. Of the included videos, 40.6-46.2% were judged to depict the purported diagnosis with moderate agreement between raters (75% agreement, κ=0.50). Of the videos returned after searching "tonic-clonic seizure", 28.6-35.7% were judged to show nonepileptic seizures with almost perfect interrater agreement (92.9% agreement, κ=0.84). Of the videos returned following the search "pseudoseizure", 77.8-88.9% of videos were judged to show nonepileptic seizures with substantial agreement (88.9% agreement, κ=0.61). Across all search terms, 19.8-33% of videos were judged as potentially useful as a learning resource, with fair agreement between raters (75.5% agreement, κ=0.38). These findings suggest that the majority of videos on YouTube claiming to show specific seizure subtypes are inaccurate, and YouTube should not be recommended as a learning tool for students. However, a small group of videos provides excellent demonstrations of tonic-clonic and nonepileptic seizures, which could be used by an expert teacher to demonstrate the difference between epileptic and nonepileptic seizures.

  9. Neuroimaging observations in a cohort of elderly manifesting with new onset seizures: Experience from a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of epilepsy is higher among elderly patients. The clinical manifestations of seizures, causes of epilepsy, and choice of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are different in elderly people with epilepsy compared to the young. Aim: To evaluate the imaging (CT/MRI observations in elderly patients manifesting with new-onset seizures. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and one elderly patients with new onset seizures, >60 years (age: 68.0 ± 7.5 years; M:F = 1.8:1 from Jan′ 07 to Jan′ 09, were prospectively recruited. Observations of cranial CT scan (n = 201 and MR imaging (n = 43 were analyzed. Results: The type of seizures included: Simple partial (42%, generalized tonic-clonic (30.3%, and complex partial (27.4%. The pattern of epilepsy syndromes were acute symptomatic (42.3%, remote symptomatic (18.4%, cryptogenic (37.8%, and idiopathic (1.5%. Seizures were controlled with monotherapy in 85%. The CT scan (n = 201 revealed cerebral atrophy (139, mild (79, moderate (43, and severe (18; focal lesions (98, infarcts (45, hemorrhages (18, granuloma (16, tumor (15 and gliosis (4, and hemispheric atrophy (1, white matter changes (75 and diffuse edema (21. An MRI (n = 43 showed variable degree of cerebral atrophy (31; white matter changes (20; focal cerebral lesions (24; - infarct (7; intracranial hemorrhage (6; granuloma (5; tumor (6; gliosis (1; hemispheric atrophy (1; and prominent Virchow-Robin spaces (7; and UBOs (12. Patients with focal lesions in neuroimaging more often had partial seizures, symptomatic epilepsy, past stroke, focal deficit, absence of diffuse atrophy, focal EEG slowing, abnormal CSF, seizure recurrence at follow-up (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Brain imaging observations in elderly patients with new-onset seizures revealed underlying symptomatic nature, hence the etiology and thereby assisted in deciding the specific therapy.

  10. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  11. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2014-07-01

    . Geme III JW, Behrman RE. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Phila: Saunders, 2011:2013-2039.Camfield PR, Canfield CS. Epilepsy. In: Swaiman KF, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, editors. Pediatric neurology: principles and practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, 2006:981-8.Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy, N Eng J Med 2003, 13:1257-1266.Aydin A, Ergor A, Ergor G, Dirik E. The prevalence of epilepsy amongst school children in Izmir, Turkey, Seizure 2002; 11: 392–396.10.Jan MM, Girvin JP. Febrile seizures. Update and controversies. Neurosciences (Riyadh 2004; 9:235-42.French JA. Febrile seizures: possible outcomes. Neurology2012; 28; 79:e80-2.Guo JF,Yao JF. Serum melatonin levels in children with epilepsy or FS, Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi2009, 11:288-90 (Medline.Reiter RJ. Melatonin: clinical relevance, Best Pract. Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 17: 273-285.Seithikurippu R, Perumal P, Trakh I, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Maestroni GJM, Zisapel N, Cardinali DP. Physiological effects of melatonin Role of melatonin receptors and signal transduction pathways, Prog Neurobiol 85, 2008: 335-353.Ardura J, Andres J, Garmendia JR, Ardura F. Melatonin in epilepsy and FS.J Child Neurol 2010; 25:888-91.Ganesh R, Janakiraman L, Meenakshi B. Serum zinc levels are low in children with simple FS compared with those in children with epileptic seizures and controls.Ann Trop Paediatr 2011; 31:345-9.Bazil CW, Short D, Crispin D, Zheng W. Patients with intractable epilepsy have low melatonin, which increases following seizures. Neurology 2000; 55:1746-8.Yalyn O, Arman F, Erdogan F, Kula M. A comparison of the circadian rhythmsand the levels of melatonin in patients with diurnal and nocturnal complexpartial seizures. Epilepsy Behav 2006;8:542-6.Schapel GJ, Beran RG, Kennaway DL, McLoughney J, Matthews CD. Melatonin response in active epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995; 36:75-8.Ekmekcioglu C. Melatonin receptors in humans: biological role and clinical relevance,Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2006,60: 97

  12. Novel CDKL5 Mutations in Czech Patients with Phenotypes of Atypical Rett Syndrome and Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhoráková, D; Langová, M; Brožová, K; Laštůvková, J; Kalina, Z; Rennerová, L; Martásek, P

    2016-01-01

    The X-linked CDKL5 gene, which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 protein, has been implicated in early-onset encephalopathy and atypical Rett syndrome with early-onset seizures. The CDKL5 protein is a kinase required for neuronal development and morphogenesis, but its precise functions are still largely unexplored. Individuals with CDKL5 mutations present with severe global developmental delay, intractable epilepsy, and Rett-like features. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established due to an insufficient number of reported cases. The aim of this study was to analyse the CDKL5 gene in Czech patients with early-onset seizures and Rett-like features. We performed mutation screening in a cohort of 83 individuals using high-resolution melting analysis, DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification. Molecular analyses revealed heterozygous pathogenic mutations in three girls with severe intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy starting at the age of two months. All three identified mutations, c.637G>A, c.902_977+29del105, and c.1757_1758delCT, are novel, thus significantly extending the growing spectrum of known pathogenic CDKL5 sequence variants. Our results support the importance of genetic testing of the CDKL5 gene in patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and Rett-like features with early-onset seizures. This is the first study referring to molecular defects of CDKL5 in Czech cases. PMID:27187038

  13. Local changes in neocortical circuit dynamics coincide with the spread of seizures to thalamus in a model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Florian B; Sederberg, Audrey; MacLean, Jason N

    2014-01-01

    During the generalization of epileptic seizures, pathological activity in one brain area recruits distant brain structures into joint synchronous discharges. However, it remains unknown whether specific changes in local circuit activity are related to the aberrant recruitment of anatomically distant structures into epileptiform discharges. Further, it is not known whether aberrant areas recruit or entrain healthy ones into pathological activity. Here we study the dynamics of local circuit activity during the spread of epileptiform discharges in the zero-magnesium in vitro model of epilepsy. We employ high-speed multi-photon imaging in combination with dual whole-cell recordings in acute thalamocortical (TC) slices of the juvenile mouse to characterize the generalization of epileptic activity between neocortex and thalamus. We find that, although both structures are exposed to zero-magnesium, the initial onset of focal epileptiform discharge occurs in cortex. This suggests that local recurrent connectivity that is particularly prevalent in cortex is important for the initiation of seizure activity. Subsequent recruitment of thalamus into joint, generalized discharges is coincident with an increase in the coherence of local cortical circuit activity that itself does not depend on thalamus. Finally, the intensity of population discharges is positively correlated between both brain areas. This suggests that during and after seizure generalization not only the timing but also the amplitude of epileptiform discharges in thalamus is entrained by cortex. Together these results suggest a central role of neocortical activity for the onset and the structure of pathological recruitment of thalamus into joint synchronous epileptiform discharges.

  14. Complex partial seizures and aphasia as initial manifestations of non-ketotic hyperglycemia: case report Crises parciais complexas e afasia como manifestações iniciais de hiperglicemia não cetótica: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS SABRY AZAR BATISTA

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH, heralded by complex partial seizures and aphasia of epileptic origin, besides versive and partial motor seizures. This clinical picture was accompanied by left fronto-temporal spikes in the EEG. The seizures were controlled by carbamazepine only after the control of the diabetes. A month later, carbamazepine was discontinued. The patient remained without seizures, with normal language, using only glybenclamide. Complex partial seizures, opposed to simple partial seizures, are rarely described in association to NKH. Epileptic activity localized over language regions can manifest as aphasia.Descrevemos um caso de hiperglicemia não-cetótica (HNC cujas manifestações iniciais foram crises parciais complexas e afasia de origem epiléptica, além de crises versivas e parcias motoras. Este quadro clínico foi acompanhado por atividade epileptiforme na região fronto-temporal esquerda ao eletrencefalograma. As crises epilépticas foram controladas com carbamazepina (CBZ apenas após o controle do diabetes mellitus. Após um mês, a CBZ foi suspensa, permanecendo a paciente com linguagem normal, sem novas crises epilépticas, em uso apenas de glibenclamida. Crises parciais complexas, ao contrário de crises parciais simples, são raramente descritas como manifestação de HNC. Atividade epileptiforme nas regiões relacionadas a linguagem podem manifestar-se como afasia.

  15. [Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, S N; Bogdanov, E I; Zaĭkova, F M; Morozova, E A; Aiupova, V A; Zabbarova, A T; Shaĭmardanova, R M

    2013-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of school-age children is a rare epileptic syndrome that causes difficulties in diagnosis at the initial stage of disease. It is characterized by sudden onset with multifocal refractory status epilepticus in previously healthy children with normal development. Later, children suffer from resistant focal epilepsy in the combination with cognitive deficit and behavioral difficulties. Authors describe a clinical case of fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy of school-age children in a child of 7 years old. Aspects of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease are discussed.

  16. Impaired recruitment of seizure-generated neurons into functional memory networks of the adult dentate gyrus following long-term amygdala kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Neil M; Botterill, Justin J; Marks, Wendie N; Guskjolen, Axel J; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2013-06-01

    Epileptic seizures increase the birth of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Although the consequences of aberrant neurogenesis on behavior are not fully understood, one hypothesis is that seizure-generated neurons might form faulty circuits that disrupt hippocampal functions, such as learning and memory. In the present study, we employed long-term amygdala kindling (i.e., rats receive 99-electrical stimulations) to examine the effect of repeated seizures on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. We labeled seizure-generated cells with the proliferation marker BrdU after 30-stimulations and continued kindling for an additional 4weeks to allow newborn neurons to mature under conditions of repeated seizures. After kindling was complete, rats were tested in a trace fear conditioning task and sacrificed 2h later to examine if 4-week old newborn cells were recruited into circuits involved in the retrieval of emotional memory. Compared to non-kindled controls, long-term kindled rats showed significant impairments in fear memory reflected in a decrease in conditioned freezing to both tone and contextual cues during testing. Moreover, long-term kindling also prevented the activation of 4-week old newborn cells in response to fear memory retrieval. These results indicate that the presence of seizure activity during cell maturation impedes the ability of new neurons to integrate properly into circuits important in memory formation. Together, our findings suggest that aberrant seizure-induced neurogenesis might contribute to the development of learning impairments in chronic epilepsy and raise the possibility that targeting the reduced activation of adult born neurons could represent a beneficial strategy to reverse cognitive deficits in some epileptic patients.

  17. Advances in anti-epileptic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Matthew D; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2014-09-25

    In the past twenty-one years, 17 new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for use in the United States and/or Europe. These drugs are clobazam, ezogabine (retigabine), eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. Therapeutic drug monitoring is often used in the clinical dosing of the newer anti-epileptic drugs. The drugs with the best justifications for drug monitoring are lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, and zonisamide. Perampanel, stiripentol and tiagabine are strongly bound to serum proteins and are candidates for monitoring of the free drug fractions. Alternative specimens for therapeutic drug monitoring are saliva and dried blood spots. Therapeutic drug monitoring of the new antiepileptic drugs is discussed here for managing patients with epilepsy. PMID:24925169

  18. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen s

  19. Risk of Seizure Recurrence with Neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC) was evaluated in a prospective study of 77 patients at the School of Medicine and Research Institute, University of Cuenca, Ecuador, and Columbia University, New York.

  20. Neonatal Seizures. Advances in Mechanisms and Management.

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, HC

    2013-01-01

    Seizures occur in approximately 1–5 per 1,000 live births, and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke or hemor...

  1. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  2. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head from injury. Turn on side to keep airway clear. Reassure when consciousness returns. Time the event If single seizure lasted less than 5 minutes, ask the person if hospital evaluation is wanted. If multiple seizures, or if one seizure lasts ...

  3. Ictal technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomographic findings in epileptic patients with polymicrogyria syndromes: A subtraction of ictal-interictal SPECT coregistered to MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichert-Ana, Lauro [University of Sao Paulo, Center for Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurology, Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hospital das Clinicas, USP, Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia, CIREP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Mazzoncini de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo; Santos, Antonio C.; Araujo, David [University of Sao Paulo, Center for Imaging Science and Medical Physics, Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Ferrari Oliveira, Lucas [Federal University of Pelotas, Informatics Department, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Fernandes, Regina M.F.; Velasco, Tonicarlo R.; Sakamoto, Americo C. [University of Sao Paulo, Center for Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurology, Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Kato, Mery [University of Sao Paulo, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine from the Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Muxfeldt Bianchin, Marino [Rio Grande do Sul Federal University, Neurology Division, HCPA, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    To describe the ictal technetium-99 m-ECD SPECT findings in polymicrogyria syndromes (PMG) during epileptic seizures. We investigated 17 patients with PMG syndromes during presurgical workup, which included long-term video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, neurological and psychiatry assessments, invasive EEG, and the subtraction of ictal-interictal SPECT coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (SISCOM). The analysis of the PMG cortex, using SISCOM, revealed intense hyperperfusion in the polymicrogyric lesion during epileptic seizures in all patients. Interestingly, other localizing investigations showed heterogeneous findings. Twelve patients underwent epilepsy surgery, three achieved seizure-freedom, five have worthwhile improvement, and four patients remained unchanged. Our study strongly suggests the involvement of PMG in seizure generation or early propagation. Both conventional ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SISCOM appeared as the single contributive exam to suggest the localization of the epileptogenic zone. Despite the limited number of resective epilepsy surgery in our study (n = 9), we found a strong prognostic role of SISCOM in predicting surgical outcome. This result may be of great value on surgical decision-making of whether or not the whole or part of the PMG lesion should be surgically resected. (orig.)

  4. Ictal technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomographic findings in epileptic patients with polymicrogyria syndromes: A subtraction of ictal-interictal SPECT coregistered to MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the ictal technetium-99 m-ECD SPECT findings in polymicrogyria syndromes (PMG) during epileptic seizures. We investigated 17 patients with PMG syndromes during presurgical workup, which included long-term video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, neurological and psychiatry assessments, invasive EEG, and the subtraction of ictal-interictal SPECT coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (SISCOM). The analysis of the PMG cortex, using SISCOM, revealed intense hyperperfusion in the polymicrogyric lesion during epileptic seizures in all patients. Interestingly, other localizing investigations showed heterogeneous findings. Twelve patients underwent epilepsy surgery, three achieved seizure-freedom, five have worthwhile improvement, and four patients remained unchanged. Our study strongly suggests the involvement of PMG in seizure generation or early propagation. Both conventional ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SISCOM appeared as the single contributive exam to suggest the localization of the epileptogenic zone. Despite the limited number of resective epilepsy surgery in our study (n = 9), we found a strong prognostic role of SISCOM in predicting surgical outcome. This result may be of great value on surgical decision-making of whether or not the whole or part of the PMG lesion should be surgically resected. (orig.)

  5. Extracting Epileptic Feature Spikes Using Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong-mei; XIA Yang; LIU Yan-su; LAI Yong-xiu; YAO De-zhong; ZHOU Dong

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, blind source separation (BSS) by independent component analysis (ICA) has been drawing much attention because of its potential applications in signal processing such as in speech recognition systems, telecommunication and medical signal processing. In this paper, two algorithms of independent component analysis (fixed-point ICA and natural gradient-flexible ICA) are adopted to extract human epileptic feature spikes from interferential signals. Experiment results show that epileptic spikes can be extracted from noise successfully. The kurtosis of the epileptic component signal separated is much better than that of other noisy signals. It shows that ICA is an effective tool to extract epileptic spikes from patients' electroencephalogram EEG and shows promising application to assist physicians to diagnose epilepsy and estimate the epileptogenic region in clinic.

  6. Efficacy of Attribution Retraining on Mental Health of Epileptic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi, Masoume; Abbasi, Saeid; Najafi Fard, Tahereh; Yousefi, Saheb; Mohammadi Malek Abadi, Athar; DELAVAR KASMAEI, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy affects children’s quality of life and leads to social and mental problems. Promoting the mental health of children, especially epileptic ones, and preventing problems affecting them constitute major concerns for every country. Mental health promotion requires intervention programs. Objectives: We sought to assess the efficacy of attribution retraining on the mental health of epileptic children. Patients and Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental investigation ...

  7. ORAL HEALTH OF EPILEPTIC PATIENTS IN RURAL RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in the awareness of Epilepsy, still people are not much aware of the oral health complications related to the intake of antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the most common oral health problems that people face while using the Anti-epileptic drugs and hence forth decide its remedy. To make people aware of the potential side effects of using the anti-epileptic drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 200 epileptic patients who were on anti-epileptic medication for one year or more. The study was conducted at Government Hospital in Ratan nagar dist churu. RESULTS: Gingival hyperplasia was seen as a common side effects of the Anti-epileptic Drug. Lips and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. CONCLUSION: General physicians and dentist should be well aware of the potential side effects of Anti-epileptic Drugs. A dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department.

  8. The ecological executive function of epileptic children with ADHD%癫痫共患ADHD儿童的生态学执行功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 周农; 刘天龙; 顾安丽; 陈晓霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of ecological executive function and influencing factors of epilep-tic children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) . Methods By utilizing the cross-sectional survey study, 79 cases of epileptic children were evaluated according to the clinical diagnostic scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV, USA);all of the epileptic children and 52 cases of normal chil-dren with the matched age, gender and levels of education were completed with the questionnaire evaluation of Be-havior Rating Index of Executive Function ( BRIEF, Parents Version) . Results ①30 cases of ADHD were found in 79 cases of children with epilepsy, and the coincidence rate was 37. 97%. There were no statistically significant differences between epileptic children with ADHD and epileptic children without ADHD in gender, age, onset age, education level , course of diseases , control or not , family history and history of traumatic brain injuries . But there were statistically significant differences in epileptic seizure type and drug treatment or not ( P<0. 05 ) . ②The two scores of behavior management index and metacognition were higher in epileptic children with ADHD than the epi-leptic children without ADHD and the normal group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0. 05).③ The clinical characteristics of seizure type, course of disease, epileptic seizure control or not and drug treatment or not in epileptic children with ADHD were significantly correlated with BRIEF(P<0. 05). Conclusion The eco-logical executive function is comprehensively damaged in the epileptic children with ADHD, and the damage is more serious than the epileptic children without ADHD. The ecological executive function of epileptic children with ADHD is significantly influenced by epilepsy seizure type, epilepsy control or not and drug treatment or not.%目的 探讨癫痫共患注意缺陷多动障碍( ADHD)儿童

  9. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Faccenda, Franco; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variety of pemphigus, presenting with clinical and histopathologic features identical to idiopathic form. Medical history plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of drug-induced pemphigus. A large variety of drugs have been implicated in its pathogenesis and they may induce acantholysis via biochemical and/or immune mechanism. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman affected by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus and discuss its pathogenetic mechanism.

  10. Nocturnal interictal epileptic discharges in adult Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: the effect of sleep stage and time of night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Mahdi, Rima; Roche, Frederic; Maeder, Malin; Foletti, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is characterized by interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) occurring during sleep. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep influences not only the frequency of seizures and IEDs, but also the time-dependent evolution that may support the hypothesis of homeostatic influences on epileptic threshold. Video polysomnography data from our database were reviewed to identify adult LGS patients with at least seven hours of nocturnal recording. Thirteen patients were identified and a second polysomnography was available for nine. The number, duration and index of IEDs, relative to total sleep, sleep stages, and time during the night, were calculated. The majority of IEDs occurred during non-rapid eye movement sleep, mainly in stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. Adjusting for time spent in each sleep stage, we found 45 IEDs/hour in stage 1, 123/hour in stage 2, 106/hour in slow-wave sleep, and 26/hour in rapid eye movement sleep. The temporal distribution of IEDs showed a significant rise in the first three hours of sleep, followed by a progressive decrease at the end of the night (F=85.6; psleep with an evident effect of stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. The significant IED occurrence in the first part of the night and the subsequent decline suggests a link between epileptic threshold and homeostatic sleep mechanisms. The latter should be considered regarding choice of therapy. PMID:26842220

  11. Nocturnal interictal epileptic discharges in adult Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: the effect of sleep stage and time of night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Mahdi, Rima; Roche, Frederic; Maeder, Malin; Foletti, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is characterized by interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) occurring during sleep. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep influences not only the frequency of seizures and IEDs, but also the time-dependent evolution that may support the hypothesis of homeostatic influences on epileptic threshold. Video polysomnography data from our database were reviewed to identify adult LGS patients with at least seven hours of nocturnal recording. Thirteen patients were identified and a second polysomnography was available for nine. The number, duration and index of IEDs, relative to total sleep, sleep stages, and time during the night, were calculated. The majority of IEDs occurred during non-rapid eye movement sleep, mainly in stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. Adjusting for time spent in each sleep stage, we found 45 IEDs/hour in stage 1, 123/hour in stage 2, 106/hour in slow-wave sleep, and 26/hour in rapid eye movement sleep. The temporal distribution of IEDs showed a significant rise in the first three hours of sleep, followed by a progressive decrease at the end of the night (F=85.6; pLGS is facilitated by non-rapid eye movement sleep with an evident effect of stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. The significant IED occurrence in the first part of the night and the subsequent decline suggests a link between epileptic threshold and homeostatic sleep mechanisms. The latter should be considered regarding choice of therapy.

  12. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from a grand mal seizure in an elderly man with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Marsh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral hip fractures are exceedingly rare and usually occur following a seizure. To our knowledge, only 22 cases of such injuries have been reported in the literature during the past forty years and the majority of fractures are treated with open reduction and internal fixation. We present a case of a 66-year old man with Down syndrome and severe dementia who was diagnosed with bilateral displaced femoral neck fractures following an epileptic seizure. He was treated with single staged bilateral uncemented monopolar hemi-arthroplasties through lateral Hardinge approaches. The treatment choice was governed by fracture displacement, the lack of pre-existing osteoarthritis, length of time to diagnosis, the patient’s age, ambulatory status and mental impairment, with the intention to minimize post-operative complications such as avascular necrosis, non-union and hip dislocation.

  13. Central pattern generators for a common semiology in fronto-limbic seizures and in parasomnias. A neuroethologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, C A; Rubboli, G; Gardella, E; Cantalupo, G; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Vedovello, M; Alessandria, M; Gandini, G; Cinotti, S; Zamponi, N; Meletti, S

    2005-12-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are genetically determined neuronal aggregates in the mesencephalon, pons and spinal cord subserving innate motor behaviours essential for survival (feeding, locomotion, reproduction etc.). In higher primates CPGs are largely under neocortical control. We describe how certain motor events observed in parasomnias and epileptic seizures could have similar features and resemble motor behaviours, which can be the expression of the same CPG. Both epilepsy and sleep can lead to a temporary loss of control of neomammalian cortex that facilitates through a common platform (arousal) the emergences of stereotyped inborn fixed action patterns. Therefore we suggest that, independently from the nature of the trigger, be it a seizure or a parasomnia, the same CPGs can be involved, "caught up", leading to a common motor semiology (the "Carillon theory"). PMID:16331401

  14. A fuzzy logic system for seizure onset detection in intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed Fazle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    We present a multistage fuzzy rule-based algorithm for epileptic seizure onset detection. Amplitude, frequency, and entropy-based features were extracted from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings and considered as the inputs for a fuzzy system. These features extracted from multichannel iEEG signals were combined using fuzzy algorithms both in feature domain and in spatial domain. Fuzzy rules were derived based on experts' knowledge and reasoning. An adaptive fuzzy subsystem was used for combining characteristics features extracted from iEEG. For the spatial combination, three channels from epileptogenic zone and one from remote zone were considered into another fuzzy subsystem. Finally, a threshold procedure was applied to the fuzzy output derived from the final fuzzy subsystem. The method was evaluated on iEEG datasets selected from Freiburg Seizure Prediction EEG (FSPEEG) database. A total of 112.45 hours of intracranial EEG recordings was selected from 20 patients having 56 seizures was used for the system performance evaluation. The overall sensitivity of 95.8% with false detection rate of 0.26 per hour and average detection latency of 15.8 seconds was achieved.

  15. A novel anticonvulsant modulates voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation and prevents kindling-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad N; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Shah, Syed U Ali; Shaheen, Farzana; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Rahman, Atta-ur; Fahnestock, Margaret; Simjee, Shabana U; Poulter, Michael O

    2013-09-01

    Here, we explore the mechanism of action of isoxylitone (ISOX), a molecule discovered in the plant Delphinium denudatum, which has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties. Patch-clamp electrophysiology assayed the activity of ISOX on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in both cultured neurons and brain slices isolated from controls and rats with experimental epilepsy(kindling model). Quantitative transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (QPCR) assessed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in kindled rats, and kindled rats treated with ISOX. ISOX suppressed sodium current (I(Na)) showing an IC50 value of 185 nM in cultured neurons. ISOX significantly slowed the recovery from inactivation (ISOX τ = 18.7 ms; Control τ = 9.4 ms; p kindled cortical neurons, the IC50 for sodium current block was identical to that found in cultured neurons. ISOX prevented kindled stage 5 seizures and decreased the enhanced BDNF mRNA expression that is normally associated with kindling (p kindling is likely a secondary outcome that nevertheless would suppress epileptogenesis. These data show a new class of anti-seizure compound that inhibits sodium channel function and prevents the development of epileptic seizures.

  16. Smartphone applications for