WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid-g-ethylene glycol prepared

  1. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  2. Differences in taste between two polyethylene glycol preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szojda, Maria M; Mulder, Chris J J; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2007-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol preparations (PEG) are increasingly used for chronic constipation in both adults and children. There are some suggestions that PEG 4000 with orange flavour (Forlax) tastes better than PEG 3350 which contains salt (Movicolon). Poor taste is an important factor for non-compliance and is one of the leading causes of therapy failure. The aim of the study was to compare the taste of two commonly used PEG preparations, PEG 4000 and PEG 3350. A double-blind, cross over randomised trial. A hundred people were recruited by advertisement. All tasted both preparations without swallowing and after tasting each of the preparations, they rinsed their mouths. Then a score, on a 5-point scale, was given for both preparations. 100 volunteers were included (27 males and 73 females, mean age 36). The taste score for PEG 4000 (mean 3.9, SD 0.7) was significantly better than for PEG 3350 (mean 2.7, SD 0.7) (pPEG 3350 liked it more, when they tasted it first rather than when they tasted it after PEG 4000 (pPEG 4000 had no influence on the taste results. PEG 4000 tastes better than PEG 3350. This may have implications for patient compliance and effectiveness of treatment in patients with chronic constipation.

  3. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-03-31

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  5. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  6. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  7. Preparation and Separation of Telechelic Carborane-Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, P.; Uchman, M.; Lepšík, Martin; Srnec, Martin; Zedník, J.; Kozlík, P.; Kalíková, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2013), s. 528-535 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP208/12/P236 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carboranes * click chemistry * poly(ethylene glycol) * quantum chemistry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  8. Colonoscopy preparation: polyethylene glycol with Gatorade is as safe and efficacious as four liters of polyethylene glycol with balanced electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K

    2012-12-01

    Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9 L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade or 4 L of PEG-ELS containing 236 g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Use of 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4 L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly.

  9. Colonoscopy Preparation: Polyethylene Glycol with Gatorade is as Safe and Efficacious as 4 Liters of Polyethylene Glycol with Balanced Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade or 4L of PEG-ELS containing 236g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Results We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Conclusions Use of 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly. PMID:22711499

  10. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  11. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol) on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffractio...

  12. Additional of polyethylene glycol on the preparation of LaPO4:Eu3+ phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Solution phase method was used to synthesis nanocrystal LaPO4:Eu3+. Polyethylene glycol with vary molecular weight (MW) was added to allow an exothermic reaction to get a high crystalinity of LaPO4:Eu3+. The x-ray pattern of as prepared LaPO4 was obtained by using an X'pert PANalytical diffractometer with CuKα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å) and the photoluminescent measurement spectra is obtained by using Fluorescence Spectrometer LS55, Perkin Elmer. The additional of various MW of polyethylene glycol into the precursor solution of LaPO4:Eu3+ affected the crystal structure and luminescent properties. Higher MW of PEG depressing the luminescent spectra. The emission origin from 5D0-7F4 transition vanished by additional 500,000 and 2,000,000 MW of PEG.

  13. Polyethylene glycol powder solution versus senna for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Natalie A; Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Ely, Elizabeth; Jatla, Muralidhar; Ciavardone, Denise; Esch, Salina; Farace, Lisa; Jannelli, Frances; Puma, Anita; Carlow, Dean; Mamula, Petar

    2013-02-01

    Safety and effectiveness of large-volume polyethylene glycol-based solution (PEG-ES) have been documented, but the taste and volume can be barriers to successful colonoscopy preparation. Efficacy and safety of small-volume electrolyte-free (PEG-P) preparation (Miralax) for colonoscopy preparation have been rarely studied, although presently used at many pediatric centers. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether PEG-P results in a more efficacious and safe colonoscopy preparation as compared with senna. The study design was prospective, randomized, and single-blinded. Patients ages 6 to 21 years were randomized to a 2-day clean-out regimen of PEG-P at a dose of 1.5 g/kg divided twice per day for 2 days versus senna 15 mL daily (ages 6-12) or 30 mL daily (ages 12-21) for 2 days. Both preparations required 1 day of clear liquids whereas senna preparation required an additional day of full liquid diet. A blinded endoscopist graded the quality of preparation with a standardized cleanliness tool (Aronchick scale). Serum chemistry panels were obtained. Patients or parents rated symptoms and ease of preparation. The anticipated number of subjects was 166; however, the interim analysis demonstrated inferiority of senna preparation. Thirty patients were evaluated in the present study. Of the patients in the PEG-P arm, 88% (14/16) received an excellent/good score compared with 29% (4/14), with the senna preparation (P = 0.0022). Both preparations were well-tolerated by patient-graded ease of preparation. Demographics and laboratory values did not differ significantly across the 2 groups. No serious adverse events were noted. PEG-P is an effective colonoscopy preparation whereas senna preparation was insufficient. Both were well-tolerated and appear safe in a pediatric population.

  14. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis, thermogravimetric (TGA analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis for magnetic measurements.

  15. One-day bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol 3350: an effective regimen for colonoscopy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Tonya; Altaf, Muhammad; Jensen, Michael K; Sultan, Mutaz; Ramprasad, Jonathan; Ciecierega, Thomas; Sherry, Karen; Miranda, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 is commonly used and has been proven safe and effective for the treatment of chronic constipation and as a 4-day bowel preparation in children. A 1-day PEG 3350 bowel preparation regimen has been recently developed for adults; however, data regarding its use in children are lacking. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a 1-day PEG 3350 regimen for bowel preparation in children before colonoscopy. Retrospective review. Tertiary-care center. This study involved all children prescribed a 1-day PEG 3350 bowel preparation regimen before colonoscopy at our center in 2008. We reviewed medical records of patients (PEG 3350 preparation regimen was 13.7 years (range 1.08-17.92 years). Fifty-two percent were male; 48% were female. The most common indications for colonoscopy included abdominal pain (65%), bloody stools (29%), diarrhea (21%), and weight loss (18%). The 1-day bowel preparation regimen was effective in 253 patients (93%). The indication for colonoscopy, the age of the child, or a history of constipation did not significantly alter the success rate of colonoscopy. A retrospective study at one tertiary-care center. The 1-day PEG 3350 bowel preparation regimen is safe and effective and should be considered for use as preparation for colonoscopy in children. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in taste between three polyethylene glycol preparations: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tze J; Mulder, Chris Jj; Felt-Bersma, Richelle Jf

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from chronic constipation require long-term, regular therapy with laxatives. Literature regarding patient preference and acceptance in polyethylene glycol preparations is scarce. Therefore, this research aimed to identify preference between the three polyethylene glycol 3350, namely Molaxole(®), Movicol(®), and Laxtra Orange(®). Furthermore, taste is one of the most important factors leading to patients' adherence, particularly when the treatment lasts for a long time. In this randomized, cross-over double-blind study, 100 volunteers were recruited by advertisement. The volunteers were invited to taste the preparations and grade the taste using a five-point hedonic scale (extremely poor taste [1] to extremely good taste [5]). The volunteers were then asked to choose the most palatable preparation. One hundred volunteers with a mean age of 35 years (range 20-61) were randomized (76 females). Molaxole(®), Movicol(®), and Laxtra Orange(®) had a mean hedonic score of 2.76 (SD: 0.82), 2.81 (SD: 0.76) and 3.12 (SD: 0.82) respectively. The hedonic taste score for Laxtra Orange(®) was significantly better than Molaxole(®) (P = 0.001) and Movicol(®) (P = 0.001). No difference was found between Molaxole(®) and Movicol(®) (P = 0.61). Molaxole(®) was the most preferred preparation for 19 volunteers (19%), Movicol(®) for 24 volunteers (25%) and Laxtra Orange(®) for 55 volunteers (56%). Two volunteers had no preference. The order in which volunteers tested the preparations had no influence on the taste results. No significant differences in age or gender were observed. Laxtra Orange(®) was most palatable preparation. This may have implications for adherence in patients with chronic constipation.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol)s as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Andrea; Lupacchini, Massimiliano; Guerra, Ruben; Taydakov, Ilya; Tonucci, Lucia; d'Alessandro, Nicola; Lamaty, Frederic; Martinez, Jean; Colacino, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene) glycols (PEGs), as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG). A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  18. Differences in taste between three polyethylene glycol preparations: a randomized double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam TJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tze J Lam, Chris JJ Mulder, Richelle JF Felt-BersmaDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsBackground and aim: Patients suffering from chronic constipation require long-term, regular therapy with laxatives. Literature regarding patient preference and acceptance in polyethylene glycol preparations is scarce. Therefore, this research aimed to identify preference between the three polyethylene glycol 3350, namely Molaxole®, Movicol®, and Laxtra Orange®. Furthermore, taste is one of the most important factors leading to patients’ adherence, particularly when the treatment lasts for a long time.Methods: In this randomized, cross-over double-blind study, 100 volunteers were recruited by advertisement. The volunteers were invited to taste the preparations and grade the taste using a five-point hedonic scale (extremely poor taste [1] to extremely good taste [5]. The volunteers were then asked to choose the most palatable preparation.Results: One hundred volunteers with a mean age of 35 years (range 20–61 were randomized (76 females. Molaxole®, Movicol®, and Laxtra Orange® had a mean hedonic score of 2.76 (SD: 0.82, 2.81 (SD: 0.76 and 3.12 (SD: 0.82 respectively. The hedonic taste score for Laxtra Orange® was significantly better than Molaxole® (P = 0.001 and Movicol® (P = 0.001. No difference was found between Molaxole® and Movicol® (P = 0.61. Molaxole® was the most preferred preparation for 19 volunteers (19%, Movicol® for 24 volunteers (25% and Laxtra Orange® for 55 volunteers (56%. Two volunteers had no preference. The order in which volunteers tested the preparations had no influence on the taste results. No significant differences in age or gender were observed.Conclusion: Laxtra Orange® was most palatable preparation. This may have implications for adherence in patients with chronic constipation.Keywords: constipation, polyethylene glycol, laxative, macrogol

  19. Roles of ethylene glycol solvent and polymers in preparing uniformly distributed MgO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Hai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on specifying the roles of solvent ethylene glycol (EG and polymers for synthesis of uniformly distributed magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles with average crystallite size of around 50 nm through a modified polyol method. Based on different characterization results, it was concluded that, Mg2+ ions was precipitated by the −OH and CO32− ions decomposed from urea in ethylene glycol (EG medium (CO(NH22 → NH3 + HNCO, HNCO + H2O → NH3 + CO2, thus forming well crystallized Mg5(CO34(OH2 (H2O4 precursor which could be converted to MgO by calcination. Surface protectors PEG and PVP have no obvious influences on cyrtsal structure, morphology and size uniformity of as-prepared precursors and target MgO nanoparticles. In comparison with polymers PEG and PVP, solvent EG plays an important role in controlling the morphology and diameter uniformity of MgO nanoparticles.

  20. Aqueous preparation of polyethylene glycol/sulfonated graphene phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hairong; Jiang, Ming; Li, Qi; Li, Denian; Chen, Zongyi; Hu, Waping; Huang, Jing; Xu, Xizhe; Dong, Lijie; Xie, Haian; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We report an aqueous preparation technique of PEG/graphene phase change composite. • Hydrophilic sulfonated graphene (SG) nanosheets were synthesized. • Large increase in thermal conductivity is attained at low SG loading. • High latent heat is retained due to the low filler loading. • Affinity between SG and PEG contributes to the enhanced thermal performance. - Abstract: A polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sulfonated graphene (SG) phase change composite with enhanced thermal performance was prepared by solution processing in aqueous medium. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of SG to PEG could lead to a four times higher increase in thermal conductivity and a slight decrease in the phase change enthalpy, which is attributed to the formation of efficient thermal conductive network within the PEG matrix relevant to the excellent thermal property and unique 2-dimensional morphology of graphene as well as strong interface affinity between PEG matrix and SG nanosheets. The aqueous preparation technique is expected to pioneer a new way to prepare environment friendly organic phase change materials, and the production of PEG/SG composites is potentially scalable due to the facile fabricating process

  1. Preparation and investigation of mefenamic acid - polyethylene glycol - sucrose ester solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Ibolya; Gyéresi, Árpád; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Aigner, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Mefenamic acid (MA) is a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID) drug. The adverse effects typical of NSAIDs are also present in the case of MA, partly due to its low water solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the water solubility of MA in order to influence its absorption and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of MA were prepared by the melting method using polyethylene glycol 6000 and different types (laurate, D-1216; palmitate, P-1670; stearate, S-1670) and amounts of sucrose esters as carriers. The X-ray diffraction results show that MA crystals were not present in the products. Dissolution tests carried out in artificial intestinal juice showed that the product containing 10 % D-1216 increased water solubility about 3 times. The apparent permeability coefficient of MA across human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell layers was high and, despite the difference in solubility, there was no further increase in drug penetration in the presence of the applied additives.

  2. Prospective evaluation of 1-day polyethylene glycol-3350 bowel preparation regimen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mazen I; Nylund, Cade M; Bruch, Carol J; Nazareno, Luzviminda G; Rogers, Philip L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a pediatric colonoscopy bowel preparation regimen composed of polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350) and a sports drink completed in a few hours. A prospective, open-label trial of a colonoscopy bowel preparation in children ages 8 to 18 years that included 238 g of PEG-3350 mixed with 1.9 L of Gatorade completed in a few hours. Efficacy was determined using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Basic metabolic profiles and questionnaires were obtained that assessed for safety, adverse effects, tolerability, and patient acceptability. Forty-six patients completed the study. Patients were predominately boys (56.5%) with a mean age of 14.50 years (SD ± 2.9 years). Forty-three (93.5%) were able to complete the regimen. All of the colonoscopies were completed to the cecum and 84% had terminal ileum visualization. Seventy-seven percent were found to be effective preparations. Nausea/vomiting were the most common reported adverse effect (60%) followed by abdominal pain/cramping (44%) and fatigue/weakness (40%). Overall, the regimen was acceptable with 1 exception being the large volume to drink. There were no clinically significant changes in basic metabolic profiles, although there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean potassium (0.16 mEq/L; P = 0.016), blood urea nitrogen (2.68 mg/dL; P PEG-3350 + Gatorade administered in a few hours is an effective, safe, and moderately tolerable bowel preparation regimen for colonoscopy in children.

  3. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa [Biogel Technology, Inc. (United States)], E-mail: lisabp@biogeltech.com

    2000-06-15

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  4. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying

  5. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-06-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  6. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Horvath, Andrea; Szychta, Monika; Woynarowski, Marek; Wegner, Agnieszka; Wiernicka, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Dziechciarz, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Many protocols of bowel preparation are available for use in children; however, none of them is commonly accepted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. Participants ages 10 to 18 years were randomly assigned to receive either PEG 60 or PEG 30 mL kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ plus oral bisacodyl 10 to 15 mg/day or sennosides 2 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 2 days. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the endoscopist according to the Aronchick and Ottawa scales. Patient acceptability was evaluated with the visual-analog scale. Analysis was done on an available case analysis basis. Of 240 patients enrolled in the study 234 patients were available for analysis of the efficacy of colon cleansing. There were no significant differences found among the 3 groups for the proportions of participants with excellent/good (PEG: 35/79, BPEG: 26/79, sennosides 25/76) and poor/inadequate (PEG: 20/79, BPEG: 28/79, sennosides 28/76) bowel preparation evaluated with the Aronchick scale and for the mean Ottawa total score (PEG: 5.47 ± 3.63, BPEG: 6.22 ± 3.3, sennosides: 6.18 ± 3.53). Acceptability of bowel cleansing protocol was similar in all of the groups (P = 0.8). All 3 cleansing methods showed similar efficacy and tolerability; however, none of them was satisfactory.

  7. Preparation and performance of porous phase change polyethylene glycol/polyurethane membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guizhen; Xie Huifang; Ruan Ruping; Yu Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of clotty porous phase change materials, the porous membrane was prepared with the blend of polyurethane (PU) and two polyethylene glycol (PEG) systems. Studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric (TG) tests, the morphology structure, chemical composition, crystalline morphology, phase change behaviors and thermal stability of porous phase change membrane were investigated. The results showed that the PU/PEG membrane had obvious porous structural feature, suitable transition temperature and high transition enthalpy. It is a flexible membrane with good energy storage function. When it is between solid and liquid transfer state in microcosms, the membrane can still keep solid shape in macroscopic state at high temperature during phase transition processing. It means that porous membrane PCM can be regarded as functional polymer. This method solved the problem of low working materials content in phase change textile. It succeeded in introducing the porous technology into functional textile's formation, and developed a new way to improve the phase change enthalpy largely for adjustable textile.

  8. Preparation and investigation of mefenamic acid – polyethylene glycol – sucrose ester solid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fülöp Ibolya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mefenamic acid (MA is a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID drug. The adverse effects typical of NSAIDs are also present in the case of MA, partly due to its low water solubility. The aim of this study was to increase the water solubility of MA in order to influence its absorption and bioavailability. Solid dispersions of MA were prepared by the melting method using polyethylene glycol 6000 and different types (laurate, D-1216; palmitate, P-1670; stearate, S-1670 and amounts of sucrose esters as carriers. The X-ray diffraction results show that MA crystals were not present in the products. Dissolution tests carried out in artificial intestinal juice showed that the product containing 10 % D-1216 increased water solubility about 3 times. The apparent permeability coefficient of MA across human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell layers was high and, despite the difference in solubility, there was no further increase in drug penetration in the presence of the applied additives.

  9. Effect of polyethylene glycol in preparation of Eu3+ doped SnO2 nanoparticles using ethylene glycol and luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.J.; Singh, R.K.H.; Ningthoujam, R.S.; Vatsa, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Eu 3+ doped SnO 2 nanoparticles have been prepared by urea hydrolysis. The two different capping agents such as ethylene glycol (EG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. Particles prepared in EG shows the crystalline nature while in the presence of PEG, crystallinity decreases. In TEM study of 5 at.% Eu doped SnO 2 sample prepared in presence of EG and PEG, there is a particle size distribution from 2.5 to 5.5 nm and average particle size is found to be 4 nm. In order to see the particle morphology for small particles, HRTEM images are also recorded and average crystallite region is found to be 2.7 nm. From this, we can conclude that 4 nm smaller particle has crystallite region of 2.7 nm and surface region of 1.3 nm. Thus, with decrease of particle size, the contribution of surface to bulk increases. This reflects the broad peak in XRD pattern of samples prepared in EG-PEG. The excitation spectra of SnO 2 nanoparticles (prepared in EG-PEG) doped with 2, 5 and 10 at.% Eu 3+ monitoring emission at 614 nm is shown. The excitation peaks at 250, 325 and 395 nm are observed. The peak at 250 nm is due to Eu-O charge transfer. The broad peak centered at 325 nm is due to exciton formation from SnO 2 and the last peak at 395 nm due to Eu 3+ ( 7 F 0 → 5 L 6 ). The relative peak intensity of Eu 3+ (peak at 395 nm) with respect to SnO 2 (peak at 325 nm) decreases with increase of Eu 3+ content/dopant in SnO 2 . This suggests that energy transfer from SnO 2 to Eu 3+ increases with Eu 3+ content/dopant in SnO 2 . The emission spectra of SnO 2 nanoparticles doped with 5 at.% Eu 3+ (prepared in EG-PEG) after excitation at different wavelengths (250, 300, 320, 330, 340 and 395 nm) is also shown. The main emission peaks at 425 (broad), 578 (weak), 591 (sharp) and 614 nm (sharp) are observed

  10. Preparation and evaluation of cosmetic patches containing lactic and glycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid (GA and lactic acid (LA, are used in cosmetic patches. The important fact in cosmetic patches is its suitable adhesion and peel properties. Aim: The objective of this study was to prepare LA- and GA-containing cosmetic patches and evaluate in-vitro/in-vivo correlation of adhesion properties. Methods: Pressure-sensitive adhesives with different concentrations of GA and LA were cast on a polyethylene terephthalate film. The patches were evaluated for peel adhesive strength. On the basis of in vitro adhesion properties the patches were selected for wear performance tests and skin irritation potential. Results: The adhesion properties (adhesion to steel plate and skin and cohesive strength tests indicated the substantial influence of GA and LA concentrations. Based on in vitro adhesion studies the patches containing 3% (w/w GA were selected for in vivo studies. In vivo studies show that a formulation containing 3% GA displays good adhesion on the skin, but it leaves little residues on the skin. Skin Irritation studies on healthy human volunteers showed negligible erythema at the site of application after 48h. Conclusion: The noninvasive patch test model was found useful for detecting irritant skin reactions to the cosmetic patch containing GA. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between the adhesion to steel plate and adhesion to skin. But a weak correlation between the degree of adhesive residue on the skin in in vitro and in vivo tests was observed for the formulation containing 3% (w/w GA.

  11. Safety of a 1-Day Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, Benjamin; Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Ciavardone, Denise; Farace, Lisa; Jannelli, Frances; Nieberle, Megan; Ely, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuemei; Kelsen, Judith; Puma, Anita; Mamula, Petar

    2016-07-01

    Electrolyte-free polyethylene glycol powder (PEG-3350) has been widely used for colonoscopy preparation (prep); however, limited safety data on electrolyte changes exists with 1-day prep regimens. The primary aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with significant serum chemistry abnormalities before and at the time of colonoscopy. Secondary aims included evaluation of prep tolerance and bowel cleansing efficacy. We performed a prospective descriptive observational study of pediatric patients scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy who received our standard 1-day, weight-based 4 g/kg PEG-3350 prep with a single stimulant laxative dose and had serum chemistry testing within 60 days before and at the time of colonoscopy. A standardized bowel cleanliness tool (Aronchick scale) was completed by the endoscopist. One hundred fifty-five patients had serum electrolytes data pre- and postprep. Comparison of each patient's chemistries demonstrated statistical equivalence with the 1 exception of blood urea nitrogen levels (P = 0.56). Hypokalemia was detected postprep in 37 subjects (24%), but none had a serum level <3.3 mmol/L, which was deemed to be of no clinical significance. Five patients were hypoglycemic post prep; 3 were 7 years or younger (P = 0.02). The colon cleanliness rating was excellent or good in 77% and suboptimal in 23% of patients. A 1-day, weight-based PEG-3350 bowel prep in children appears safe. Changes in electrolyte levels and renal function were not clinically significant. Children of 7 years or younger seem to be at a higher risk of hypoglycemia compared with older children.

  12. Preparation and performance of novel polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylene glycol phase change materials composite fibers by centrifugal spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Qiao, Jiaxin; Zhao, Hang; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Wu, Xiaowen; Min, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Currently, phase change materials (PCMs) composite fibers are typically prepared by electrospinning. However, electrospinning exhibits safety concerns and a low production rate, which limit its practical applications as a cost-effective fiber fabrication approach. Therefore, a novel, and simple centrifugal spinning technology is employed to extrude fibers from composite solutions using a high-speed rotary and perforated spinneret. The composite fibers based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared by centrifugal spinning. The SEM of PVP/PEG composite fibers indicated that the fibrous morphology is well preserved. The DSC and TGA indicated that PVP/PEG composite fibers exhibit good thermal properties.

  13. Preparation of various hydrogels based on poly (Vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly ethylene glycol using gamma and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2006-11-01

    Different hydrogels have been prepared using gamma and electron irradiation; the hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The influence of some process parameters on the properties of the hydrogels has been investigated as: the gel fraction, maximum swelling, swelling kinetics, and mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, hydrogel dressings have been prepared using electron irradiation, and the dressings are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar. The gel fraction increases with increasing PVP concentration due to increased crosslink density, and decreases with increasing the PEG concentration. PEG seems to act not only as plasticizer but also to modify the gel properties as gelation% and maximum swelling. The prepared hydrogels dressings could be considered as a good barrier against microbes. In the second part, different hydrogels have been prepared based on different concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and using gamma irradiation. The gel fraction and maximum swelling of the hydrogels has been determined. In the third part of the study, different hydrogels have been prepared based on different concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with various molecular weights, and using gamma irradiation. The gel fraction and maximum swelling of the hydrogels has been determined. The data show that PEG with low molecular weight needs a high dose for the gelation, and the presence of PVP lowers the needed gelation dose. The maximum swelling decreases with increasing irradiation dose and the PVP concentration, which is due to higher crosslinks between the polymer chains. (author)

  14. Preparation of diesel emulsion using auxiliary emulsifier mono ethylene glycol and utilization in a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Emre; Solmaz, Hamit; Polat, Seyfi; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Şahin, Fatih; Salman, M. Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mono-ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier. • Using mono ethylene glycol prolonged precipitation duration of emulsions. • With using E5 and E10 fuels engine torque averagely increased by 0.35% and 1.73% respectively. • It was found that specific fuel consumption of emulsions is lower than diesel. • Using E10 fuel reduced CO, NO x and soot emissions 44%, 47% and 5% respectively. - Abstract: Diesel engines are used widely as they have lower fuel consumption and higher thermal efficiency in transportation sector. However, the emitted high NO x , CO and soot emissions have led researchers to search different alternative fuels. At this point, diesel fuels emulsions help to reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effects of diesel fuel emulsions containing 5% (E5) and 10% (E10) water on engine performance an exhaust emissions has been investigated. Mono ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier in the preparation of the emulsion. Use of the mono ethylene glycol reduced the subsidence rate of the E5 and E10 about 34.5% and 47.1% respectively. The experiments were conducted at full load condition and at 2500, 3250 and 4000 rpm engine speeds. Engine torque and power increased according to diesel fuel between 2400 and 3600 engine speed range when emulsified fuels were used. But significant reductions were observed after that engine speed range. It was observed that the nitrogenoxide (NO x ) emission reduced 5.42% and 11.01% with using E5 and E10 fuel respectively according to diesel fuel at 2500 rpm. Also the soot emissions reduced 12.39% and 22.97% with using E5 and E10

  15. High dose Senna or Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG for elective colonoscopy preparation: a prospective randomized investigator-blinded clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shavakhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of two methods of colon preparation for colon cleansing in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: In this prospective randomized investigator-blinded trial, consecutive outpatients indicated for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Patients in Senna group took 24 tablets of 11 mg Senna in two divided doses 24 hour before colonoscopy. In Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG group they solved 4 sachets in 4 liters of water the day before the procedure and were asked to drink 250 ml every 15 minutes. The overall quality of colon cleansing was evaluated using the Aronchick scoring scale. Difficulty of the procedure, patients′ tolerance and compliance and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: 322 patients were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in the quality of colon cleansing, patients′ tolerance, compliance and the difficulty of the procedure between two groups (p > 0.05. The incidence of adverse effects was similar between two groups except for abdominal pain that was more severe in Senna group (p < 0.05 and nausea and vomiting that was more common in PEG group (p < 0.05 Conclusions: In conclusion we deduce that Senna has the same efficacy and patient′s acceptance as Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES and it could be prescribed as an alternative method for bowel preparation.

  16. Zinc Phthalocyanine Labelled Polyethylene Glycol: Preparation, Characterization, Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin and Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method.

  17. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  18. A new polyethylene glycol fiber prepared by coating porous zinc electrodeposited onto silver for solid-phase microextraction of styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungkaew, Sakchaibordee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2010-01-01

    A new polyethylene glycol fiber was developed for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of styrene by electrodepositing porous Zn film on Ag wire substrate followed by coating with polyethylene glycol sol-gel (Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber). The scanning electron micrographs of fibers surface revealed a highly porous structure. The extraction property of the developed fiber-to-styrene residue from polystyrene packaged food was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The new Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber is simple to prepare, low cost, robust, has high thermal stability and long lifetime, up to 359 extractions. Repeatability of one fiber (n = 6) was in the range of 4.7-7.5% and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 4) for five concentration values were in the range 3.4-10%. This Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber was compared to two commercial SPME fibers, 75 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Under their optimum conditions, Ag/Zn/PEG sol-gel fiber showed the highest sensitivity and the lowest detection limit at 0.28 ± 0.01 ng mL -1 .

  19. Preparation and characterization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate microgels using electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Mohd Yusof [Makmal Nanoteknologi, Bahagian Teknologi Sinaran (Malaysia); Isa, Naurah Mat; Napia, Liyana M. Ali [ALURTRON, Bahagian Kemudahan Iradiasi, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanosized gels based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. PEGDA was solubilized in n-heptane with use of sodium docusate (AOT) at 0.15M concentration to form reverse micelles. These micelles were than irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using electron beam (EB) to crosslink the entrapped polymer in the micelles. Ionizing radiation was imparted to the emulsions to generate crosslinking reaction in the micelles formed. The nanosized gels were evaluated in terms of particle diameter using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the images of the nanosized gels were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size and shape of the particles are influenced by concentration of PEGDA and radiation dose. This study showed that this method can be utilized to produce nanosized gels.

  20. Preparation of poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by radiation and their physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.-E.; Nho, Y.-C.; Kim, H.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The pH-responsive copolymer hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylic acid based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The gel content of these copolymer hydrogels varied depending on both the composition of monomers and the radiation dose. Maximum gel percent and degree of crosslinking were obtained at the composition of equal amount of comonomers. These copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH range. However they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at higher pH range due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. This pH-responsive swelling behavior was applied for the insulin carrier via oral delivery. Insulin-loaded copolymer hydrogels released most of their insulin in the simulated intestinal fluid which had a pH of 6.8 but not in the simulated gastric fluid which had a pH of 1.2

  1. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche

    2012-01-01

    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  2. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Ustuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Kilic, Zeynel

    2006-01-01

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO 2 , keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined

  3. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbir, Aybueke A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr; Ustuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Bilge, Selen [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Zeynel [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-28

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined.

  4. Polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes: a new safe, effective, and palatable bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashankar, Dinesh S; Uc, Aliye; Bishop, Warren P

    2004-03-01

    To assess safety, efficacy, and acceptance of polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes (PEG) for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children. Study design In a prospective study, 46 children (mean age, 11.2 years; range, 2.8-17.8) were given PEG at a dose of 1.5 g/kg/day for 4 days before colonoscopy. Patients were allowed to mix PEG in the beverage of their choice. Stool frequency and adverse effects were monitored during PEG therapy. Compliance, tolerance, and quality of colonic preparation were assessed. Serum electrolytes were measured before and after PEG therapy in 29 children. Daily stool frequency increased with PEG therapy from baseline of 2.6+/-0.3 to 3.0+/-0.5 on day 1, 4.6+/-0.4 on day 2, 5.5+/-0.7 on day 3, and 6.0+/-0.6 on day 4 (days 2, 3, and 4, PPEG therapy. Compliance and tolerance were rated as excellent by 89% and 85% of patients, respectively. Electrolyte-free PEG 3350 can be used as an effective and safe bowel preparation that is well accepted by children for colonoscopy.

  5. Poly(acrylic acid)/polyethylene glycol hygrogel prepared by using gamma-ray irradiation for mucosa adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Park, Jong-Seok; Shin, Jung-Woong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Gwon, Hui-Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Khil, Myung-Seob [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deok-Won [Maxillofacial Surgery Dental Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung-Jun [JADAM Co., LTD., Seogwipo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A buccal delivery system provides a much milder environment for drug delivery compared to an oral delivery which presents a hostile environment for drugs, especially proteins and polypeptides, owing to acid hydrolysis. Local delivery in an oral cavity has particular applications in the treatment of toothaches, periodontal disease, and bacterial infections. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-based hydrogels prepared using a chemical initiator have been attempted for a mucoadhesive system owing to their flexibility and excellent bioadhesion. In this experiment, PAA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were selected to prepare using a radiation process a bioadhesive hydrogel for adhesion to mucosal surfaces. PAA and PEG were dissolved in purified water to prepare a homogeneous PAA/PEG solution, and the solution was then irradiated using an electron beam at dose up to 70 kGy to make the hydrogels. Their physical properties, such as gel percent, swelling percent, and adhesive strength to mucosal surfaces, were investigated. In this experiment, various amounts of PEG were incorporated into the PAA to enhance the mucoadhesive property of the hydrogels. The effect of the molecular weight of PEG on the mucoadhesion was also examined.

  6. Preparation of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders by a modified polyethylene glycol based sol-gel process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    A modified sol-gel process based on polyethylene glycol has been developed for preparing (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders in view of Ag-sheeted tape manufacture. A careful control of the pH and concentration temperature yields an amorphous gel, which can be converted to a fine and extremely...

  7. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n=102 or CHT (n=94 groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P>0.05. These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  8. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Patient and Methods: 355 outpatients between 18 and 75 years were randomized into three groups (A, B, C receiving NaP = A, NaP, and sennosides = B or PEG-ELS and sennosides = C. Gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies were blinded to the type of preparation. All patients documented tolerance and adverse events. Vital signs, premedication, completeness, discomfort, and complications were recorded. A quality score (0–4 of cleanliness was generated. Results: The three groups were similar with regard to age, sex, BMI, indication for colonoscopy, and comorbidity. Drinking volumes (L (A = 4.33 + 1.2, B = 4.56 + 1.18, C = 4.93 + 1.71 were in favor of NaP (P = .005. Discomfort from ingested fluid was recorded in A = 39.8% (versus C: P = .015, B = 46.6% (versus C: P = .147, and C = 54.6%. Differences in tolerability and acceptance between the three groups were statistically not significant. No differences in adverse events and the cleanliness effects occurred in the three groups (P = .113. The cleanliness quality scores 0–2 were calculated in A: 77.7%, B: 86.7%, and C: 85.2%. Conclusions: These data fail to demonstrate significant differences in tolerability, acceptance, and preparation quality between the three types of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Cleansing with NaP was not superior to PEG-ELS.

  9. Preparation of polystyrene-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymer by "living" free radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianyi; Gao, Bo; Kops, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    terminated with a TEMPO unit (MPEG-TEMPO), which was further used to prepare the diblock copolymer PS-b-PEG by 'living' free radical polymerisation of styrene. The product was purified and identified by H-1 n.m.r. and GPC. However, large amounts of homopolystyrene was also formed by simultaneous thermal...

  10. Variations in polyethylene glycol brands and their influence on the preparation process of hydrogel microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Bertz, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    differences in the salt composition and molecular weight distribution of the polymers which can explain the results from the production process. The results illustrate that the range of product specifications may not always be tight enough to avoid variability in pharmaceutical processes like the preparation...

  11. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid is as effective as sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate for bowel preparation: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Seok; Chung, Jun-Won; Lee, Ji Won; Lim, Min Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang Ahn; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two low-volume agents, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc) and sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC), for bowel preparation. We performed a prospective, endoscopist-blinded, single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing PEG + Asc with SPMC to evaluate the bowel cleansing efficacy of the two regimens using the modified Ottawa bowel preparation scale (OBPS) and the Aronchick scale. Patients' taste and overall tolerance were assessed with a questionnaire. In total, 200 patients were randomized to receive either PEG + Asc (n = 98) or SPMC (n = 102). Both treatments were similarly efficacious in bowel cleansing, based on the modified OBSP (PEG + Asc 4.01 ± 2.29 vs SPMC 3.86 ± 2.47, P = 0.62) and Aronchick scale (PEG + Asc 1.96 ± 0.70 vs SPMC 1.89 ± 0.70, P = 0.42). Patient-reported taste and tolerance of each regimen, as reported by the questionnaire, were significantly greater in the PEG + Asc group than in the SPMC group (P = 0.01). In terms of adverse events, dizziness was more frequently observed in the PEG + Asc group (P = 0.03), whereas nausea was more common in the SPMC group (P = 0.02). PEG + Asc and SPMC show similar efficacy for bowel preparation. However, patient's overall tolerance is higher in the PEG + Asc group. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt% and 20wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of TiO2/Ag colloids with ultraviolet resistance and antibacterial property using short chain polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.; Wei, S.S.; Hu, S.Q.; Tang, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 /Ag nano-antibacterial material was prepared at low temperature using polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The size and shape as well as the optical properties of the nano-materials were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results showed that the average particle size of TiO 2 among these nano-materials was around 50-150 nm, and the average particle size of nano-silver was around 20 nm. Formation of Ag nano-particles on the surface of TiO 2 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the antibacterial activity was also investigated. By the antibacterial activity study and ultraviolet resistance test, it is noted that growth inhibition rates against E. coli was 99.99% as the concentration of nano-particles dispersion solution was 10 ppm, the minimum UV protective effect could be achieved as the concentration was 290 ppm.

  14. Preparation of shape-stabilized co-crystallized poly (ethylene glycol) composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yong; Wei, Ping; Jiang, Pingkai; Li, Zhi; Yan, Yonggang; Ji, Kejian; Deng, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Shape-stabilized PEG composites were prepared by sol–gel process. • The increased energy storage ability of composite was from cocrystallization effect. • Diammonium phosphate improved flame retardancy properties of PEG composite. • PEG composites had potential to be used as thermal energy storage materials. - Abstract: Shape-stabilized co-crystallized poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) composites were prepared by sol–gel process. Tetraethoxysilane was utilized as supporting matrix precursor. The crystallization property as well as thermal energy storage properties of PEG was influenced by silica network. The combination of PEG 2k and PEG 10k with suitable ratio (3:1 by weight) led to synergistically increased fusion enthalpy attributed to cocrystallization effect. Furthermore, halogen-free flame retarded PEG composites were obtained using diammonium phosphate as flame retardant. With suitable composition, the latent heat value of flame retarded PEG composite was 96.7 kJ/kg accompanied with good thermal stability and improved flame retardancy properties. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarized optical microscope (POM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure of PEG composites. Thermal stability properties of PEG composites were investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Char residue obtained from muffle furnace of PEG composites was analyzed by SEM and FT-IR. Flame retardancy properties of PEG composites were estimated by pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter. Results showed that it was potential for shape-stabilized halogen-free flame retarded PEG composite to be applied in thermal energy storage field

  15. Preparation of FeO(OH Modified with Polyethylene Glycol and Its Catalytic Activity on the Reduction of Nitrobenzene with Hydrazine Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ying Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxyhydroxide was prepared by dropping ammonia water to Fe(NO33.9H2O dispersed in polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser particle size analyzer. The results showed the catalyst modified with polyethylene glycol was amorphous. The addition of PEG during the preparation make the particle size of the catalyst was smaller and more uniform. The catalytic performance was tested in the reduction of nitroarenes to corresponding amines with hydrazine hydrate, and the catalyst showed excellent activity and stability. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 2nd February 2016; Revised: 26th April 2016; Accepted: 7th June 2016 How to Cite: Cai, K.Y., Liu, Y.S., Song, M., Zhou, Y.M., Liu, Q., Wang, X.H. (2016. Preparation of FeO(OH Modified with Polyethylene Glycol and Its Catalytic Activity on the Reduction of Nitrobenzene with Hydrazine Hydrate. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 363-368 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.576.363-368 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.576.363-368

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Su, Shengpei [Key Laboratory of Sustainable Resources Processing and Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2017-06-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  17. Biocompatibility and drug release behavior of scaffolds prepared by coaxial electrospinning of poly(butylene succinate) and polyethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, E.; Ibañez, H. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Valle, L.J. del, E-mail: luis.javier.del.valle@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CrNE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Edifici C, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Scaffolds constituted by electrospun microfibers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were studied. Specifically, coaxial microfibers having different core–shell distributions and compositions were considered as well as uniaxial micro/nanofibers prepared from mixtures of both polymers. Processing conditions were optimized for all geometries and compositions and resulting morphologies (i.e. diameter and surface texture) characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, molecular interactions and thermal properties were evaluated by FTIR, NMR, XPS and differential scanning calorimetry. The PEG component of electrospun fibers could be solubilized by immersion of scaffolds in aqueous medium, giving rise to high porosity and hydrophobic samples. Nevertheless, a small amount of PEG was retained in the PBS matrix, suggesting some degree of mixing. Solubilization was slightly dependent on fiber structure; specifically, the distribution of PEG in the core or shell of coaxial fibers led to higher or lower retention levels, respectively. Scaffolds could be effectively loaded with hydrophobic drugs having antibacterial and anticarcinogenic activities like triclosan and curcumin, respectively. Their release was highly dependent on their chemical structure and medium composition. Thus, low and high release rates were observed in phosphate buffer saline (SS) and SS/ethanol (30:70 v/v), respectively. Slight differences in the release of triclosan were found depending on fiber distribution and composition. Antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated for both loaded and unloaded scaffolds. - Highlights: • Coaxial microfibers with different hydrophobicities were studied. • The surface morphology of the coaxial fiber shows the distribution of polymers. • Coaxial fiber microstructure favors the polymer molecular orientation. • These hybrid materials have greater advantages for loading and drug release. • PEG

  18. Enhanced electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanoporous film prepared based on an assistance of polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Xiaorui; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Zhong, Wei; Ou, Hui; Li, Yinshuai

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was employed as pore-forming agent to prepare TiO2 nanoporous film based on spin-coating a TiO2 nanoparticle mixed paste on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The electrochromic and optical properties of the obtained TiO2 film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the PEG in the mixed paste endows the TiO2 film with well-developed porous structure and improves the uniformity of the TiO2 film, which are helpful for the rapid intercalation and extraction of lithium ions within the TiO2 film and the strengthening of the diffuse reflection of visible light in the TiO2 film. As a result, the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste with PEG displays higher electrochemical activity and more excellent electrochromic performances compared with the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste without PEG. The switching times of coloration/bleaching are respectively 10.16/5.65 and 12.77/6.13 s for the TiO2 films with PEG and without PEG. The maximum value of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film with PEG is 21.2% while that of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film without PEG is 14.9%. Furthermore, the TiO2 film with PEG has better stability of the colored state than the TiO2 film without PEG.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane-Polydimethylsiloxane/Polyamide12-b-Polytetramethylene Glycol Blend Membranes for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blend membranes of synthesized polyurethane based on toluene diisocyanate (TDI, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG with polyamide12-b-PTMG were prepared by solution casting technique. The synthesized polyurethane-polydimethylsiloxane and PU-PDMS/polyamide12-b-PTMG blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In the FTIR spectrum of the synthesized PU-PDMS, the disappearance of NCO stretching vibration at 2270 cm−1 was used to confirm the completion of the reaction. According to our DSC results, the use of higher polyamide12-b-PTMG content in PU-PDMS/polyamide12-b-PTMG blends led to greater compatibility between the two phases. The SEM images showed that the blends with polyamide12-b-PTMG (20 wt% were significantly more homogeneous in the micrometric scale compared to other samples. Gas transport properties have been determined for N2, CO2 and He gases and the obtained permeability values were correlated with the properties of the blends. The comparison of the results with that of the pure PU-PDMS membrane showed that the blend membranes had a higher permeability toward CO2 and lower toward N2 gas. The blend membrane with 20 wt% polyamide12-b-PTMG showed higher CO2 permeability (≈105 Barrer compared to PU-PDMS membrane. By introduction of polyamide12-b-PTMG into PU-PDMS matrix a perceptible rise in helium ideal selectivity of the blend membranes was observed. In blend membranes with 5-20 wt% polyamide12-b-PTMG contents, an enhancement of CO2/N2 (244%, He/N2 (20% and CO2/He (103% selectivity factor was observed. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes were compared with the calculated permeability based on a modified additive logarithmic model.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a novel degradable nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) composite reinforced with bamboo fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liuyun; Li, Ye; Xiong, Chengdong; Su, Shengpei

    2017-01-01

    It is a promising and challenging to achieve an ideal poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA)-based composite. In this paper, bamboo fiber (BF) was firstly designed to incorporate into nano-hydroxyapatite/PLGA (n-HA/PLGA) composite, and a series of novel biodegradable BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composites with different BF amounts (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) were prepared by solution mixing method. The effect of BF content on the crystallization behavior, interface structure and mechanical property of BF/n-HA/PLGA ternary composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), comparing with pure PLGA and n-HA/PLGA composite. The results showed that BF further promoted the crystallization of PLGA acting as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, and the addition of 10 wt% BF was the best benefit to promote the crystallization. However, the higher addition content of BF caused more agglomeration in n-HA/PLGA matrix, which decreased gradually the mechanical properties of the BF/n-HA/PLGA composite. In conclusion, the addition content of 5 wt% BF to n-HA/PLGA matrix was an appropriate proportion, which can achieved the best mechanical reinforce effectiveness, suggesting that BF/n-HA/PLGA composite had more potential in biomedical application than n-HA/PLGA composite. - Highlights: • Bamboo fiber was firstly design to incorporate into n-HA/PLGA composite. • The effect of bamboo fiber content on the n-HA/PLGA composite was studied in detail. • Isothermal crystallization, microstructure and mechanical property were studied. • The relation between bamboo fiber content and properties of n-HA/PLGA composite was found. • An appropriate proportion of bamboo fiber in n-HA/PLGA composite was obtained.

  1. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution as bowel preparations for colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG gut lavage solutions are safe and effective, but they require the consumption of large volumes of fluid. A new lower-volume solution of PEG plus ascorbic acid has been used recently as a preparation for colonoscopy. AIM: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. STUDY: Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. After a methodological quality assessment and data extraction, the pooled estimates of bowel preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing, compliance with preparation, willingness to repeat the same preparation, and the side effects were calculated. We calculated pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR by fixed- and/or random-effects models. We also assessed heterogeneity among studies and the publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled OR for preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing and for compliance with preparation for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were 1.08 (95% CI = 0.98-1.28, P = 0.34 and 2.23 (95% CI = 1.67-2.98, P<0.00001, respectively, compared with those for standard-volume PEG. The side effects of vomiting and nausea for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were reduced relative to standard-volume PEG. There was no significant publication bias, according to a funnel plot. CONCLUSIONS: Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid gut lavage achieved non-inferior efficacy for bowel cleansing, is more acceptable to patients, and has fewer side effects than standard-volume PEG as a bowel preparation method for colonoscopy.

  2. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions by Using Composite of Cement Kiln Dust/Ethylene Glycol co Acrylic Acid Prepared by y-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; Khattab, M.M.; Ismail, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Various composites of cement kiln dust (CKD) and poly(ethylene glycol co acrylic acid) using y-irradiation was investigated. The samples were prepared using three percentages of cement kiln dust namely, 20, 50 and 75 by wt % and mixed with an equimolar ratio (1:1) of ethylene glycol and acrylic acid then irradiated at doses; 10,20 and 30 kGy of gamma-irradiation. The results showed that (CKD) and poly(ethylene glycol co acrylic acid) composites were formed only at 30 kGy. In addition, CKD alone has the lowest degree of removal of heavy metal ions compared with the prepared composites. A composite containing 75% cement kiln dust by weight percentage, showed the highest degree of removal of cobalt ions, whereas, a composite of 20% CKD showed the highest degree for cadmium ion removal. While the composite of 75% CKD showed a higher selectivity of cobalt ion than cadmium ion in their mixed solution.

  3. Polyethylene Glycol-3350 (Miralax®)+1.9-L sports drink (Gatorade®)+2 tablets of bisacodyl results in inferior bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with Polyethylene Glycol-Ascorbic Acid (MoviPrep®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maqsood Ahmed; Patel, Kevin B; Nooruddin, Mohammed; Swanson, Garth; Fogg, Louis; Keshavarzian, Ali; Brown, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350, approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only for constipation, combined with 1.9 L of sports drink (SD) (GatoradeR) and bisacodyl (B) is commonly used in outpatient practice for bowel preparation due to cited patient satisfaction and tolerability of this specific regimen. We aim to compare PEG-3350 (MiralaxR) with PEG-AA-based (MoviPrepR) in terms of efficacy, patient satisfaction, and the effects of these two regimen on serum electrolytes. This study is a prospective, single-blinded, block randomized trial comparing single-dose PEG-3350+SD+B to split-dose 2-L PEG-AA in the outpatient endoscopy unit in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Basic metabolic profiles were checked on the day of randomization and on the day of procedure. Patients completed a survey on the day of procedure. Bowel preparation quality was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) by two endoscopists and a nurse present during the procedure. We randomized 150 patients (74 PEG-3350+SD+B and 76 PEG-AA). The PEG-AA group had significantly higher BBPS scores in the right colon by Endoscopist 1, Nurse, and Endoscopist 2 (p 0.005, PEG-3350+SD+B results in inferior bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with split-dose PEGAA and does not provide any advantage in regards to patient satisfaction. We therefore recommend discontinuing the use of PEG 3350 for bowel preparation.

  4. Two-day bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol 3350 and bisacodyl: a new, safe, and effective regimen for colonoscopy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma P; Johnson, Susanne; Husain, Sohail Z; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2011-07-01

    To assess the safety, efficacy, and acceptance of a 2-day bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 without electrolytes and bisacodyl for colonoscopy in children. In a prospective study, 111 children of mean age 11.9 years were given 2 g/kg of PEG and a 5-mg tablet of bisacodyl daily for 2 days before colonoscopy. Stool frequency, consistency, and adverse effects were monitored for the duration of the bowel preparation. Compliance and quality of colonic preparation were assessed on the day of the colonoscopy. The average daily stool frequency increased from a baseline of 2, to 4* on day 1, and 6.5* on day 2 of the bowel preparation (*P PEG and bisacodyl is safe, effective, and well accepted for colonoscopy in children without any major adverse effects.

  5. Poly(ethylene glycol) and cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan: from methodologies to preparation and potential biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Estefânia V. R.; Oliveira, Jhones L.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a polyaminosaccharide obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, possesses useful properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, low toxicity, and good miscibility with other polymers. It is extensively used in many applications in biology, medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, and the food and pharmaceutical industries. The amino and hydroxyl groups present in the chitosan backbone provide positions for modifications that are influenced by factors such as the molecular weight, viscosity, and type of chitosan, as well as the reaction conditions. The modification of chitosan by chemical methods is of interest because the basic chitosan skeleton is not modified and the process results in new or improved properties of the material. Among the chitosan derivatives, cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted chitosan are excellent candidates for a range of biomedical, environmental decontamination, and industrial purposes. This work discusses modifications including chitosan with attached cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol), and the main applications of these chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field.

  6. Stool consistency and stool frequency are excellent clinical markers for adequate colon preparation after polyethylene glycol 3350 cleansing protocol: a prospective clinical study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safder, Shaista; Demintieva, Yulia; Rewalt, Mary; Elitsur, Yoram

    2008-12-01

    Colon preparation for a colonoscopy in children is a difficult task because of the unpalatable taste and large volume of cleansing solution that needs to be consumed to ensure a clean colon. Consequently, an unprepared colon frequently occurs in routine practices, which causes early termination and a repeated procedure. (1) To assess the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solution (PEG 3350) in preparing the colon of children scheduled for a colonoscopy and (2) to investigate clinical markers associated with an adequate colon preparation before a colonoscopy. A total of 167 children scheduled for a colonoscopy. In a prospective study, children scheduled for a colonoscopy were given PEG 3350 solution (1.5 g/kg per day, up to 100 g/d) over a 4-day preparation period. Each day, a simple questionnaire that documents the amount of liquid consumed, adverse effects, and the number and consistency of stool was completed by the parents. After a colonoscopy procedure, the colon preparation was assigned a number grade. The data were later assessed and were compared to determine the association between the grade of cleansing and the frequency and/or consistency of stool during preparation. Colon preparation was completed in 149 children, 133 of whom were adequately prepared. Inadequate preparation was found in 16 children; the procedure was terminated prematurely in 2 of these patients because of unacceptable conditions. No significant adverse effects were noted. A number of >or=5 stools/d, and liquid stool consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were associated with adequate colon preparation. PEG 3350 solution is safe, efficacious, and tolerable for children. Stool frequency and consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were excellent markers (positive predictive value 91%-95%), which predict an adequately clean colon before a colonoscopy in children.

  7. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts: Effect of the Preparation Method and Reduction Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Hyuck; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Duck

    2015-01-01

    The effect of preparation method on the catalytic activities of the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalysts on steam reforming of ethylene glycol was investigated. The catalysts were prepared with various preparation methods such as an incipient wetness impregnation, wet impregnation, and coprecipitation method. In the case of coprecipitation method, various precipitants such as KOH, K 2 CO 3 , and NH 4 OH were compared. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using N 2 physisorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, pulsed H 2 chemisorption, temperature-programmed oxidation, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Among the catalysts reduced at 773 K, the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH or K 2 CO 3 as precipitants showed the best catalytic performance. The preparation method affected the particle size of Ni, reducibility of nickel oxides, catalytic performance (activity and stability), and types of coke formed during the reaction. The Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH showed the increasing catalytic activity with an increase in the reduction temperature from 773 to 1173 K because of an increase in the reduction degree of Ni oxide species even though the particle size of Ni increased with increasing reduction temperature

  8. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of the adjunct use of Clebopride in polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) solution for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Murdani; Rani, A Aziz; Fauzi, Achmad; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Makmun, Dadang; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Manan, Chudahman; Harjodisastro, Daldiyono

    2010-01-01

    To study the benefit of Clebopride as an adjuvant in polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) solution for colonoscopy preparation. Eighty one adult patients who underwent colonoscopy examination were recruited in this randomized double blind controlled study. First group received PEG and placebo, whereas second group received PEG and Clebopride. Two litres of PEG was taken at night before colonoscopy. The acceptability and tolerability of bowel preparation were assessed through interview method. The efficacy of bowel preparation was assessed using Aronchick's Criteria. In terms of acceptability, 64 patients (31 patients from placebo group vs 33 patients from Clebopride group) were able to drink two litres of PEG solution. Sixty patients (29 patients from placebo group and 31 patients from Clebopride group) were willing to accept PEG solution for their next bowel preparation. On the term of tolerability, nausea, abdominal distension, and borborygmus were more frequent in the placebo group (34.2% vs 27.9%; 44.7% vs 32.6%; 26.3% vs 4.6% respectively). However, only the difference at the incidence of borborygmus that was statistically significant (pClebopride group and 81.6% of bowel preparation in placebo group were optimal (p = 0.585). The adjunct use of Clebopride in PEG solution for colonoscopy preparations tends to increase the acceptability, tolerability, and efficacy. The presence of borborygmus was significantly lower in the Clebopride group.

  9. Effects of polyethylene glycol 2 L alone or with ascorbic acid compared with polyethylene glycol 4 L alone for bowel preparation before colonoscopy: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Chen, Wei-Qing; Huang, Jie-Li; He, Lan-Ying; Liu, Bang-Lun; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Bing-Rong

    2017-10-16

    Colonoscopy has been regarded as a standard method of detecting and removing gastrointestinal lesions early, while adequate bowel preparation is the prerequisite of determining the diagnostic accuracy and treatment safety of this process. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based bowel preparation regimens remain the first recommendation, but the optimal option is still uncertain. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is to determine the optimal PEG based bowel preparation regimen before colonoscopy. We will assign two investigators to independently search all potential citations, screen records, abstract essential information and appraise the risk of bias accordingly. Then, random effects pairwise and network meta-analyses of RCTs comparing PEG 2 L alone or with ascorbic acid with PEG 4 L alone will be performed using RevMan 5.3 (Copenhagen, Denmark: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2013), Stata 14 (StataCorp, Texas, USA) and WinBUGS 1.4 (Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's, London, UK) from January 2000 to April 2017. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve will also be calculated in order to rank the regimens. Ethics approval and patient written informed consent will not be required because all of the analyses in the present study will be performed based on data from published studies. We will submit our systematic review and network meta-analysis to a peer reviewed scientific journal for publication. PROSPERO: CRD42017068957. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Preparation of poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith and its application in solid phase microextraction of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Zhou, Lin-feng; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2013-05-24

    A capillary poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith was in situ synthesized by thermally initiated free radical co-polymerization using trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (MATE) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. N,N-dimethylformamide and polyethylene glycol 6000 were used as solvent and porogen, respectively. The morphology and porous structure of the resulting monoliths were assessed by scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare practically useful poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths with low flow resistance and good mechanical strength, some parameters such as PEG-6000 to DMF ratio, total monomer to porogen ratio, and crosslinker to monomer ratio were optimized systematically. Moreover, the extraction mechanism was evaluated using two series of compounds, alkylbenzenes and weak acids, as model compounds on poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths as liquid chromatographic stationary phase. Finally, the monoliths were applied as the solid phase microextraction medium, and a simple off-line method for simultaneous determination of three brominated flame retardants, 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and 4,4'-dibrominated diphenyl ether (DBDPE), in environmental waters was developed by coupling the polymer monolith microextraction to HPLC with UV detection. The regression equations for these three brominated flame retardants showed good linearity from their limit of quantification to 5000ng/mL. The limits of detection were 0.20, 0.15 and 0.10ng/mL for TBP, TBBPA and DBDPE, respectively. The recovery of the proposed method was 78.7-106.1% with intra-day relative standard deviation of 1.3-4.4%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and application of poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) resins: novel polymer matrices for solid-phase synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juntao; Pardin, Christophe; Zhu, X X; Lubell, William D

    2007-01-01

    Spherical crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) beads with good mechanical stability were prepared by reverse-suspension polymerization, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cosolvent in an aqueous phase. Poly(ethylene glycol)s with varying chain lengths were grafted onto the PVA beads by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide. The thermal behavior, morphology, and swelling were evaluated for each of the new polymer matrices. High loading and good swelling in water and organic solvents were characteristic of the PEG-grafted PVA beads. The polymer beads also exhibited good mechanical and chemical stability and were unaffected by treatment with 6 N HCl and with 6 N NaOH. The hydroxyl groups of the PVA-PEG beads were converted into aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and isocyanate functions to provide scavenger resins and were extended by way of a benzyl alcohol in a Wang linker. The transglutaminase substrates dipeptides (Z-Gln-Gly) and heptapeptides (Pro-Asn-Pro-Gln-Leu-Pro-Phe) were synthesized on PVA-PEG_5, PVA-PEG_20, and the Wang linker-derivatized PVA-PEG resins. The cleavage of the peptides from the resins using MeOH/NH3 mixture at different temperatures (0 degrees C and room temp) and 50% TFA/DCM provided, respectively, peptide methyl esters, amides, and acids in good yields and purity as assessed by LC-MS analysis.

  12. Novel Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials Composed of Polyethylene Glycol/Nonsurfactant-Templated Mesoporous Silica: Preparation and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhu, Yingying; Wang, Jinbao; Lv, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiongjie; Gao, Junkai; Zhang, Zijun; Lei, Hao

    2017-12-01

    A novel shape-stabilized phase change material (PEG/TAMS), fabricated using tannic acid-templated mesoporous silica (TAMS) as a support for polyethylene glycol, was developed for thermal energy storage. The method used to synthesize TAMS was simple, cost effective, environmentally friendly, and free of surfactant. The characterization results indicated that PEG was physically absorbed to TAMS and that TAMS had no influence on the crystal structure of PEG. According to the TGA thermograms, PEG/TAMS has excellent thermal stability and can be applied over a wide temperature range. Additionally, the differential scanning calorimetry results suggested that PEG/TAMS has good thermal properties and that its fusion and solidification enthalpies reached 114.7 J/g and 102.4 J/g, respectively. The results indicated that PEG/TAMS has great potential for practical applications.

  13. Efficacy of prokinetics with a split-dose of polyethylene glycol in bowel preparation for morning colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kim, Tae Oh; Shin, Bong Chul; Woo, Jae Gon; Seo, Eun Hee; Joo, Hee Rin; Heo, Nae-Yun; Park, Jongha; Park, Seung Ha; Yang, Sung Yeon; Moon, Young Soo; Shin, Jin-Yong; Lee, Nae Young

    2012-01-01

    Currently, a split-dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the mainstay of bowel preparation due to its tolerability, bowel-cleansing action, and safety. However, bowel preparation with PEG is suboptimal because residual fluid reduces the polyp detection rate and requires a more thorough colon inspection. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a sufficient dose of prokinetics on bowel cleansing together with split-dose PEG. A prospective endoscopist-blinded study was conducted. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: prokinetic with split-dose PEG or split-dose PEG alone. A prokinetic [100 mg itopride (Itomed)], was administered twice simultaneously with each split-dose of PEG. Bowel-cleansing efficacy was measured by endoscopists using the Ottawa scale and the segmental fluidity scale score. Each participant completed a bowel preparation survey. Mean scores from the Ottawa scale, segmental fluid scale, and rate of poor preparation were compared between both groups. Patients in the prokinetics with split-dose PEG group showed significantly lower total Ottawa and segmental fluid scores compared with patients in the split-dose of PEG alone group. A sufficient dose of prokinetics with a split-dose of PEG showed efficacy in bowel cleansing for morning colonoscopy, largely due to the reduction in colonic fluid. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Glycol chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan...

  15. Preparation of a novel sorptive stir bar based on vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monolithic polymer for the simultaneous extraction of diazepam and nordazepam from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabizadeh, Mahsa; Talebpour, Zahra; Adib, Nuoshin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2016-04-01

    A new monolithic coating based on vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate polymer was introduced for stir bar sorptive extraction. The polymerization step was performed using different contents of monomer, cross-linker and porogenic solvent, and the best formulation was selected. The quality of the prepared vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate stir bars was satisfactory, demonstrating good repeatability within batch (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) and acceptable reproducibility between batches (relative standard deviation < 6.0%). The prepared stir bar was utilized in combination with ultrasound-assisted liquid desorption, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for the simultaneous determination of diazepam and nordazepam in human plasma samples. To optimize the extraction step, a three-level, four-factor, three-block Box-Behnken design was applied. Under the optimum conditions, the analytical performance of the proposed method displayed excellent linear dynamic ranges for diazepam (36-1200 ng/mL) and nordazepam (25-1200 ng/mL), with correlation coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9968 and detection limits of 12 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday recovery ranged from 93 to 106%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of diazepam and nordazepam at their therapeutic levels in human plasma. The novelty of this study is the improved polarity of the stir bar coating and its application for the simultaneous extraction of diazepam and its active metabolite, nordazepam in human plasma sample. The method was more rapid than previously reported stir bar sorptive extraction techniques based on monolithic coatings, and exhibited lower detection limits in comparison with similar methods for the determination of diazepam and nordazepam in biological fluids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A prospective randomized trial on the use of Coca-Cola Zero(®) vs water for polyethylene glycol bowel preparation before colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow-En, I; Seow-Choen, F

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine whether Coca-Cola (Coke) Zero is a safe and effective solvent for polyethylene glycol (PEG). Between December 2013 and April 2014, 209 healthy adults (115 men, 95 women) scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized to use either Coke Zero (n = 100) or drinking water (n = 109) with PEG as bowel preparation. Each patient received two sachets of PEG to dissolve in 2 l of solvent, to be completed 6 h before colonoscopy. Serum electrolytes were measured before and after preparation. Bowel cleanliness and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Palatability of solution, adverse effects, time taken to complete and willingness to repeat the preparation were documented via questionnaire. Mean palatability scores in the Coke Zero group were significantly better compared with the control group (2.31 ± 0.61 vs 2.51 ± 0.63, P = 0.019), with a higher proportion willing to use the same preparation again (55% vs 43%). The mean time taken to complete the PEG + Coke Zero solution was significantly faster (74 ± 29 min vs 86 ± 31 min, P = 0.0035). The quality of bowel cleansing was also significantly better in the Coke Zero group (P = 0.0297). There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events (P = 0.759) or the polyp detection rate (32% vs 31.2%). Consumption of either preparation did not significantly affect electrolyte levels or hydration status. Coke Zero is a useful alternative solvent for PEG. It is well tolerated, more palatable, leads to quicker consumption of the bowel preparation and results in better quality cleansing. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Guan, Guoqing; Asep, Bayu; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Samart, Chanatip; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni/MCM-41 was prepared by EG-assisted co-impregnation method. • EG-assisted co-impregnation method resulted in Ni particles well dispersed on MCM-41. • Ni/MCM-41-EG catalyst had high catalytic activity for tar reforming. • The highest H 2 gas yield was obtained when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG. • The catalysts were reused up to 5 cycles without any serious deactivation. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) assisted impregnation of nickel catalyst on MCM-41 (Ni/MCM-41-EG) was performed and applied for steam reforming of tar derived from biomass. The catalyst was characterized by SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, and TPR. It is found that smaller nickel particles were well dispersed on MCM-41 and better catalytic activity was shown for the Ni/MCM-41-EG when compared with the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 prepared by using the conventional impregnation method. H 2 yield increased approximately 8% when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG instead of 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41 for the steam reforming of tar derived from sunflower stalk. The catalyst reusability was also tested up to five cycles, and no obvious activity reduction was observed. It indicates that EG assisted impregnation method is a good way to prepare metal loaded porous catalyst with high catalytic activity, high loading amount and long-term stability for the tar reforming

  18. Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol/aluminum nitride composite as form-stable phase change material prepared by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Form-stable PMMA/PEG/AlN PCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. → AlN additive effectively enhanced the heat transfer property of composite PCMs. → The composites exhibited desirable thermal performance and electric insulativity. → The composites were available for the thermal management of electronic device. - Abstract: This work was focused on the preparation and characterization of a new type of form-stable phase change material (PCM) employed in thermal management. Using the method of in situ polymerization, polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the PCM and aluminum nitride (AlN) serving as the thermal conductivity promoter were uniformly encapsulated and embedded inside the three-dimensional network structure of PMMA matrix. When the mass fraction of PEG was below 70%, the prepared composite PCMs remained solid without leakage above the melting point of the PEG. XRD and FT-IR results indicated that the PEG was physically combined with PMMA matrix and AlN additive and did not participate in the polymerization. Thermal analysis results showed that the prepared composite PCMs possess available latent heat capacity and thermal stability, and the AlN additive was able to effectively enhance the heat transfer property of organic PCM. Moreover, the volume resistivity of composite achieved (5.92 ± 0.16) x 10 10 Ω cm when the mass ratio of AlN was 30%. To sum up, the prepared form-stable PCMs were competent for the thermal management of electronic device due to their acceptable thermal performance and electric insulativity.

  19. Ethylene glycol assisted preparation of Ti(4+)-modified polydopamine coated magnetic particles with rough surface for capture of phosphorylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangdong; Ding, Chun; Yao, Xin; Jia, Li

    2016-07-27

    The reversible protein phosphorylation is very important in regulating almost all aspects of cell life, while the enrichment of phosphorylated proteins still remains a technical challenge. In this work, polydopamine (PDA) modified magnetic particles with rough surface (rPDA@Fe3O4) were synthesized by introduction of ethylene glycol in aqueous solution. The PDA coating possessing a wealth of catechol hydroxyl groups could serve as an active medium to immobilize titanium ions through the metal-catechol chelation, which makes the fabrication of titanium ions modified rPDA@Fe3O4 particles (Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4) simple and very convenient. The spherical Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles have a surface area of 37.7 m(2) g(-1) and superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 38.4 emu g(-1). The amount of Ti element in the particle was measured to be 3.93%. And the particles demonstrated good water dispersibility. The particles were used as adsorbents for capture of phosphorylated proteins and they demonstrated affinity and specificity for phosphorylated proteins due to the specific binding sites (Ti(4+)). Factors affecting the adsorption of phosphorylated proteins on Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles were investigated. The adsorption capacity of Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles for κ-casein was 1105.6 mg g(-1). Furthermore, the particles were successfully applied to isolate phosphorylated proteins in milk samples, which demonstrated that Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles had potential application in selective separation of phosphorylated proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of rotatable central composite design in the preparation and optimization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Sivacharan; Bende, Girish; Movva, Snehalatha; Saha, Ranendra

    2010-11-01

    Polymeric carrier systems of paclitaxel (PCT) offer advantages over only available formulation Taxol® in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy and eliminating adverse effects. The objective of the present study was to prepare poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing PCT using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Critical factors involved in the processing method were identified and optimized by scientific, efficient rotatable central composite design aiming at low mean particle size and high entrapment efficiency. Twenty different experiments were designed and each formulation was evaluated for mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vitro drug release, and absorption characteristics were studied using in situ rat intestinal permeability study. Amount of polymer and duration of ultrasonication were found to have significant effect on mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. First-order interactions of amount of miglyol with amount of polymer were significant in case of mean particle size, whereas second-order interactions of polymer were significant in mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. The developed quadratic model showed high correlation (R(2) > 0.85) between predicted response and studied factors. The optimized formulation had low mean particle size (231.68 nm) and high entrapment efficiency (95.18%) with 4.88% drug content. The optimized formulation showed controlled release of PCT for more than 72 hours. In situ absorption study showed faster and enhanced extent of absorption of PCT from nanoparticles compared to pure drug. The poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing PCT may be of clinical importance in enhancing its oral bioavailability.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of azithromycin binary solid dispersions using various polyethylene glycols for the improvement of the drug solubility and dissolution rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adeli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Azithromycin is a water-insoluble drug, with a very low bioavailability. In order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate, and consequently increase the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs (such as azithromycin, various techniques can be applied. One of such techniques is "solid dispersion". This technique is frequently used to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble compounds. Owing to its low solubility and dissolution rate, azithromycin does not have a suitable bioavailability. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of azithromycin by preparing its solid dispersion, using different Polyethylene glycols (PEG. Preparations of solid dispersions and physical mixtures of azithromycin were made using PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and 20000 in various ratios, based on the solvent evaporation method. From the studied drug release profile, it was discovered that the dissolution rate of the physical mixture, as the well as the solid dispersions, were higher than those of the drug alone. There was no chemical incompatibility between the drug and polymer from the observed Infrared (IR spectra. Drug-polymer interactions were also investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD and Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM. In conclusion, the dissolution rate and solubility of azithromycin were found to improve significantly, using hydrophilic carriers, especially PEG 6000.

  2. Preparation and thermal properties of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) used in asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Lin, Feipeng; Liu, Ruohua; Xiao, Ting; Zheng, Jianlong; Qian, Guoping; Liu, Hongfu; Wen, Pihua

    2017-12-05

    Three kinds of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol (PEG) as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) were prepared to choose the most suitable CPCMs in asphalt pavements for the problems of asphalt pavements rutting diseases and urban heat islands. The microstructure and chemical structure of CPCMs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. Thermal properties of the CPCMs were determined by TG and DSC. The maximum PEG absorption of diatomite (DI), expanded perlite (EP) and expanded vermiculite (EVM) could reach 72%, 67% and 73.6%, respectively. The melting temperatures and latent heat of CPCMs are in the range of 52-55 °C and 100-115 J/g, respectively. The results show that PEG/EP has the best thermal and chemical stability after 100 times of heating-cooling process. Moreover, crystallization fraction results show that PEG/EP has slightly higher latent heats than that of PEG/DI and PEG/EVM. Temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture was prepared by substituting the fine aggregates with PEG/EP CPCMs. The upper surface maximum temperature difference of temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture reaches about 7.0 °C in laboratory, and the surface peak temperature reduces up to 4.3 °C in the field experiment during a typical summer day, indicating a great potential application for regulating pavement temperature field and alleviating the urban heat islands.

  3. Preparation and Property Evaluation of Conductive Hydrogel Using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol/Polyethylene Glycol/Graphene Oxide for Human Electrocardiogram Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conductive hydrogel combined with Ag/AgCl electrode is widely used in the acquisition of bio-signals. However, the high adhesiveness of current commercial hydrogel causes human skin allergies and pruritus easily after wearing hydrogel for electrodes for a long time. In this paper, a novel conductive hydrogel with good mechanical and conductive performance was prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles. A cyclic freezing–thawing method was employed under processing conditions of −40 °C (8 h and 20 °C (4 h separately for three cycles in sequence until a strong conductive hydrogel, namely, PVA/PEG/GO gel, was obtained. Characterization (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the assembled hydrogel was successfully prepared with a three-dimensional network structure and, thereafter, the high strength and elasticity due to the complete polymeric net formed by dense hydrogen bonds in the freezing process. The as-made PVA/PEG/GO hydrogel was then composited with nonwoven fabric for electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. The ECG acquisition data indicated that the prepared hydrogel has good electro-conductivity and can obtain stable ECG signals for humans in a static state and in motion (with a small amount of drift. A comparison of results indicated that the prepared PVA/PEG/GO gel obtained the same quality of ECG signals with commercial conductive gel with fewer cases of allergies and pruritus in volunteer after six hours of wear.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Choi, Im Soon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we developed the novel 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and poloxamer 407 as the anionic and non-ionic surfactant for stabilization. The PLGA NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Both the drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 1:10 (w/w). The optimized formulation of 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 151.6 ± 2.0 and 0.152 ± 0.010 nm, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity were 69.9 and 7.0%, respectively. In vitro release study showed sustained release. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.468, which suggested that the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 60% cell viability reduction at 10 µg/ml 17-AAG concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of 17-AAG into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer.

  5. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Molecular-Bridged Expanded Graphite/Polyethylene Glycol Composite Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Liu, Quantao; Wan, Jiuming; Hu, Jinxuan

    2018-05-16

    Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings' energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs. The phase change temperature, latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the m-EPs were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), TGA, and a thermal constants analyzer. Results showed that the maximum mass ratio of PEG to EG without leakage was 1:7, and a stable connection was established in the m-EPs after modification. Compared with the unmodified EPs, the supercooling degree of the m-EPs reduced by about 3 °C, but the latent heats and initial decomposition temperatures increased by approximately 10% and 20 °C, respectively, which indicated an improvement in the thermal energy storage efficiency. The thermal conductivities of the m-EPs were 10 times higher than those of the pristine PEGs, which ensured a rapid responding to building temperature fluctuations.

  6. Optimal use of polyethylene glycol for preparation of small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Gao, Yun-Jie; Ge, Zhi-Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Standardized strategy of bowel preparation before video capsule endoscopy (VCE) remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the ideal dose of PEG, based on small bowel visualization quality (SBVQ), diagnostic yield (DY), and complete rate (CR) of VCE using a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This NMA included RCTs comparing any of the following bowel preparation interventions for VCE: fasting overnight ("Fast"), 1 liter PEG ("PEG 1L"), 2-liter PEG ("PEG 2L"), or 4-liter PEG ("PEG 4L"). The authors searched papers in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase as of June 2016. The cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities to rank different doses of PEG and Fast were used. The search engine provided 102 studies. Nine RCTs including 982 patients were incorporated into this analysis. All studies showed low risk of bias of blinding. SUCRA provided an initial ranking among these strategies, in which PEG 2 L showed the best score in SBVQ (PEG 2 L, 89.4%; PEG 1 L, 62.5%; PEG 4 L, 44.0%; Fast, 4.1%) and DY (PEG 2 L, 74.6%; PEG 1 L 28.1%; PEG 4 L 65.9%; Fast 31.4%) of VCE. No significant difference was shown in the analysis of CR. This study recommends PEG 2 L as the ideal dose, which may improve the SBVQ of VCE and, therefore, diagnostic accuracy. Multi-center randomized controlled trials are required to verify these findings.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and dissolution studies of naproxen solid dispersions using polyethylene glycol 6000 and labrafil M2130

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naproxen is a poor water soluble, non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. Although salt formation, solubilization and particle size reduction have commonly been used to increase dissolution rate and thereby oral absorption and bioavailability of low water soluble drugs, there are practical limitation of these techniques. However, the most attractive option for increasing the release rate is improvement of solubility through formulation approaches. In this study, solid dispersions (SD of naproxen were prepared by hot melt method using various ratios of drug to polymers (PEG6000 separately and characterized for physical appearance, FTIR, DSC, X-Ray crystallography, and in-vitro dissolution studies. The influence of several amounts of Labrafil M2130 was also studied. FTIR study revealed that drug was stable in SDs, and great state of amorphous formed particles was proofed by DSC analysis. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried using USP type II (paddle dissolution apparatus at medium (pH 1.5. Solubility of naproxen from SDs was increased in dissolution media. The prepared dispersion showed increase in the dissolution rate of naproxen comparing to that of physical mixtures of drug and polymers and pure drug. Percent of drug released in 60 minutes was 23.92% for pure naproxen witch is increased in SDs and reached to100% for best formulations of PEG6000 and labrafil based SDs respectively, considering ratio of drug to polymers.It is concluded that dissolution of the naproxen could be improved by the solid dispersion. Although physical mixtures have increased the rate of dissolution, dissolution shows faster release from SDs which would therefore be due to formation of amorphous particles through the hot melt process which was also revealed by DSC analysis and XRD.

  8. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  9. Surface hydrophilic modification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer by poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate): Preparation, characterization, and properties studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Surface hydrophilic modified ABS was prepared by melt blending with PETG. • O= C−O groups were enriched on the surface with increasing PETG content. • Hydrophilic property of the blends was enhanced with increasing PETG content. • Phase inversion behavior of the blends occurred around intermediate composition. • Tensile and flexural strength were enhanced with increasing PETG content. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer was prepared by melt blending with poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) random copolymer as the modifier. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for surface analysis. Through the contact angle measurement, the relationship between surface properties of the ABS/PETG blends and PETG content was investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to characterize interface morphology and compatibility of the blends. The effect of PETG content on the mechanical and rheological properties was examined. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis suggested that the hydrophilic groups were enriched on the surface with increasing PETG content in the blend. The decrease of the water contact angle and the increase of the polarity for the blends with increasing PETG content indicated that the hydrophilic property of the blends was enhanced with increasing PETG content. The ABS/PETG blends were partially miscible. And the blends with ≤50 wt% PETG had better compatibility than the blends with above 50 wt% PETG. It was clear that below 50 wt% PETG, the PETG phase was dispersed in spherical form and the ABS phase was continuous. Above 50 wt% PETG, the PETG phase became continuous and the ABS phase was dispersed in irregular form. Moreover, the tensile strength and flexural strength of the blends were enhanced with

  10. Effects of pH value on composition structure and catalytic activity of Pt-SnO{sub x}/C prepared by ethylene glycol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H. [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China); Wu, F.; Wu, C. [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China); National Development Center for High Technology Green Materials, 100081 Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Pt-SnO{sub x} nanoparticles were synthesized by the ethylene glycol (EG) method in solution of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and SnCl{sub 2}, with the same concentrations of Pt and Sn, but different pH values. The pH value after the end of platinum reduction reaction was not changed any more, except that a certain amount of water was added to deposit the Pt-SnO{sub x} nanoparticles on the carbon support. The pre-nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the contents of Pt and Sn, and their catalytic activities for ethanol electrooxidation were tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The result was that the Sn contents were increasing as the Pt/Sn atomic ratios of 2.2, 2.6, 5.1, 7.4, 8.7, with the decreasing end pH values of 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and the Pt contents became less than the addition in the preparation solution while the end pH values were <5.5, but the catalytic activities for ethanol electrooxidation were not so much regularly changed. Besides, from the end pH value of 5.5 to the increasing 9.0, all the platinum nanoparticles could be completely deposited on the carbon support, under the condition that only a certain amount of water was added. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Preparation and characterization of PVDF separators for lithium ion cells using hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene grafted methoxyl polyethylene glycol (HTPB-g-MPEG) as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Niu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Hui; Chao, Chun-Ying; Wu, Li-Jun; Han, Pei-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene grafted methoxyl polyethylene glycol (HTPB-g-MPEG) with different arm length were synthesized by grafting methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)s (MPEGs, Mn = 350, 750, 1900 and 5000, respectively) to the hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) molecule using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as the coupling agent, and blended with PVDF to fabricate porous separators via phase inversion process. By measuring the composition, morphology and ion conductivity etc., the influence of HTPB-g-MPEG on structure and property of blend separators were discussed. Compared with pure PVDF separator with comparable porous structure, the adoption of HTPB-g-MPEG could not only decrease the crystallinity, but also enhance the stability of entrapped liquid electrolyte and corresponding ion conductivity. The cells assembled with such separators showed good initial discharge capacity and cyclic stability.

  12. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Shuangfeng; Li, Juan; Meng, Yanfa; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG)(2)-Lys-NHS (20 kDa). In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex virus-1. Furthermore, both PEGylated proteins showed about 60%-70% antitumor and antivirus activities, and at the same time decreased 50%-70% immunogenicity when compared with their unmodified counterparts. α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with

  13. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  14. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yao Meng,1,2 Shuangfeng Liu,1 Juan Li,3 Yanfa Meng,3 Xiaojun Zhao2,41School of Medical Laboratory Science, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; 2West China Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 3Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment Ministry of Education/Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 4Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USABackground: Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30 derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa.Methodology/principal findings: In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEGylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex

  15. A low-volume polyethylene glycol solution was associated with an increased suboptimal bowel preparation rate but had similar recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, and adenoma detection rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Hankins

    Full Text Available Low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG bowel preparations are better tolerated by patients than high-volume preparations and may achieve similar preparation quality. However, there is little data comparing their effects on a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy (because of a suboptimal preparation, procedure times, adenoma detection rate (ADR, and advanced adenoma detection rate (AADR.This is a retrospective cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies performed during a one-year period at a single academic medical center in which low-volume MoviPrep® (n = 1841 or high-volume Colyte® (n = 1337 was used. All preparations were split-dosed. Appropriate covariates were included in regression models assessing suboptimal preparation quality (fair, poor, or inadequate, procedure times, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy, ADR, and AADR.MoviPrep® was associated with an increase in having a suboptimal bowel preparation (OR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.76, but it was not associated with differences in insertion (p = 0.43, withdrawal (p = 0.22, or total procedure times (p = 0.10. The adjusted percentage with a suboptimal preparation was 11.7% for patients using MoviPrep® and 8.8% for patients using Colyte®. MoviPrep® was not associated with a significant difference in overall ADR (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.78-1.11, AADR (OR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.87-1.62, or recommendation for early repeat colonoscopy (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 0.72-1.88.MoviPrep® was associated with a small absolute increase in having a suboptimal preparation, but did not affect recommendations for an early repeat colonoscopy, procedure times, or adenoma detection rates. Mechanisms to reduce financial barriers limiting low-volume preparations should be considered because of their favorable tolerability profile.

  16. Block copolymers of poly(l-lactide) and poly(e-caprolactone) or poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by reactive extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevels, W.M.; Bernard, A.; van de Witte, P.; van de Witte, P.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw miniextruder (40 rpm, 200°). It was attempted to prepare multiblock copolymers by allowing a controlled number of transesterification reactions. Various cat-alysts (n-Bu3SnOMe, Sn(Oct)2,

  17. Preparation and characterization of photocured poly (ε-caprolactone) diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate/chitosan for photopolymerization-type 3D printing tissue engineering scaffold application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin; Chen, Freeman

    2017-12-01

    Because of its biocompatible, biodegradable and antimicrobial properties, chitosan is an attractive biomaterial for use in tissue engineering scaffolds. This work builds on previous research by incorporating 95% DD chitosan into a visible-light curable resin which is compatible with a digital light processing (DLP™) projection additive manufacturing (3D printing) system. Different concentrations of chitosan were added to a poly (ε-caprolactone)-diacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate baseline resin and the samples were extensively characterized. Thermal and mechanical analysis conformed to established scaffold requirements. L929 cells were cultured on the photo-crosslinked films and MTT assays were performed at 1, 3, and 5days to assess cytocompatibility of the resins. Data and SEM images verified a correlation between the concentration of chitosan in the photocurable resin and the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of cell cultures. Finally, the processability of the resins with the dynamic masking DLP system was demonstrated by constructing multi-layer scaffolds with actual measurements that were consistent with the CAD models. These findings encourage the use of chitosan as an additive in visible-light curable resins to improve desired properties in tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3350 is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be ... experience either of them, call your doctor immediately: diarrhea hives Polyethylene glycol 3350 may cause other side ...

  19. Preparation of exenatide-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol-brush poly(L-lysine block copolymer: potential implications on diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fei Tong Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Provincial Key Discipline of Pharmacology, Jiaxing University Medical College, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The poly(ethylene glycol-b-brush poly(l-lysine polymer (PEG-b-(PELG50-g-PLL3 was synthesized and evaluated as a nanocarrier for prolonging delivery of exenatide through the abdominal subcutaneous injection route. The isoelectric point of exenatide was 4.86, and exenatide could combine with PEG-b-(PELG50-g-PLL3 polymers via electrostatic interactions at pH 7.4. This polymer was a good candidate for achieving prolonged drug delivery for exenatide, considering its high molecular weight. Besides the physicochemical characterization of the polymer, in vitro and in vivo applications were researched as a sustained exenatide delivery system. In the in vitro release research, 20.16%–76.88% of total exenatide was released from the PEG-b-(PELG50-g-PLL3 polymer within 7 days. The synthesized block-brush polymers and exenatide–block-brush polymers were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle size instrument, and scanning electron microscopy. The best formulation was selected for in vivo experimentation to achieve blood glucose control in diabetic rat models using free exenatide as the control. The hypoglycemic action of the formulation following subcutaneous injection in diabetic rats lasted 7 days, and the results indicated that exenatide–block-brush polymers demonstrate enhanced long-acting hypoglycemic action. Besides the hypoglycemic action, exenatide–block-brush polymers significantly alleviated diabetic nephropathy via improving renal function, decreasing oxidative stress injury, decreasing urinary albumin excretion rate, mitigating albumin/creatinine ratio, reducing blood lipids, abating kidney index, weakening apoptosis, and downregulating expression of connective

  20. Preparation and characterization of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone micelles for the solubilization and in vivo delivery of luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu JF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Feng Qiu,1 Xiang Gao,1,2 Bi-Lan Wang,1 Xia-Wei Wei,1 Ma-Ling Gou,1 Ke Men,1 Xing-Yu Liu,1 Gang Guo,1 Zhi-Yong Qian,1 Mei-Juan Huang1 1Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital and Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical School and Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Luteolin (Lu is one of the flavonoids with anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its use clinically. In this work, we used monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles to encapsulate Lu by a self-assembly method, creating a water-soluble Lu/MPEG-PCL micelle. These micelles had a mean particle size of 38.6 ± 0.6 nm (polydispersity index = 0.16 ± 0.02, encapsulation efficiency of 98.32% ± 1.12%, and drug loading of 3.93% ± 0.25%. Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles could slowly release Lu in vitro. Encapsulation of Lu in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the half-life (t½; 152.25 ± 49.92 versus [vs] 7.16 ± 1.23 minutes, P = 0.007, area under the curve (0–t (2914.05 ± 445.17 vs 502.65 ± 140.12 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, area under the curve (0–∞ (2989.03 ± 433.22 vs 503.81 ± 141.41 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, and peak concentration (92.70 ± 11.61 vs 38.98 ± 7.73 mg/L, P = 0.003 of Lu when the drug was intravenously administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Also, Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles maintained the cytotoxicity of Lu on 4T1 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 6.4 ± 2.30 µg/mL and C-26 colon carcinoma cells (IC50 = 12.62 ± 2.17 µg/mL in vitro. These data suggested that encapsulation of Lu into MPEG-PCL micelles created an aqueous formulation of Lu with potential anticancer effect. Keywords: luteolin, micelle, MPEG-PCL, cancer therapy

  1. An X-band Co2+ EPR study of Zn1-xCoxO (x=0.005-0.1) nanoparticles prepared by chemical hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol and denaturated alcohol at 5 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.; Andronenko, S. I.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Chess, Jordan; Punnoose, A.

    2015-11-01

    EPR investigations on two types of dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) ZnO nanoparticles doped with 0.5-10% Co2+ ions, prepared by two chemical hydrolysis methods, using: (i) diethylene glycol ((CH2CH2OH)2O) (NC-rod-like samples), and (ii) denatured ethanol (CH3CH2OH) solutions (QC-spherical samples), were carried out at X-band (9.5 GHz) at 5 K. The analysis of EPR data for NC samples revealed the presence of several types of EPR lines: (i) two types, intense and weak, of high-spin Co2+ ions in the samples with Co concentration >0.5%; (ii) surface oxygen vacancies, and (iii) a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line. QC samples exhibit an intense FMR line and an EPR line due to high-spin Co2+ ions. FMR line is more intense, than the corresponding line exhibited by NC samples. These EPR spectra varied for sample with different doping concentrations. The magnetic states of these samples as revealed by EPR spectra, as well as the origin of ferromagnetism DMS samples are discussed.

  2. Preparation and characterization of ibuprofen-loaded microspheres consisting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (D,L-lactide) blends or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and gelatin composites for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidone, Juliana; Melo, Ana Paula P. [Laboratorio de Farmacotecnica, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Bazzo, Giovana C. [Grupo de Estudos em Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carmignan, Francoise [Laboratorio de Farmacotecnica, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Soldi, Marli S.; Pires, Alfredo T.N. [Grupo de Estudos em Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); Lemos-Senna, Elenara [Laboratorio de Farmacotecnica, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: lemos@ccs.ufsc.br

    2009-03-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer that has been used to obtain polymer-based drug carriers. However, due to the high crystallinity degree of this polymer, drug release from P(3HB) microspheres frequently occurs at excessive rates. In this study, two strategies for prolonging ibuprofen release from P(3HB)-based microspheres were tested: blending with poly(D,L-lactide)-b-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-PLA); and obtaining composite particles with gelatin (GEL). SEM micrographs showed particles that were spherical and had a rough surface. A slight decrease of the crystallinity degree of P(3HB) was observed only in the DSC thermogram obtained from unloaded-microspheres prepared from 1:1 P(3HB):mPEG-PLA blend. For IBF-loaded microspheres, a reduction of around 10 deg. C in the melting temperature of P(3HB) was observed, indicating that the crystalline structure of the polymer was affected in the presence of the drug. DSC studies also yielded evidence of the presence of a molecular dispersion coexisting with a crystalline dispersion in the drug in the matrix. Similar results were obtained from X-ray diffractograms. In spite of 1:1 mPEG-PLA:P(3HB) blends having contributed to the reduction of the burst effect, a more controlled drug release was provided by the use of the 3:1 P(3HB):mPEGPLA blend. This result indicated that particle hydration played an important role in the drug release. On the other hand, the preparation of P(3HB):GEL composite microspheres did not allow control of the IBF release.

  3. Preparation and characterization of ibuprofen-loaded microspheres consisting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (D,L-lactide) blends or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and gelatin composites for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidone, Juliana; Melo, Ana Paula P.; Bazzo, Giovana C.; Carmignan, Francoise; Soldi, Marli S.; Pires, Alfredo T.N.; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2009-01-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer that has been used to obtain polymer-based drug carriers. However, due to the high crystallinity degree of this polymer, drug release from P(3HB) microspheres frequently occurs at excessive rates. In this study, two strategies for prolonging ibuprofen release from P(3HB)-based microspheres were tested: blending with poly(D,L-lactide)-b-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-PLA); and obtaining composite particles with gelatin (GEL). SEM micrographs showed particles that were spherical and had a rough surface. A slight decrease of the crystallinity degree of P(3HB) was observed only in the DSC thermogram obtained from unloaded-microspheres prepared from 1:1 P(3HB):mPEG-PLA blend. For IBF-loaded microspheres, a reduction of around 10 deg. C in the melting temperature of P(3HB) was observed, indicating that the crystalline structure of the polymer was affected in the presence of the drug. DSC studies also yielded evidence of the presence of a molecular dispersion coexisting with a crystalline dispersion in the drug in the matrix. Similar results were obtained from X-ray diffractograms. In spite of 1:1 mPEG-PLA:P(3HB) blends having contributed to the reduction of the burst effect, a more controlled drug release was provided by the use of the 3:1 P(3HB):mPEGPLA blend. This result indicated that particle hydration played an important role in the drug release. On the other hand, the preparation of P(3HB):GEL composite microspheres did not allow control of the IBF release

  4. Administration of olive oil followed by a low volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution improves patient satisfaction with right-side colonic cleansing over administration of the conventional volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Evren; Guveli, Hakan; Yasar, Bulent; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Ince, Ali Tuzun; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Ali Remzi; Kurdas, Oya Ovunc

    2009-09-01

    Proper bowel cleansing before colonoscopy is essential for satisfactory evaluation of the colon. The required consumption of a large volume of salty-tasting liquid, 4 L of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS), is the primary limitation to achieving this goal. To achieve better patient satisfaction with efficient bowel cleansing, we compared the effects of the conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS with those of a low volume (2 L) in combination with pretreatment using different laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) and olive oil. Randomized, controlled study. A single research hospital. Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy. A total of 120 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 different preparation regimens: 39 patients were prepared with a conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS (Preparation [Prep] 1), and the remaining patients were prepared with a lower volume (2 L) of PEG-ELS and pretreatment with a laxative, either 15 g of magnesium hydroxide (40 patients, Prep 2) or 60 mL of olive oil (41 patients, Prep 3) 3 hours before PEG-ELS administration. The primary outcome was the efficacy of colonic cleansing on the left and right sides. Secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction and side effects. The olive oil regimen (Prep 3) resulted in significantly more adequate bowel cleansing of the right colon than administration of the conventional volume of PEG-ELS (Prep 1) and the magnesium hydroxide (Prep 2) regimen (97.6% vs 74.5% and 72.5%, respectively, P = .007). However, this difference was not observed in the left colon (91.5%, 85.5%, and 91.8% for Preps 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P = .776). When asked, 38 patients (95%) taking Prep 2, 35 patients (85.3%) taking Prep 3, and only 11 patients (28.2%) taking Prep 1 preferred the same preparation regimen if they required a future colonoscopy (P =.006), based on ease of use and taste. The side effects were comparable in each group. The limitations of this study include the relatively

  5. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  6. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbad S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarra Abbad,1,2 Cheng Wang,1 Ayman Yahia Waddad,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jianping Zhou11Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Abou Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, AlgeriaAbstract: Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH, based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate (HA-PBCA block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA “plain” nanoparticle (MH-PNs and HA-PBCA/TPGS “mixed” nanoparticles (MH-MNs were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice

  7. Polyaniline prepared in ethylene glycol or glycerol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konyushenko, Elena; Reynaud, S.; Pellerin, V.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 9 (2011), s. 1900-1907 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.438, year: 2011

  8. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-12

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  9. Impact of Glycolate Anion on Aqueous Corrosion in DWPF and Downstream Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-20

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The SRS liquid waste contractor requested an assessment of the impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system since this impact had not been previously evaluated. A literature review revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion. For the proprietary coating systems applied to the DWPF concrete, glycolic acid was deemed compatible since the coatings were resistant to more aggressive chemistries than glycolic acid. Additionally, similar coating resins showed acceptable resistance to glycolic acid.

  10. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  11. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H 2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O 2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A

  12. Preparation and antitumor evaluation of self-assembling oleanolic acid-loaded Pluronic P105/D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate mixed micelles for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hao Wu,1–3 Qingxiang Zhong,1,2 Rongling Zhong,4 Houcai Huang,4 Zhi Xia,4 Zhongcheng Ke,1,5 Zhenhai Zhang,1 Jie Song,1,2 Xiaobin Jia1–3 1Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Province Academy of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 3College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, 4Laboratory Animal Center, Jiangsu Province Academy of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 5College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huangshan University, Huangshan, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA is a triterpenoid found in various fruits and vegetables and used in traditional Chinese medicine. OA plays a crucial role in the treatment of several cancers, but poor water solubility, low permeability, and significant efflux have limited its widespread clinical use. Vitamin E-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (vitamin E-TPGS and Pluronic P105 were used to improve the solubility and permeability and to decrease the efflux of OA. OA-loaded mixed micelles were prepared by ethanol thin-film hydration. The physicochemical properties of the micelles, including zeta potential, morphology, particle size, solubility, drug loading, and drug entrapment efficiency were characterized. OA release from micelles was slower than that from the free drug system. OA uptake by A549 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells was enhanced by the micelles. A tumor model was established by injecting A549 cells into nude mice. In vivo imaging showed that OA-micelles could accumulate in the tumors of nude mice. Additionally, smaller tumor size and increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were observed in OA-micelle-treated mice, indicating that OA-micelles are more effective than free OA in treating cancer. In vitro experiments were performed using two NSCLC cell

  13. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  14. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  15. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  16. Development of CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids for efficient energy management: Assessment of potential for energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Zennifer, M.; Manikandan, S.; Suganthi, K.S.; Leela Vinodhan, V.; Rajan, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids prepared and characterized. • Maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 14.1% at 50 °C for 1 vol% nanofluid. • Heat transfer performance in correspondence with improved transport properties. • 11.8% enhancement in heat transfer rate for 1 vol% nanofluid. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) plays an important role as coolant in sub-artic and artic regions owing to its low freezing point. However one of the limitations of ethylene glycol for energy management is its low thermal conductivity, which can be improved by addition of nanoparticles. In the present work, cupric oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized followed by dispersion in ethylene glycol through extended probe ultrasonication without addition of chemical dispersing agent. Temperature dependency of thermal conductivity of 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid exhibited a minimum at a critical temperature corresponding to lower thickness of interfacial layers and negligible Brownian motion. The influence of liquid layering on thermal conductivity was predominant at temperatures below critical temperature leading to higher thermal conductivity at lower temperature. Brownian motion-induced microconvection resulted in thermal conductivity increase with temperature above the critical temperature. About 14.1% enhancement in thermal conductivity was obtained at 50 °C for 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid. The viscosity of CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid was lower than the viscosity of ethylene glycol at temperatures below 50 °C and 120 °C for 1 vol% and 0.5 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids. Our data reveal that the CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluids are better coolants than ethylene glycol for transient cooling under constant heat flux conditions with 11.8% enhancement in heat transfer rate for 1 vol% CuO–ethylene glycol nanofluid. Hence the use of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is a promising approach for energy management.

  17. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  18. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Takabe, Tetsuo; Akazawa, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic transformation of glycolate to glycine occurring in photosynthesizing cells of Chromatium was investigated by the radioisotopic technique and by amino acid analysis. By analyzing the distribution of radiocarbon upon feeding (1- 14 C) glycolate, (2- 14 C) glyoxylate and (1- 14 C) glycine to bacterial cells, it was demonstrated that glycolate is converted to glycine via glyoxylate, and both glycolate and glycine are excreted extracellularly. Although the formation of serine was barely detected by the above two techniques in both N 2 and O 2 atmospheres, it was found that 14 CO 2 is evolved quite markedly from both (1- 14 C) glycolate and (1- 14 C) glycine fed to the Chromatium cells. Analytical results of transient changes in amino acid compositions under atmospheric changes of N 2 →O 2 and by the addition of exogenous glycolate in N 2 confirm the notion that glycolate is converted to glycine. Acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) appear to take part in glycine formation as amino donors. The formation of glycine from glycolate in a N 2 atmosphere suggests that an unknown glycolate dehydrogenation reaction may operate in the overall process. (auth.)

  19. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  20. Literature Review On Impact Of Glycolate On The 2H Evaporator And The Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations (le) 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  2. Preparation and evaluation of tolmetin sodium conventional and sustained-release suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    B., Baloǧlu; O., Kirkaǧaçhoǧlu

    2002-01-01

    Conventional suppositories of tolmetin sodium were prepared by using two different types of Witepsol as an oily base and two different ratios of polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycol 4000 as an water-soluble base. In addition, sustained- release suppositories were prepared by adding Eudragit L-100 ta the suppositories. The effects of the suppository base and the ratios of the polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycols 4000 on the in vitro release characteristics were investigated. T...

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  4. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  5. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  6. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  7. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethylene Glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene Glycol has many uses and are also used as antifreeze and deicers, as solvents, humectants, as chemical intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as components of many products such as brake fluids, lubricants, inks,and lacquers.

  8. Intensification of ethylene glycol production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisutwattanaa, Apiwit; Frauzem, Rebecca; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to generate an alternative design for ethylene glycol production process focusing on a reduction of operating cost and emissions. To achieve this, the phenomena-based method for process intensification was applied. 3 stages of process intensification were performed. First, the base......-case design was obtained, resulting in the production of ethylene glycol via two steps: ethylene oxidation synthesis followed by ethylene oxide hydration to produce ethylene glycol. Feasibility of the design was verified and the process was rigorously designed using a computer process simulation program...... solutions. As the result of intensification method, membrane separation was suggested and applied to the design. With the operation of the new equipment, the ethylene glycol production process was improved for 54.51 percent in terms of energy consumption....

  9. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  10. Ethylene glycol causes acyl chain disordering in liquid-crystalline, unsaturated phospholipid model membranes, as measured by 2H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, K.; Kruijff, B. de; Smaal, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    2 H NMR has been used to probe the effects of ethylene glycol at the level of the acyl chains in liposomes prepared from dioleoylphosphatidic acid or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, labeled with 2 H at the 11-position of both oleic acid chains. Increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol lead to a proportional and substantial decrease in the quadrupolar splittings, measured from the 2 H NMR spectra of both liposomal system, indicative of acyl chain disordering. (Auth.)

  11. An X-band Co{sup 2+} EPR study of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (x=0.005–0.1) nanoparticles prepared by chemical hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol and denaturated alcohol at 5 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sushil K., E-mail: skmisra@alcor.concordia.ca [Physics Department, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Andronenko, S.I. [Physics Institute, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Srinivasa Rao, S.; Chess, Jordan; Punnoose, A. [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-1570 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    EPR investigations on two types of dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) ZnO nanoparticles doped with 0.5–10% Co{sup 2+} ions, prepared by two chemical hydrolysis methods, using: (i) diethylene glycol ((CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}O) (NC-rod-like samples), and (ii) denatured ethanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) solutions (QC-spherical samples), were carried out at X-band (9.5 GHz) at 5 K. The analysis of EPR data for NC samples revealed the presence of several types of EPR lines: (i) two types, intense and weak, of high-spin Co{sup 2+} ions in the samples with Co concentration >0.5%; (ii) surface oxygen vacancies, and (iii) a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line. QC samples exhibit an intense FMR line and an EPR line due to high-spin Co{sup 2+} ions. FMR line is more intense, than the corresponding line exhibited by NC samples. These EPR spectra varied for sample with different doping concentrations. The magnetic states of these samples as revealed by EPR spectra, as well as the origin of ferromagnetism DMS samples are discussed. - Highlights: • 5 K X band Co{sup 2+} EPR investigations on QC and NC ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles. • NC and QC samples exhibited high-spin Co{sup 2+} EPR lines and ferromagnetic resonance line. • NC sample also exhibit line due surface oxygen vacancies. • FMR line is more intense in QC than that in NC samples. • Magnetic states and the origin of ferromagnetism are discussed.

  12. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) analogues for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul

    2015-01-01

    characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characterised their properties using selected MPs. Most MNGs were superior to a conventional detergent, n...

  13. Zero-order release of lysozyme from (poly)ethylene glycol)/poly(butylene terephthalate) matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Radersma, R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2000-01-01

    Protein release from a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester) multiblock copolymers, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was investigated. Lysozyme-containing PEG/PBT films and microspheres were prepared using an emulsion technique. Proteins were

  14. Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Based Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drug encapsulation efficiency and release profile of PLGA mico/nanoparticles. The current knowledge of protein instability during preparation, storage and release from PLGA micro/nanoparticles and protein stabilization approaches has also been discussed in this review. Keywords: Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), ...

  15. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavisova, Vlasta, E-mail: zavisova@saske.s [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana [Hameln, rds a.s., Horna 36, Modra (Slovakia); Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Vavra, Ivo [IEE SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fabian, Martin [IGT SAS, Watsonova 45, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Feoktystov, Artem V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); KNU, Academician Glushkov Ave. 2/1, 03187 Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS research center, Max-Planck-Str.1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  16. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana; Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Feoktystov, Artem V.; Garamus, Vasil M.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe 3 O 4 in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: → A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. → Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. → Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). → MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  17. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    . In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine specimens were...... collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG...... that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG....

  18. Unwell after drinking homemade alcohol – A case of ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Laher

    2013-06-01

    Discussion: The clinical presentation of ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning is non-specific and can be difficult to differentiate from ethanol intoxication. Homemade alcohol preparations are commonly adulterated with ethylene glycol and methanol to improve their taste and sting. Toxic alcohol analysis is not routinely carried out by most laboratory services in South Africa, and when carried out, results are only made available a few days later. A high index of suspicion coupled with early blood gas analysis and a need for prompt and effective treatment whilst awaiting toxicology analysis may limit the associated high morbidity and mortality.

  19. Assessment of Palmitoyl and Sulphate Conjugated Glycol Chitosan for Development of Polymeric Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amphiphilic copolymers are capable of forming core shell-like structures at the critical micellar concentration (CMC; hence, they can serve as drug carriers. Thus, in the present work, polymeric micelles based on novel chitosan derivative were synthesized. Methods: Block copolymer of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS was prepared by grafting palmitoyl and sulfate groups serving as hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively. Then, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture were carried out. Results: FTIR studies confirmed the formation of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture indicated CMC which lies in the range of 0.003-0.2 mg/ml. Conclusion: Therefore, our study indicated that polymeric micelles based on palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulphate could be used as a prospective carrier for water insoluble drugs.

  20. Biosynthetic mechanism of glycolate in Chromatium, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Sumio; Akazawa, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of α-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonate (α-HPMS), 2,3-epoxypropionate(glycidate), and cyanide on the photosynthetic activity of Chromatium were investigated. The α-HPMS stimulated the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in the bacterial cells in both N 2 and O 2 environments. The formation and subsequent excretion of both glycolate and glycine in the O 2 atmosphere were markedly enhanced by the HPMS. In contrast to the recent report that glycidate especially inhibits the glycolate formation in tabacco leaf disks, the authors found that it had no influence on the CO 2 fixation by Chromatium in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere, and that the synthesis and extracellular excretion of glycolate were markedly stimulated by glycidate treatment. The cyanide (0.01 - 1mM) exerted some marked inhibitory effect on the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation in N 2 . In O 2 atmosphere, the photosynthesis was stimulated by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and inhibited by it above this level. Both the incorporation of 14 CO 2 into glycolate and the total synthesis of glycolate in light were also enhanced by the 0.01 mM cyanide, and strongly inhibited above that concentration. (J.P.N.)

  1. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  2. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. III. Research on ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol for carcinogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberg, H

    1987-03-01

    Ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol were each administered once weekly subcutaneously to groups of 100 female NMRI mice at 3 dosages (30; 10 und 3 mg single dose per mouse). Tricaprylin was used as solvent. The mean total dosage per mouse was 2110.5; 707.0 and 196.2 mg for ethylene glycol and 2029.8; 671.7 and 213.3 mg for diethylene glycol. Neither ethylene glycol nor diethylene glycol induced tumors at the injection site or away from the point of administration.

  3. Monoclonal antibody to DNA containing thymine glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leadon, S A; Hanawalt, P C [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of DNA to ionizing or near ultraviolet radiation modifies thymine to form ring-saturated products. One of the major products formed is 5,6-dihydroxy-5.6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol). Thymine glycol can also be selectively formed by oxidizing DNA with OsO/sub 4/. We have isolated hybrids that produce monoclonal antibodies against thymine glycol by fusing mouse myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8-6.5.3) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with OsO/sub 4/-oxidized poly(dT) complexed with methylated bovine serum albumin. This report describes the characterization of the antibody from one hybridoma using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with both single- and double-stranded DNA treated with OsO/sub 4/, and with OsO/sub 4/-treated poly(dA-dT) and poly(dT); it did not crossreact with unmodified or apurinic DNA. It also reacted with DNA treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or with ..gamma..-rays at doses as low as 250 rad. We were able to detect 2 fmoles of thymine glycol in OsO/sub 4/-treated DNA and could quantitate 1 thymine glycol per 220000 thymines. Using the antibody and the ELISA, the formation and removal of thymine glycol was examined in cultures of African green monkey cells irradiated with 25 krad of ..gamma..-rays. The antibody reactive sites produced by irradiation (8.5 per 10/sup 6/ thymines) were efficiently removed from the cellular DNA.

  4. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  5. Ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes based on polypentafluorostyrene-b-polyether-b-polypentafluorostyrene prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja; Jannasch, P.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Novel triblock copolymers based on central poly( ethylene glycol) ( PEG) or poly( ethylene glycol-co-propylene glycol) (PEGPG) blocks with poly( pentafluorostyrene) (PFS) outer blocks were prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) with polydispersities on the order of 1.2 - 1...

  6. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  7. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  8. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  9. Enthalpy of phase transition and prediction of phase Equilibria in systems of glycols and glycol ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Esina, Zoya; Miroshnikov, Aleksandr; Korchuganova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the b...

  10. Sync-measurement experimental study of (fluoroethane + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol), (fluoroethane + dimethylether triethylene glycol) and (fluoroethane + dimethylether diethylene glycol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lejun; Zheng, Danxing; Huang, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new working pairs are proposed for absorption power cycle. • Sync-measured the solubility and absorption enthalpy data at 303.15 K. • Thermokinetic experiment is consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. - Abstract: In this work, three new working pairs, {fluoroethane (HFC161) + dimethylether tetraethylene glycol (DMETEG)}, {HFC161 + dimethylether triethylene glycol (DMETrEG)} and {HFC161 + dimethylether diethylene glycol (DMEDEG)}, are proposed for absorption power cycle. The working pairs are assessed from both thermodynamics and thermokinetic perspective. By combining the microcalorimetry and isothermal synthesis methods, an experimental apparatus was developed to simultaneously obtain the microcalorimetry and vapour–liquid equilibrium data. Then, the solubility and absorption enthalpy data of the three new working pairs were sync-measured at 303.15 K by this sync-measurement experimental apparatus. The thermodynamics data indicated that the affinities of the three working pairs increased from strong to weak in the following order: HFC161 + DMETEG > HFC161 + DMETrEG > HFC161 + DMEDEG. Then the thermokinetic parameters of the absorption rate constant and activation energy were analysed based on the thermokinetic experiment at (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. As a result, the affinities of the three working pairs are consistent with the previous thermodynamics study. In addition, the intermolecular interactions within the three systems were analysed according to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds; overall, the (HFC161 + DMETEG) system is considered to be the potential option for applications.

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol) grafted chitosan as new copolymer material for oral delivery of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Thanh Ha; Thanh Le, Thi Nu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme of grafting poly (ethylene glycol) onto chitosan was proposed in this study to give new material for delivery of insulin over oral pathway. First, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) amine (mPEGa MW 2000) were grafted onto chitosan (CS) through multiples steps to synthesize the grafting copolymer PEG-g-CS. After each synthesis step, chitosan and its derivatives were characterized by FTIR, "1H NMR Then, insulin loaded PEG-g-CS nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking of CS with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Same insulin loaded nanoparticles using unmodified chitosan were also prepared in order to compare with the modified ones. Results showed better protecting capacity of the synthesized copolymer over original CS. CS nanoparticles (10 nm of size) were gel like and high sensible to temperature as well as acidic environment while PEG-g-CS nanoparticles (200 nm of size) were rigid and more thermo and pH stable. (paper)

  12. Maltose Neopentyl Glycol-3 (MNG-3) Analogues for Membrane Protein Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul; Gotfryd, Kamil; Lee, Ho Jin; Go, Juyeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Loland, Claus J.; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are typically used to both extract membrane proteins (MPs) from the lipid bilayer and maintain them in solution. However, MPs encapsulated in detergent micelles are often prone to denaturation and aggregation. Thus, development of novel agents with enhanced stabilization characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characte...

  13. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  14. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  16. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    manicuring preparations" product category. This ingredient, with an oral LD50 in rats of 32.77 g/kg, has low acute toxicity. Rats given up to 50,000 ppm PEG-4 in drinking water for 5 days showed no permanent signs of toxicity. Rats given daily oral doses up to 2 g/kg/day of PEG-4 for 33 days showed no signs of toxicity. Undiluted PEG-4 produced only minimal injury to the rabbit eye. PEG-4 was not mutagenic in Ames-type assays, did not induce chromosome aberration in an in vivo bone marrow assay, and was negative for genotoxicity in a dominant lethal assay using rats. Other PEG compounds, which have previously been reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, e.g., PEG-6, are mixtures that likely include Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4, so these data were also considered. PEG-6 and PEG-8 were not dermal irritants in several rabbit studies. PEG-2 Stearate had a potential for slight irritation in rabbits but was not a sensitizer in guinea pigs. PEG-2 Cocamine was a moderate irritant in rabbits, producing severe erythema. In one dermal study, PEG-2 Cocamine was determined to be corrosive to rabbit skin, causing eschar and necrosis. PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused little to no ocular irritation. PEG-8 was not mutagenic or genotoxic in a Chinese hamster ovary assay, a sister-chromatid exchange assay, and in an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. In clinical studies on normal skin, PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused mild cases of immediate hypersensitivity; PEG-8 was not a sensitizer; PEG-2 Stearate was not an irritant, a sensitizer, or a photosensitizer; and PEG-6 Stearate was not an irritant or sensitizer. In damaged skin, cases of systemic toxicity and contact dermatitis in burn patients were attributed to a PEG-based topical ointment. The CIR Expert Panel acknowledged the lack of dermal sensitization data for Triethylene Glycol and dermal irritation and sensitization data for PEG-4. That PEG-6, PEG-8, and PEG-2 Stearate were not irritants or sensitizers suggested that Triethylene Glycol

  18. Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, Kristin; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-01

    In this study, protein diffusion through swollen hydrogel networks prepared from end-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) was investigated. Hydrogels were prepared via photopolymerization from PEG-DA macromonomer solutions of two molecular weights, 4600 Da and 8000 Da, with three initial solid contents: 20, 33 and 50 wt/wt% PEG. Diffusion coefficients for myoglobin traveling across the hydrogel membrane were determined for all PEG network compositions. The diffusion coefficient depended on PEG molecular weight and initial solid content, with the slowest diffusion occurring through lower molecular weight, high-solid-content networks (D gel = 0.16 ± 0.02 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ) and the fastest diffusion occurring through higher molecular weight, low-solid-content networks (D gel = 11.05 ± 0.43 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 ). Myoglobin diffusion coefficients increased linearly with the increase of water content within the hydrogels. The permeability of three larger model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G) through PEG(8000) hydrogel membranes was also examined, with the observation that globular molecules as large as 10.7 nm in hydrodynamic diameter can diffuse through the PEG network. Protein diffusion coefficients within the PEG hydrogels ranged from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficients in free water. Network defects were determined to be a significant contributing factor to the observed protein diffusion.

  19. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  20. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Neurologie, Lille (France); Sengler, C. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Guadeloupe (France); Benabdallah, E. [CHU Pointe a Pitre, Service de Radiologie, Guadeloupe (France); Colombani, S. [Centre d' Imagerie medicale, Martinique (France)

    2005-02-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  1. Bipallidal haemorrhage after ethylene glycol intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D.; Policard, J.; Rigal, M.; Sengler, C.; Benabdallah, E.; Colombani, S.

    2005-01-01

    Acute or subacute bipallidal lesion, an uncommon radiological feature produced by metabolic disorders or poisoning, has never been attributed to ethylene glycol (EG) intoxication. This 50-year-old Afro-Caribbean alcoholic man had unexplained loss of consciousness. Blood tests showed osmolar gap. Drug screening was positive for EG at 6.06 mmol/l. Brain CT revealed bilateral pallidal haemorrhage. Pallidal haematoma, which could be related to deposition of oxalate crystals issued from EG metabolism, should lead to toxicological screening. (orig.)

  2. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  3. Silver micro- and nano-particles obtained using different glycols as reducing agents and measurement of their conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudir Naïma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver micro- and nano-particles for the preparation of conductive pastes for the metallization of solar cells was realized by chemical reduction in the presence and absence of poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor in the presence of three polyols (ethylene glycol, di-ethylene glycol and propylene glycol tested at experimental temperatures near their boiling points. Six samples were obtained by this protocol. Three silver powders obtained without the use of PVP have a metallic luster appearance; however, the samples produced using an excess of PVP are in the form of stable colloidal dispersions of silver nano-particles. Structural characterizations of samples using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer show a good crystallinity and spherical morphology. From DSC and TGA analyses, it was noticed that all the nano-silvers present in the colloidal suspension have the same thermal behavior.

  4. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor L. H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G. P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes

  5. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief lit...

  6. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A; Kruse, Andrew C; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G; Guan, Lan; Gether, Ulrik; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces of native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as manifested in multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied.

  7. Studies on polyethylene glycol coating on NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadatare, M.R.; Khot, V.M.; Salunkhe, A.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Pawar, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by the combustion method and these nanoparticles were successfully coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the possible biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, tissue repair, magnetic fluid hyperthermia etc. The structural and magnetic characterizations of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were carried out by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques, respectively. The morphology of the uncoated and coated nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The existence of PEG layer on NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of nanocrystalline NiFe 2 O 4 by the combustion method. ► Magnetic properties of the NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles at room temperature. ► Coating of NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles by Polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  8. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  9. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  10. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  11. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  12. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  13. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  14. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dot composite solid films exhibiting intense and tunable blue–red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanling; Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Jiaqing; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dots (PEG/CQDs) composite solid films exhibiting strong and tunable blue–red emission were prepared. Successful preparation of tunable emitting CQDs solid films can extend the application of carbon quantum dots in photoelectric devices. • The mechanism of the tunable emission from the PEG/CQDs composite solid films was discussed. • On the basis of the characteristics of the PL from solid films in this work, the complex PL origins of CQDs were further defined. The PL mechanism provides insights into the fluorescence mechanism of CQDs and may promotes their applications. • Poly(ethylene glycol); carbon quantum dots; Strong and tunable blue-red emission; The fluorescent quantum yield of 12.6%. - Abstract: Although carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess excellent luminescence properties, it is a challenge to apply water-soluble CQDs to tunable luminescent devices. Herein, quaternary CQDs are incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) to produce poly(ethylene glycol)/CQD composite solid films which exhibit strong and tunable blue–red emission. The fluorescent quantum yield reaches 12.6% which is comparable to that of many liquid CQDs and the photoluminescence characteristics are determined to elucidate the fluorescence mechanism. The CQD solid films with tunable optical properties bode well for photoelectric devices especially displays

  16. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  18. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosabal Cordovi, Ursula M; Fonseca Gola, Antonio; Cordovi Velazquez, Juan M; Morales Torres, Galina

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  19. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of

  20. Hydrolytically and reductively degradable high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol)s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braunová, Alena; Pechar, Michal; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 24 (2007), s. 2642-2653 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable * drug delivery systems * gene delivery vectors * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2007

  1. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycol stabilized magnetic nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of xylenol orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ikram; Ali, Farman; Ali, Zarshad; Humayun, Muhammad; wahab, Zain Ul

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have successfully prepared ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as photocatalysts via co-precipitation method using triethylene glycol as a stabilizing agent. The resultant nanoparticles were annealed at 400 °C and then acid etched and surface functionalized with 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl amine (APTES). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to characterize these magnetic photocatalysts. XRD patterns revealed that the size of annealed and functionalized ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles falls in the range of 23.3 and 13.9 nm, respectively. The optical band gaps of the magnetic photocatalysts were calculated from UV–Visible absorption spectra using Tauc plots. The band gap of the ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst in acidic and basic medium was 2.47 and 2.7 eV, respectively. The performance of the magnetic photocatalysts was evaluated for xylenol orange (XO) degradation. The degradation rates of XO dye for the blank, annealed and functionalized photocatalysts at pH = 4 were 76%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. In addition, the influence of important parameters such as contact time, pH, catalyst, and dye dose were also investigated for all the three photocatalysts. The applied kinetics models demonstrated that the degradation followed pseudo 1st order.

  3. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  4. Multiarm-polyethylene glycol-polyglutamic acid peptide dendrimer: Design, synthesis, and dissolving thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Fei; Lü, Shaoyu; Gao, Chunmei; Yang, Jiandong; Yan, Xiang; Li, Tao; Wen, Na; Huang, Mengjie; Liu, Mingzhu

    2018-06-01

    Thrombotic events affect many individuals in a number of ways, all of which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Nattokinase (NK), as a novel thrombolytic drug, has been used for thrombolytic therapy. It not only possesses plasminogen activator activity, but also directly digests fibrin through limited proteolysis. However, it may undergo inactivation and denaturation in the harsh external environment. In this study, a multiarm-polyethylene glycol-polyglutamic acid peptide dendrimer was fabricated and used as a carrier for NK protection and delivery. Different arm numbers of polyethylene glycol-polyglutamic acid peptide dendrimers (x-PEG(G 3 ) x , x = 2, 4, 6, 8) were designed, prepared, and characterized by 1 H NMR and FTIR. Then, x-PEG(G 3 ) x were loaded with NK to form nanocomposites. Their size and morphology were determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Enzyme activity was evaluated via UV-Vis absorbance spectra, fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and zeta potential measurements. The study reveals that the obtained x-PEG(G 3 ) x /NK nanocomposites possess high enzyme activity. In addition, the nanocomposites show increased viability of rat macrophage cells, and excellent thrombolysis ability in vitro and in vivo. This work establishes a multiarm-polyethylene glycol-polyglutamic acid peptide dendrimer with potential application in NK carrier and thrombolytic therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1687-1696, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Two new barium-copper-ethylene glycol complexes: Synthesis and structure of BaCu(C2H6O2)n(C2H4O2)2 (N = 3, 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, C.P.; Page, C.J.; Torardi, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Two crystalline barium-copper-ethylene glycol complexes have been isolated and structurally characterized by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The solution-phase complex has also been investigated as a molecular precursor for use in sol-gel synthesis of high-temperature superconductors. The first crystalline form has the formula BaCu(C 2 H 6 O 2 ) 6 (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) 2 (1) and has been isolated directly from ethylene glycol solutions of the barium-copper salt. In this molecule, copper is coordinated to the four xygens of two ethylene glycolate ligands in a nearly square planar geometry. Barium is coordinated by three bidentate ethylene glycol molecules and three monodentate ethylene glycol molecules; the 9-fold coordination resembles a trigonal prism with each rectangular face capped. Copper and barium moieties do not share any ethylene glycol or glycolate oxygens; they are found by hydrogen bonding to form linear chains. The second crystal type has formula BaCu(C 2 H 6 O 2 ) 3 (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) 2 (2). It was prepared via crystallization of the mixed-metal alkoxide from an ethylene glycol/methyl ethyl ketone solution. As for 1, the copper is coordinated to four oxygen atoms of two ethylene glycolate ligands in a nearly square planar arrangement. Barium is 8-coordinate in a distorted cubic geometry. It is coordinated to three bidentate ethylene glycol molecules and shares two of the oxygen atoms bound to the copper (one from each coordinated ethylene glycol) to form a discrete molecular barium-copper complex

  6. Assessment of a method for measuring serum thyroxine by radioimmunoassay, with use of polyethylene glycol precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, N.R.; Kennedy, C.

    1977-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of a new thyroxine radioimmunoassay kit (Abbott) in which polyethylene glycol is used to separate bound from free hormone. Mean serum thyroxine was 88 +- 15 (+-SD) μg/liter for 96 normal persons. Results for hypothyroid and hyperthyroid persons were clearly separated from those for normal individuals. Women taking oral contraceptive preparations showed variable increases in their serum thyroxine values. The coefficient of variation ranged from 1 to 3% within assay and from 5.4 to 11% among different assays. Excellent parallelism was demonstrated between thyroxine values estimated by this method and those obtained either by competitive protein binding or by a separate radioimmunoassay for the hormone

  7. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are attractive as excipients in the manufacture of drug products because they are water soluble and poorly immunogenic. They are used in various pharmaceutical preparations. However, because of their terminal hydroxyl groups, PEGs can participate in esterification reac......, it is important to be aware of this drug-excipient interaction, as it can reduce the shelf-life of a low-average molecular weight PEG formulation considerably. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2424-2433, 2014....

  8. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol) chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained had controlled sizes and narrow size distributions. They also showed high dispersion stability owing to the presence of PEG tethering chains on the surface. The same strategy should also be applicable to the fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots and inorganic porous nanoparticles. The preparation of nanoparticles in situ, i.e. in the presence of acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, gave the most densely packed polymer layer on the nanoparticle surface; this was not observed when coating preformed nanoparticles. PEG/polyamine block copolymer was more functional on the metal surface than PEG/polyamine graft copolymer, as confirmed by angle-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We successfully solubilized the C 60 fullerene into aqueous media using acetal-PEG-b-PAMA. A C 60 /acetal-PEG-b-PAMA complex with a size below 5 nm was obtained by dialysis. The preparation and characterization of these materials are described in this review. (topical review)

  9. Fabrication of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcontainers using solvent evaporation with polydimethylsiloxane stencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Min; Byul Lee, Han; Kim, Jong Uk; Kim, Gyu Man

    2017-12-01

    We present a fabrication method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils and solvent evaporation to prepare microcontainers with a desired shape made from a biodegradable polymer. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used for preparing microcontainers, but most polymers are applicable in the proposed method in which solvent evaporation is used to construct microstructures in confined spaces in the stencil. Microcontainers with various shapes were fabricated by controlling the stencil geometry. Furthermore, a porous structure could be prepared in a micromembrane using water porogen. The porous structure was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and mass transfer across the porous membrane was examined using a fluorescent dye. The flexibility of the PDMS stencil allowed the fabrication of microcontainers on a curved surface. Finally, it was demonstrated that microcontainers can be used to contain a localized cell culture. The viability and morphology of cultured cells were observed using confocal microscopy over a period of 3 weeks.

  10. Alkyne- and 1,6-elimination- succinimidyl carbonate – terminated heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) for reversible "Click" PEGylation

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yumei; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2010-01-01

    A new heterobifunctional (succinimidyl carbonate, SC)-activated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a reversible 1,6-elimination linker and a terminal alkyne for "click" chemistry was synthesized with high efficiency and low polydispersity. The α-alkyne-ω-hydroxyl PEG was first prepared using trimethylsilyl-2-propargyl alcohol as an initiator for ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide followed by mild deprotection with tetrabutylammonium fluoride. The hydroxy end was then modified with di...

  11. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  12. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  13. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  14. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Key words: Acetone, tannin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). ... hydrolysable tannins may occur in the same plant. ..... Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 38: 421-464. Cornell. (2000). Tannins: Chemical analysis.

  15. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P encopresis.

  16. Improved Morphology and Efficiency of n-i-p Planar Perovskite Solar Cells by Processing with Glycol Ether Additives

    KAUST Repository

    Ugur, Esma

    2017-07-31

    Planar perovskite solar cells can be prepared without high temperature processing steps typically associated with mesoporous device architectures; however, their efficiency has been lower and producing high quality perovskite films in planar devices has been challenging. Here, we report a modified two-step interdiffusion protocol suitable to prepare pin-hole free perovskite films with greatly improved morphology. This is achieved by simple addition of small amounts of glycol ethers to the preparation protocol. We unravel the impact the glycol ethers have on the perovskite film formation using in-situ UV-Vis absorbance and GIWAXS experiments. From these experiments we conclude: addition of glycol ethers changes the lead iodide to perovskite conversion dynamics and enhances the conversion efficiency, resulting in more compact polycrystalline films, and it creates micrometer-sized perovskite crystals vertically-aligned across the photoactive layer. Consequently, the average photovoltaic performance increases from 13.5% to 15.9% and reproduciability is enhanced, specifically when 2-methoxyethanol is used as additive.

  17. Improved Morphology and Efficiency of n-i-p Planar Perovskite Solar Cells by Processing with Glycol Ether Additives

    KAUST Repository

    Ugur, Esma; Sheikh, Arif D.; Munir, Rahim; Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Barrit, Dounya; Amassian, Aram; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2017-01-01

    Planar perovskite solar cells can be prepared without high temperature processing steps typically associated with mesoporous device architectures; however, their efficiency has been lower and producing high quality perovskite films in planar devices has been challenging. Here, we report a modified two-step interdiffusion protocol suitable to prepare pin-hole free perovskite films with greatly improved morphology. This is achieved by simple addition of small amounts of glycol ethers to the preparation protocol. We unravel the impact the glycol ethers have on the perovskite film formation using in-situ UV-Vis absorbance and GIWAXS experiments. From these experiments we conclude: addition of glycol ethers changes the lead iodide to perovskite conversion dynamics and enhances the conversion efficiency, resulting in more compact polycrystalline films, and it creates micrometer-sized perovskite crystals vertically-aligned across the photoactive layer. Consequently, the average photovoltaic performance increases from 13.5% to 15.9% and reproduciability is enhanced, specifically when 2-methoxyethanol is used as additive.

  18. Development of controlled release formulations of azadirachtin-A employing poly(ethylene glycol) based amphiphilic copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Singh, Manish K; Singh, Mukesh K; Pandey, Alka; Pandey, Ravi P

    2010-05-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of azadirachtin-A, a bioactive constituent derived from the seed of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and laboratory synthesized poly ethylene glycol-based amphiphilic copolymers. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol and various dimethyl esters, which self assemble into nano micellar aggregates in aqueous media, have been synthesized. The kinetics of azadirachtin-A, release in water from the different formulations was studied. Release from the commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulation was faster than the other CR formulations. The rate of release of encapsulated azadirachtin-A from nano micellar aggregates is reduced by increasing the molecular weight of PEG. The diffusion exponent (n value) of azadirachtin-A, in water ranged from 0.47 to 1.18 in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (t(1/2)) of 3.05 to 42.80 days in water from different matrices. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of azadirachtin-A can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period.

  19. Effect of monobutylether ethylene glycol on Mg/Al layered double hydroxide: a physicochemical and conductivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, Maria Joao; Matos, Bruno Ribeiro de; Ntais, Spyridon; Coral Fonseca, Fabio; Tavares, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Mg–Al hydrotalcite-like compounds with OH − ions intercalated in the gallery and modified with monobutylether ethylene glycol (mbeeg) were prepared from Mg 6 Al 2 (CO 3 )(OH) 16 ·4H 2 O by the reconstruction method. The effect of the ethylene glycol, a moderate surfactant, on the textural properties and on the vapor water sorption of the layered double hydroxides was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen and water sorption techniques. The ion conductivity of the samples was measured at 98 % RH up to 180 °C. The compounds are formed by nanoplatelets with a lateral size inferior to 20 nm. The addition of the ethylene glycol was found to increase the specific surface area, total pore volume, and water sorption capacity of the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide. However, it also decreased the average pore diameter, and the ion conductivity of the ethylene glycol modified layered double hydroxide was lower than expected based on the samples’ specific surface area and water content.

  20. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  1. In situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)- Poly(L -lactide) hydrogels via michael addition: Mechanical properties, degradation, and protein release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Chemically crosslinked hydrogels are prepared at remarkably low macromonomer concentrations from 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) star block copolymers bearing acrylate end groups (PEG-(PLLAn)8-AC, n = 4 or 12) and multifunctional PEG thiols (PEG-(SH)n, n = 2, 4, or 8) through a

  2. Characterization of morphology controlled polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes by the addition of polyethylene glycol to the dope and bore liquid solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, G.H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Strathmann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membranes has been studied using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as weak nonsolvent and water as strong nonsolvent. When PEG 400 is used as polymeric additive to the spinning dope the viscosity of the PES

  3. Update: An efficient synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-supported iron(II) porphyrin using a click reaction and its application for the catalytic olefination of aldehydes

    KAUST Repository

    Chinnusamy, Tamilselvi R.; Rodionov, Valentin; Kü hn, Fritz; Reiser, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The facile synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-immobilized iron(II) porphyrin using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition "click" reaction is reported. The prepared complex 5 (PEG-C 51H 39FeN 7O) was found to be an efficient

  4. Ethylene- and diethylene glycol metabolism, toxicity and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Each year numerous men and domestic animals suffer from ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning. The present approach to treating EG poisoning by administering ethanol is aimed at preventing the oxidation of EG to glycolate, the toxic mediator. When treatment is delayed or the amount of EG consumed is large, successful treatment is rarely obtained, since the concentration of glycolate becomes excessive. In an effort to develop a better approach to treating EG poisoning, studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pig liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as a means of enzyme therapy in male rats receiving EG. Pig liver GAO was active in vitro in rat blood, oxidizing glycolate to glyoxylate. When injected intravenously into male rats, GAO had an approximate half-life of twenty five minutes and its elimination followed first order kinetics. Despite activity in vitro, native pig liver GAO did not display detectable activity in vivo. Diethylene glycol (DEG) when ingested also results in toxicity. The metabolism and toxicity of DEG was investigated in male Wistar rats using [ 14 C]-DEG synthesized from [U- 14 C]-EG and ethylene oxide and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. (2-Hydroxyethoxy)acetic acid (HEAA) was identified as the major product of DEG oxidation. These results suggest that the treatment of DEG poisoning should follow the same regimen as treatment for EG poisoning

  5. Formation of carbonyl compounds in radiolysis of ethylene glycol in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodova, S.G.; Vetrov, V.S.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Korolev, V.M.; Salamatov, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Radiolysis of diluted solutions of ethylene glycol has been investigated. It is shown that acetaldehyde, glycol aldehyde and formaldehyde are the main products of radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol. Acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde yields increase in radiolysis of methanol solutions of ethylene glycol with an increase of the original concentration of ethylene glycol and a temperature rise of radiolysis. Formaldehyde yields increase with the ethylene glycol concentration but decrease with a temperature rise (the formation of formaldehyde from methanol is taken into account). A mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of ethylene glycol in methanol is explained. It is concluded that the main directions of ethylene glycol decomposition, detected in water solutions of ethylene glycol, are also realized in methanol solutions. However, a role of different directions of decomposition depends on the medium

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  7. Hydroxynortriptyline of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreen, F.M.Z.; Sarani Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxynortriptyline method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (E a ), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increment of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm -1 , but after hydroxynortriptyline process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm -1 , respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, E a increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/ mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/ mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10I) disappeared after hydroxynortriptyline process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27 % to 25 % after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increment of the HP-EFBF. (author)

  8. Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Jack A; Smith, Julie R; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2002-07-01

    Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within 24 h. A total of 24 adult study subjects who met Rome II criteria for constipation were randomized in a double-blind, parallel pilot study to receive a single dose of placebo or PEG laxative at doses of 51, 68, or 85 g in 500 ml of flavored water. Over a 72-h period, subjects rated bowel movements (BM), completeness of evacuation, and satisfaction. The 68-g dose seemed to be most satisfactory. Five of six subjects had a BM within 24 h. The time to first BM was 14.8 h for 68 g versus 27.3 h for placebo (p = NS). The time to second BM was 19.2 h versus 47.2 h for 68 g and placebo, respectively (p = 0.003). Of the subjects receiving 68 g of PEG, 50% and 100% reported complete evacuation for the first and second BM, respectively. The average number of BMs in 24 h for placebo, 51 g, 68 g, and 84 g were 0.5, 2.2, 2.2, and 4.2, respectively (p = 0.004). There were no adverse reactions, and no patient reported incontinence or complained of cramps or diarrhea at any dose. There were no changes in measured electrolytes, calcium, glucose, BUN, creatinine, or serum osmolality. A 68-g dose of PEG laxative seems to provide safe and effective relief in constipated adults within a 24-h period.

  9. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  10. Ibuprofen-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid films for controlled drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang JM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianmei Pang1, Yuxia Luan1, Feifei Li1, Xiaoqing Cai1, Jimin Du2, Zhonghao Li31School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, PR China; 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Henan Province, PR China; 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, PR ChinaAbstract: Ibuprofen- (IBU loaded biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films were prepared by spreading polymer/ibuprofen solution on the nonsolvent surface. By controlling the weight ratio of drug and polymer, different drug loading polymer films can be obtained. The synthesized ibuprofen-loaded PLGA films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug release behavior of the as-prepared IBU-loaded PLGA films was studied to reveal their potential application in drug delivery systems. The results show the feasibility of the as-obtained films for controlling drug release. Furthermore, the drug release rate of the film could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ibuprofen system, based on films, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems.Keywords: ibuprofen, controlled release, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, films

  11. Anhydric maleic functionalization and polyethylene glycol grafting of lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, A.; Valle, L.; Franco, L. del [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Sarasua, J.R. [Department of Mining-Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao (Spain); Estrany, F. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, J., E-mail: Jordi.Puiggali@upc.es [Department of Mining-Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    Lactide and trimethylene carbonate copolymers were successfully grafted with polyethylene glycol via previous functionalization with maleic anhydride and using N,N′-diisopropylcarbodiimide as condensing agent. Maleinization led to moderate polymer degradation. Specifically, the weight average molecular weight decreased from 36,200 to 30,200 g/mol for the copolymer having 20 mol% of trimethylene carbonate units. Copolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. Morphology of spherulites and lamellar crystals was evaluated with optical and atomic force microscopies, respectively. The studied copolymers were able to crystallize despite the randomness caused by the trimethylene carbonate units and the lateral groups. Contact angle measurements indicated that PEG grafted copolymers were more hydrophilic than parent copolymers. This feature justified that enzymatic degradation in lipase medium and proliferation of both epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were enhanced. Grafted copolymers were appropriate to prepare regular drug loaded microspheres by the oil-in-water emulsion method. Triclosan release from loaded microspheres was evaluated in two media. - Highlights: • Pegylated copolymers of lactide and trimethylene carbonate have been synthesized. • Grafting with polyethylene glycol was able via maleic anhydride functionalization. • Drug-loaded microspheres could be prepared from new pegylated copolymers. • Hydrophilicity of lactide/trimethylene carbonate copolymers increased by pegylation. • New pegylated copolymers supported cell adhesion and proliferation.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) end capped poly (propylene fumarate) cross linked amphiphilic hydrogel as tissue engineering scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lekshmi; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable poly (caprolactone diol-co-propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) amphiphilic polymer with poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) chain ends (PCL-PPF-PEG) was prepared. PCL-PPF-PEG undergoes fast setting with acrylamide (aqueous solution) by free radical polymerization and produces a crosslinked hydrogel. The cross linked and freeze-dried amphiphilic material has porous and interconnected network. It undergoes higher degree of swelling and water absorption to form hydrogel with hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains at the surface and appreciable tensile strength. The present hydrogel is compatible with L929 fibroblast cells. PCL-PPF-PEG/acrylamide hydrogel is a candidate scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Characterization, in Vivo and in Vitro Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of Curcumin Containing d-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate and Mannitol

    OpenAIRE

    Im-Sook Song; Jin-Sun Cha; Min-Koo Choi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a solid dispersion formulation of curcumin to enhance its solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability. The formulation was prepared with d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and mannitol using solvent evaporation and freeze-drying methods, which yielded a solid dispersion composed of curcumin, TPGS, and mannitol at a ratio of 1:10:15 (w/w/w). The solubility and dissolution rate of the curcumin solid dispersion markedly improv...

  14. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2012-05-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  15. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  16. Identification of a membrane-bound, glycol-stimulated phospholipase A2 located in the secretory granules of the adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, E.; Albanesi, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Chromaffin granule membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae showed Ca 2+ -stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity when assayed at pH 9.0 with phosphatidylcholine containing an [ 14 C]-arachidonyl group in the 2-position. However, the activity occurred in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, and did not codistribute with markers for the secretory granule. PLA 2 activity in the granule membrane preparation was stimulated dramatically by addition of glycerol, ethylene glycole, or poly(ethylene glycol). This glycol-stimulated PLA 2 activity codistributed with membrane-bound dopamine β-hydroxylase, a marker for the granule membranes, through the sequence of differential centrifugation steps employed to prepare the granule membrane fraction, as well as on a sucrose density gradient which resolved the granules from mitochondria, lysosomes, and plasma membrane. The glycol-stimulated PLA 2 of the chromaffin granule was membrane-bound, exhibited a pH optimum of 7.8, retained activity in the presence of EDTA, and was inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide. When different 14 C-labeled phospholipids were incorporated into diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine was a better substrate for this enzyme than 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatidylcholine or 1-acyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethhanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine was not hydrolyzed

  17. Curcumin Encapsulated into Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Nanoparticles Increases Cellular Uptake and Neuroprotective Effect in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marslin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno Filipe Carmelino Cardoso; Franklin, Gregory; Martins, José Alberto Ribeiro; Silva, Carlos Jorge Ribeiro; Gomes, Andreia Ferreira Castro; Sárria, Marisa Passos; Coutinho, Olga Maria Fernandes Pereira; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) with well-demonstrated neuroprotective and anticancer activities. Although curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans, it exhibits poor bioavailability, mainly due to poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these issues, several approaches, such as nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery, have been undertaken with different degrees of success. The present study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effect of curcumin encapsulated in poly( ε -caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles in U251 glioblastoma cells. Prepared nanoparticles were physically characterized by laser doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results from laser doppler anemometry confirmed that the size of poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles ranged between 200-240 nm for poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles and 30-70 nm for poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy images revealed their spherical shape. Treatment of U251 glioma cells and zebrafish embryos with poly( ε -caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles loaded with curcumin revealed efficient cellular uptake. The cellular uptake of poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles was higher in comparison to poly( ε -caprolactone) nanoparticles. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer-loaded curcumin nanoparticles were able to protect the glioma cells against tBHP induced-oxidative damage better than free curcumin. Together, our results show that curcumin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) poly( ε -caprolactone) di-block copolymer nanoparticles possess significantly stronger neuroprotective effect in U251 human glioma cells compared to

  18. Ethylene glycol intercalation in smectites. molecular dynamics simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, Marek; Klapyta, Zenon; Kalinichev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intercalation of ethylene glycol in smectites (glycolation) is widely used to discriminate smectites and vermiculites from other clays and among themselves. During this process, ethylene glycol molecules enter into the interlayer spaces of the swelling clays, leading to the formation of two-layer structure (∼17 A) in the case of smectites, or one-layer structure (∼14 A) in the case of vermiculites. In spite of the relatively broad literature on the understanding/characterization of ethylene glycol/water-clays complexes, the simplified structure of this complex presented by Reynolds (1965) is still used in the contemporary X-ray diffraction computer programs, which simulate structures of smectite and illite-smectite. The monolayer structure is only approximated using the assumption of the interlayer cation and ethylene glycol molecules lying in the middle of interlayer spaces. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the structure of ethylene glycol/water-clays complex in more detail using molecular dynamics simulation. The structural models of smectites were built on the basis of pyrophyllite crystal structure (Lee and Guggenheim, 1981), with substitution of particular atoms. In most of simulations, the structural model assumed the following composition, considered as the most common in the mixed layer illite-smectites: EXCH 0.4 (Si 3.96 Al 0.04 )(Al 1.46 Fe 0.17 Mg 0.37 )O 10 (OH) 2 Atoms of the smectites were described with CLAYFF force field (Cygan et al., 2004), while atoms of water and ethylene glycol with flexible SPC and OPLS force fields, respectively. Ewald summation was used to calculate long range Coulombic interactions and the cutoff was set at 8.5 A. Results of the simulations show that in the two-layer glycolate the content of water is relatively small: up to 0.8 H 2 O per half of the smectite unit cell. Clear thermodynamic preference of mono- or two-layer structure of the complex is

  19. A new formulation of curcumin using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)—polyethylene glycol diblock copolymer as carrier material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyen Dao, Thi Phuong; Nguyen, To Hoai; To, Van Vinh; Ho, Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dang, Mau Chien

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to fabricate a nanoparticle formulation of curcumin using a relatively new vehicle as the matrix polymer: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) diblock copolymer, and to investigate the effects of the various processing parameters on the characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). We successfully synthesized the matrix polymer of PLGA-PEG by conjugation of PLGA copolymer with a carboxylate end group to a heterobifunctional amine-PEG-methoxy using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide as conjugation crosslinkers. The composition of the formed product (PLGA-PEG) was characterized with 500 MHz 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The conjugation of PLGA-PEG was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum study. This diblock copolymer was then used to prepare the curcumin-loaded NPs through nanoprecipitation technique. With this method, we found that the size distribution depends on the type of solvent, the concentration of polymer and the concentration of surfactant. The particle size and size distribution were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to confirm the size, structure and morphology of the successfully prepared NPs. All of our results showed that they are spherical and quite homologous with mean diameter around of 100–300 nm. Further, we evaluated encapsulation efficiency and some characteristics of NPs through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, zeta-potential measurements and x-ray diffraction studies. The HPLC analyses were performed to determine the amount of curcumin entrapped in NPs. The zeta-potential measurements confirmed the stability of NPs and the successful encapsulation of curcumin within NPs and the x-ray diffraction patterns showed the disordered-crystalline phase of curcumin inside the polymeric matrix. (paper)

  20. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  1. The Profile of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Syzigium Aromaticum Volatile Oil in Lotion with Variation Composition of Oleic Acid and Propylene Glycol as Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriah Ardiawijianti Iriani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum containing eugenol has an anti-inflammatory activity. The study was aimed to develop the formulation of lotion by adding of oleic acid and propylene glycol as penetration enhancer. The effect of enhancer composition was also studied. Lotion was prepared with the composition of oleic acid (AO and propylene glycol (PG as follow: 1:0 (FI, 0,5:0,5 (FII, 0:1 (FIII. Capacity an anti-inflammatory of formulation based on parameters of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression, the number of inflammatory cells and the epidermis thickness was evaluated using male mouse strain BALb/C induced by crotton oil as inflammatory agents. The results showed that the increasing composition propylene glycol caused the decreasing of the amount of cells with COX-2 expression (p <0.05, the inflammatory cells (P <0.05 and the epidermis thickness (p <0.05

  2. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  3. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  4. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to thymidine glycol monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.X.; Hubbard, K.; Ide, H.; Wallace, S.S.; Erlanger, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific for thymine glycol (TG) in irradiated or OsO4-treated DNA was obtained by immunizing with thymidine glycol monophosphate (TMP-glycol) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by a carbodiimide procedure. Screening by dot-immunobinding and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures gave eight clones that bound OsO4- treated DNA. One of them, 2.6F.6B.6C, an IgG2a kappa, was characterized further. Hapten inhibition studies with OsO4-treated DNA showed that the antibody was specific for TMP-glycol. Among the various inhibitors tested, inhibition was in the order TMP-glycol greater than 5,6-dihydrothymidine phosphate greater than TMP greater than thymidine glycol greater than TG. Inhibition by 5,6-dihydrothymidine, thymidine, thymine, AMP, and CMP was negligible. In OsO4-treated DNA, as few as 0.5 TG per 10,000 bp were detectable by direct ELISA. Inhibition assays could detect as few as 1.5 TG per 10,000 bp. The antibody was equally reactive with native or denatured DNA containing TG. Among the X-irradiated homopolymers dC, dA, dG, and dT, only dT reacted with the antibody. Using an ELISA, the antibody could detect damage in irradiated DNA at the level of 20 Gy. Thus the antibody is of potential use in assays for DNA damage caused by X rays or other agents that damage DNA by free radical interactions

  5. Simultaneous determination of glycols based on fluorescence anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, F.; Navas Diaz, A.; Lopez Guerrero, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of non-fluorescent glycols in mixtures without separation or chemical transformation steps is described. Two methods based in the measure of fluorescence anisotropy of a probe such as fluorescein dissolved in the analyte or analyte mixtures are described. In the first method, the anisotropy spectra of pure and mixtures of analytes are used to quantitative determination (if the fluorophor concentration is in a range where fluorescence intensity is proportional to concentration). In the second method, a calibration curve anisotropy-concentration based on the application of the Perrin equation is established. The methods presented here are capable of directly resolving binary mixtures of non-fluorescent glycols on the basis of differences on the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescence tracer. Best analytical performances were obtained by application of the method based on Perrin equation. This method is simple, rapid and allows the determination of mixtures of glycols with reasonable accuracy and precision. Detection limits are limited by the quantum yield and anisotropy values of the tracer in the solvents. Recovery values are related to the differences in anisotropy values of the tracer in the pure solvents. Mixtures of glycerine/ethylene glycol (GL/EG), ethylene glycol/1,2-propane diol (EG/1,2-PPD) and polyethylene glycol 400/1,2-propane diol (PEG 400/1,2-PPD) were analysed and recovery values are within 95-120% in the Perrin method. Relative standard deviation are in the range 1.3-2.9% and detection limits in the range 3.9-8.9%

  6. Anomalous behavior of secondary dielectric relaxation in polypropylene glycols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A; Ziolo, J; Rzoska, S J; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-09-19

    A surprising slow down in the dielectric secondary {gamma}-relaxation with temperature increasing near the glass transition is confirmed for several polypropylene glycols. The peculiar behavior diminishes as the molecular weight grows. The minimal model (Dyre and Olsen 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 155703) is applied successfully to describe the temperature dependences of the {gamma}-relaxation times. The minimal model parameters are analyzed for different molecular weights. A molecular explanation of the {gamma}-process anomaly for polypropylene glycols is proposed on the basis of the minimal model prediction.

  7. Novel pH responsive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles for oral peptide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-02-01

    In present study, novel pH sensitive polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PCP) nanoparticles were prepared under mild aqueous conditions via polyelectrolyte complexation. Free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) was carried out in presence of chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using a water-soluble initiator and particles were obtained spontaneously during polymerization without using organic solvents or surfactants/steric stabilizers. Dried particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) were visualized under transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM studies indicated that PCP particles have an aggregated and irregular morphology, however, TEM revealed that these aggregated particles were composed of smaller fragments with size less than 1 micron. Insulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model proteins were incorporated into the nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release characteristics were evaluated at pH 1.2 and 7.4. PCP nanoparticles exhibited good protein encapsulation efficiency and pH responsive release profile was observed under in vitro conditions. Trypsin inhibitory effect of these PCP nanoparticles was studied using casein substrate and these particles displayed lesser inhibitory effect than reference polymer carbopol. Preliminary investigation suggests that these particles can serve as good candidate for oral peptide delivery. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A thorough investigation of triethylene glycol (TEG) containing systems has been performed. The introduction of a new six-site association scheme for the TEG molecule has shown to be advantageous. Glycols are often modeled using a four-site scheme (abbreviated as 4C) hence ignoring the internal...... lone pairs of oxygen. The new association scheme also takes these sites into account. The new parameters of TEG are based on the vapor pressure data, liquid density data, and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data (n-heptane), and they are tested for binary systems (methane, n-octane, n-nonane, n...

  9. Preparation and characterization of titania based nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Natalie; Vecernikova, Eva; Subrt, Jan; Balek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new method for preparation of titania nanowires with diameter around 10 nm and length up to 2-3 μm is described. The precursor was prepared from sodium titanate by adding ethylene glycole (EG) and heating at temperature of 198 deg. C for 6 h under reflux. The sodium titanate glycolate formed by this way aggregated into 1D nanostructures and was subsequently transformed into titania glycolate during a chemical treatment with 98% sulfuric acid. Titania nanowires with variable amount of anatase and rutile were prepared by heating to temperatures in the range 350-1000 deg. C. The precursor as well as titania based samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, High resolution transmission microscopy, Thermogravimetry, Differential thermal analysis, Evolved gas analysis and Emanation thermal analysis. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption was used for surface area and porosity determination. The photoactivity of the prepared titania samples was assessed by the photocatalytic decomposition of 4-chlorophenol in an aqueous slurry under UV irradiation of 365 nm wavelength

  10. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  11. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  12. Liver-targeting Resibufogenin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for liver cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu QC

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiuchen Chu,1,* Hong Xu,2,* Meng Gao,1 Xin Guan,1 Hongyan Liu,1 Sa Deng,1 Xiaokui Huo,1 Kexin Liu,1 Yan Tian,1 Xiaochi Ma1 1College of Pharmacy, 2College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Liver cancer remains a major problem around the world. Resibufogenin (RBG is a major bioactive compound that was isolated from Chansu (also called toad venom or toad poison, which is a popular traditional Chinese medicine that is obtained from the skin secretions of giant toads. RBG has strong antitumor effects, but its poor aqueous solubility and its cardiotoxicity have limited its clinical use. The aim of this study was to formulate RBG-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RPTN to enhance the treatment of liver cancer. RPTN, RBG-loaded PLGA nanoparticle (RPN, and RBG/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RCPTN were prepared. The cellular uptake of RCPTN by HepG2 and HCa-F cells was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in HepG2 cells by RPTN, RBG solution (RS, and 5-fluorouracil solution (used as the negative controls, as assayed using flow cytometry. LD50 (median lethal dose values were determined for RS and RPTN, and the liver-targeting properties were determined for RCPTN in intravenously injected mice. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats, and the in vivo therapeutic effects of RPTN, RPN, and RS were examined in a mouse tumor model. The results showed that RCPTN simultaneously delivered both coumarin-6 and RBG into HepG2 and HCa-F cells. The ratio of apoptotic cells was increased in the RPTN group. The LD50 for RPTN was 2.02-fold higher than the value for RS. Compared to RS, RPTN and RPN both showed a significant difference in vivo not only in the pharmacodynamic study but also in

  13. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  14. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-10-04

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  15. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  16. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared...

  17. Crosslinking polymerization of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Bogoslovov, R; Roland, C M [Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5342 (United States)], E-mail: kaminski@us.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The polymerization reaction of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate was induced by application of high pressure. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to investigate dielectric properties of the produced polymers. Additionally swelling experiment was performed to determine the degree of crossliniking of the polymers.

  18. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lian-yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of themost common chronic gastrointestinal problems. The estimated incidence of constipation in the United States is3% to 19% in general population.1,2 Patientswith head injuries, spinal cord injuries, pelvic fractures, lower extremity fractures ormultiple traumas require a long-term bed rest, during which the incidence of constipation reached as high as 50%.3,4 Constipation always brings inconvenience and tremendous suffering to patientsand strongly influences the recovery from primary disease. Irritants or lubricants can relieve the symptoms, but long-term application of them may lead to side effects like melanosis coli5 and cathartic colon6. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is also affected.7 Polyethylene glycol 4000 (trade name: Forlax®, a long chain polymer with a high molecular weight, can conjugate withwater molecule through hydrogen bond to increase the water content and volume of stools, thereby, facilitate bowelmovement and defecation.8,9 It is neither absorbed nor metabolized in the digestive tract, hence it is highly safe and well tolerable. Thus, long-term medication of polyethylene glycol 4000 is conducive to the reconstruction of normal defecation pattern. Therefore, polyethylene glycol 4000 is now being widely used as the mainstay adult chronic functional constipation management.10,11 The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult functional constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

  19. Electrospinnability of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Aho, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, the electrospinnability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solutions was investigated, with a focus on understanding the influence of molecular weight of PLGA, solvent type and solvent composition on the physical properties of electrospun nanofibers. METHOD: Various s...

  20. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  1. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, V.O.; Sousa, E.M.B. de; Macedo, W.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  2. Glycolic acid synthesis during dark glucose U14C metabolism, in French Bean and Maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailliau-Commanay, Lucienne; Calmes, Jean; Latche, J.-C.; Cavalie, Gerard

    1977-01-01

    Serine, glycerate and glycolate are among the first radioactive compounds when French Bean and Maize leaves are fed with glucose U 14 C. Failing to detect radioactive glycine suggests that glycolate so synthesized is unavailable for the photorespiration glycolate pool [fr

  3. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  4. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  6. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409 of...

  7. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  8. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  9. Biocompatible and bioadhesive hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, monofunctional poly(alkylene glycols and itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić Maja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New types of hydrogels were prepared by the radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid and four different poly(alkylene glycol (methacrylate components (Bisomers in a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. The polymers swell in water at 25°C to yield homogeneous transparent hydrogels. All the hydrogels displayed pH sensitive behavior in buffers of the pH range from 2.20 to 7.40, under conditions similar to those of biological fluids. The presence of these two comonomers, which were added to HEMA, increased the swelling degree of the hydrogels and gave gels with better elasticity. The hydrogels were thermally stable in the vicinity of the physiological temperature (37°C. The copolymer containing pure poly(ethylene glycol acrylate units generally had the best properties. The tests performed on the hydrogels confirmed that they were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic. The copolymer samples showed better cell viability and less hemolytic activity than the PHEMA sample, confirming the assumption that poly(alkylene glycols improve the biocompatibility of hydrogels. Due to their swelling and mechanical characteristics, as well as the very good biocompatibility and bioadhesive properties, poly(Bisomer/HEMA/IA hydrogels are promising for utilization in the field of biomedicals, especially for the controlled release of drugs.

  10. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  11. Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Erin E; Gaines, Cameryn L; Tillman, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients. A retrospective, observational, institutional review board-approved study was conducted over a 1-year time period. Patients were included in the study if they were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of fecal impaction or constipation and were treated with either polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) or polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350). Patients were excluded if they were discharged prior to resolution of treatment and/or did not receive PEG-ES or PEG-3350. Fifty-one patients (ranging in age from 1 month to 15 years) were evaluated: 23 patients received PEG-ES and 28 patients received PEG-3350. Sex, race, age, and weight were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Resolution of fecal impaction was not significantly different between PEG-ES vs PEG-3350 (87% and 86%, respectively; p = 0.87). There was only 1 reported side effect with PEG-3350, vs 11 reported side effects with PEG-ES (p PEG-3350 is as effective as PEG-ES for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients and is associated with fewer side effects.

  12. Study on polyethylene glycol/epoxy resin composite as a form-stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yutang; Kang Huiying; Wang Weilong; Liu Hong; Gao Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)/epoxy resin (EP) composite as a novel phase change material (PCM) was prepared using casting molding method. In this new material, PEG acts as the latent heat storage material and EP polymer serves as the supporting material, which provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the melted PEG. The structure and morphology of the novel composite were observed using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermo-mechanical property and transition behavior were characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), static thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The experimental results show that, as a result of the physical tangled function of the epoxy resin carrier to the PEG segment, the composite macroscopically presents the solid-solid phase change characteristic.

  13. Acoustic Levitator Power Device: Study of Ethylene-Glycol Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, M. T.; Cannuli, A.; Calabrò, E.; Magazù, S.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic levitator power device is formed by two vertically and opposed high output acoustic transducers working at 22 kHz frequency and produces sound pressure levels of 160 dB. The acoustic waves are monitored from an oscilloscope using a signal amplifier. The ability to perform contactless measurements, avoidance of undesired contamination from the container, are some of advantages of this apparatus. Acoustic levitation can be also used for sample preparation of high concentrated mixtures starting from solutions. In the present paper, an acoustic levitator power device is employed to collect data on levitated water mixtures of Ethylene Glycol (EG) which are then analysed by Infra-Red spectroscopy. The study allows to follow the drying process versus time and to obtain a gel-like compound characterized by an extended chemical crosslinking.

  14. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) - a new contact allergen identified in a spectacle frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vestergaard, M. E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergic reactions to spectacle frames are not unusual. A patient had a reproducible strong allergic patch test reaction to scrapings from the plastic material, and negative patch test results with available spectacle frame chemicals. Objectives. To identify the culprit allergen...... bis(2-ethylhexanoate) was the causative allergen in the spectacle frame. Ten consecutive eczema patients tested as controls were negative. Conclusion. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) is a new, hitherto unreported contact allergen....... in this patient's spectacle frame. Materials and methods. An extract from the temple arms was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a major low molecular weight compound was detected. This compound was isolated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by GC...

  15. Hydrophilicity improvement in polyphenylsulfone nanofibrous filtration membranes through addition of polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Shirin; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Shahtahmassebi, Nasser; Saljoughi, Ehsan

    2015-12-01

    Novel hydrophilic polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) nanofibrous membrane was prepared by electrospinning of the PPSU solution blended with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). The influence of the PEG concentration on the membrane characteristics was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurement, and tensile test. Filtration performance of the membranes was investigated by measurement of pure water flux (PWF) and determination of the rejection values of the pollution indices during treatment of canned beans production wastewater. According to the results, blending the PPSU solution with 10 wt.% PEG 400 resulted in formation of a nanofibrous membrane with high porosity and increased mechanical strength which exhibited a low water contact angle of 8.9° and high water flux of 7920 L/m2h. Flux recovery of the mentioned membrane which was assessed by filtration of a solution containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 83% indicating a noticeable antifouling property.

  16. Synthesis of single crystalline CdS nanowires with polyethylene glycol 400 as inducing template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Solvothermal technique, an one-step soft solution-processing route was successfully employed to synthesize single crystalline CdS nanowires in ethylenediamine medium at lower temperature (170 □) for 1-8 d. In this route, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400)was used as surfactant, which played a crucial role in preferentially oriented growth of semiconductor nanowires. Characterizations of as-prepared CdS nanowires by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicate that the naonowires,with typical diameters of 20nm and lengths up to several micrometers, have preferential [001] orientation. Also, investigations into the physical properties of the CdS nanowires were conducted with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The excitonic photo-optical phenomena of the nanowires shows the potential in the practical applications.

  17. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-3350, Colyte Poisoning due to Intra-Peritoneal Leakage in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Chung

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350 is the most frequently used lavage solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or elective surgery because its large molecular weight means that it is poorly absorbed. However, if it leaks into the peritoneal cavity, complications may arise. Few published studies have assessed the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PEG. Moreover, no published clinical data regarding complications due to the intra-peritoneal leakage of PEG-3350 could be found. We report on an elderly patient who developed the poisoning caused by leaking of PEG-3350 during bowel preparation. It resulted in severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperosmolality and a high anion gap, but it was effectively treated with early continuous renal replacement therapy after surgery.

  18. Adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals to improve its dispersity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Wen, Yangbing; Wang, Lijuan; An, Xingye; Zhu, Xuhai; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-06-05

    In this work, the adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) was investigated for preparing re-dispersible dried CNC. Results showed that the re-dispersity of CNC in water can be significantly enhanced using a PEG1000 dosage of 5wt% (based on the dry weight of CNC). The elemental analysis confirmed the adsorption of PEG onto the CNC surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the dry powder and indicated that the irreversible agglomeration of CNC after drying was essentially eliminated based on the PEG adsorption concept. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that CNC crystallinity and thermal stability were not affected by the adsorption of PEG. Thus, the adsorption of PEG has great potential for producing re-dispersible powder CNC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2D SnO2 Nanosheets: Synthesis, Characterization, Structures, and Excellent Sensing Performance to Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Wan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional (2DSnO2 nanosheets were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide in a mixed solvent of absolute ethanol and deionized water at a lower temperature of 130 °C. The characterization results of the morphology, microstructure, and surface properties of the as-prepared products demonstrated that SnO2 nanosheets with a tetragonal rutile structure, were composed of oriented SnO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 6–12 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FETEM results demonstrated that the dominant exposed surface of the SnO2 nanoparticles was (101, but not (110. The growth and formation was supposed to follow the oriented attachment mechanism. The SnO2 nanosheets exhibited an excellent sensing response toward ethylene glycol at a lower optimal operating voltage of 3.4 V. The response to 400 ppm ethylene glycol reaches 395 at 3.4 V. Even under the low concentration of 5, 10, and 20 ppm, the sensor exhibited a high response of 6.9, 7.8, and 12.0 to ethylene glycol, respectively. The response of the SnO2 nanosheets exhibited a linear dependence on the ethylene glycol concentration from 5 to 1000 ppm. The excellent sensing performance was attributed to the present SnO2 nanoparticles with small size close to the Debye length, the larger specific surface, the high-energy exposed facets of the (101 surface, and the synergistic effects of the SnO2 nanoparticles of the nanosheets.

  20. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded lipid-polyethylene glycol-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for treatment of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffashi, Abbas; Lüle, Sevda; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Sarısözen, Can; Vural, İmran; Koşucu, Hüsnü; Demir, Taner; Buğdaycı, Kadir Emre; Söylemezoğlu, Figen; Karlı Oğuz, Kader; Mut, Melike

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to develop lipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, which have high affinity to tumour tissue with active ingredient, a new generation antineoplastic drug, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTA) for treatment of glioblastoma. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-1,2 distearoyl-glycerol-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N [methoxy (PEG)-2000] ammonium salt (PLGA-DSPE-PEG) with or without 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) hybrid nanoparticles has been prepared and evaluated for in-vitro characterization. Cytotoxicity of FTA-loaded nanoparticles along with its efficacy on rat glioma-2 (RG2) cells was also evaluated both in vitro (in comparison with non-malignant cell line, L929) and in vivo. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that all formulations prepared had smooth surface and spherical in shape. FTA and FTA-loaded nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity against RG2 glioma cell lines in cell culture studies, which further increases with addition of DOTAP. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic evaluation on RG2 tumour cells in rat glioma model (49 female Wistar rats, 250-300 g) comparing intravenous and intratumoral injections of the drug have been performed and FTA-loaded nanoparticles reduced tumour size significantly in in-vivo studies, with higher efficiency of intratumoral administration than intravenous route. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded PLGA-DSPE-PEG-DOTAP hybrid nanoparticles are proven to be effective against glioblastoma in both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  2. Modification of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Film by Blending with Poly(benzyl L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, G.Z.; Gao, Q.C.; Liu, Y.Y.

    2013-01-01

    A series of water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)/poly(benzyl L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) blend films with various CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG mol ratios were prepared by pervaporation method. Morphologies of CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG blend films were researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests, and contact angle tests. It was revealed that the introduction of PBLG-b-PEG segments could greatly affect the morphology and the properties of CMCS films. (author)

  3. Urticaria due to polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution in a patient with jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Henry, Winoah A; Chen, Lea Ann; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    Both jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 hypersensitivity are extremely rare. We describe a 30-year-old female who had previously taken a PEG-3350 bowel preparation without adverse effects, and presented for evaluation of chronic diarrhea. An upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, and small bowel series were scheduled. PEG-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution was prescribed for bowel cleansing. During consumption of the bowel preparation she developed urticarial hypersensitivity. An alternative bowel preparation was used. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy were normal, but small bowel series revealed innumerable sand-like lucencies in the jejunum. NLH was confirmed on biopsy from antegrade enteroscopy. This is the first case report on the pathological jejunal NLH in association with the PEG-3350 urticarial hypersensitivity. The potential pathophysiological etiology of this association is discussed.

  4. Material Compatibility Evaluation for DWPF Nitric-Glycolic Acid - Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction.

  5. Study of nanocomposites prepared from polyamides and biodegradable polyesters and poly(ester amide)s

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Gámez, Laura Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial Polymer clay nanocomposites of polyamides and biodegradable polymers with three kinds of organomodified clays were prepared by different techniques (in situ polymerization, solution casting, and melt mixing). The polymers used in this research were nylons 56, 65 and 47 and the biodegradable polymers: poly (glycolic acid-alt-6-hydrohexanoic acid) and poly(glycolic acid-alt-6-aminohexanoic acid). The developmen...

  6. Steric Stabilization of “Charge-Free” Cellulose Nanowhiskers by Grafting of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Araki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sterically stabilized aqueous suspension of “charge-free” cellulose nanowhiskers was prepared by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of cotton powders and subsequent surface grafting of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG. The preparation scheme included carboxylation of the terminal hydroxyl groups in mPEG via oxidation with silica gel particles carrying 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-pyperidinyloxyl (TEMPO moieties and subsequent esterification between terminal carboxyls in mPEG and surface hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers, mediated by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI in dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylacetamide. Some of the prepared PEG-grafted samples showed remarkable flow birefringence and enhanced stability after 24 h, even in 0.1 M NaCl, suggesting successful steric stabilization by efficient mPEG grafting. Actual PEG grafting via ester linkages was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. In a typical example, the amount of grafted mPEG was estimated as ca. 0.3 g/g cellulose by two measurements, i.e., weight increase after grafting and weight loss after alkali cleavage of ester linkages. Transmission electron microscopy indicated unchanged nanowhisker morphology after mPEG grafting.

  7. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  8. Conjugation of cell-penetrating peptides with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles improves ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimee Vasconcelos,1 Estefania Vega,2 Yolanda Pérez,3 María J Gómara,1 María Luisa García,2 Isabel Haro1 1Unit of Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Peptides, Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IQAC-CSIC, 2Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, 3Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Unit, IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: In this work, a peptide for ocular delivery (POD and human immunodeficiency virus transactivator were conjugated with biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PGLA–polyethylene glycol (PEG-nanoparticles (NPs in an attempt to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method following two different pathways. One involved preparation of PLGA NPs followed by PEG and peptide conjugation (PLGA-NPs-PEG-peptide; the other involved self-assembly of PLGA-PEG and the PLGA-PEG-peptide copolymer followed by NP formulation. The conjugation of the PEG and the peptide was confirmed by a colorimetric test and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Flurbiprofen was used as an example of an anti-inflammatory drug. The physicochemical properties of the resulting NPs (morphology, in vitro release, cell viability, and ocular tolerance were studied. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in rabbit eyes after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate. Of the formulations developed, the PLGA-PEG-POD NPs were the smaller particles and exhibited greater entrapment efficiency and more sustained release. The positive charge on the surface of these NPs, due to the conjugation with the positively charged peptide, facilitated penetration into the corneal epithelium, resulting in more effective prevention of ocular inflammation. The in vitro toxicity of the NPs developed was very low; no ocular irritation

  9. A polyethylene glycol radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, S.J.; Taylor, R.P.; Andrews, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human IgG is described that is sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.5 ng of IgG. This model antibody-antigen system was also used to study the stoichiometries of PEG-precipitation complexes. The results suggest that the presence of PEG may affect the stoichiometry of the complexes which precipitate from solution. (Auth.)

  10. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, A.M.; Moss, M.; Bruce, T.

    1951-03-01

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  11. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  12. Retrospective Study: Glycolic Acid Peel in Photoaging Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmantyo, Brama; Indramaya, Diah Mira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photoaging is premature skin aging that is caused by sun exposure in long periode. Glycolic acid peel is one of photoaging treatment that improve skin at epidermal layer. Improper patient selection and irregular follow-up may become factors of unsuccessful treatment. Purpose: To evaluate gycolic acid peel treatment for photoaging for improvement of medical service in the future. Methods: A retrospective study to photoaging patiens that were managed with glicolyc acid peel in Medic...

  13. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, A M; Moss, M; Bruce, T

    1951-03-15

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  14. Moessbauer investigation of maghemite-based glycolic acid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J. G.; Silveira, L. B.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Lacava, B. M.; Tedesco, A. C.; Morais, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used in the characterization of a nanocomposite containing magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a glycolic acid-based template. Maghemite nanoparticles were identified as the iron oxide phase dispersed in the polymeric template. From the low-temperature Moessbauer data the amount of the iron-based, non-magnetic material at the nanoparticle surface was estimated as roughly one monolayer in thickness.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Hoekman, Daniël R; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E J; van Wijk, Michiel P; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G P; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0-3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: -1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents.

  16. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m −3 for benzene, 3 mg m −3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m −3 for benzene and 6 g m −3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  17. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  18. Investigation of nanocarriers and excipients for preparation of nanoembedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingya; Beck-broichsitter, Moritz; Yang, Mingshi

    2017-01-01

    polymer nanocarriers (poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(styrene), chitosan and dendrimers) were used for preparing NEMs by spray-drying. Further, distinct matrix excipients were investigated including sugars (i.e., trehalose, sucrose, mannitol) and polymers (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol...... (trehalose, sucrose, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)) are superior to spray-dried crystalline excipients (mannitol, poly(ethylene glycol)) for stabilizing NEMs. It is therefore important to select an appropriate excipient for stabilization of a given nanoparticle system and identify a suitable level...

  19. The impact of diet liberalization on bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, James; Francis, Gloria; Matro, Rebecca; Kedika, Ramalinga; Grosso, Rachael; Keith, Scott W.; Kastenberg, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims?Dietary restrictions are integral to colonoscopy preparation and impact patient satisfaction. Utilizing split-dose, lower-volume polyethylene glycol 3350-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS), this study compared colon preparation adequacy of a low-residue diet to clear liquids using a validated grading scale. Patients and methods?This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, single-center non-inferiority study evaluating diet the day prior to outpatient colonoscopy. ...

  20. Oleanolic acid liposomes with polyethylene glycol modification: promising antitumor drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dawei Gao, Shengnan Tang, Qi TongApplied Chemical Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, ChinaBackground: Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene present in many fruits and vegetables, and has received much attention on account of its biological properties. However, its poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its use. The objective of this study was to encapsulate oleanolic acid into nanoliposomes using the modified ethanol injection method.Methods: The liposomes contain a hydrophobic oleanolic acid core, an amphiphilic soybean lecithin monolayer, and a protective hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG coating. During the preparation process, the formulations described were investigated by designing 34 orthogonal experiments as well as considering the effects of different physical characteristics. The four factors were the ratios of drug to soybean phosphatidylcholine (w/w, cholesterol (w/w, PEG-2000 (w/w, and temperature of phosphate-buffered saline at three different levels. We identified the optimized formulation which showed the most satisfactory lipid stability and particle formation. The morphology of the liposomes obtained was determined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The existence of PEG in the liposome component was validated by Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis.Results: The PEGylated liposomes dispersed individually and had diameters of around 110–200 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was more than 85%, as calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography and Sephadex® gel filtration. Furthermore, when compared with native oleanolic acid, the liposomal formulations showed better stability in vitro. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the oleanolic acid liposomes was evaluated using a microtiter tetrazolium assay.Conclusion: These results suggest that PEGylated liposomes would serve as a potent delivery vehicle

  1. UV stabilization of wood by nano metal oxides dispersed in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreeja; Nagarajappa, Giridhar B; Pandey, Krishna K

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticles of some of the metal oxides are known to have high UV protective efficiency. The UV filtering efficiency of nanoparticles invariably depends on their size and stability in the dispersion. In the present work, a stable dispersion of nanoparticles of three metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), was prepared in propylene glycol (PG) using ultrasonication. The method is easy and useful as no additional surfactant or dispersant is needed. The particle size and its distribution was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. The stability of dispersion was assessed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The UV stability of wood surfaces of Wrightia tinctoria coated with nanodispersions of ZnO, CeO 2 and TiO 2 was evaluated under laboratory conditions in an accelerated weathering tester. Changes in the colour and FTIR spectra of exposed specimens were measured periodically. Rapid colour darkening (yellowing) was observed in uncoated and PG coated specimens. In contrast, nanodispersion coated specimens prevented photo-yellowing considerably with significant reduction in colour changes examined by CIE L*, a*, b* and ΔE*. Increase in concentration of nanoparticles in the dispersion imparted higher resistance to UV induced degradation. However, increased concentration of nanoparticles reduced the transparency of the coating. FTIR analysis indicated rapid degradation of lignin in uncoated and PG coated specimens due to UV exposure. Coating of wood surfaces with nanodispersions restricted lignin degradation. The study also demonstrates the potential of propylene glycol as a dispersant for developing stable and efficient UV protective nanodispersions for wood coating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. One pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticle modified ZnO microspheres in ethylene glycol medium and their enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Li Wei; Pan Kai; Zhang Qi; Tian Guohui; Zhou Wei; Fu Honggang

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) modified ZnO microspheres (Ag/ZnO microspheres) were prepared by a facile one pot strategy in ethylene glycol (EG) medium. The EG played two important roles in the synthesis: it could act as a reaction media for the formation of ZnO and reduce Ag + to Ag 0 . A series of the characterizations indicated the successful combination of Ag NPs with ZnO microspheres. It was shown that Ag modification could greatly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO microspheres by taking the photodegradation of Rhodamine B as a model reaction. With appropriate ratio of Ag and ZnO, Ag/ZnO microspheres showed the better photocatalytic performance than commercial Degussa P-25 TiO 2 . Photoluminescence and surface photovoltage spectra demonstrated that Ag modification could effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electron and holes of ZnO. This is responsible for the higher photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO composites. -- Graphical abstract: A 'one-pot' strategy was developed for preparing the Ag/ZnO microspheres in ethylene glycol. The composites exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of Rhodamine B dye in water. Display Omitted

  3. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method

  4. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method.

  5. Structure and thermal performance of poly(ethylene glycol) alkyl ether (Brij)/porous silica (MCM-41) composites as shape-stabilized phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingjian; Shi, Haifeng, E-mail: haifeng.shi@gmail.com; Li, Weiwei; Han, Xu; Zhang, Xingxiang, E-mail: zhangpolyu@gmail.com

    2013-10-20

    Graphical abstract: The maximum 50 wt% Brij58 is loaded into the porous MCM-41 networks, and a new peak at 18.8° in XRD patterns confirmed the changes of crystallization behavior of Brij58 against the bulk one. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol) hexadecyl ether and poly(ethylene glycol) octadecyl ether have the good thermal storage ability. • New peak at 18.8° proved the coexisted confined crystallization and nucleation-induced crystallization. • Poly(ethylene glycol) alkyl ether/MCM-41 PCMs exhibits the good thermal stability. - Abstract: A series of shape-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs), composed of poly(ethylene glycol) hexadecyl ether (Brij58) or poly(ethylene glycol) octadecyl ether (Brij76) and porous silica (MCM-41), were prepared by the physical mixing method. The structure, thermal stability, energy storage ability and crystallization behavior of these composites are deeply investigated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Obvious phase transition behavior and energy storage capability are observed for these Brij/MCM-41 composites, and the heat storage efficiency increased with the weight of Brij component. New peak at 18.8° demonstrated that the pore size and the surface adsorption ability of MCM-41 affect the crystallization behavior of Brij molecule. The crystalline structure and energy storage ability of these Brij/MCM-41 composites are discussed based on the crystallization process.

  6. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  7. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  8. Amino acids and peptides. XXXII: A bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid of fibronectin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Izuno, Y; Kawasaki, K; Kaneda, Y; Mu, Y; Tsutsumi, Y; Lem, K W; Mayumi, T

    1997-12-18

    An amino acid type poly(ethylene glycol) (aaPPEG) was prepared and its application to a drug carrier was examined. The peptides, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Glu-Ile-Leu-Asp-Val (EILDV) which were reported as active fragments of Fibronectin (a cell adhesion protein), were conjugated with aaPEG (molecular weight, 10,000). The hybrid, RGD-aaPEG-EILDV, was prepared by a combination of the solid-phase method and the solution method. Antiadhesive activity of the peptides was not lost by its hybrid formation with the large aaPEG molecule. A mixture of RGD (0.43 mmol) and EILDV (0.43 mmol) did not demonstrate an antiadhesive effect, but the hybrid containing 0.43 mmol of each peptide did exhibit this effect.

  9. FTIR, XRD and DSC studies of nanochitosan, cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol blend ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, P Angelin; K, Sangeetha; Thandapani, Gomathi; P N, Sudha; Jayachandran, Venkatesan; Sukumaran, Anil

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, a series of novel nanochitosan/cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (NCS/CA/PEG) blend flat sheet membranes were fabricated in different ratios (1:1:1, 1:1:2, 2:1:1, 2:1:2, 1:2:1, 2:2:1) in a polar solvent of N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) using the most popular phase inversion method. Nanochitosan was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and its average particle size has been analyzed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The effect of blending of the three polymers was investigated using FTIR and XRD studies. FTIR results confirmed the formation of well-blended membranes and the XRD analysis revealed enhanced amorphous nature of the membrane ratio 2:1:2. DSC study was conducted to find out the thermal behavior of the blend membranes and the results clearly indicated good thermal stability and single glass transition temperature (T g ) of all the prepared membranes. Asymmetric nature and rough surface morphology was confirmed using SEM analysis. From the results it was evident that the blending of the polymers with higher concentration of nanochitosan can alter the nature of the resulting membranes to a greater extent and thus amorphous membranes were obtained with good miscibility and compatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrophilicity improvement in polyphenylsulfone nanofibrous filtration membranes through addition of polyethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Shirin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Membrane Processes and Membrane Research Center, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud, E-mail: mmousavi@um.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtahmassebi, Nasser [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanoresearch Center, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saljoughi, Ehsan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Novel hydrophilic polyphenylsulfone electrospun nanofibrous membrane was prepared. • Blending the PPSU solution with 10 wt.% PEG 400 led to the optimum results. • Water contact angle of the optimum membrane was determined as 8.9°. • Remarkable increase in pure water flux and flux recovery was achieved. • Rejection values of the wastewater pollution indices remained almost unchanged. - Abstract: Novel hydrophilic polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) nanofibrous membrane was prepared by electrospinning of the PPSU solution blended with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). The influence of the PEG concentration on the membrane characteristics was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurement, and tensile test. Filtration performance of the membranes was investigated by measurement of pure water flux (PWF) and determination of the rejection values of the pollution indices during treatment of canned beans production wastewater. According to the results, blending the PPSU solution with 10 wt.% PEG 400 resulted in formation of a nanofibrous membrane with high porosity and increased mechanical strength which exhibited a low water contact angle of 8.9° and high water flux of 7920 L/m{sup 2}h. Flux recovery of the mentioned membrane which was assessed by filtration of a solution containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 83% indicating a noticeable antifouling property.

  11. Novel Brassinosteroid-Modified Polyethylene Glycol Micelles for Controlled Release of Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quiñones, Javier; Brüggemann, Oliver; Kjems, Jørgen; Shahavi, Mohammad Hassan; Peniche Covas, Carlos

    2018-02-21

    Two synthetic analogues of brassinosteroids (DI31 and S7) exhibit good plant growth enhancer activity. However, their hydrophobicity and quick metabolism in plants have limited their application and benefits in agriculture. Our objective was to prepare novel brassinosteroid-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) micelles to achieve controlled release with extended stability while retaining agrochemical activity. Spectroscopic studies confirmed quantitative disubstitution of studied PEGs with the brassinosteroids, while elemental analysis assessed purity of the synthesized conjugates. Conjugates were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Dynamic and static light scattering showed stable and homogeneous approximately spherical micelles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 22-120 nm and almost neutral ζ potential. Spherical 30-140 nm micelles were observed by electron microscopy. Sustained in vitro releases at pH 5.5 were extended up to 96 h. Prepared PEG micelles showed good agrochemical activity in the radish seed bioassay and no cytotoxicity to the human microvascular endothelial cell line in the MTS test.

  12. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid/Solutol HS15-Based Nanoparticles for Docetaxel Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Park, Ju-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yoon, In-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Docetaxel (DCT) is one of anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic agents and has been used for the treatment of gastric cancer as well as head and neck cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of representative biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, and polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate (Solutol HS15) is a nonionic solubilizer and emulsifying agent. In this investigation, PLGA/Solutol HS15-based nanoparticles (NPs) for DCT delivery were fabricated by a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method. PLGA/Solutol HS15/DCT NPs with about 169 nm of mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical morphology were prepared. The results of solid-state studies revealed the successful dispersion of DCT in PLGA matrix and its amorphization during the preparation process of NPs. According to the result of in vitro release test, emulsifying property of Solutol HS15 seemed to contribute to the enhanced drug release from NPs at physiological pH. All these findings imply that developed PLGA/Solutol HS15-based NP can be a promising local anticancer drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  13. Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate-emulsified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Lu Yu; Ding Liying; Liu Yaqing; Yu Shuqin; Guo Miao; Ron Wenting; Song Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the factors in the failure of anticancer chemotherapy. In order to enhance the anticancer effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates, inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump on MDR cells is a good tactic. We designed novel multifunctional drug-loaded alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs; SN-38 is 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), with TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs as the carrier and modulator of the P-gp efflux pump and SN-38 as the model drug. TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were prepared using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. Physicochemical characterizations of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were in conformity with the principle of nano-drug delivery systems (nDDSs), including a diameter of about 200 nm, excellent spherical particles with a smooth surface, narrow size distribution, appropriate surface charge, and successful drug-loading into the NPs. The cytotoxicity of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs to MDR cells was increased by 3.56 times compared with that of free SN-38. Based on an intracellular accumulation study relative to the time-dependent uptake and efflux inhibition, we suggest novel mechanisms of MDR reversal of TPGS/PLGA NPs. Firstly, TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs improved the uptake of the loaded drug by clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the form of unbroken NPs. Simultaneously, intracellular NPs escaped the recognition of P-gp by MDR cells. After SN-38 was released from TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs in MDR cells, TPGS or/and PLGA may modulate the efflux microenvironment of the P-gp pump, such as mitochondria and the P-gp domain with an ATP-binding site. Finally, the controlled-release drug entered the nucleus of the MDR cell to induce cytotoxicity. The present study showed that TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs could be functional carriers in nDDS for anticancer drugs that are also P-gp substrates. More importantly, to enhance the therapeutic effect of P-gp substrates, this work

  14. Polyethylene glycol 3350 based colon cleaning protocol: 2 d vs 4 d head to head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitsur, Rotem; Butcher, Lisa; Vicki, Lund; Elitsur, Yoram

    2013-04-16

    To compare between 2 and 4 d colon cleansing protocols. Children who were scheduled for colonoscopy procedure (2010-2012) for various medical reasons, were recruited from the pediatric gastroenterology clinic at Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV. Exclusion criteria were patients who were allergic to the medication used in the protocols [polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bisacodyl], or children with metabolic or renal diseases. Two PEG 3350 protocols for 4 d (A) and 2 d (B) were prescribed as previously described. A questionnaire describing the volume of PEG consumed, clinical data, and side effects were recorded. Colon preparation was graded by two observers according to previously described method. Rate of adequate colon preparation. A total of 78 patients were considered for final calculation (group A: 40, group B: 38). Age and stool consistency at the last day was comparable in both groups, but the number of stools/day was significantly higher in group B (P = 0.001). Adequate colon preparation was reached in 57.5% (A) and 73.6% (B), respectively (P = 0.206). Side effects were minimal and comparable in both groups. There was no difference in children's age, stool characteristics, or side effects between the children with adequate or inadequate colon preparation. Correlation and agreement between observers was excellent (Pearson correlation = 0.972, kappa = 1.0). No difference between protocols was observed, but the 2 d protocol was superior for its shorter time. Direct comparison between different colon cleansing protocols is crucial in order to establish the "gold standard" protocol for children.

  15. Outcome of patients in acute poisoning with ethylene glycol - factors which may have influence on evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasescu, A; Macovei, RA; Tudosie, MS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intoxication with ethylene glycol occurs as a result of intentional ingestion in suicide attempts or accidentally. Clinical ethylene glycol poisoning is not specific and occurs in many poisoning cases therefore the diagnosis is difficult. Early diagnostic and establishment of therapy are very important for a favorable evolution. The mortality rate of ethylene glycol intoxication ranges between 1 and 22% depending on the amount of alcohol ingestion and the time period between alc...

  16. Investigations into the use of water glycol as the hydraulic fluid in a servo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of water glycol on the performance of a hydraulic system and on the life of the system components have been investigated and a guide to the design of systems using water glycol is given. The dynamic performance of the system using water-glycol was compared with that using mineral oil, then the system was endurance tested to determine its service life. (author)

  17. Randomised clinical trial: Polyethylene glycol 3350 with sports drink vs. polyethylene glycol with electrolyte solution as purgatives for colonoscopy--the incidence of hyponatraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matro, R; Daskalakis, C; Negoianu, D; Katz, L; Henry, C; Share, M; Kastenberg, D

    2014-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 plus sports drink (PEG-SD) is a hypo-osmotic purgative commonly used for colonoscopy, though little safety data are available. To evaluate the effect of PEG-SD on serum sodium (Na) and other electrolytes compared with PEG-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS). We performed a single center, prospective, randomised, investigator-blind comparison of PEG-ELS to PEG-SD in out-patients undergoing colonoscopy. Laboratories were obtained at baseline and immediately before and after colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was development of hyponatraemia (Na PEG-SD, 184 PEG-ELS). The groups were well matched except for a higher fraction of women and Blacks in PEG-ELS. Seven patients (3.9%) in PEG-SD and four patients (2.2%) in PEG-ELS developed hyponatraemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 0.45-8.62, P = 0.376). Changes in electrolytes from baseline were small but significantly worse with PEG-SD for sodium, potassium and chloride (P = 0.001, 0.012, 0.001, respectively). Preparation completion, adverse events, and overall colon cleansing were similar between the groups, but PEG-ELS had more excellent preparations (52% vs. 30%; P = 0.001). Greater, but very modest, electrolyte changes occur with PEG-SD. Hyponatraemia is infrequent with both purgatives. A significant increase in hyponatraemia was not identified for PEG-SD vs. PEG-ELS, but the sample size may have been inadequate to identify a small, but clinically important difference. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01299779. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Complexing blends of polyacrylic acid-polyethylene glycol and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-polyethylene glycol as shape stabilized phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkan, Cemil; Günther, Eva; Hiebler, Stefan; Himpel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Complexing groups to PEGs in a polymer could stabilize PEG at different molecular weights. ► Shape stabilized PEGs for thermal energy storage are prepared using compounds with interacting groups. ► Phase change temperature of PEGs could be changed using a complexing copolymer with acid groups. - Abstract: Blends of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at 1000, 6000, and 10,000 g/mole average molecular weights and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EcoA) have been prepared by solution blending and accounted for thermal energy storage properties as shape stabilized polymer blends. The blends have been analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total thermal energy values of the complexes have been determined by the method of Mehling et al. As a result of the investigation it is found that polymers with acid groups form interpolymer complexes (IPCs) and miscible and immiscible IPC–PEG blends when blended with PEGs. PEGs formed IPCs with PAA and EcoA polymers in solutions and reach to saturation and turns to be blends of IPC and PEG polymer. PEGs in this work bleed out of the blends when its compositions reach to a degree of immiscibility. In the first range where blends are IPCs and in the third range where bleeding of PEG occurs, blends are not feasible for thermal energy storage applications. However, in the second range, the blends are potential materials for passive thermal energy storage applications.

  19. Polyethylene glycol enhances lipoplex-cell association and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-10-15

    The association between liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) and targeted cell membranes is a limiting step of cationic liposome-mediated transfection. A novel technique was developed where lipoplex-cell membrane association is enhanced by the addition of 2-6% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the transfection media. Lipoplex-cell association was found to increase up to 100 times in the presence of PEG. Transfection increased correspondingly in the presence of PEG. This increase was found in several cell lines. These results show that lipoplex adsorption to cell membranes is a critical step in liposome-mediated transfection. This step can be facilitated by PEG-induced particle aggregation.

  20. Dipropylene glycol allergy: A hidden cause of perfume contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Ernst Jemec, Gregor Borut

    1994-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a hand lotion is presented. A positive patch test reaction to the perfume formulation from the lotion was found, establishing a case of perfume allergy. However, when all 16 ingredients of the perfume were tested, the patient reacted not only...... to a fragrance material but also to the solvent used in the perfume, dipropylene glycol. The diagnosis of perfume allergy is common. However, the substances in the responsible perfume are rarely obtained for testing, and significant allergies to the solvent of the perfume may be overlooked....

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  2. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  3. Exposure to glycols and their renal effects in motor servicing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, J; Liesivuori, J; Savolainen, H

    1995-10-01

    Ten car mechanics frequently exposed to glycol-based cooling liquids were followed during a workshift. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were measured. The car mechanics gave urine samples after the workshift and their excretion of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, oxalic acid, calcium and ammonia was analysed and compared to that of unexposed office workers. Urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity and glycosaminoglycans were also measured in both groups. Airborne ethylene and propylene glycol concentrations in the car mechanics' environment were negligible. Urinary ethylene glycol excretion in exposed workers was significantly higher than that in unexposed workers, but propylene glycol excretion was at the same levels as in controls. In the exposed group, the excretion of the end metabolite of ethylene glycol, oxalic acid (47 +/- 11 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10) differed slightly from that of controls (36 +/- 14 mmol/mol creatinine, mean +/- SD, n = 10). Urinary excretion of ammonia was higher among exposed workers than office workers. The excretion of calcium did not differ from that of controls. A marginally decreased urinary succinate dehydrogenase activity was found in the exposed men. The excretion of glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower in exposed workers. Therefore, it seems that ethylene glycol is absorbed by skin contact. The internal body burden is associated with oxaluria and increased ammoniagenesis typical of chronic acidosis.

  4. Ethylene glycol oxidation on Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticle decorated polythiophene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, Vaithilingam; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2008-01-01

    A novel supporting material containing polythiophene (PTh) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (PTh-CNTs) is prepared by in situ polymerization of thiophene on carbon nanotubes using FeCl 3 as oxidizing agent under sonication. The prepared polythiophene/CNT composites are further decorated with Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles by chemical reduction of the corresponding metal salts using HCHO as reducing agent at pH = 11 (Pt/PTh-CNT and Pt-Ru/PTh-CNT). The fabricated composite films decorated with nanoparticles were investigated towards the electrochemical oxidation of ethylene glycol (EG). The presence of carbon nanotubes in conjugation with a conducting polymer produces a good catalytic effect, which might be due to the higher electrochemically accessible surface areas, electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces, which allows higher dispersion of Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles. Such nanoparticle modified PTh-CNT electrodes exhibit better catalytic behavior towards ethylene glycol oxidation. Results show that Pt/PTh-CNT and Pt-Ru/PTh-CNT modified electrodes show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol than the Pt/PTh electrodes, which shows that the composite film is more promising for applications in fuel cells

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasu, M; Anandan, M; Chinnasamy, E; Gopinath, V; Balamurugan, K

    2015-01-25

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. With polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a stabilizer and dispersant. The X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results show that the cubic inverse spinel structure of pure phase polycrystalline Fe3O4 was obtained. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) results exhibited that the resulted Fe3O4 nanoparticles were roughly spherical in shape with narrow size distribution and homogenous shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results suggested that PEG indicated with Fe3O4 via its carbonyl groups. Results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) indicated that the prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior and high saturation magnetization at room temperature. Such Fe3O4 nanoparticles with favorable size and tunable magnetic properties are promising biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol...

  7. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  8. New hybrid nanofluid containing encapsulated paraffin wax and sand nanoparticles in propylene glycol-water mixture: Potential heat transfer fluid for energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, S.; Rajan, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid nanofluid containing sand nanoparticles & encapsulated paraffin wax prepared. • Specific heat of hybrid nanofluid 9% greater than that of PG-water mixture. • Specific heat & thermal conductivity enhanced at optimum paraffin wax concentration. • Hybrid nanofluid with 1 wt.% paraffin wax & 1 vol% sand nanoparticles best suited. - Abstract: The reduction in specific heat commonly encountered due to the addition of nanoparticles to a heat transfer fluid such as propylene glycol-water mixture, can be overcome by co-dispersing surfactant-encapsulated paraffin wax, leading to formation of a hybrid nanofluid. Experimental investigations have been carried out on the preparation and evaluation of thermophysical properties of a hybrid nanofluid containing pluronic P-123 encapsulated paraffin wax (70–120 nm diameter, 1–5 wt.%) and sand nanoparticles (1 vol%) in propylene glycol-water mixture. The comparison of results of differential scanning calorimetry of pure paraffin wax and encapsulated paraffin wax revealed encapsulation efficiency of 84.4%. The specific heat of hybrid nanofluids monotonously increased with paraffin wax concentration, with 9.1% enhancement in specific heat for hybrid nanofluid containing 5 wt.% paraffin wax, in comparison to propylene glycol-water mixture. There exists an optimum paraffin wax concentration (1 wt.%) for the hybrid nanofluid at which the combination of various thermophysical properties such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and viscosity are favorable for use as heat transfer fluid. Such a hybrid nanofluid can be used as a substitute for propylene glycol-water mixture in solar thermal systems.

  9. Optimal preparation-to-colonoscopy interval in split-dose PEG bowel preparation determines satisfactory bowel preparation quality: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hee; Kim, Tae Oh; Park, Min Jae; Joo, Hee Rin; Heo, Nae Yun; Park, Jongha; Park, Seung Ha; Yang, Sung Yeon; Moon, Young Soo

    2012-03-01

    Several factors influence bowel preparation quality. Recent studies have indicated that the time interval between bowel preparation and the start of colonoscopy is also important in determining bowel preparation quality. To evaluate the influence of the preparation-to-colonoscopy (PC) interval (the interval of time between the last polyethylene glycol dose ingestion and the start of the colonoscopy) on bowel preparation quality in the split-dose method for colonoscopy. Prospective observational study. University medical center. A total of 366 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. Split-dose bowel preparation and colonoscopy. The quality of bowel preparation was assessed by using the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale according to the PC interval, and other factors that might influence bowel preparation quality were analyzed. Colonoscopies with a PC interval of 3 to 5 hours had the best bowel preparation quality score in the whole, right, mid, and rectosigmoid colon according to the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale. In multivariate analysis, the PC interval (odds ratio [OR] 1.85; 95% CI, 1.18-2.86), the amount of PEG ingested (OR 4.34; 95% CI, 1.08-16.66), and compliance with diet instructions (OR 2.22l 95% CI, 1.33-3.70) were significant contributors to satisfactory bowel preparation. Nonrandomized controlled, single-center trial. The optimal time interval between the last dose of the agent and the start of colonoscopy is one of the important factors to determine satisfactory bowel preparation quality in split-dose polyethylene glycol bowel preparation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Foamed oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) hydrogels as versatile prefabricated scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Matthias; Baumer, Julia; Blunk, Torsten; Tessmar, Joerg

    2014-03-01

    Radically cross-linked hydrogels are frequently used as cell carriers due to their excellent biocompatibility and their tissue-like mechanical properties. Through frequent investigation, PEG-based polymers such as oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate [OPF] have proven to be especially suitable as cell carriers by encapsulating cells during hydrogel formation. In some cases, NaCl or biodegradable gelatin microparticles were added prior to cross-linking in order to provide space for the proliferating cells, which would otherwise stay embedded in the hydrogel matrix. However, all of these immediate cross-linking procedures involve time consuming sample preparation and sterilization directly before cell culture and often show notable swelling after their preparation. In this study, ready to use OPF-hydrogel scaffolds were prepared by gas foaming, freeze drying, individual packing into bags and subsequent γ-sterilization. The scaffolds could be stored and used "off-the-shelf" without any need for further processing prior to cell culture. Thus the handling was simplified and the sterility of the cell carrier was assured. Further improvement of the gel system was achieved using a two component injectable system, which may be used for homogenous injection molding in order to create individually shaped three dimensional scaffolds. In order to evaluate the suitability of the scaffolds for tissue engineering, constructs were seeded with juvenile bovine chondrocytes and cultured for 28 days. Cross-sections of the respective constructs showed an intense and homogenous red staining of GAG with safranin O, indicating a homogenous cell distribution within the scaffolds and the production of substantial amounts of GAG-rich matrix. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. End-group characterisation of poly(propylene glycol)s by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony T; Slade, Susan E; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H

    2008-10-01

    The end-group functionalisation of a series of poly(propylene glycol)s has been characterised by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A series of peaks with mass-to-charge ratios that are close to that of the precursor ion were used to generate information on the end-group functionalities of the poly(propylene glycol)s. Fragment ions resulting from losses of both of the end groups were noted from some of the samples. An example is presented of how software can be used to significantly reduce the length of time involved in data interpretation (which is typically the most time-consuming part of the analysis).

  12. Noncovalent pegylation by dansyl-poly(ethylene glycol)s as a new means against aggregation of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit

    2011-05-01

    During all stages of protein drug development, aggregation is one of the most often encountered problems. Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), also called PEGylation, to proteins has been shown to reduce aggregation of proteins. In this paper, new excipients based on PEG are presented that are able to reduce aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Several PEG polymers consisting of a hydrophobic dansyl-headgroup attached to PEGs of different molecular weights have been synthesized and characterized physicochemically. After addition of dansyl-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) 2 kDa to a 40 times molar excess of sCT resulted in an increase in dansyl-fluorescence and a decrease in 90° light scatter suggesting possible interactions. The aggregation of sCT in different buffer systems in presence or absence of the different dansyl-PEGs was measured by changes in Nile red fluorescence and turbidity. Dansyl-mPEG 2 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio to sCT strongly reduced aggregation. Reduction of sCT aggregation was also measured for the bivalent dansyl-PEG 3 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio. Dansyl-mPEG 5 kDa deteriorated sCT aggregation. Potential cytotoxicity and hemolysis were investigated. This paper shows that dansyl-PEGs are efficacious in reducing aggregation of sCT. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Letcher, Trevor M.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • γ 13 ∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  14. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  15. New Perspective in the Formulation and Characterization of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide (DMAB Stabilized Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gossmann

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades the establishment of nanoparticles as suitable drug carriers with the transport of drugs across biological barriers such as the gastrointestinal barrier moved into the focus of many research groups. Besides drug transport such carrier systems are well suited for the protection of drugs against enzymatic and chemical degradation. The preparation of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is intensively described in literature, while especially nanoparticles with cationic properties show a promising increased cellular uptake. This is due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surface and the negatively charged lipid membrane of the cells. Even though several studies achieved the successful preparation of nanoparticles stabilized with the cationic surfactants such as didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB, in most cases insufficient attention was paid to a precise analytical characterization of the nanoparticle system. The aim of the present work was to overcome this deficit by presenting a new perspective in the formulation and characterization of DMAB-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles. Therefore these nanoparticles were carefully examined with regard to particle diameter, zeta potential, the effect of variation in stabilizer concentration, residual DMAB content, and electrolyte stability. Without any steric stabilization, the DMAB-modified nanoparticles were sensitive to typical electrolyte concentrations of biological environments due to compression of the electrical double layer in conjunction with a decrease in zeta potential. To handle this problem, the present study proposed two modifications to enable electrolyte stability. Both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polyethylene glycol (PEG modified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles were stable during electrolyte addition. Furthermore, in contrast to unmodified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles and free DMAB, such modifications led to

  16. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R

    2010-01-01

    proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile...

  17. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Manuel; Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Perez, Juan Manuel; Rodes, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  18. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  19. Polyalkylene glycols, base fluids for special lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Polyalkylenglykole, Basisoele fuer Spezialschmierstoffe und Hydraulikfluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellmann, K. [Clariant GmbH (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    For many years polyalkylene glycols have been used as base fluids for special lubricants. In this matter they compete with polyol esters and polyalphaolefines. Synthesis of polyalkylen glycols is founded upon the anionic polymerisation of ethyleneoxid, propyleneoxid and if necessary of other oxigen-containing monomeres. The flexibility of this synthesis is the reason that polyalkylene glycole is a collective term, including a broad group of base fluids with partly extreme different properties. Typical for polyalkylene glycols is a high viscosity-index, watersolubility and adsorbing power for water, low friction numbers, but also the incompatibility with current mineral-oil-soluble additive systems. Because of this quality profile there has been developped specific niche-applications in the lubricant-area for polyalkylene glycols in the last 30 years, where each of the specific benefits has been used. Among them are watercontaining HFC hydraulicfluids, refrigerator oils, and oils for ethylene-compressors. HFC fluids are formulated with high-viscous, water-soluble polyalkylene glycols. For refrigerator oils in motor-car conditioning the R 134A compatibility of water-insoluble polyalkylene glycols is essential. For the use in ethylene-compressors the crucial point is the insolubility of polyalkylene glycol in ethylene. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  1. Sludge batch 9 follow-on actual-waste testing for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-23

    An actual-waste Sludge Batch 9 qualification run with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet (SC-18) was performed in FY16. In order to supplement the knowledge base for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, additional testing was performed on the product slurries, condensates, and intermediate samples from run SC-18.

  2. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the system (propylene glycol + water + tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Shazad, Maryam; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is an important low toxic glycol, widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and the chemical industries. The recovery of PG from aqueous streams using conventional unit operations such as evaporation is highly energy demanding because of the large amounts of water that

  3. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose. Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol.

  4. Separation and quantitation of polyethylene glycols 400 and 3350 from human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C M; Yarmush, M L; Tompkins, R G

    1992-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) is useful as an orally administered probe to measure in vivo intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Previous methods to detect polyethylene glycol (PEG) excreted in the urine have been hampered by inherent inaccuracies associated with liquid-liquid extraction and turbidimetric analysis. For accurate quantitation by previous methods, radioactive labels were required. This paper describes a method to separate and quantitate PEG 3350 and PEG 400 in human urine that is independent of radioactive labels and is accurate in clinical practice. The method uses sized regenerated cellulose membranes and mixed ion-exchange resin for sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection for analysis. The 24-h excretion for normal individuals after an oral dose of 40 g of PEG 3350 and 5 g of PEG 400 was 0.12 +/- 0.04% of the original dose of PEG 3350 and 26.3 +/- 5.1% of the original dose of PEG 400.

  5. Gd-labeled glycol chitosan as a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging agent for detecting acidic tumor microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwe, Kido; Huang, Ching-Hui; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2013-10-24

    Neoplastic lesions can create a hostile tumor microenvironment with low extracellular pH. It is commonly believed that these conditions can contribute to tumor progression as well as resistance to therapy. We report the development and characterization of a pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for imaging the acidic tumor microenvironment. The preparation included the conjugation of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid 1-(2,5-dioxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) ester (DOTA-NHS) to the surface of a water-soluble glycol chitosan (GC) polymer, which contains pH-titrable primary amines, followed by gadolinium complexation (GC-NH2-GdDOTA). GC-NH2-GdDOTA had a chelate-to-polymer ratio of approximately1:24 and a molar relaxivity of 9.1 mM(-1) s(-1). GC-NH2-GdDOTA demonstrated pH-dependent cellular association in vitro compared to the control. It also generated a 2.4-fold enhancement in signal in tumor-bearing mice 2 h postinjection. These findings suggest that glycol chitosan coupled with contrast agents can provide important diagnostic information about the tumor microenvironment.

  6. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj, E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Geranpayeh, Tanya [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chu, Wei Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Otteson, Deborah C. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Basic and Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  7. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj; Geranpayeh, Tanya; Chu, Wei Kan; Otteson, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 ), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  8. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated chondroitin sulfate A derivative nanoparticles for tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Lee, Song Yi; Chung, Suk-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2016-10-20

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-decorated chondroitin sulfate A-deoxycholic acid (CSD) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated for the selective delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to ovarian cancer. CSD-PEG was synthesized via amide bond formation between the NH2 group of methoxypolyethylene glycol amine and the COOH group of CSD. CSD-PEG/DOX NPs with a 247nm mean diameter, negative zeta potential, and >90% drug encapsulation efficiency were prepared. Sustained and pH-dependent DOX release profiles from CSD-PEG NPs were observed in dissolution tests. Endocytosis of NPs by SKOV-3 cells (CD44 receptor-positive human ovarian cancer cells), based on the CSA-CD44 receptor interaction, was determined by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies. PEGylation of NPs also resulted in reduced drug clearance (CL) in vivo and improved relative bioavailability, compared to non-PEGylated NPs, as determined by the pharmacokinetic study performed after intravenous administration in rats. Developed CSD-PEG NPs can be a promising delivery vehicle for the therapy of CD44 receptor-expressing ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  10. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  11. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  12. Quasielastic neutron scattering and microscopic dynamics of liquid ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, O. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, BP 53, Maison des Geosciences - Domaine Universitaire, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Oleg.Sobolev@ujf-grenoble.fr; Novikov, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Sq. 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Reg. 249033 (Russian Federation); Pieper, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17, Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) by liquid ethylene glycol was analyzed using different model approaches. It was found that approximation of the QENS spectra by a set of Lorentzian functions corresponding to the translational and rotational motions produce physically unrealistic results. At the same time, the Fourier transform of the stretched-exponential function exp(-(t/{tau}){sup {beta}}) fits the experimental data well, and results of the fit are in good agreement with those obtained earlier for other systems. The stretching parameter {beta} was found Q independent and shows weak temperature dependence. The mean relaxation time as a function of Q departs strongly from the simple diffusion low and can be approximated by a power law <{tau}{sub w}> = {tau}{sub 0}Q{sup -{gamma}} with the exponent parameter {gamma} = 2.4.

  13. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  14. Phase Diagram of the Ethylene Glycol-Dimethylsulfoxide System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonina, I. A.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Kiselev, M. R.; Khoroshilov, A. V.; Shirokova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The phase diagram of ethylene glycol (EG)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system is studied in the temperature range of +25 to -140°C via differential scanning calorimetry. It is established that the EG-DMSO system is characterized by strong overcooling of the liquid phase, a glass transition at -125°C, and the formation of a compound with the composition of DMSO · 2EG. This composition has a melting temperature of -60°C, which is close to those of neighboring eutectics (-75 and -70°C). A drop in the baseline was observed in the temperature range of 8 to -5°C at DMSO concentrations of 5-50 mol %, indicating the existence of a phase separation area in the investigated system. The obtained data is compared to the literature data on the H2O-DMSO phase diagram.

  15. Definitive characterization of human thymine glycol N-glycosylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, S.A.; Frenkel, K.; Cummings, A.; Teebor, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    An N-glycosylase activity that released cis-[ 3 H]-5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol, TG) from chemically oxidized poly(dA-[ 3 H]dT) was unambiguously characterized both in extracts of HeLa cells and in purified Escherichia coli endonuclease III. This was accomplished by use of a microderivatization procedure that quantitatively converted cis-TG to 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin (HMH). The reaction products were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography before and after derivation by using cis-[ 14 C]TG and [ 14 C]HMH, which had been independently synthesized, as reference compounds. This technique facilitated construction of a v/[E]/sub t/ plot for the enzyme activity in HeLa cells, permitting estimation of its specific activity. The results obtained prove the existence of both human and bacterial N-glycosylase activities that effect removal of TG from DNA

  16. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  17. Simulation of polyethylene glycol and calcium-mediated membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; De Jong, Djurre H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Raudino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca 2+ by means of a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach. Our data provide a detailed view on the role of cations and polymer in modulating the interaction between negatively charged apposed membranes. The PEG chains cause a reduction of the inter-lamellar distance and cause an increase in concentration of divalent cations. When thermally driven fluctuations bring the membranes at close contact, a switch from cis to trans Ca 2+ -lipid complexes stabilizes a focal contact acting as a nucleation site for further expansion of the adhesion region. Flipping of lipid tails induces subsequent stalk formation. Together, our results provide a molecular explanation for the synergistic effect of Ca 2+ and PEG on membrane fusion

  18. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  19. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) analogues for membrane protein study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul; Gotfryd, Kamil; Lee, Ho Jin; Go, Juyeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Loland, Claus J; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-05-07

    Detergents are typically used to both extract membrane proteins (MPs) from the lipid bilayers and maintain them in solution. However, MPs encapsulated in detergent micelles are often prone to denaturation and aggregation. Thus, the development of novel agents with enhanced stabilization characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characterised their properties using selected MPs. Most MNGs were superior to a conventional detergent, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), in terms of membrane protein stabilization efficacy. Interestingly, optimal stabilization was achieved with different MNG-3 analogues depending on the target MP. The origin for such detergent specificity could be explained by a novel concept: compatibility between detergent hydrophobicity and MP tendency to denature and aggregate. This set of MNGs represents viable alternatives to currently available detergents for handling MPs, and can be also used as tools to estimate MP sensitivity to denaturation and aggregation.

  20. Phase transition of neopentyl glycol in nanopores for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Qifeng; Wang, Liping; Lan, Xiaozheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NPG nanocomposites in porous glass (d = 11.5–300 nm) are prepared. • Solid transition temperature of the nanocomposites can be tuned to ∼11 °C below the bulk. • Latent heat of the pore NPG varies in the range of 65.5–99.6% of the bulk value. • Nanoconfinement provides a way of reusing those ideal heat storage materials. - Abstract: Size-dependent thermal properties of neopentyl glycol (NPG) embedded in controlled porous glasses (CPGs) are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the nanopores of CPGs (diameter d = 11.5–300 nm), NPG shows depressed solid–solid and solid–liquid phase transition temperatures and latent heats, which decrease as the pore size becomes smaller. In thermal cycling around the solid transition, the nano-sized NPG display stable transition temperature and enthalpy change as the bulk. Supercooling in the solid transition increases with the decreasing pore diameter (d > 25 nm). From FT-IR and XRD analysis, NPG in the nanopores maintains the same structure as the bulk. The nanoencapsulated NPG is analogous to a series of new phase change materials (PCMs), through which the ideal heat storage performance of the bulk may be handed down.

  1. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement of asphalt binder by using methylmethacrylate/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ragab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various polymer-modified asphalt compositions for paving and roofing applications are known since several years ago. The degree to which a polymer improves the asphalt’s properties depends on the compatibility of the polymer and the asphalt. Highly compatible polymers are more effective in providing property improvements. In this research, the influence of in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomer with asphalt in presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM as a crosslinker on the rheological and thermal properties of asphalt binder of type penetration grade 60/70 was studied. To achieve this aim, MMA/EGDM(MC in different ratios as 5, 10 and 15% (w/w were used to modify the thermo-mechanical properties of asphalt via forming chemical bond, and the changing in mechanical and thermal properties, of the mixes as well as the storage stability were studied. Also, the morphology (SEM, thermal characterization (TGA, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, bending and rheological tests were detected. The obtained experimental results revealed that the addition of MC causes both the rheological and thermal properties of the binder to improve and the prepared PMAs has high temperature susceptibility and low curing time. The improvement in the properties of the virgin asphalt will be effective in using this soft type in coating applications instead of highly expensive oxidized one.

  2. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol by Chemical Reduction with Vanadium (+2 Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pietro Reverberi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, giving a size distribution in the range of 40–50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.

  3. Membranes of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) Modified by Poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Gisela; Neumann, Silvio; Filiz, Volkan

    2017-06-05

    Until now, the leading polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 has become quite famous for its high membrane permeability for many gases in gas separation, linked, however, to a rather moderate selectivity. The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on the one hand reduce permeability, while on the other hand enhance selectivity, especially for the polar gas CO₂ by improving the hydrophilicity of the membranes. Four different paths to combine PIM-1 with PEG or poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were studied: physically blending, quenching of polycondensation, synthesis of multiblock copolymers and synthesis of copolymers with PEO/PPO side chain. Blends and new, chemically linked polymers were successfully formed into free standing dense membranes and measured in single gas permeation of N₂, O₂, CO₂ and CH₄ by time lag method. As expected, permeability was lowered by any substantial addition of PEG/PEO/PPO regardless the manufacturing process and proportionally to the added amount. About 6 to 7 wt % of PEG/PEO/PPO added to PIM-1 halved permeability compared to PIM-1 membrane prepared under similar conditions. Consequently, selectivity from single gas measurements increased up to values of about 30 for CO₂/N₂ gas pair, a maximum of 18 for CO₂/CH₄ and 3.5 for O₂/N₂.

  4. Electrospun phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol/cellulose acetate blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Changzhong; Wang, Linge; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ultrafine PEG/CA phase change fibers were fabricated by electrospinning. → PEG content dramatically influenced the fiber morphology and phase change behaviors. → The electrospun fibers have excellent thermal properties for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: Ultrafine phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)/cellulose acetate (CA) blends in which PEG acts as a model phase change material (PCM) and CA acts as a supporting material, were successfully prepared via electrospinning. The effect of PEG content on the morphology, crystalline properties, phase change behaviors and tensile properties of the composite fibers was studied systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a tensile tester, respectively. The SEM observation indicates that maximum PEG content in the fibers could reach up to 70 wt%, and the morphology and average diameter of the composite fibers vary with PEG content. Thermal analysis results show that the latent heats of the phase change fibers increase with the increasing of PEG content in the fibers, and the PEG/CA fibers with high enthalpies have a good capability to regulate their interior temperature as the ambient temperature alters. Therefore, the developed phase change fibers have enormous applicable potentials in thermal energy storage and temperature regulation.

  5. Drying and storage effects on poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, P T; Browning, M B; Bixler, R S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their ability to control cell-material interactions by tuning hydrogel physical and biological properties. Evaluation of stability after drying and storage are critical in creating an off-the-shelf biomaterial that functions in vivo according to original specifications. However, there has not been a study that systematically investigates the effects of different drying conditions on hydrogel compositional variables. In the first part of this study, PEG-diacrylate hydrogels underwent common processing procedures (vacuum-drying, lyophilizing, hydrating then vacuum-drying), and the effect of this processing on the mechanical properties and swelling ratios was measured. Significant changes in compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and swelling ratio only occurred for select processed hydrogels. No consistent trends were observed after processing for any of the formulations tested. The effect of storage conditions on cell adhesion and spreading on collagen- and streptococcal collagen-like protein (Scl2-2)-PEG-diacrylamide hydrogels was then evaluated to characterize bioactivity retention after storage. Dry storage conditions preserved bioactivity after 6 weeks of storage; whereas, storage in PBS significantly reduced bioactivity. This loss of bioactivity was attributed to ester hydrolysis of the protein linker, acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide. These studies demonstrate that these processing methods and dry storage conditions may be used to prepare bioactive PEG hydrogel scaffolds with recoverable functionality after storage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phase transition of neopentyl glycol in nanopores for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Qifeng; Wang, Liping; Lan, Xiaozheng, E-mail: lanxzh@sdau.edu.cn

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • NPG nanocomposites in porous glass (d = 11.5–300 nm) are prepared. • Solid transition temperature of the nanocomposites can be tuned to ∼11 °C below the bulk. • Latent heat of the pore NPG varies in the range of 65.5–99.6% of the bulk value. • Nanoconfinement provides a way of reusing those ideal heat storage materials. - Abstract: Size-dependent thermal properties of neopentyl glycol (NPG) embedded in controlled porous glasses (CPGs) are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the nanopores of CPGs (diameter d = 11.5–300 nm), NPG shows depressed solid–solid and solid–liquid phase transition temperatures and latent heats, which decrease as the pore size becomes smaller. In thermal cycling around the solid transition, the nano-sized NPG display stable transition temperature and enthalpy change as the bulk. Supercooling in the solid transition increases with the decreasing pore diameter (d > 25 nm). From FT-IR and XRD analysis, NPG in the nanopores maintains the same structure as the bulk. The nanoencapsulated NPG is analogous to a series of new phase change materials (PCMs), through which the ideal heat storage performance of the bulk may be handed down.

  7. Solubilization of poorly soluble photosensitizer hypericin by polymeric micelles and polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búzová, Diana; Kasák, Peter; Miškovský, Pavol; Jancura, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Hypericin (Hyp) is a promising photosensitizer for photodiagnostic and photodynamic therapy of cancer. However, Hyp has a large conjugated system and in aqueous solutions forms insoluble aggregates which do not possess biological activity. This makes intravenous injection of Hyp problematic and restricts its medical applications. To overcome this problem, Hyp is incorporated into drug delivery systems which can increase its solubility and bioavailability. One of the possibilities is utilization of polymeric micelles. The most used hydrophilic block for preparation of polymeric micelles is polyethylen glycol (PEG). PEG is a polymer which for its lack of immunogenicity, antigenicity and toxicity obtained approval for use in human medicine. In this work we have studied the solubilization of Hyp aggregates in the presence of PEG-PE and PEG-cholesterol micelles. The concentration of polymeric micelles which allows total monomerization of Hyp corresponds to the critical micellar concentration of these micelles (~10(-6) M). We have also investigated the effect of the molecular weight and concentration of PEG on the transition of aggregated Hyp to its monomeric form. PEGs with low molecular weight ( 2000 g/mol efficiently transform Hyp aggregates to the monomeric state of this photosensitizer.

  8. Surface Modification of Asymmetric Polysulfone/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes by DC Ar-Glow Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalad Yuenyao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone/polyethylene glycol (PSF/PEG membranes were prepared by dry/wet phase inversion method. Effects of direct current glow discharge plasma using argon as working gas on morphological structures and gas separation properties of membranes were studied. Alteration of membrane characteristics were analyzed by various techniques like contact angle, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Gas separation properties were measured in terms of permeation and ideal O2/N2 selectivity. Results showed that hydrophilic and gas separation properties of PSF/PEG membranes increased by plasma surface modification. It was also shown that the dosage of PEG and plasma treatment affected the morphological structures and mechanical and gas separation properties. The macro voids and transmembrane structure disappeared with a little amount of PEG dosage. Pore size and mechanical strength tend to decrease with increasing PEG dosage up to 10 wt%. Glass transition temperature (Tg receded from 201.8 to 143.7°C for pure PSF and PSF/PEG with PEG dosage of 10 wt%. O2 and N2 gases permeation through the 10-minute plasma treated membranes tend to increase. However, the permeation strongly dispersed when treatment time was more extended.

  9. Polyethylene Glycol Based Graphene Aerogel Confined Phase Change Materials with High Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xiong, Weilai; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinghua; Mei, Tao; Wang, Xianbao

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based graphene aerogel (GA) confined shaped-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) are simply prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. Three-dimensional GA inserted by PEG molecule chains, as a supporting material, obtained by reducing graphene oxide sheets, is used to keep their stabilized shape during a phase change process. The volume of GA is obviously expended after adding PEG, and only 9.8 wt% of GA make the composite achieve high energy efficiency without leakage during their phase change because of hydrogen bonding widely existing in the GA/PEG composites (GA-PCMs). The heat storage energy of GA-PCMs is 164.9 J/g, which is 90.2% of the phase change enthalpy of pure PEG. In addition, this composite inherits the natural thermal properties of graphene and thus shows enhanced thermal conductivity compared with pure PEG. This novel study provides an efficient way to fabricate shape-stabilized PCMs with a high content of PEG for thermal energy storage.

  10. Facile Synthesis Polyethylene Glycol Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles for High Colloidal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Foong Tai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG is one of the most frequently used synthetic polymers for surface modifications of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs to provide a new opportunity for constructing high colloidal stability. Herein, a facile in situ coprecipitation technique is described for the synthesis of PEG coated MNPs using ammonium hydroxide as the precipitating agent. The structure and morphology of the prepared PEG coated MNPs samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. In this study, all samples demonstrated hydrodynamic size in the range of 32 to 43 nm with narrow size distribution. In addition, the magnetic properties of resultant samples were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM to reveal the superparamagnetic behaviour with saturation magnetization. The saturation magnetization of PEG coated MNPs samples was in the range of 63 to 66 emu/g at 300 K. Interestingly, it was found that 1.0 g of PEG coated MNPs exhibited high colloidal stability in a basic solution (pH = 10 and nitrile (NBR latex up to 21 days as compared to the unmodified MNPs during the sedimentation test.

  11. Dielectric Properties of Boron Nitride-Ethylene Glycol (BN-EG) Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Jacek; Cholewa, Marian; Gizowska, Magdalena; Witek, Adam; ŻyŁa, GaweŁ

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of the dielectric properties of ethylene glycol (EG) with various load of boron nitride (BN) nanoparticles. The nanofuids were prepared by using a two-step method on the basis of commercially available BN nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out using the Concept 80 System (NOVOCONTROL Technologies GmbH & Co. KG, Montabaur, Germany) in a frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 MHz and temperatures from 278.15 K to 328.15 K. The frequency-dependent real (ɛ ^' }) and imaginary (ɛ ^' ' }) parts of the complex permittivity (ɛ ^*) and the alternating current (AC) conductivity are presented. Also, the effect of temperature and mass concentrations on the dielectric properties of BN-EG nanofluids are demonstrated. The results show that the most significant increase can be achieved for 20 wt.% of BN nanoparticles at 283.15 K and 288.15 K, that is eleven times larger than in the case of pure EG.

  12. Thermal property and assessment of biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/graphene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta R.; Rusakova, Irene; Chu, Wei-Kan; Haleh, Ardebili; Luisi, Jonathan; Panova, Neli I.; Laezza, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-matrix nanocomposites based on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and Graphene platelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs, nanomaterials with a 2D flat surface, were chosen with or without chemical modification in PLGA/GNP nanocomposites and their microstructure, thermal property, and their compatibility as scaffolds for cell growth were investigated. PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % of GNPs) were prepared using a solution based technique. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimeter, and Thermogravimetric analyzer were used to analyze morphology and thermal properties. This work demonstrated the role of GNPs flat surface to provide a favorable platform resulting in an enhanced PLGA crystallization. Functionalized GNPs suppress both the thermal stability and the crystallization of PLGA. Finally, to determine the potential usefulness of these scaffolds for biomedical applications, mammalian cells were cultured on various PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % GNPs). 1 wt. % PLGA/GNP nanocomposites showed better biocompatibility for cell growth with/without graphenes functionalization compared to pure PLGA and 5 wt. % PLGA/GNP. The function of GNPs in PLGA/GNPs (1 wt. %) composites is to provide a stage for PLGA crystallization where cell growth is favored. These results provide strong evidence for a new class of materials that could be important for biomedical applications

  13. Versatile Route to Synthesize Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol of Variable Functionality for Subsequent Pegylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pegylation using heterotelechelic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG offers many possibilities to create high-performance molecules and materials. A versatile route is proposed to synthesize heterobifunctional PEG containing diverse combinations of azide, amine, thioacetate, thiol, pyridyl disulfide, as well as activated hydroxyl end groups. Asymmetric activation of one hydroxyl end group enables the heterobifunctionalization while applying selective monotosylation of linear, symmetrical PEG as a key step. The azide function is introduced by reacting monotosyl PEG with sodium azide. A thiol end group is obtained by reaction with sodium hydrosulfide. The activation of the hydroxyl end group and subsequent reaction with potassium carbonate/thioacetic acid yields a thioacetate end group. The hydrolysis of the thioester end group by ammonia in presence of 2,2′-dipyridyl disulfide provides PEG pyridyl disulfide. Amine terminated PEG is prepared either by reduction of the azide or by nucleophilic substitution of mesylate terminated PEG using ammonia. In all cases, >95% functionalization of the PEG end groups is achieved. The PEG derivatives particularly support the development of materials for biomedical applications. For example, grafting up to 13% of the Na-alg monomer units with α-amine-ω-thiol PEG maintains the gelling capacity in presence of calcium ions but simultaneous, spontaneous disulfide bond formation reinforces the initial physical hydrogel.

  14. Efficacy of Poly-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Micro- and Nanoparticles of Ciprofloxacin Against Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicky; Thorn, Chelsea; Richter, Katharina; Thierry, Benjamin; Prestidge, Clive

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a number of recurring infectious diseases and are a major cause for antibiotic resistance. Despite the broad use of polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles in biomedical research, it is not clear which particle size is more effective against biofilms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sustained release poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) micro- and nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The PLGA particles were prepared by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The resulting microparticles (12 μm) and nanoparticles (300 nm) contained drug loads of 7.3% and 4.5% (wt/wt) ciprofloxacin, respectively. Drug release was complete within 1 week following comparable release profiles for both particle sizes. Micro- and nanoparticles demonstrated a similar in vitro antibiofilm performance against mature P aeruginosa and S aureus with marked differences between the 2 strains. The sustained release of ciprofloxacin from micro- and nanoparticles over 6 days was equally effective as the continuous treatment with ciprofloxacin solution over the same period resulting in the eradication of culturable S aureus suggesting that reformulation of ciprofloxacin as sustained release PLGA micro- and nanoparticles might be valuable formulation approaches for the treatment of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of quartz melt rate furnace with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to support validation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter offgas flammability model for the Nitric-Glycolic (NG) flowsheet. The work is supplemental to the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) testing conducted in 20141 and the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing conducted in 20162 that supported Deliverable 4 of the DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering Technical Task Request (TTR).3 The Quartz Melt Rate Furnace (QMRF) was evaluated as a bench-scale scoping tool to potentially be used in lieu of or simply prior to the use of the larger-scale SMRF or CEF. The QMRF platform has been used previously to evaluate melt rate behavior and offgas compositions of DWPF glasses prepared from the Nitric-Formic (NF) flowsheet but not for the NG flowsheet and not with continuous feeding.4 The overall objective of the 2016-2017 testing was to evaluate the efficacy of the QMRF as a lab-scale platform for steady state, continuously fed melter testing with the NG flowsheet as an alternative to more expensive and complex testing with the SMRF or CEF platforms.

  16. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro.

  17. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro

  18. Radiation preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer netwoks were prepared using gamma radiation. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used as elastomer and plastomer components respectively. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were also used as the curing agent of SBR and crosslinker for MMA monomer. The resulting IPNs were characterized by evaluating their mechanical properties. The effect of the amount of DCP on the final properties of product was examined. It was found that amount of curing agent had an important role on the properties of obtained IPNS. The results of the mechanical properties of IPNs showed very good synergistic behavior. (Author)

  19. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  20. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  1. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky...

  3. Feasibility of binary composition in development of nanoethosomal glycolic vesicles of triamcinolone acetonide using Box-behnken design: in vitro and ex vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nida; Verma, Anurag; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-09-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) employed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis exhibits limited penetration into the epidermis. This investigation aimed to explore the role of binary solvents in topical drug delivery of TA by developing nanoethosomal glycolic lipid vesicles by infusion method. Screening of vesicles (TA1-TA17) formulated by Box Behnken design identified the optimized formulation (TA10) that was developed as carbomer gels. The gels were then evaluated for pharmaceutical properties and compared with control and reference ethosomal gel (RG). Higher in vitro permeation was found in gels containing TA10, prepared with or without using penetration enhancer (EGP 83.76 ± 0.72% and EG 82.42 ± 0.89%, respectively). CLSM studies depicted deeper uniform penetration of fluorescent tracer into the epidermis via EG as compared with RG and control gel. Enhanced penetration was due to combinational solvent effect exerted by ethanol and propylene glycol. Histological analysis confirmed the non-irritant potential of the gel. Thus, it can be concluded that nanoethosomal glycolic vesicles proved to be an effective non irritant carrier for improvised penetration of triamcinolone acetonide for potential topical therapeutics.

  4. Cu assisted synthesis of self-supported PdCu alloy nanowires with enhanced performances toward ethylene glycol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Shujin; Wang, Jin; Shi, Yuting; Du, Yukou

    2018-03-01

    Self-supported PdCu alloy nanowires fabricated by a facile one-pot method have been reported, which copper assists in the morphological transformation from graininess to nanowires. The copper incorporated with palladium to form alloy structures cannot only cut down the usage of noble metal but also enhance their catalytic performances. The catalysts with self-supported structure and proper ratio of palladium to copper show great activity and long-term stability for the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol in alkaline solution. Especially for Pd43Cu57, its mass activity reaches to 5570.83 mA mg-1, which is 3.12 times as high as commercial Pd/C. This study highlights an accessible strategy to prepare self-supported PdCu alloy nanowires and their potential applications in renewable energy fields.

  5. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of silk fibroin and poly(ethylene glycol) for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, HaeYong; Yeo, Joo-hong; Lee, Kwang-gill; Lee, Hyun Chul; Na, Hee Sam; Won, Young Ho; Cho, Chong Su

    2008-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) composed of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared by photopolymerization of a PEG macromer in the presence of SF to improve the mechanical properties of SF sponge as wound dressing. The morphological structure of the SF/PEG SIPNs was observed to be composed of an interconnected microporous surface and a cross-sectional area. SF/PEG SIPNs showed non-cytotoxicity evaluated by a cell proliferation method using L929 fibroblasts. Wound contraction treated with SF/PEG SIPNs sponges was faster than that of Vaseline gauze as a control. Histological observation confirmed that the deposition of collagen in the dermis was organized by covering the wound area with SF/PEG SIPNs. The above results indicated that SF/PEG SIPNs could be used as wound dressing

  6. Synthesis of Higher Alcohols via Syngas on Cu/Zn/Si Catalysts. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rong-Ji; Yan, Xing; Fan, Jin-Chuan; Huang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Cu/Zn/Si catalysts with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) content were prepared by a complete liquid-phase method, and characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, N2-adsorption, and XPS. The influence of PEG content on the higher alcohols synthesis from syngas was investigated. The results showed that addition of PEG can influence the texture and surface properties of the catalysts, and therefore affect their activity and product distribution. With an increase in PEG content, BET surface area, Cu crystallite size and surface active ingredient content of the catalysts first increased and then decreased, the CO conversion had similar variation tendency. However, the pore volume and pore diameter of the catalyst increased, and the binding energy of the active component and the content of Cu2O decreased, which resulted in higher catalyst selectivity towards higher alcohols. The highest C2+OH selectivity in total alcohols was 60.6 wt %.

  7. The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1992-11-22

    In this paper, we determined whether ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (diEGME) induce hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 220 g were used as experimental animals. EGME (100, 300 mg/kg per day) and diEGME (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg per day) were administered by gavage for 1, 2 or 5 days or 4 weeks. In the 4-week study, experimental animals were administered EGME or diEGME once a day orally, 5 days/week. EGME treatment increased the serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level significantly, however, diEGME did not. The activities of three other enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) in serum were not altered by EGME or diEGME treatment and thus there was no biochemical indices of hepatic damage by EGME or diEGME. EGME treatment increased the GGT activities in the liver and lungs. Of the organs examined, the induction of GGT was the greatest in the liver. The inducibility in the liver was 216% for the 5-day treatment and 460% for the 4-week treatment. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic microsomal GGT activity by EGME was observed. On the other hand, renal GGT activities were declined to 72% and 60% of control by the 5-day and 4-week EGME treatments, respectively. DiEGME did not affect the GGT activities in any of the tissues except those of the brain. In the histochemical study, most hepatocytes at the periportal zones were stained with GGT staining after the 4-week treatment. However, the hepatocytes at the central zones were negative.

  8. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  9. Molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complexes useful as epoxidation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, E.T.; Sanderson, J.R.; Keating, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a clear, storage stable solution of a molybdenum/alkali metal/ethylene glycol complex in ethylene glycol made by the process comprising: reacting at an elevated temperature between about 25 0 and 150 0 C a solid ammonium molybdate or a hydrate thereof and a solid alkali metal molybdate or a hydrate thereof with ethylene glycol, such that the ratio of moles of ethylene glycol to total gram atoms of molybdenum in the molybdates ranges from about 7:10 to 10:1, and the ratio of gram atoms of molybdenum in the ammonium molybdate or hydrate thereof to gram atoms of molybdenum in the alkali metal molybdate is from about 1:1 to about 20:1 to thereby provide a reaction product composed of a solution of an alkali metal-containing complex of molybdenum, alkali metal and ethylene glycol and by-products, including water, in the ethylene glycol and subsequently stripping the solution at a reduced pressure to remove from about 5 to about 25% of the reaction product, as distillate, to thereby provide a storage stable solution of the complex in the ethylene glycol having a molybdenum content of about 6 wt. % to about 20 wt. %, a water concentration of about 0.1 wt. % to about 6 wt. % and an acid number of more than about 60

  10. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  11. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  12. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  13. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  14. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Haghighat, Mahmood; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Ghanbari, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. This study included children with the range of ages (2-21) who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) were used for data analysis. In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%), 36 (94.73%), and 14 (82.35%) of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05). For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Thermophysical Properties of TiO2/Propylene Glycol-Water Nanofluids for Heat-Transfer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leena, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2018-05-01

    Nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles in 70:30% (by weight) water-propylene glycol mixture. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were found experimentally at various temperatures with the volume concentrations 0.1-0.8%. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increases with the volume concentration and temperature. Similarly, the viscosity of the nanofluids increases with the volume concentration but decreases with increase in the temperature. Correlations have been proposed for estimating the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids. The potential heat transfer benefits of their use in laminar and turbulent flow conditions has been explained.

  16. Update: An efficient synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-supported iron(II) porphyrin using a click reaction and its application for the catalytic olefination of aldehydes

    KAUST Repository

    Chinnusamy, Tamilselvi R.

    2012-05-09

    The facile synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-immobilized iron(II) porphyrin using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition "click" reaction is reported. The prepared complex 5 (PEG-C 51H 39FeN 7O) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the selective olefination of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate in the presence of triphenylphosphine, and afforded excellent olefin yields with high (E) selectivities. The PEG-supported catalyst 5 was readily recovered by precipitation and filtration, and was recycled through ten runs without significant activity loss. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Physicochemical properties of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid film modified via blending with poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA/poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (P(BA-co-MMA blend films with different P(BA-co-MMA mole contents were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in chloroform. Surface morphologies of the PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests, and surface contact angle tests. The introduction of P(BA-co-MMA could modify the properties of PLGA films.

  18. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M; Sankar, V

    2009-01-01

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  19. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M [Polymer Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Sankar, V, E-mail: muthujayabalan@rediffmail.co [Division of Cellular and Molecular Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  20. Ineffectiveness of a fluorometric method for identifying irradiated food base on thymine glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.D.; Stepanik, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    At dosages used for food irradiation, some of the thymine present in the DNA of irradiated food may be converted to thymine glycol. A fluorometric assay for thymine glycol was investigated as a possible method of detecting irradiated foods based on this effect. Experiments were performed on homogenates of irradiated chicken breast meat and on DNA isolated from irradiated chicken breast meat. In both cases the assay was subject to interference from one of the reagents, o-aminobenzaldehyde, and lacked the necessary sensitivity to detect the thymine glycol produced by radiolysis of the DNA at relevant dosages

  1. [1-14C]Glycolate metabolism and serine biosynthesis in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, J.; Viala, G.; Latche, J.C.; Cavalie, G.

    1977-01-01

    [1- 14 C]Glycolate metabolism was examined in leafy shoots of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr., var. Adepta). Only small amounts of 14 C were incorporated into evolved carbon dioxide and glucidic compounds. Free and protein glycine was labelled but higher levels of radioactivity were found in free serine. Changes in the distribution of 14 C with time showed that metabolic conversion glycollate → glycine → serine occurred very early and serine biosynthesis was more important in the shoot than in the leaves. Carbon dioxide labelling was always slight compared to serine labelling. These data suggest strong relations between glycollate and nitrogen metabolism

  2. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-05-01

    Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  3. Determination of the impact of glycolate on ARP and MCU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-17

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU).

  4. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  5. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  6. Effect of Copper Nanoparticles Dispersion on Catalytic Performance of Cu/SiO2 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate to Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu/SiO2 catalysts, for the synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG from hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO, were prepared by ammonia-evaporation and sol-gel methods, respectively. The structure, size of copper nanoparticles, copper dispersion, and the surface chemical states were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and N2 adsorption. It is found the structures and catalytic performances of the catalysts were highly affected by the preparation method. The catalyst prepared by sol-gel method had smaller average size of copper nanoparticles (about 3-4 nm, better copper dispersion, higher Cu+/C0 ratio and larger BET surface area, and higher DMO conversion and EG selectivity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  7. Effects of hydrophobic drug-polyesteric core interactions on drug loading and release properties of poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester-poly(ethylene glycol) triblock core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Hassanzadeh, Salman; Goliaie, Bahram

    2007-01-01

    BAB amphiphilic triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (B) (PEG) as the hydrophilic segment and different polyesters (A) as the hydrophobic block were prepared by a polycondensation reaction as efficient model core-shell nanoparticles to assay the effect of interactions between the hydrophobic drug and the polyesteric core in terms of drug loading content and release profile. PEG-poly(hexylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PHA-PEG) and PEG-poly(butylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PBA-PEG) to PEG-poly(ethylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PEA-PEG) core-shell type nanoparticles entrapping quercetin (an anticarcinogenic, allergy inhibitor and antibacterial agent), were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was found that the obtained nanoparticles showed a smooth surface and spherical shape with controllable sizes in the range of 64-74 nm, while drug loading varied from 7.24% to 19% depending on the copolymer composition and the preparation conditions. The in vitro release behaviour exhibited a sustained release and was affected by the polymer-drug interactions. UV studies revealed the presence of hydrogen bonding as the main existing interaction between quercetin and polyesters in the nanosphere cores

  8. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Peters, T.; Shehee, T.

    2012-01-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similarly to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The presence of glycolate did not change the lack

  9. The effect of formulation additives on the properties of films prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Films were prepared by solvent casting method using Terminalia, xanthan gums and hydroxylpropy lmethylcellulose (HPMC). Terminlia was also combined with xanthan, HPMC at different ratios using propylene glycol and glycerol as plaasticizers. The films were characterized using adherence, folding endurance ...

  10. Process for the preparation of a dynamite compositon of the gelatin type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A method is described for preparation of a high explosive composition. The composition is a mixture of a liquid gelatin nitric ester explosive with nitrocellulose and at least 1% by wt of a lower aliphatic glycol together with a salt furnishing dissolved oxygen. The thickener for the mixture is one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) and/or mixtures of them. (2 claims)

  11. Supercritical CO2-assisted preparation of ibuprofen loaded PEG-PVP complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric ratios of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 400) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP, Mw = ±3.1 x 104 & Mw = 1.25 x 106 Mw) were prepared from ethanol cast solutions and in supercritical CO2. The complex formation was studied via glass...

  12. Improved cellular infiltration into nanofibrous electrospun cross-linked gelatin scaffolds templated with micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skotak, Maciej; Ragusa, Jorge; Gonzalez, Daniela; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    Gelatin-based nanofibrous scaffolds with a mean fiber diameter of 300 nm were prepared with and without micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers that served as sacrificial templates. Upon fabrication of the scaffolds via electrospinning, the gelatin fibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and the PEG templates were removed using tert-butanol to yield nanofibrous scaffolds with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 100 μm, as estimated with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Non-templated gelatin-based nanofibrous matrices had an average pore size of 1 μm. Fibroblasts were seeded onto both types of the gelatin-based nanofibrous surfaces and cultured for 14 days. For comparative purposes, chitosan-based and polyurethane-based macroporous scaffolds with pore sizes of 100 and 170 μm, respectively, were also included. The number of cells as a function of the depth into the scaffold was judged and quantitatively assessed using nuclei staining. Cell penetration up to a depth of 250 and 90 μm was noted in gelatin scaffolds prepared with sacrificial templates and gelatin-only nanofibrous scaffolds. Noticeably, scaffold preparation protocol presented here allowed the structural integrity to be maintained even with high template content (95%) and can easily be extended toward other classes of electrospun polymer matrices for tissue engineering.

  13. Pediatric constipation therapy using guidelines and polyethylene glycol 3350.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward A; Wall, Geoffrey C

    2004-04-01

    To review current guidelines on the treatment of functional constipation in pediatric patients, with an emphasis on the role of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350). Primary medical literature published in English was identified by MEDLINE search (1980-May 2003). Recently published treatment guidelines relating to pediatric functional constipation and its pharmacotherapy are assessed and compared. Published trials evaluating PEG 3350 in pediatric subjects are discussed and their results applied to the clinical role and use of this new agent. Constipation is a common disorder among children. A number of factors may play a role. A variety of medications are commonly used for this disorder, although few treatments have undergone evaluation by controlled clinical trials. Consensus guidelines recommend either osmotic laxatives, mineral oil, or their combination for maintenance treatment in concert with patient and parental education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 solution (MiraLax) has been shown in recent clinical studies to be an effective maintenance treatment for pediatric constipation. PEG 3350 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment choice for pediatric constipation, especially as an adjunct to education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 is an option for children with constipation who have failed or are intolerant of other pharmacotherapies.

  14. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  15. Influence of polyethylene glycol on percolation dynamics of reverse microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethu, P. M.; Yadav, Indresh; Aswal, V. K.; Satapathy, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the influence of a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the structure and the percolation dynamics of reverse microemulsions (ME) stabilized by an anionic surfactant AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). The percolation transition of MEs is probed using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). Notably, an increase in percolation temperature is observed by the incorporation of PEG-polymer into larger ME droplets which is explained by considering the model of polymer adsorption at surfactant-water interface. The stability of the droplet phase of microemulsion after the incorporation of PEG is confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. Further, a net decrease in percolation transition temperature is observed with the addition of PEG polymer for smaller ME droplets and is discussed in relation with the destabilization of droplets owing to the polymer induced bridging and the associated clustering of droplets. We conjecture that the adsorption of PEG polymer chains at the surfactant-water interface as well as the PEG-induced bridging of droplets are due to the strong ion-dipole interaction between anionic head group of AOT surfactant and dipoles present in PEG polymer chains.

  16. Detecting Sonolysis of Polyethylene Glycol Upon Functionalizing Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruhung; Murali, Vasanth S; Draper, Rockford

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and related polymers are often used in the solubilization and noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanomaterials by sonication. For example, carbon nanotubes are frequently sonicated with PEG-containing surfactants of the Pluronic ® series or phospholipid-PEG polymers to noncovalently functionalize the nanotubes. However, PEG is very sensitive to degradation upon sonication and the degradation products can be toxic to mammalian cells and to organisms such as zebrafish embryos. It is therefore useful to have a simple and inexpensive method to determine the extent of potential PEG sonolysis, as described in this chapter. Intact PEG polymers and degraded fragments are resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by electrophoresis and visualized by staining with barium iodine (BaI 2 ). Digitized images of gels are acquired using a flatbed photo scanner and the intensities of BaI 2 -stained PEG bands are quantified using ImageJ software. Degradation of PEG polymers after sonication is readily detected by the reduction of band intensities in gels compared to those of non-sonicated, intact PEG polymers. In addition, the approach can be used to rapidly screen various sonication conditions to identify those that might minimize PEG degradation to acceptable levels.

  17. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  18. IR Spectroscopy of Ethylene Glycol Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, E. G.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.; Sirotkin, D. A.

    2018-07-01

    Features of ethylene glycol (EG) solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with low and moderate concentrations (from 2 to 50 mol % of DMSO) are studied by IR spectroscopy on a Bruker Tensor 37 FT-IR spectrometer in the wavenumber range of 400 to 4000 cm-1. The main monitored bands are the S=O stretching vibration band of DMSO (1057 cm-1) and the C-O (1086 and 1041 cm-1) and O-H (3350 cm-1) stretching vibration bands of EG. The obtained data show complex DMSO · 2EG to be present in all solutions with the studied concentrations due to formation of H-bonds between the S=O group of DMSO and the OH group of EG. In the concentration range of 6 to 25 mol % DMSO, the OH stretching vibration of EG is found to be broadened (by up to 70 cm-1), suggesting the strengthening of hydrogen bonds in the spatial network of the system due to the solvophobic effect of DMSO molecules and the formation of DMSO · 2EG. Starting from 25 mol % DMSO, narrowing of the OH stretching vibration is noted, and the bands of free DMSO appear along with the DMSO · 2EG complex, suggesting microseparation in the investigated system. At 50 mol % DMSO, the amounts of free and bound species in the system became comparable.

  19. Prediction of scale potential in ethylene glycol containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandengen, Kristian; Oestvold, Terje

    2006-03-15

    This work presents a method for scale prediction in MEG (Mono Ethylene Glycol / 1,2-ethane-diol) containing solutions. It is based on an existing PVT scale model using a Pitzer ion interaction model for the aqueous phase. The model is well suited for scale prediction in saline solutions, where the PVT part is necessary for calculating CO{sub 2} phase equilibria being critical for carbonate scale. MEG influences the equilibria contained in the model, and its effect has been added empirically. Thus the accuracy of the model is limited by the amount of available experimental data. The model is applicable in the range 0-99wt% MEG and includes a wide variety of salts. In addition to the aspects of scale modelling in MEG+water solutions, this work presents new experimental data on CaSO4 solubility (0-95wt% MEG and 22-80 deg.C). CaSO4 solubility is greatly reduced by MEG to an extent that ''Salting-out'' is possible. (author) (tk)

  20. On the Structure of Holographic Polymer-dispersed Polyethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnkrant, M.; McWilliams, H.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic polymerization (H-P) has been used to fabricate polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and pattern inert nanoparticles. In this article, one-dimensional grating structures of Norland resin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using the H-P technique. Both reflection and transmission grating structures were fabricated. The optical properties of the reflection grating structures (also known as Bragg reflectors, BRs) are thermosensitive, which is attributed to the formation and crystallization of PEG crystals. The thermal switching temperature of the BR can be tuned by using different molecular weight PEG samples. The hierarchical structure and morphology of the BR were studied using synchrotron X-ray, polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PEG crystals were found to be confined in ∼60 nm thick layers in the BR. Upon crystallization, the PEG lamellae were parallel to the BR surfaces and PEG chains were parallel to the BR normal, resembling the confined crystallization behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in PEO-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymers. This observation suggests that the tethering effect in the block copolymer systems does not play a major role in PEG chain orientation in the confined nanoenvironment

  1. A research on polyether glycol replaced APCP rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tianyou; Bao, Chun Jia; Wang, Yiyang

    2017-08-01

    Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing it with black powder. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. For traditional APCP, ingredients normally used are ammonium peroxide, aluminum, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB), curing agency and other additives, the greatest disadvantage is that the fuel is too expensive. According to the price we collected in our country, a single kilogram of this fuel will cost 200 Yuan, which is about 35 dollars, for a fan who may use tons of the fuel in a single year, it definitely is a great deal of money. For this reason, we invented a new kind of APCP fuel. Changing adhesive agency from cross-linked htpb to cross linked polyether glycol gives a similar specific thrust, density and mechanical property while costs a lower price.

  2. Electrodeposition of amine-terminatedpoly(ethylene glycol) to titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Doi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Asami, Katsuhiko; Imai, Hachiro; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The immobilization of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, to a solid surface is useful to functionalize the surface, e.g., to prevent the adsorption of proteins. No successful one-stage technique for the immobilization of PEG to base metals has ever been developed. In this study, PEG in which both terminals or one terminal had been modified with amine bases was immobilized onto a titanium surface using electrodeposition. PEG was dissolved in a NaCl solution, and electrodeposition was carried out at 310 K with - 5 V for 300 min. The thickness of the deposited PEG layer was evaluated using ellipsometry, and the bonding manner of PEG to the titanium surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after electrodeposition. The results indicated that a certain amount of PEG was adsorbed on titanium through both electrodeposition and immersion when PEG was terminated by amine. However, terminated amines existed at the surface of titanium and were combined with titanium oxide as N-HO by electrodeposition, while amines randomly existed in the molecule and showed an ionic bond with titanium oxide by immersion. The electrodeposition of PEG was effective for the inhibition of albumin adsorption. This process is useful for materials that have electroconductivity and a complex morphology

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. Biomedical Applications of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized Using Hetero-Bifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol) Spacer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Wei; Shenoy, Dinesh; Li, Jane; Crasto, Curtis; Jones, Graham; Dimarzio, Charles; Sridhar, Srinivas; Amiji, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    To increase the targeting potential, circulation time, and the flexibility of surface-attached biomedically-relevant ligands on gold nanoparticles, hetero-bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW 1,500...

  5. Synthesis of glycolic acid-1-14C of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple procedure is described which efficiently converts traces of 14 C labelled cyanide present as a dilute solution into glycolic acid-1- 14 C with more than 85% radiochemical recovery and of high specific activity. (author)

  6. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  7. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin; Sun, Miao; Ma, Xiaohua; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which

  8. Material compatibility evaluataion for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I; Skidmore, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction: For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 deg C; For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 deg C); For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available; and, For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive

  9. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and properties of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin-type Al13 chloride

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Bin; Sun, Chenglin; Fettinger, James C.; Casey, William H.; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Gascon, Jorge; Koichumanova, Kamila; Babu Sai Sankar Gupta, Karthick; Jan Heeres, Hero; He, Songbo

    2018-01-01

    Herein we present the first example of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin Al13 chloride (gl-ε-Al13), which is the first chelated version since discovery of Al13 in 1960. The molecular structure consists of [AlO4Al12(OH)12(OC2H4OH)12]Cl7·H2O units with chelating mono-anionic ethylene glycol units replacing one bridging and one terminal oxygen site.

  11. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; García, L. C.; Rodríguez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  12. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  13. Synthesis, characterization and properties of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin-type Al13 chloride

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Bin

    2018-03-29

    Herein we present the first example of a glycol-coordinated ε-Keggin Al13 chloride (gl-ε-Al13), which is the first chelated version since discovery of Al13 in 1960. The molecular structure consists of [AlO4Al12(OH)12(OC2H4OH)12]Cl7·H2O units with chelating mono-anionic ethylene glycol units replacing one bridging and one terminal oxygen site.

  14. Unwell after drinking homemade alcohol – A case of ethylene glycol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Laher, A.E.; Goldstein, L.N.; Wells, M.D.; Dufourq, N.; Moodley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning can have catastrophic consequences that may result in death. Case report: Three young men presented to the Emergency Centre (EC) with a main complaint of feeling unwell after consuming “homemade alcohol”. A fourth person had died at home an hour earlier. Blood analysis revealed a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis as well as a raised osmolar gap in all three patients. Discussion: The clinical presentation of ethylene glycol a...

  15. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  16. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  17. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Rajaei, Ziba; Mohammadian, Nema; Valiollahi, Saleh; Sonei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups. The control group received tap drinking water for 35 days. Ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation. Preventive and curative subjects also received different fractions of C. dactylon extract in drinking water at 12.8 mg/kg, since day 0 and day 14, respectively. After 35 days, the kidneys were removed and examined for histopathological findings and counting the CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. In curative protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant significantly reduced the number of the kidney CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. In preventive protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon ethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased the number of CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide a scientific rational for preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylon in human kidney stone disease.

  18. Nanosized Mesoporous Bioactive Glass/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid Composite-Coated CaSiO3 Scaffolds with Multifunctional Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to prepare multifunctional scaffolds combining good mechanical strength, bioactivity, and drug delivery ability for bone tissue engineering. In this study, nanosized mesoporous bioglass/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid composite-coated calcium silicate scaffolds, named NMBG-PLGA/CS, were successfully prepared. The morphology and structure of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of NMBG on the apatite mineralization activity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds and the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3 cells as well as drug ibuprofen delivery properties were systematically studied. Compared to pure CS scaffolds and PLGA/CS scaffolds, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds had greatly improved apatite mineralization activity in simulated body fluids, much higher mechanical property, and supported the attachment of MC3T3 cells and enhanced the cell proliferation and ALP activity. Furthermore, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds could be used for delivering ibuprofen with a sustained release profile. Our study suggests that the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds have improved physicochemical, biological, and drug-delivery property as compared to conventional CS scaffolds, indicating that the multifunctional property of the prepared scaffolds for the potential application of bone tissue engineering.

  19. Identification of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Detergents Using Peptide Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shiva; Winter, Dominic

    2018-06-05

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is one of the most common polymer contaminations in mass spectrometry (MS) samples. At present, the detection of PEG and other polymers relies largely on manual inspection of raw data, which is laborious and frequently difficult due to sample complexity and retention characteristics of polymer species in reversed-phase chromatography. We developed a new strategy for the automated identification of PEG molecules from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data using protein identification algorithms in combination with a database containing "PEG-proteins". Through definition of variable modifications, we extend the approach for the identification of commonly used PEG-based detergents. We exemplify the identification of different types of polymers by static nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS/MS) analysis of pure detergent solutions and data analysis using Mascot. Analysis of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) runs of a PEG-contaminated sample by Mascot identified 806 PEG spectra originating from four PEG species using a defined set of modifications covering PEG and common PEG-based detergents. Further characterization of the sample for unidentified PEG species using error-tolerant and mass-tolerant searches resulted in identification of 3409 and 3187 PEG-related MS/MS spectra, respectively. We further demonstrate the applicability of the strategy for Protein Pilot and MaxQuant.

  20. Separation of polyethylene glycols and amino-terminated polyethylene glycols by high-performance liquid chromatography under near critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y-Z; Zhuo, R-X; Jiang, X-L

    2016-05-20

    The separation and characterization of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and amino-substituted derivatives on common silica-based reversed-phase packing columns using isocratic elution is described. This separation is achieved by liquid chromatography under the near critical conditions (LCCC), based on the number of amino functional end groups without obvious effect of molar mass for PEGs. The mobile phase is acetonitrile in water with an optimal ammonium acetate buffer. The separation mechanism of PEG and amino-substituted PEG under the near LCCC on silica-based packing columns is confirmed to be ion-exchange interaction. Under the LCCC of PEG backbone, with fine tune of buffer concentration, the retention factor ratios for benzylamine and phenol in buffered mobile phases, α(benzylamine/phenol)-values, were used to assess the ion-exchange capacity on silica-based reversed-phase packing columns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on separation of amino-functional PEGs independent of the molar mass by isocratic elution using common C18 or phenyl reversed-phase packing columns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  2. Investigation of Localized Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium from Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid)/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Scaffolds Using an In Vitro Osteoblast Inflammation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Laura E.; Heathman, Thomas R.J.; Britchford, Emily R.; Abed, Arif; Rahman, Cheryl V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonunion fractures and large bone defects are significant targets for osteochondral tissue engineering strategies. A major hurdle in the use of these therapies is the foreign body response of the host. Herein, we report the development of a bone tissue engineering scaffold with the ability to release anti-inflammatory drugs, in the hope of evading this response. Porous, sintered scaffolds composed of poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared with and without the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium. Analysis of drug release over time demonstrated a profile suitable for the treatment of acute inflammation with ∼80% of drug released over the first 4 days and a subsequent release of around 0.2% per day. Effect of drug release was monitored using an in vitro osteoblast inflammation model, comprised of mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Levels of inflammation were monitored by cell viability and cellular production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The osteoblast inflammation model revealed that proinflammatory cytokine addition to the medium reduced cell viability to 33%, but the release of diclofenac sodium from scaffolds inhibited this effect with a final cell viability of ∼70%. However, releasing diclofenac sodium at high concentrations had a toxic effect on the cells. Proinflammatory cytokine addition led to increased NO and PGE2 production; diclofenac-sodium-releasing scaffolds inhibited NO release by ∼64% and PGE2 production by ∼52%, when the scaffold was loaded with the optimal concentration of drug. These observations demonstrate the potential use of PLGA/PEG scaffolds for localized delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25104438

  3. Characterization of gliclazide-polyethylene glycol solid dispersion and its effect on dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreshwar Pandharinath Patil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated with the objective of studying the in vitro dissolution behavior of gliclazide from its solid dispersion with polyethylene glycol 6000. In this work, a solid dispersion of gliclazide with polyethylene glycol was prepared by the fusion method. In vitro dissolution study of gliclazide, its physical mixture and solid dispersion were carried out to demonstrate the effect of PEG 6000. Analytical techniques of FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the drug in the physical mixtures and solid dispersions. The dissolution studies of solid dispersion and physical mixture showed greater improvement compared to that of the pure drug. The mechanisms for increased dissolution rate may include reduction of crystallite size, a solubilization effect of the carrier, absence of aggregation of drug crystallites, improved wettability and dispersbility of the drug from the dispersion, dissolution of the drug in the hydrophilic carrier or conversion of drug to an amorphous state. The FT-IR spectra suggested that there was no interaction between gliclazide and PEG 6000 when prepared as a solid dispersion. DSC and XRD study indicated that the drug was converted in the amorphous form.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento in vitro da dissolução da gliclazida a partir da sua dispersão sólida com polietileno glicol 6000. Neste trabalho, as dispersões sólidas de gliclazida com polietileno glicol foram preparadas pelo método de fusão. Os estudo de dissolução in vitro da gliclazida, na mistura física e nas dispersões sólidas foram realizados para demonstrar o efeito de PEG 6000. Técnicas analíticas como espectroscopia FT-IR, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e difração de raios-X foram empregadas para caracterizar o fármaco nas misturas físicas e nas dispersoes sólidas. Os estudos de dissolução demonstraram maior

  4. Large-scale preparation of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, J S; Elbing, K L; Brent, R

    2001-05-01

    Although the need for large quantities of plasmid DNA has diminished as techniques for manipulating small quantities of DNA have improved, occasionally large amounts of high-quality plasmid DNA are desired. This unit describes the preparation of milligram quantities of highly purified plasmid DNA. The first part of the unit describes three methods for preparing crude lysates enriched in plasmid DNA from bacterial cells grown in liquid culture: alkaline lysis, boiling, and Triton lysis. The second part describes four methods for purifying plasmid DNA in such lysates away from contaminating RNA and protein: CsCl/ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography.

  5. Thermal properties and physicochemical behavior in aqueous solution of pyrene-labeled poly(ethylene glycol-polylactide conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Lin Chen,1,2 Yun-Fen Peng,1,3 Sheng-Kuo Chiang,1 Ming-Hsi Huang1–3 1National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 3PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: A fluorescence-labeled bioresorbable polymer was prepared by a coupling reaction of poly(ethylene glycol-polylactide (PEG-PLA with carboxyl pyrene, using N,N’-diisopropylcarbodiimide/1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (DIC/HOAt as a coupling agent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP as a catalyst. The obtained copolymer, termed PEG-PLA-pyrene, was characterized using various analytical techniques, such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, to identify the molecular structure and to monitor the thermal property changes before and after the reaction. The presence of a pyrene moiety at the end of polylactide (PLA did not alter the crystallization ability of the poly(ethylene glycol (PEG blocks, indicating that the conjugate preserved the inherent thermal properties of PEG-PLA. However, the presence of PEG-PLA blocks strongly reduced the melting of pyrene, indicating that the thermal characteristics were sensitive to PEG-PLA incorporation. Regarding the physicochemical behavior in aqueous solution, a higher concentration of PEG-PLA-pyrene resulted in a higher ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence emission intensity. This is of great interest for the use of this conjugate as a fluorescence probe to study the in vivo distribution as well as the internalization and intracellular localization of polymeric micelles

  6. Preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jimin; Liu Zhimin; Wu Weize; Li Zhonghao; Han Buxing; Huang Ying

    2005-01-01

    This article, for the first time, reports the preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks. Using amorphous copper ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle as reaction precursor, single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG), however, copper ferrite nanodisks were prepared through the same procedures except the surfactant PEG. The resulting nanomaterials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected electron area diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bulk composition of the samples was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  7. The phase equilibria of multicomponent gas hydrate in methanol/ethylene glycol solution based formation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Yao, Haiyuan; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Lv, Pingping; Fang, Songtian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The equilibrium data in THI solution based formation water is first investigated. • The 0.55 mass fraction concentration of EG 0.55 mass fraction fills the vacancy of this area. • The testing pressure range from 4.22 MPa to 34.72 MPa was rare in published data. - Abstract: In this paper, the three-phase coexistence points are generated for multicomponent gas hydrate in methanol (MeOH) solution for (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.35) mass fraction and ethylene glycol (EG) solution for (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.55) mass fraction. The phase equilibrium curves of different system were obtained by an isochoric pressure-search method on high pressure apparatus. The phase equilibrium regions of multicomponent gas hydrate were measured using the same composition of natural gas distributed in the South China Sea. And the different concentration solutions were prepared based formation water. The experimental data were measured in a wide range temperature from 267.74 to 298.53 K and a wide range pressure from 4.22 MPa to 34.72 MPa. The results showed that the hydrate phase equilibrium curves shifted to the inhibition region in accordance with the increased inhibitor concentration. In addition, the equilibrium temperature would decrease about 2.7 K when the concentration of MeOH increased 0.05 mass fraction. Besides, the suppression temperature was 1.25 K with the 0.05 mass fraction increase of EG concentration in the range of 0.05 mass fraction to 0.15 mass fraction. While in high EG concentration region, the suppression temperature was 3.3 K with the same increase of EG concentration (0.05 mass fraction).

  8. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)/clay composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinovic, S.; Vukovic, Z.; Nastasovic, A.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, A.; Jovanovic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We synthesized macroporous composites of poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) and either raw or acid modified clay. → Morphological, textural and thermal properties of the composite with acid modified clay were significantly changed with retained macroporosity. → Composite with raw clay has enhanced thermal stability. - Abstract: In this study, macroporous composites of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) i.e. poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) and clay were prepared by radical suspension copolymerization. The composites with either raw (S 0 ) or acid-modified clay (S A ) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric (TG) and textural analysis. The morphological, textural and thermal properties of the composite with raw clay (CP-S 0 ) differed slightly from those of the copolymer (CP), with exception of the thermal stability expressed in the shifting of the initial degradation temperature from 125 deg. C for CP to 210 deg. C for CP-S 0 . On the other hand, composite with modified clay (CP-S A ) was a material with significantly changed morphology, porous structure parameters and a qualitatively different thermal behavior in comparison to CP and CP-S 0 . CP-S A had mass residue, after heating at 600 deg. C, three times higher than the amount of S A introduced into the reaction system. This indicates a different manner of incorporation of S A , compared to S 0 , into the composite. Both the obtained composites retained their macroporosity and might be used in all applications that involve macroporous copolymers and, due to the altered thermal properties, their application may be extended.

  9. Thermal Protection Performance of Phase Changing Material Based on Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Ahmadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM are substances with a high heat of fusion which, through melting and solidifying at certain temperatures, are capable to store or release a large amount of energy. This phenomenon can be utilized in designing heat protective materials as well as in thermal energy storage systems. One of the approaches to avoid materials leaching from a structure, where PCMs are incorporated, is to blend them with suitable polymers. To have a proper blend it is necessary to choose a compatible polymer with a PCM. It is important to assess the optimized concentration of PCM in polymer matrix and the phase structure and morphology of the blend, which causes the best heat protection. In this work, the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG as PCMs in epoxy resin matrix on heat protection was investigated. A special performance test was designed to study timetemperature behavior of the prepared samples and DSC and SEM tests to observe the melting point, heat of fusion and morphology of the samples. The results indicated that increases in PCM content led to better heat protection and the best concentration for PEG was found to be 60% wt. Time-temperature curves show that increases of temperature for PCM samples is very slow compared with net epoxy sample. PCM samples curves show plateau in melting region. In this region, they show nearly 15°C temperature lower than a net epoxy sample. The plateau region makes a delay time in temperature increment, which is about 22 min for PEG samples compared with a net epoxy.

  10. Efficiency of SPIONs functionalized with polyethylene glycol bis(amine) for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanna, Yongyuth, E-mail: yongyuth.wanna@gmail.com [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Nara Machinery Co., Ltd., 2-5-7, Jonan-Jima, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0002 (Japan); Chindaduang, Anon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), 111 Thailand Science Park, Pahol Yothin Rd, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Phromyothin, Darinee [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Porntheerapat, Supanit [NECTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Nukeaw, Jiti [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hofmann, Heirich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Rd., Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles based on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopaticles (SPIONs) with selective surface modification has been developed for heavy metal removal by applying external magnetic fields. The nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique in an aqueous suspension of SPIONs. The hydrolysis of carboxyl functional group was then applied for grafting polyethylene glycol bis(amine)(PEG-bis(amine)) onto the PMMA-coated SPIONs. The morphology, the chemical structure and the magnetic properties of the grafted nanoparticles were investigated. The efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal were conducted on Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) in aqueous solutions.The metal concentration in the solutions after separation by the hybrid nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results show the heavy metal uptake ratios of 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.01 mM per gramme of the grafted SPIONs for Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), and Co(II), respectively. A competitive removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Hg(II) ions in mixed metal salt solutions has also been studied.The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparitcles was found to depend on the cation radius, in accordance with capture of metal ions by the amine group. - Highlights: • We synthesis hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for heavy metal removal. • The efficiency of hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal is proposed. • We investigated the characteristic of hybrid nanoparticle. • The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticle was founded that depend on the heavy metal cation radius.

  11. A Comprehensive Study of Photorefractive Properties in Poly(ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate— Ionic Liquid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Ellabban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the recording, as well as the readout of transmission gratings in composites of poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA and ionic liquids is presented. Gratings with a period of about 5.8 micrometers were recorded using a two-wave mixing technique with a coherent laser beam of a 355-nm wavelength. A series of samples with grating thicknesses d 0 = 10 … 150 micrometers, each for two different exposure times, was prepared. The recording kinetics, as well as the post-exposure properties of the gratings were monitored by diffracting a low intensity probe beam at a wavelength of 633 nm for Bragg incidence. To obtain a complete characterization, two-beam coupling experiments were conducted to clarify the type and the strength of the recorded gratings. Finally, the diffraction efficiency was measured as a function of the readout angle at different post-exposure times. We found that, depending on the parameters, different grating types (pure phase and/or mixed are generated, and at elevated thicknesses, strong light-induced scattering develops. The measured angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency can be fitted using a five-wave coupling theory assuming an attenuation of the gratings along the thickness. For grating thicknesses larger than 85 microns, light-induced scattering becomes increasingly important. The latter is an obstacle for recording thicker holograms, as it destroys the recording interference pattern with increasing sample depth. The obtained results are valuable in particular when considering PEGDMA-ionic liquid composites in the synthesis of advanced polymer composites for applications, such as biomaterials, conductive polymers and holographic storage materials.

  12. Thermal and rheological properties of L-polylactide/polyethylene glycol/silicate nanocomposites films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasim; Varshney, Sunil K; Auras, Rafael; Hwang, Sung W

    2010-10-01

    The melt rheology and thermal properties of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposite films that were prepared by solvent casting method with L-PLA, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and montmorillonite clay were studied. The neat PLA showed predominantly solid-like behavior (G' > G″) and the complex viscosity (η*) decreased systematically as the temperature increased from 184 to 196 °C. The elastic modulus (G') of PLA/clay blend showed a significant improvement in the magnitude in the melt, while clay concentration was at 6% wt or higher. At similar condition, PEG dramatically reduced dynamic modulii and complex viscosity of PLA/PEG blend as function of concentration. A nanocomposite blend of PLA/PEG/clay (74/20/6) when compared to the neat polymer and PLA/PEG blend exhibited intermediate values of elastic modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) with excellent flexibility. Thermal analysis of different clay loading blends indicated that the melting temperature (T(m)) and glass transition temperature (T(g)) remained unaffected irrespective of clay concentration due to immobilization of polymer chain in the clay nanocomposite. PEG incorporation reduced the T(g) and the T(m) of the blends (PLA/PEG and PLA/PEG/clay) significantly, however, crystallinity increased in the similar condition. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of nanocomposite films indicated good compatibility between PLA and PEG, whereas clay was not thoroughly distributed in the PLA matrix and remained as clusters. The percent crystallinity obtained by X-ray was significantly higher than that of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) data for PLA.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of veterinary 20% injectable solution of tylosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad K. Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A veterinary injectable aqueous solution of the antibiotic tylosin at a concentration of 20% was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 100 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 200 g tylosin tartrate, 500 ml propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol 40 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The preparation was clear yellow viscous aqueous solution free from undesired particles. The preparation complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. It was active in vitro against E. coli (JM83. The preparation of 20% tylosin solution was safe under field conditions in treating sheep and cattle suffering from pneumonia at the dose rate of 1 ml/20 kg body weight, intramuscularly/ day for 3 successive days. In conclusion, we presented the know-how of a veterinary formulation of injectable solution of 20% tylosin for clinical use in ruminants. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 5-7

  14. Comparative efficacy of combination of 1 L polyethylene glycol, castor oil and ascorbic acid versus 2 L polyethylene glycol plus castor oil versus 3 L polyethylene glycol for colon cleansing before colonoscopy: Study protocol of a randomized, double-blind, single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Chen, Wei-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Hui; Liu, Bang-Lun; Pi, Yuan-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Colonoscopy has been regarded as an important method of early diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal lesions; however adequate bowel preparation is critical one of many factors needed for successful colonoscopy. Although several modified or novel regimes have been developed, desired quality of bowel preparation has not yet been generated. Scattered evidences revealed that castor oil may have potential of effectively cleansing colon. It is noted that, however, prospective trial of exploring the value of castor oil in preparing bowel before colonoscopy is lacking. The aims of this study are to test the hypotheses that low dose castor oil (30 mL) may enhance potential of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and combination of low castor oil and ascorbic acid may halve the volume of PEG.This is a randomized, double-blind (endoscopist and assessor), single center trial with three-arm design. We will randomly assign 282 adult patients (≥18 years but castor oil or combination of 1 L PEG, 30 mL castor oil and 5 g ascorbic acid. The bowel preparation quality based on Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) is the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes include the first defecation time, total number of defecation, time of cecal intubation, detection rate of polyp and adenoma, willing to repeat the same regime, tolerance to regime, and adverse events.The study protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committees of Chongqing University Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Institute & Chongqing Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Center (2017[107]). The results from this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, and will be presented at national and international conferences.

  15. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryopreservation of mouse embryos by ethylene glycol-based vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiji; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Taguma, Kyuichi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2011-11-18

    Cryopreservation of mouse embryos is a technological basis that supports biomedical sciences, because many strains of mice have been produced by genetic modifications and the number is consistently increasing year by year. Its technical development started with slow freezing methods in the 1970s(1), then followed by vitrification methods developed in the late 1980s(2). Generally, the latter technique is advantageous in its quickness, simplicity, and high survivability of recovered embryos. However, the cryoprotectants contained are highly toxic and may affect subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the technique was not applicable to certain strains of mice, even when the solutions are cooled to 4°C to mitigate the toxic effect during embryo handling. At the RIKEN BioResource Center, more than 5000 mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds and phenotypes are maintained(3), and therefore we have optimized a vitrification technique with which we can cryopreserve embryos from many different strains of mice, with the benefits of high embryo survival after vitrifying and thawing (or liquefying, more precisely) at the ambient temperature(4). Here, we present a vitrification method for mouse embryos that has been successfully used at our center. The cryopreservation solution contains ethylene glycol instead of DMSO to minimize the toxicity to embryos(5). It also contains Ficoll and sucrose for prevention of devitrification and osmotic adjustment, respectively. Embryos can be handled at room temperature and transferred into liquid nitrogen within 5 min. Because the original method was optimized for plastic straws as containers, we have slightly modified the protocol for cryotubes, which are more easily accessible in laboratories and more resistant to physical damages. We also describe the procedure of thawing vitrified embryos in detail because it is a critical step for efficient recovery of live mice. These methodologies would be helpful to researchers and

  17. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  18. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  19. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  20. Simethicone to prevent colonic bubbles during CT colonography performed with polyethylene glycol lavage and iohexol tagging: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gil-Sun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Bohyun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Jin Cheon; Yu, Chang Sik; Baek, Seunghee; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of numerous colonic bubbles during CT colonography (CTC) performed with polyethylene glycol cleansing and oral iohexol fecal/fluid tagging could be prevented by use of simethicone. Adults with suspected colonic neoplasia who had been randomly assigned to control and simethicone intervention groups underwent CTC after cleansing with 4 L of polyethylene glycol, tagging with 50 mL of 350 mg I/mL oral iohexol, and without (control) or with (intervention) oral administration of 200 mg of simethicone. Colonic segments in the control and intervention groups were evaluated for amount of colonic bubbles during CTC. A 6-point grading system was used in which 0 indicated no bubbles and 5 indicated that more than three fourths of the air-distended mucosa was covered with bubbles. The primary endpoint was a per-patient colonic bubble grade, derived as an average of the segmental grades. Eighty adults with suspected colonic neoplasia were randomly assigned to the control (40 patients) and simethicone intervention (40 patients) groups. A total of 659 colonic segments in the control group and 689 segments in the intervention group were evaluated for amount of colonic bubbles during CTC. The per-patient colonic bubble score was significantly lower in the simethicone intervention group than in the control group. The mean score was 0.0±0.1 (SD) versus 1.2±0.8 (pgrade 0, and 16 (2.3%) were grade 1. In contrast, in the control group, 226 (34.3%) segments were grade 0; 173 (26.3%), grade 1; 175 (26.6%), grade 2; 45 (6.8%), grade 3; 23 (3.5%), grade 4; and 17 (2.6%), grade 5. The colonic bubbles associated with fecal/fluid tagging with iohexol can be successfully prevented by adding simethicone to the colonic preparation.

  1. [An experimental study on a slow-release complex with rifampicin-polylactic-co-glycolic acid-calcium 
phosphate cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhuang; Ding, Zhou; Lei, Qing; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao

    2016-09-28

    To prepare the slow-release complex with rifampicin (RFP)-polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) (RFP-PLGA-CPC complex), and to study its physical and chemical properties and drug release properties in vitro.
 The emulsification-solvent evaporation method was adopted to prepare rifampicin polylactic acid-glycolic acid (RFP-PLGA) slow-release microspheres, which were divided into 3 groups: a calcium phosphate bone cement group (CPC group), a CPC embedded with RFP group (RFP-CPC group), and a PLGA slow-release microspheres carrying RFP and the self-curing CPC group (RFP- PLGA-CPC complex group). The solidification time and porosity of materials were determined. The drug release experiments in vitro were carried out to observe the compressive strength, the change of section morphology before and after drug release. 
 The CPC group showed the shortest solidification time, while the RFP-PLGA-CPC complex group had the longest one. There was statistical difference in the porosity between the CPC group and the RFP-CPC group (Pbehavior of the complex, which was in accordance with zero order kinetics equation F=0.168×t.
 The porosity of RFP-PLGA-CPC complex is significantly higher than that of CPC, and it can keep slow release of the effective anti-tuberculosis drugs and maintain a certain mechanical strength for a long time.

  2. Enhancement of stability for lithium oxygen batteries by employing electrolytes gelled by poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-01

    Free-standing gel polymer electrolytes with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix plasticized with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) were prepared and investigated. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes exhibited large operating window and acceptable ionic conductivity. When applied in lithium oxygen batteries, the gel polymer electrolyte could support a high initial discharge capacity of 2988 mAh g −1 when a carbon black electrode without catalyst was used as cathode. Furthermore, the battery with gel polymer electrolyte can last at least 50 cycles in the fixed capacity cycling, displaying an excellent stability. Detailed study reveals that the gelling process is essential for the cycling stability enhancement. With excellent electrochemical properties, the free-standing gel polymer electrolyte presented in this investigation has great application potentials in long-life lithium oxygen batteries.

  3. Vitamin C and Poly(ethylene glycol) Protect Concentrated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Solutions against Radiation Cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, E.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for an injectable material to augment damaged cartilage. We propose to make such self-associating poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels. Physical associations can be formed in PVA using a gellant such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). The injectability of PVA solutions is compromised when sterilized due to chemical cross-linking. We hypothesized that an anticross-linking agent could prevent cross-linking of irradiated PVA solutions. PVA (17.5 wt/v %, MW= 115,000 g/mol) was prepared in water at 90 degree. PEG (MW=400 g/mol) was added at a ratio of PEG unit to PVA unit of 17, 86, 290, and 639 mol/mol. PVA solutions (17.5 wt/v %, MW= 16,000, 61,000, 81,000 and 115,000 g/mol) were also prepared. Vitamin C was added at a molar ratio of vitamin C to PVA unit of 0.75-10.4. Solutions were poured into syringes and γ-irradiated. The viscosity of injectable solutions was determined by using the bubble tube. Gel content of cross-linked samples was measured by boiling gels in water for 6 hours, drying at 90 degree and calculating the ratio of dry weight to 'as is' weight

  4. Synthesis of Highly Effective Novel Graphene Oxide-Polyethylene Glycol-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Hydrogel For Copper Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Serag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel Graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol (GO-PEG-PVA triple network hydrogel were prepared to remove Copper(II ion from its aqueous solution. The structures, morphologies, and properties of graphene oxide (GO, the composite GO-PEG-PVA and PEG-PVA were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope and Thermal Gravimetric analysis. A series of systematic batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption property of GO, GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel and PEG-PVA hydrogel under different conditions (e.g. pH, contact time and Cu2+ ions concentration. The high adsorption capacity, easy regeneration, and effective adsorption–desorption results proved that the prepared GO-PEG-PVA composite hydrogel could be an effective adsorbent in removing Cu2+ ion from its aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 917, 900 and 423 mg g–1 for GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel, GO and PEG-PVA hydrogel, respectively at pH 5, 25 °C and Cu2+ ions’ concentration 500 mg l–1. The removal efficiency of the recycled GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel were 83, 81, 80 and 79% for the first four times, which proved efficient reusability.

  5. Cartilage-like mechanical properties of poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Hwang, Yongsung; Chen, Albert C; Varghese, Shyni; Sah, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogels prepared from poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been used in a variety of studies of cartilage tissue engineering. Such hydrogels may also be useful as a tunable mechanical material for cartilage repair. Previous studies have characterized the chemical and mechanical properties of PEG-based hydrogels, as modulated by precursor molecular weight and concentration. Cartilage mechanical properties vary substantially, with maturation, with depth from the articular surface, in health and disease, and in compression and tension. We hypothesized that PEG hydrogels could mimic a broad range of the compressive and tensile mechanical properties of articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of PEG hydrogels over a broad range and with reference to articular cartilage. In particular, we assessed the effects of PEG precursor molecular weight (508 Da, 3.4 kDa, 6 kDa, and 10 kDa) and concentration (10-40%) on swelling property, equilibrium confined compressive modulus (H(A0)), compressive dynamic stiffness, and hydraulic permeability (k(p0)) of PEG hydrogels in static/dynamic confined compression tests, and equilibrium tensile modulus (E(ten)) in tension tests. As molecular weight of PEG decreased and concentration increased, hydrogels exhibited a decrease in swelling ratio (31.5-2.2), an increase in H(A0) (0.01-2.46 MPa) and E(ten) (0.02-3.5 MPa), an increase in dynamic compressive stiffness (0.055-42.9 MPa), and a decrease in k(p0) (1.2 × 10(-15) to 8.5 × 10(-15) m(2)/(Pa s)). The frequency-dependence of dynamic compressive stiffness amplitude and phase, as well as the strain-dependence of permeability, were typical of the time- and strain-dependent mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. H(A0) and E(ten) were positively correlated with the final PEG concentration, accounting for swelling. These results indicate that PEG hydrogels can be prepared to mimic many of the static and dynamic mechanical

  6. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruijtier-Poelloth, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  7. Oxidative decarboxylation of glycolic and phenylacetic acids with cerium(4) catalyzed by silver ions in the sulfuric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesvar Rao, G.; Nagardzhun Rao, Ch.; Sajprakash, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidative decarboxylation of glycolic and phenylacetic acids by cerium (4) in the presence of Ag + ions is studied. The Ce(4) order equals 1, glycolic acid order in the absence of a catalyst also equals 1 and is fractional (0.5) for a catalytic reaction. The phenylacetic acid order is fractional (0.75). The Ag + ion reaction order is fractional and constitutes 0.32 for glycolic and 0.36 for phenylacetic acids. The reaction mechanism is proposed [ru

  8. Comparison between properties of polyurethane nano composites prepared by two different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmar, M.; Barikani, M.; Fereidoonnia, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer model based on polytetramethylene glycol. toluene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol was selected and synthesized. According to this model two types of polyurethane nano composites were prepared by in situ polymerization and melt intercalation procedures. The organo-modified nano clay was used in nano composites samples in 0.4 weight percent level. The prepared nano composites were studied by WAXD, tensile and thermal analysis. Thermal properties of the nano composites were higher than those of pure polyurethane elastomers. Nano composites prepared via melt intercalation method showed a lower tensile strength and hardness than those prepared through in situ polymerization method

  9. Engineering Poly(ethylene glycol) Materials to Promote Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda Walker

    Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the current costs of treatment put a significant economic burden on our societies. After an infarction, fibrotic tissue begins to form as part of the heart failure cascade. Current options to slow this process include a wide range of pharmaceutical agents, and ultimately the patient may require a heart transplant. Innovative treatment approaches are needed to bring down costs and improve quality of life. The possibility of regenerating or replacing damaged tissue with healthy cardiomyocytes is generating considerable excitement, but there are still many obstacles to overcome. First, while cell injections into the myocardium have demonstrated slight improvements in cardiac function, the actual engraftment of transplanted cells is very low. It is anticipated that improving engraftment will boost outcomes. Second, cellular differentiation and reprogramming protocols have not yet produced cells that are identical to adult cardiomyocytes, and immunogenicity continues to be a problem despite the advent of autologously derived induced pluripotent stem cells. This dissertation will explore biomaterials approaches to addressing these two obstacles. Tissue engineering scaffolds may improve cell engraftment by providing bioactive factors, preventing cell anoikis, and reducing cell washout by blood flow. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used as a coating to reduce implant rejection because it is highly resistant to protein adsorption. Because fibrosis of a material in contact with the myocardium could cause arrhythmias, PEG materials are highly relevant for cardiac tissue engineering applications. In Chapter 2, we describe a novel method for crosslinking PEG microspheres around cells to form a scaffold for tissue engineering. We then demonstrate that HL-1 cardiomyocyte viability and phenotype are retained throughout the fabrication process and during the first 7 weeks of culture. In the third chapter of the

  10. Toxicokinetics of diethylene glycol (DEG) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmair, R; Lenk, W; Löhr, D

    1993-01-01

    Oral doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg 14C-diethylene glycol (DEG) given to rats were rapidly and almost completely absorbed, the invasion constants being 2.95 h-1 and 4.24 h-1. The kinetics of invasion were determined with the method of residuals (Rowland and Tozer 1989) and by reconstruction of the invasion curves according to Kübler (1970). 14C-DEG was rapidly distributed from the blood into the organs and tissues in the order kidneys > brain > spleen > liver > muscle > fat, i.e. the same order as the blood flow. The relative volume of distribution, app. VD, was determined at 298 ml, indicating distribution over the whole body. After oral doses of 1, 5, and 10 ml 14C-DEG/kg 64, 87, and 91% of 14C activity in rat blood disappeared in 12-16 h with a half-life of 3.4 h and the remaining 9, 5, and 4% with half-lives of 39 h, 45 h, and 49 h. A total of 73-96% of 14C activity in blood was excreted with the urine and 0.7-2.2% with the faeces. From the cumulative urinary excretion kinetics half-lives of 6 h were determined for doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg and 10 h for the dose of 10 ml/kg. After doses of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg 14C-DEG semi-logarithmic plots of elimination rate versus time were constant for 5 and 9 h, respectively, indicating that DEG accelerated its renal elimination by inducing osmotic diuresis. Thereafter urinary excretion followed first order kinetics with elimination half-lives of 3.6 h. After oral doses of 5 ml/kg 14C-DEG given to rats of 336 g body weight with an app. VD of 297 ml, the total clearance of 14C activity was determined at 63 ml/h, and the renal clearance of unmetabolized DEG was 66 ml/h. The ratio of ClDEG to Cl(inulin) = 0.64 indicated that DEG and its metabolite 2-hydroxyethoxyacetate (2-HEAA) were reabsorbed from the tubuli into the blood capillaries. DEG produced metabolic acidosis, which was completely balanced after doses of 1 and 5 ml/kg, but doses greater than 10 ml/kg produced non-compensated metabolic acidosis, hydropic degeneration of the

  11. Prediction and validation of the duration of hemodialysis sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ioan-Andrei; Lachance, Philippe; Ghannoum, Marc; Bégin, Yannick; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning is dependent on concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. Ethylene glycol assays are not readily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of HD. We report a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD sessions based retrospectively on a cohort study of 26 cases of acute ethylene glycol poisoning in 24 individuals treated by alcohol dehydrogenase competitive inhibitors, cofactors and HD. Two patients required HD for more than 14 days, and two died. In 19 cases, the mean ethylene glycol elimination half-life during high-efficiency HD was 165 minutes (95% confidence interval of 151-180 minutes). In a training set of 12 patients with acute ethylene glycol poisoning, using the 90th percentile half-life (195 minutes) and a target ethylene glycol concentration of 2 mmol/l (12.4 mg/dl) allowed all cases to reach a safe ethylene glycol under 3 mmol/l (18.6 mg/dl). The prediction model was then validated in a set of seven acute ethylene glycol poisonings. Thus, the HD session time in hours can be estimated using 4.7 x (Ln [the initial ethylene glycol concentration (mmol/l)/2]), provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  13. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  14. An optimization study of PtSn/C catalysts applied to direct ethanol fuel cell: Effect of the preparation method on the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T. S.; Palma, L. M.; Leonello, P. H.; Morais, C.; Kokoh, K. B.; De Andrade, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study of the parameters that can influence the composition, morphology, and catalytic activity of PtSn/C nanoparticles and compare two different methods of nanocatalyst preparation, namely microwave-assisted heating (MW) and thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP). An investigation of the effects of the reducing and stabilizing agents on the catalytic activity and morphology of Pt75Sn25/C catalysts prepared by microwave-assisted heating was undertaken for optimization purposes. The effect of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol as reducing agents was evaluated, and the use of sodium acetate and citric acid as stabilizing agents for the MW procedure was examined. Catalysts obtained from propylene glycol displayed higher catalytic activity compared with catalysts prepared in ethylene glycol. Introduction of sodium acetate enhanced the catalytic activity, but this beneficial effect was observed until a critical acetate concentration was reached. Optimization of the MW synthesis allowed for the preparation of highly dispersed catalysts with average sizes lying between 2.0 and 5.0 nm. Comparison of the best catalyst prepared by MW with a catalyst of similar composition prepared by the polymeric precursors method showed that the catalytic activity of the material can be improved when a proper condition for catalyst preparation is achieved.

  15. Hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis in burn patients exposed to glycol based topical antimicrobials-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibson, Tom; Davies, Paige; Nickel, Cheri; Koren, Gideon

    2018-06-01

    The well documented susceptibility of burn patients to acquired infections via damaged skin mandates application of antimicrobial agents. These agents are dissolved in various vehicles that augment skin absorption thus allowing greater efficacy. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Propylene glycol (PropG) are among the most commonly used vehicles, and both have been used in numerous medications and cosmetic products over the past few decades. Rarely, burn patients treated with agents containing these glycols present with a life threatening systemic toxidrome of hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis. We present a systematic review of outcomes in burn patients treated with similar agents. Relevant studies were identified through systematic searches conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CENTRAL (Ovid), and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), from database inception to August 4th, 2016. All publications of clinical burn patient studies included at least one arm receiving a glycol based topical therapy. A total of 61 studies involving 10,282 patients and 4 different antimicrobial medications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine burn patients (0.09%) were documented to present with hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis during topical silver sulfadiazine treatment. Propylene glycol isolated from their blood accounted for the high osmole gap. This first systematic review found very few cases of documented hyperosmolar metabolic acidosis, all within one study that had set to specifically explore this toxidrome. High index of suspicion with frequent osmolar gap monitoring may help identify future toxicities in a timely manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  17. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  18. First report of suspected ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (E/G is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. It is odourless, colourless and has a sweet taste. As little as 5 mℓ or 20 mℓ is sufficient to kill a cat or a dog, respectively. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the liver to oxalate, which is deposited as calcium oxalate in the kidneys causing irreversible damage. This report describes 2 dogs that were suspected to have ingested ethylene glycol. The report contains a description of the 3 stages of ethylene glycol toxicity as well as a short discussion of the treatment. Public awareness about the dangers of anti-freeze will help in limiting exposure of pets and humans to this potentially fatal toxin. Veterinarians need to be aware of anti-freeze toxicity as delayed recognition and treatment will lead to the death of the patient.

  19. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structures of new complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine, [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].1.5H2O and [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].2.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charushnikova, I.A.; Krot, N.N.; Starikova, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals were prepared, and the structures of two complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine of the compositions [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)].1.5H 2 O (I) and [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)]2.5H 2 O (II) were studied. The structures of the compounds are based on neptunyl-glycolate chains in which the glycolate anion manifests its complexation ability in different manner. In structure I, the bidentate-bridging anion links the adjacent NpO 2 - cations through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group. The neptunyl-glycolate chains of I exhibits the mutual coordination of the NpO 2 - cations acting toward each other simultaneously as ligands and coordinating centers. In compound II, the glycolate anion is bidentately coordinated to one neptunium atom to form a planar five-membered metallocycle [NpOCCO]. The O atom external with respect to the metallocycle is in the coordination environment of the adjacent neptunyl. The nitrogen-containing molecular ligand Bipy is included into the coordination environment of Np. The coordination polyhedron of the Np atoms in both structures is a pentagonal bipyramid in which the average Np-N bond length is 2.666 Aa (I) and 2.596 Aa (II). (orig.)

  1. One-step extraction and quantitation of toxic alcohols and ethylene glycol in plasma by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Dennis J; Boyd, Jessica M; Affleck, Darlene; Duce, Donna; Walsh, Warren; Seiden-Long, Isolde

    2016-01-01

    Clinical analysis of volatile alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and metabolite acetone) and ethylene glycol (EG) generally employs separate gas chromatography (GC) methods for analysis. Here, a method for combined analysis of volatile alcohols and EG is described. Volatile alcohols and EG were extracted with 2:1 (v:v) acetonitrile containing internal standards (IS) 1,2 butanediol (for EG) and n-propanol (for alcohols). Samples were analyzed on an Agilent 6890 GC FID. The method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, reproducibility, linearity, selectivity and limit of quantitation (LOQ), followed by correlation to existing GC methods using patient samples, Bio-Rad QC, and in-house prepared QC material. Inter-day precision was from 6.5-11.3% CV, and linearity was verified from down to 0.6mmol/L up to 150mmol/L for each analyte. The method showed good recovery (~100%) and the LOQ was calculated to be between 0.25 and 0.44mmol/L. Patient correlation against current GC methods showed good agreement (slopes from 1.03-1.12, and y-intercepts from 0 to 0.85mmol/L; R(2)>0.98; N=35). Carryover was negligible for volatile alcohols in the measuring range, and of the potential interferences tested, only toluene and 1,3 propanediol interfered. The method was able to resolve 2,3 butanediol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol in addition to the peaks quantified. Here we describe a simple procedure for simultaneous analysis of EG and volatile alcohols that comes at low cost and with a simple liquid-liquid extraction requiring no derivitization to obtain adequate sensitivity for clinical specimens. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  3. Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored

  4. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  6. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly on ethylene glycol induced renal inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyneb Aslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Royal Jelly were investigated by inducing renal inflammation in rats with the use of ethylene glycol. For this purpose, the calcium oxalate urolithiasis model was obtained by feeding rats with ethylene glycol in drinking water. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided in five study groups. The 1st group was determined as the control group. The rats in the 2nd group received ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water. The rats in the 3rd group were daily fed with Royal Jelly by using oral gavage. The 4th group was determined as the preventive group and the rats were fed with ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water while receiving Royal Jelly via oral gavage. The 5th group was determined as the therapeutic group and received ethylene glycol in drinking water during the first 2 weeks of the study and Royal Jelly via oral gavage during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results: At the end of the study, proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in blood and renal tissue samples from the rats used in the application were measured. Conclusion: The results have shown that ethylene glycol does induce inflammation and renal damage. This can cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. Royal Jelly is also considered to have anti-inflammatory effects due to its possible antiradical and antioxidative effects. It can have positive effects on both the prevention of urolithiasis and possible inflammation during the existing urolithiasis and support the medical treatment.

  8. Incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol lipids into reprecipitated conjugated polymer nanoparticles for bioconjugation and targeted labeling of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Prakash K.; Fernando, Lawrence P.; Ackroyd, P. Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A.

    2011-03-01

    We report a simple and rapid method to prepare extremely bright, functionalized, stable, and biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipids by reprecipitation. These nanoparticles retain the fundamental spectroscopic properties of conjugated polymer nanoparticles prepared without PEG lipid, but demonstrate greater hydrophilicity and quantum yield compared to unmodified conjugated polymer nanoparticles. The sizes of these nanoparticles, as determined by TEM, were 21-26 nm. Notably, these nanoparticles were prepared with several PEG lipid functional end groups, including biotin and carboxy moieties that can be easily conjugated to biomolecules. We have demonstrated the availability of these end groups for functionalization using the interaction of biotin PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles with streptavidin. Biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles bound streptavidin-linked magnetic beads, while carboxy and methoxy PEG lipid modified nanoparticles did not. Similarly, biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles bound streptavidin-coated glass slides and could be visualized as diffraction-limited spots, while nanoparticles without PEG lipid or with non-biotin PEG lipid end groups were not bound. To demonstrate that nanoparticle functionalization could be used for targeted labelling of specific cellular proteins, biotinylated PEG lipid conjugated polymer nanoparticles were bound to biotinylated anti-CD16/32 antibodies on J774A.1 cell surface receptors, using streptavidin as a linker. This work represents the first demonstration of targeted delivery of conjugated polymer nanoparticles and demonstrates the utility of these new nanoparticles for fluorescence based imaging and sensing.We report a simple and rapid method to prepare extremely bright, functionalized, stable, and biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles incorporating functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG

  9. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide...

  10. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  11. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  12. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  13. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners in N2-fixation and evolved into photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  14. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners of N2-fixation and evolved to photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J.; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to

  15. The Determination of Polyethylene Glycol in Untreated Urine Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Intestinal Permeability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Philipsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol in urine samples has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weights ranged from 634 to 1338. The urine samples were applied to the chromatographic system without any pre-treatment. For samples with a concentration of 0.2% polyethylene glycol...

  16. Mucoadhesive properties and interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) of thiolated-chitosans and -glycol chitosans and corresponding parent polymers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Adriana; Palazzo, Claudio; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Cioffi, Nicola; Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Conese, Massimo; Trapani, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2014-03-10

    The aim of the present work was to compare the mucoadhesive and efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interacting properties of chitosan (CS)- and glycolchitosan (GCS)-based thiomers and corresponding unmodified parent polymers. For this purpose, the glycol chitosan-N-acetyl-cysteine (GCS-NAC) and glycol chitosan-glutathione (GCS-GSH) thiomers were prepared under simple and mild conditions. Their mucoadhesive characteristics were studied by turbidimetric and zeta potential measurements. The P-gp interacting properties were evaluated measuring the effects of thiolated- and unmodified-polymers on the bidirectional transport (BA/AB) of rhodamine-123 across Caco-2 cells as well as in the calcein-AM and ATPase activity assays. Although all the thiomers and unmodified polymers showed optimal-excellent mucoadhesive properties, the best mucoadhesive performances have been obtained by CS and CS-based thiomers. Moreover, it was found that the pretreatment of Caco-2 cell monolayer with GCS-NAC or GCS restores Rho-123 cell entrance by inhibiting P-gp activity. Hence, GCS-NAC and GCS may constitute new biomaterials useful for improving the bioavailability of P-gp substrates.

  17. Nanoformulation of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) diblock copolymer for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Song, Xiaosong; Liu, Ranyi; Liu, Kexin; Zeng, Xiaowei; Mei, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop formulation of docetaxel-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles for breast cancer chemotherapy. A novel diblock copolymer, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) [TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA)], was synthesized from ε-caprolactone, glycolide and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The data showed that the fluorescence TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles could be internalized by MCF-7 cells. The TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles achieved significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than commercial Taxotere®. MCF-7 xenograft tumor model on SCID mice showed that docetaxel formulated in the TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor over a longer period of time than Taxotere® at the same dose. In conclusion, the TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) copolymer could be acted as a novel and potential biologically active polymeric material for nanoformulation in breast cancer chemotherapy. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. SELECTIVE HYDROGENOLYSIS OF GLYCEROL TO PROPYLENE GLYCOL IN A CONTINUOUS FLOW TRICKLE BED REACTOR USING COPPER CHROMITE AND Cu/Al2O3 CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available The glycerol hydrogenolysis reaction was performed in a continuous flow trickle bed reactor using a water glycerol feed and both copper chromite and Cu/Al2O3 catalysts. The commercial copper chromite had a higher activity than the laboratory prepared Cu/Al2O3 and was used for most of the tests. Propylene glycol was the main product with both catalysts, acetol being the main by-product. It was found that temperature is the main variable influencing the conversion of glycerol. When the state of the glycerol-water reactant mixture was completely liquid, at temperatures lower than 190 ºC, conversion was low and deactivation was observed. At reaction temperatures of 210-230 ºC the conversion of glycerol was complete and the selectivity to propylene glycol was stable at about 60-80% all throughout the reaction time span of 10 h, regardless of the hydrogen pressure level (1 to 20 atm. These optimal values could not be improved significantly by using other different reaction conditions or increasing the catalyst acidity. At higher temperatures (245-250 ºC the conversion was also 100%. Under reaction conditions at which copper chromite suffered deactivation, light by-products and surface deposits were formed. The deposits could be completely burned at 250 ºC and the catalyst activity fully recovered.

  19. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of solution combustion synthesized MgO nanoparticles dispersed in water and ethylene glycol (50:50) binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseel Jai Krishnan, S.; P. K., Nagarajan

    2017-05-01

    In this present investigation, experiments were conducted on the magnesia nanoparticles (8-18 nm) synthesized by the solution combustion method, which was dispersed in the binary mixture of water-ethylene glycol (50:50) to prepare stable MgO-water-ethylene glycol (50:50) nanofluids through continuous 26h ultrasonication. The effect of nanoparticle concentration (0 to 0.2 vol%) and temperature (25°C to 60°C) on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was investigated. The results clearly indicate that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration increases the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Similarly the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid increases with increase in temperature. The enhanced thermal conductivity in the nanofluids may be due to either or both, the Brownian movement and the nano-interfacial layering. The maximum enhancement of 16% was obtained at 0.2 vol% nanoparticle concentration and at 60°C. An accurate correlation, modeling the thermal conductivity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and temperature was also proposed based on the experimental data.

  20. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  1. Thermo- and pH-Responsive Copolymers Bearing Cholic Acid and Oligo(ethylene glycol) Pendants: Self-Assembly and pH-Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Zhu, X X

    2015-11-11

    A family of block and random copolymers of norbornene derivatives bearing cholic acid and oligo(ethylene glycol) pendants were prepared in the presence of Grubbs' catalyst. The phase transition temperature of the copolymers in aqueous solutions may be tuned by the variation of comonomer ratios and pH values. Both types of copolymers formed micellar nanostructures with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a hydrophobic core containing cholic acid residues. The micellar size increased gradually with increasing pH due to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These micelles were capable of encapsulating hydrophobic compounds such as Nile Red (NR). A higher hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity ratio in both copolymers resulted in a higher loading capacity for NR. With similar molecular weights and monomer compositions, the block copolymers showed a higher loading capacity for NR than the random copolymers. The NR-loaded micelles exhibited a pH-triggered release behavior. At pH 7.4 within 96 h, the micelles formed by the block and random of copolymers released 56 and 97% NR, respectively. Therefore, these micelles may have promise for use as therapeutic nanocarriers in drug delivery systems.

  2. Dynamic adsorption of mixtures of Rhodamine B, Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions on composites chitosan-silica-polyethylene glycol membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatmanti, F. W.; Rengga, W. D. P.; Kusumastuti, E.; Nuryono

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of a solution mixture of Rhodamine B, Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn(II) was studied using dynamic methods employing chitosan-silica-polyethylene glycol (Ch/Si/P) composite membrane as an adsorptive membrane. The composite Ch/Si/P membrane was prepared by mixing a chitosan-based membrane with silica isolated from rice husk ash (ASP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticizer. The resultant composite membrane was a stronger and more flexible membrane than the original chitosan-based membrane as indicated by the maximum percentage of elongation (20.5 %) and minimum Young’s Modulus (80.5 MPa). The composite membrane also showed increased mechanical and hydrophilic properties compared to the chitosan membranes. The membrane was used as adsorption membrane for Pb (II), Cu (II), Cd (II) ions and Rhodamine B dyes in a dynamic system where the permeation and selectivity were determined. The permeation of the components was observed to be in the following order: Rhodamine B > Cd (II) > Pb (II) > Cu (II) whereas the selectivity was shown to decrease the order of Cu (II) > Pb (II) > Cd (II) > Rhodamine B.

  3. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Taiki; Inoue, Nao; Kimura, Fumiko; Ikeda, Ikuo; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP) have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG), the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability. Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with other organs. Thus, CUR-NP increased intestinal absorption of CUR rather than decreasing metabolic degradation and conversion to other metabolites. In vitro, CUR encapsulated in CUR-NP was solubilized in mixed micelles; however, whether the micelles contained CUR or CUR-NP had little influence on cellular uptake efficiency. Therefore, we suggest that the high solubilization capacity of CUR-NP in mixed micelles, rather than cellular uptake efficiency, explains the high intestinal absorption of CUR-NP in vivo. These findings provide a better understanding of the bioavailability of CUR and CUR-NP following oral administration. To improve the bioavailability of CUR, future

  4. Potentiation of Sodium Metabisulfite Toxicity by Propylene Glycol in Both in Vitro and in Vivo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM and propylene glycol (PG are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced. Solutions of 1, 5, and 20% SM, each with 1% PG solution, were prepared, and the whole body of rats was exposed to aerosols of the mixture for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 1 (exposure group or 7 days (recovery group after termination of the exposure. The actual concentration of SM in the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups was 3.91 ± 1.26, 35.73 ± 6.01, and 80.98 ± 5.47 mg/m3, respectively, and the actual concentration of PG in each group was 6.47 ± 1.25, 8.68 ± 0.6, and 8.84 ± 1.77 mg/m3. The repeated exposure to SM and PG caused specific clinical signs including nasal sound, sneeze, and eye irritation which were not found in SM single exposure. In addition, the body weight of treatment group rats decreased compared to that of the control group rats in a time-dependent manner. The total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF increased. Histopathological analysis of the lungs, liver, and nasal cavity was performed. Adverse effects were observed in the nasal cavity, with squamous cell metaplasia identified in the front of the nasal cavity in all high-exposure groups, which completely recovered 7 days after exposure was terminated. Whereas inhalation of SM for 2 weeks only reduced

  5. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. The IPNs were prepared by irradiation initiated gamma polymerisation using Co-60 gamma source. Adsorption capacities were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K by gamma spectrometer. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. Temperature and agitation hardly influence equilibrium and kinetics and decreasing of temperature results in a slightly greater time to reach equilibrium. The adsorption of uranyl ions has been studied in a multi step mechanism processes thus comparing chemical sorption and diffusion sorption processes. The experimental data was analysed using various kinetic models to determine the best-fit equation for the adsorption mechanisms. However, it was shown that all models, in general according to the reaction time and uranyl ion concentration in the solution, could describe the adsorption of uranyl ion onto amidoximated IPN, the adsorption kinetics was best described by zeroth order and intraparticle diffusion model whereas that of in increasing time by pseudo first and pseudo second order response respectively. External-intraparticle diffusion and zeroth order process in the IPN structure is proposed as a mass transfer mechanism and the results indicate a diffusion-controlled process. The Mean Activation Energy Of Uranyl Ions Adsorption Was Found As 4,1 Kj/Mole By Using Arrhenius Equation. The Rate Constant, The Equilibrium Adsorption Capacity And The Initial Adsorption Rate Were Calculated For All Models At Each Temperature. Kinetic Parameters Of All Models And The Normalized Standard Deviations Between The Measured And Predicted

  6. Bioactivity, physical and chemical properties of MTA mixed with propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Prakash NATU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To investigate the physical (setting time, hardness, flowability, microstructure and chemical (pH change, calcium release, crystallinity properties and the biological outcomes (cell survival and differentiation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA mixed using different proportions of propylene glycol (PG and water.Material and Methods White MTA was mixed with different water/PG ratios (100/0, 80/20 and 50/50. Composition (XRD, microstructure (SEM, setting time (ASTM C266-13, flowability (ANSI/ADA 57-2000, Knoop hardness (100 g/10 s and chemical characteristics (pH change and Ca2+ release for 7 days were evaluated. Cell proliferation, osteo/odontoblastic gene expression and mineralization induced by MTA mixed with PG were evaluated. MTA discs (5 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick were prepared and soaked in culture medium for 7 days. Next, the discs were removed and the medium used to culture dental pulp stem cells (DPSC for 28 days. Cells survival was evaluated using MTS assay (24, 72 and 120 h and differentiation with RT-PCR (ALP, OCN, Runx2, DSPP and MEPE and alizarin red staining (7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analysis (a=0.05.Results The addition of PG significantly increased setting time, flowability and Ca2+ release, but it compromised the hardness of the material. SEM showed that 50/50 group resulted porous material after setting due to the incomplete setting reaction, as shown by XRD analysis. The addition of PG (80/20 and 50/50 was not capable to improve cell proliferation or to enhance gene expression, and mineralized deposition of DPSC after 7 and 14 days as compared to the 100/0.Conclusion Except for flowability, the addition of PG did not promote further improvements on the chemical and physical properties evaluated, and it was not capable of enhancing the bioactivity of the MTA.

  7. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harigae T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Harigae,1 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1 Taiki Miyazawa,2 Nao Inoue,3 Fumiko Kimura,1 Ikuo Ikeda,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Curcumin (CUR, the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG, the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability.Methods: Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells.Results: Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with

  8. Photocurable surgical tissue adhesive glues composed of photoreactive gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a novel photochemically driven surgical tissue adhesive technology using photoreactive gelatins and a water-soluble difunctional macromer (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate: PEGDA).The gelatins were partially derivatized with photoreactive groups, such as ultraviolet light (UV)-reactive benzophenone and visible light-reactive xanthene dye (e.g., fluorescein sodium salt, eosin Y, and rose bengal). A series of the prepared photocurable tissue adhesive glues, consisting of the photoreactive gelatin, PEGDA, and a saline solution with or without ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, were viscous solutions under warming, and their effectiveness was evaluated as hemostasis- and anastomosis-aid in cardiovascular surgery. Regardless of the type of photoreactive groups, the irradiation of the photocurable tissue adhesive glues by UV or visible light within 1 min produced water-swollen gels, which had a high adhesive strength to wet collagen film. These were due to the synergistic action of photoreactive group-initiated photo-cross-linking and photograft polymerization. An increase in the irradiation time resulted in increased gel yield and reduced water swellability. A decrease in the molecular weight of PEGDA and an increase in concentration of both gelatin and PEGDA resulted in reduced water swellability and increased tensile and burst strengths of the resultant gels. In rats whose livers were injured with a trephine in laparotomy, the bleeding spots were coated with the photocurable adhesive glue and irradiated through an optical fiber. The coated solution was immediately converted to a swollen gel. The gel was tightly adhered to the liver tissue presumably by interpenetration, and concomitantly hemostasis was completed. The anastomosis treatment with the photocurable glue in the canine abdominal or thoracic aortas incised with a knife resulted in little bleeding under pulsatile flow after declamping. Histological examination showed that the glues

  9. Hemodiafiltration efficacy in treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning in a 2-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Szymanik-Grzelak, Hanna; Kuźma-Mroczkowska, Elżbieta; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Every year about 2.4 million people in USA are exposed to toxic substances. Many of them are children below 6 years of age. Majority of poisonings in children are incidental and related to household products including for example drugs, cleaning products or antifreeze products. Antifreeze solutions contain ethylene glycol and methanol. Treatment of these toxic substances involves ethanol administration, fomepizole, hemodialysis and correction of metabolic acidosis. The aim of the study was to check the efficacy of continuous venovenous hemodiagiltration in intoxication with ethylene glycol and methanol. One year and 7 months old girl after intoxication with ethylene glycol and methanol was treated with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration instead of hemodialysis because of technical problems (circulatory instability). Intravenous ethanol infusion with hemodialtration resulted in rapid elimination of methanol from the body and significantly reduced blood ethylene glycol level. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration can be helpful in treatment of ethylene glycol and methanol intoxication.

  10. Thermodynamic activity of saturated solutions of CsClO4 in ethylene glycol and its analogs of the HOCH2(CH2CH2O)nCH2OH series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperova, A.P.; Ivanova, E.F.; Kijko, S.M.; Yukhno, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Solubility of CsClO 4 in ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycols with molar mass 300 and 400 in the temperature range of 273.15-318.15 K has been ascertained by the method of radioactive indicators. Dependence of saturated solutions activity on temperature, dielectric permittivity and the number of (CH 2 CH 2 O) ether groups in glycols is discussed

  11. Preparation and its drug release property of radiation-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) capsule including potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1979-01-01

    Porous flat circular capsules including KCl as a drug were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol No. 600. The porous structure can be controlled by the methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol No. 600 composition. The amount of drug released was linearly related to the square root of time. The magnitude of drug release increased roughly in proportional to the water content of capsule, which can be related to porosity in the capsule. (author)

  12. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  13. Preparation of PtRu/C anode electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da

    2006-01-01

    Pt Ru/C (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK. (author)

  14. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene ...

  15. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  16. New association schemes for mono-ethylene glycol: Cubic-Plus-Association parameterization and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Francois; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Accurate thermodynamic predictions for systems containing glycols are essential for the design and commissioning of novel subsea natural gas dehydration units. Previously it has been shown that the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state can be used to model VLE, SLE and LLE for mixtures...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  18. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  19. Ethylene Glycol Adsorption and Reaction over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of ethylene glycol with well-ordered CeO{sub x}(111) thin film surfaces. Ethylene glycol initially adsorbs on fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) and reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) through the formation of one C-O-Ce bond and then forms a second alkoxy bond after annealing. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) both recombination of ethylene glycol and water desorption occur at low temperature leaving stable -OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O- (ethylenedioxy) intermediates and oxygen vacancies on the surface. This ethylenedioxy intermediate goes through C-C bond scission to produce formate species which then react to produce CO and CO{sub 2}. The formation of water results in the reduction of the ceria. On a reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) surface the reaction selectivity shifts toward a dehydration process. The ethylenedioxy intermediate decomposes by breaking a C-O bond and converts into an enolate species. Similar to the reaction of acetaldehyde on reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111), the enolate reacts to produce acetaldehyde, acetylene, and ethylene. The loss of O from ethylene glycol leads to a small amount of oxidation of the reduced ceria.

  20. Force-field dependence of the conformational properties of ,-dimethoxypolyethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winger, Moritz; de Vries, Alex H.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    2009-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study of ,-dimethoxypolyethylene glycol has been carried out under various conditions with respect to solvent composition, ionic strength, chain length, force field and temperature. A previous MD study on a 15-mer of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) suggested a helical equilibrium