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Sample records for acid transport proteins

  1. Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle

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    Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

  2. Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids, and Amino Acid Transporters in Pigs.

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    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Zhu, Xiaotong; Han, Hui; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xingguo; Fang, Rejun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Kai; Sun, Liping; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-10-25

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 16 weeks on meat quality, muscle amino acids, and amino acid transporters. Thirty-nine piglets were randomly divided into three groups: a control (20-18-16% crude protein, CP) and two protein restricted groups (17-15-13% CP and 14-12-10% CP). The results showed that severe protein restriction (14-12-10% CP) inhibited feed intake and body weight, while moderate protein restriction (17-15-13% CP) had little effect on growth performance in pigs. Meat quality (i.e., pH, color traits, marbling, water-holding capacity, and shearing force) were tested, and the results exhibited that 14-12-10% CP treatment markedly improved muscle marbling score and increased yellowness (b*). pH value (45 min) was significantly higher in 17-15-13% CP group than that in other groups. In addition, protein restriction reduced muscle histone, arginine, valine, and isoleucine abundances and enhanced glycine and lysine concentrations compared with the control group, while the RT-PCR results showed that protein restriction downregulated amino acids transporters. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the moderate protein restricted group (17-15-13% CP), while severe protein restriction with dietary 14-12-10% CP markedly enhanced mTOR phosphorylation. In conclusion, long-term protein restriction affected meat quality and muscle amino acid metabolism in pigs, which might be associated with mTOR signaling pathway.

  3. Recent advances on uric acid transporters

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    Xu, Liuqing; Shi, Yingfeng; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism and its increased levels result in hyperuricemia. A number of epidemiological reports link hyperuricemia with multiple disorders, such as kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Recent studies also showed that expression and functional changes of urate transporters are associated with hyperuricemia. Uric acid transporters are divided into two categories: urate reabsorption transporters, including urate anion transporter 1 (URAT1), organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), and urate excretion transporetrs, including OAT1, OAT3, urate transporter (UAT), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), ABCG-2 and sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein. In the kidney, uric acid transporters decrease the reabsorption of urate and increase its secretion. These transporters’ dysfunction would lead to hyperuricemia. As the function of urate transporters is important to control the level of serum uric acid, studies on the functional role of uric acid transporter may provide a new strategy to treat hyperuricemia associated diseases, such as gout, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other disorders. This review article summarizes the physiology of urate reabsorption and excretion transporters and highlights the recent advances on their roles in hyperuricemia and various diseases. PMID:29246027

  4. The blood-brain barrier fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1/SLC27A1) supplies docosahexaenoic acid to the brain, and insulin facilitates transport.

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    Ochiai, Yusuke; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Tachikawa, Masanori; Aizawa, Sanshiro; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    We purposed to clarify the contribution of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1/SLC 27A1) to the supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain across the blood-brain barrier in this study. Transport experiments showed that the uptake rate of [ 14 C]-DHA in human FATP1-expressing HEK293 cells was significantly greater than that in empty vector-transfected (mock) HEK293 cells. The steady-state intracellular DHA concentration was nearly 2-fold smaller in FATP1-expressing than in mock cells, suggesting that FATP1 works as not only an influx, but also an efflux transporter for DHA. [ 14 C]-DHA uptake by a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) increased in a time-dependent manner, and was inhibited by unlabeled DHA and a known FATP1 substrate, oleic acid. Knock-down of FATP1 in hCMEC/D3 cells with specific siRNA showed that FATP1-mediated uptake accounts for 59.2-73.0% of total [ 14 C]-DHA uptake by the cells. Insulin treatment for 30 min induced translocation of FATP1 protein to the plasma membrane in hCMEC/D3 cells and enhanced [ 14 C]-DHA uptake. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain sections showed that FATP1 protein is preferentially localized at the basal membrane of brain microvessel endothelial cells. We found that two neuroprotective substances, taurine and biotin, in addition to DHA, undergo FATP1-mediated efflux. Overall, our results suggest that FATP1 localized at the basal membrane of brain microvessels contributes to the transport of DHA, taurine and biotin into the brain, and insulin rapidly increases DHA supply to the brain by promoting translocation of FATP1 to the membrane. Read the Editorial Comment for this article on page 324. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

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    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C., E-mail: cdirusso2@unl.edu

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  6. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC 50 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC 50 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13 C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata

  7. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men.

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    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2016-12-01

    McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid-base transport protein abundance, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βm in vitro ), and exercise capacity in active men. Training intensity did not discriminate between adaptations for most proteins measured, with abundance of MCT1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 1, NBCe1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, and CAXIV increasing after 4 wk, whereas there was little change in CAIII and CAIV abundance. βm in vitro also did not change. However, MCT4 protein content only increased for HIITΔ20 [effect size (ES): 1.06, 90% confidence limits × / ÷ 0.77], whereas basigin protein content only increased for HIITΔ90 (ES: 1.49, × / ÷ 1.42). Repeated-sprint ability (5 × 6-s sprints; 24 s passive rest) improved similarly for both groups. Power at the lactate threshold only improved for HIITΔ20 (ES: 0.49; 90% confidence limits ± 0.38), whereas peak O 2 uptake did not change for either group. Detraining was characterized by the loss of adaptations for all of the proteins measured and for repeated-sprint ability 6 wk after removing the stimulus of HIIT. In conclusion, 4 wk of HIIT induced improvements in each of the acid-base transport protein families, but, remarkably, a 40

  8. The expression and function of fatty acid transport protein-2 and -4 in the murine placenta.

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    Takuya Mishima

    Full Text Available The uptake and trans-placental trafficking of fatty acids from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation are essential for embryonic development, and involve several families of proteins. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs uniquely transport fatty acids into cells. We surmised that placental FATPs are germane for fetal growth, and are regulated during hypoxic stress, which is associated with reduced fat supply to the fetus.Using cultured primary term human trophoblasts we found that FATP2, FATP4 and FATP6 were highly expressed in trophoblasts. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of trophoblastic FATP2 and reduced the expression of FATP4, with no change in FATP6. We also found that Fatp2 and Fatp4 are expressed in the mouse amnion and placenta, respectively. Mice deficient in Fatp2 or Fatp4 did not deviate from normal Mendelian distribution, with both embryos and placentas exhibiting normal weight and morphology, triglyceride content, and expression of genes related to fatty acid mobilization.We conclude that even though hypoxia regulates the expression of FATP2 and FATP4 in human trophoblasts, mouse Fatp2 and Fatp4 are not essential for intrauterine fetal growth.

  9. Low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids is associated with suppression of small-solute peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

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    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/P(cr) (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour) and D/D0(glu) (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio) were similar, D/P(cr) in group sLP was lower, and D/D0(glu) was higher than those in the other two groups (P diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  10. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M.

    1989-01-01

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake

  11. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

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    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  12. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  13. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs

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    Yinghui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplemented in protein-restricted diets on the growth performance and the expression profile of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism related regulators in the white adipose tissue (WAT of different regional depots including dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA and abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA. A total of 24 crossbred barrows (7.40 ± 0.70 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups and were fed the following isocaloric diets for 33 days: 1 a recommended adequate protein diet (AP, 20% CP, as a positive control; 2 a low protein diet (LP, 17% CP; 3 the LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B, 17% CP to reach the same level of the AP diet group; 4 the LP diet supplemented with 2 times the amount of BCAA (LP + 2B, 17% CP. The daily gain and daily feed intake of the LP diet group were the lowest among all the treatments (P  0.05. Moreover, BCAA supplementation down-regulated the expression levels of amino acid transporters including L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in DSA, but up-regulated the expression level of L-type amino acid transporter 4 in ASA (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase α was activated in the DSA of pigs fed LP diet and in the ASA of the pigs fed AP or LP + 2B diets (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression profile of the selected mitochondrial component and mitochondrial biogenesis associated regulators in DSA and ASA also responded differently to dietary BCAA supplementation. These results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. The results also partly demonstrated that the regulation mechanisms of BCAA are different in the adipose tissues of different depots.

  14. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations

  15. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

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    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  16. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

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    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown.

  17. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

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    Na Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d, keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids, or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/Pcr (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour and D/D0glu (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio were similar, D/Pcr in group sLP was lower, and D/D0glu was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 at 12th month. D/D0glu increased (P<0.05, and D/Pcr tended to decrease, (P=0.071 in group sLP. Conclusions. Low-protein diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  18. Direct observation of electrogenic NH4(+) transport in ammonium transport (Amt) proteins.

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    Wacker, Tobias; Garcia-Celma, Juan J; Lewe, Philipp; Andrade, Susana L A

    2014-07-08

    Ammonium transport (Amt) proteins form a ubiquitous family of integral membrane proteins that specifically shuttle ammonium across membranes. In prokaryotes, archaea, and plants, Amts are used as environmental NH4(+) scavengers for uptake and assimilation of nitrogen. In the eukaryotic homologs, the Rhesus proteins, NH4(+)/NH3 transport is used instead in acid-base and pH homeostasis in kidney or NH4(+)/NH3 (and eventually CO2) detoxification in erythrocytes. Crystal structures and variant proteins are available, but the inherent challenges associated with the unambiguous identification of substrate and monitoring of transport events severely inhibit further progress in the field. Here we report a reliable in vitro assay that allows us to quantify the electrogenic capacity of Amt proteins. Using solid-supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology, we have investigated the three Amt orthologs from the euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Af-Amt1 and Af-Amt3 are electrogenic and transport the ammonium and methylammonium cation with high specificity. Transport is pH-dependent, with a steep decline at pH values of ∼5.0. Despite significant sequence homologies, functional differences between the three proteins became apparent. SSM electrophysiology provides a long-sought-after functional assay for the ubiquitous ammonium transporters.

  19. Mercury toxicokinetics of the healthy human term placenta involve amino acid transporters and ABC transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, Elisabeth; Ellinger, Isabella; Balthasar, Christina; Scheinast, Matthias; Schatz, Jasmin; Szattler, Tamara; Bleichert, Sonja; Saleh, Leila; Knöfler, Martin; Zeisler, Harald; Hengstschläger, Markus; Rosner, Margit; Salzer, Hans; Gundacker, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is known that MeHg is able to pass the placenta and to affect fetal brain development. • Uptake and efflux transporters were examined in human primary trophoblast cells and BeWo cells. • Involvement in mercury transfer was assessed by measurement of cellular mercury content upon siRNA mediated gene knockdown. • Localization of transporters was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. • LAT1 and rBAT at the apical membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) are involved in MeHg uptake. • MRP1 located at basal membrane of STB mediates mercury efflux. - Abstract: Background: The capacity of the human placenta to handle exogenous stressors is poorly understood. The heavy metal mercury is well-known to pass the placenta and to affect brain development. An active transport across the placenta has been assumed. The underlying mechanisms however are virtually unknown. Objectives: Uptake and efflux transporters (17 candidate proteins) assumed to play a key role in placental mercury transfer were examined for expression, localization and function in human primary trophoblast cells and the trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo. Methods: To prove involvement of the transporters, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) and exposed cells to methylmercury (MeHg). Total mercury contents of cells were analyzed by Cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). Localization of the proteins in human term placenta sections was determined via immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found the amino acid transporter subunits L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and rBAT (related to b 0,+ type amino acid transporter) as well as the efflux transporter multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)1 to be involved in mercury kinetics of trophoblast cells (t-test P < 0.05). Conclusion: The amino acid transporters located at the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) manage uptake of MeHg. Mercury conjugated to glutathione (GSH) is

  20. Characterization of a novel sialic acid transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family and in vivo comparison with known bacterial sialic acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Emmanuele; Hosie, Arthur H F; Hawkhead, Judith A; Thomas, Gavin H

    2010-03-01

    The function of sialic acids in the biology of bacterial pathogens is reflected by the diverse range of solute transporters that can recognize these sugar acids. Here, we use an Escherichia coliDeltananT strain to characterize the function of known and proposed bacterial sialic acid transporters. We discover that the STM1128 gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which encodes a member of the sodium solute symporter family, is able to restore growth on sialic acid to the DeltananT strain and is able to transport [(14)C]-sialic acid. Using the DeltananT genetic background, we performed a direct in vivo comparison of the transport properties of the STM1128 protein with those of sialic acid transporters of the major facilitator superfamily and tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic families, E. coli NanT and Haemophilus influenzae SiaPQM, respectively. This revealed that both STM1128 and SiaPQM are sodium-dependent and, unlike SiaPQM, both STM1128 and NanT are reversible secondary carriers, demonstrating qualitative functional differences in the properties of sialic acid transporters used by bacteria that colonize humans.

  1. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variat...

  2. Fatty acid profile of maternal and fetal erythrocytes and placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins in normal and intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Renata P; Mucci, Daniela B; Fonseca, Fernanda C P; Marcondes, Henrique; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Citelli, Marta; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acids (AA), are critical for adequate fetal growth and development. We investigated mRNA expression of proteins involved in hydrolysis, uptake and/or transport of fatty acids in placenta of fifteen full term normal pregnancies and eleven pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with normal umbilical blood flows. The mRNA expression of LPL, FATPs (-1, -2 and -4) and FABPs (-1 and -3) was increased in IUGR placentas, however, tissue profile of LC-PUFA was not different between groups. Erythrocytes from both mothers and fetuses of the IUGR group showed lower concentrations of AA and DHA and inferior DHA/ALA ratio compared to normal pregnancies (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that reduced circulating levels of AA and DHA could up-regulate mRNA expression of placental fatty acids transporters, as a compensatory mechanism, however this failed to sustain normal LC-PUFA supply to the fetus in IUGR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiu

    Full Text Available Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24, nitrogen balance (n = 6, and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6 were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1 was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  4. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ahmad; Daquinag, Alexes C.; Staquicini, Daniela I.; An, Zhiqiang; Pasqualini, Renata; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified prohibitin (PHB) and annexin A2 (ANX2) as proteins interacting on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) of humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB also interact in adipocytes. Mice lacking ANX2 have normal WAT vascularization, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism but display WAT hypotrophy due to reduced fatty acid uptake by WAT endothelium and adipocytes. By using cell culture systems in which ANX2/PHB binding is disrupted either genetically or through treatment with a blocking peptide, we show that fatty acid transport efficiency relies on this protein complex. We also provide evidence that the interaction between ANX2 and PHB mediates fatty acid transport from the endothelium into adipocytes. Moreover, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB form a complex with the fatty acid transporter CD36. Finally, we show that the colocalization of PHB and CD36 on adipocyte surface is induced by extracellular fatty acids. Together, our results suggest that an unrecognized biochemical interaction between ANX2 and PHB regulates CD36-mediated fatty acid transport in WAT, thus revealing a new potential pathway for intervention in metabolic diseases. PMID:27468426

  5. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  6. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  7. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  8. Role of NH3 and NH4+ transporters in renal acid-base transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2011-01-01

    Renal ammonia excretion is the predominant component of renal net acid excretion. The majority of ammonia excretion is produced in the kidney and then undergoes regulated transport in a number of renal epithelial segments. Recent findings have substantially altered our understanding of renal ammonia transport. In particular, the classic model of passive, diffusive NH3 movement coupled with NH4+ "trapping" is being replaced by a model in which specific proteins mediate regulated transport of NH3 and NH4+ across plasma membranes. In the proximal tubule, the apical Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-3, is a major mechanism of preferential NH4+ secretion. In the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, NKCC2, is a major contributor to ammonia reabsorption and the basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE-4, appears to be important for basolateral NH4+ exit. The collecting duct is a major site for renal ammonia secretion, involving parallel H+ secretion and NH3 secretion. The Rhesus glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), are recently recognized ammonia transporters in the distal tubule and collecting duct. Rhcg is present in both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane, is expressed in parallel with renal ammonia excretion, and mediates a critical role in renal ammonia excretion and collecting duct ammonia transport. Rhbg is expressed specifically in the basolateral plasma membrane, and its role in renal acid-base homeostasis is controversial. In the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase enables active basolateral NH4+ uptake. In addition to these proteins, several other proteins also contribute to renal NH3/NH4+ transport. The role and mechanisms of these proteins are discussed in depth in this review.

  9. Lipid Transport through the Fetoplacental Barrier by the Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins in Pregnant Women with Herpes Virus Infection in the third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the transport of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs from the lacunar blood through the syncytiotrophoblast of the placental villi to the fetal cord blood via a saturable protein-mediated mechanism by the heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins (H-FABPs has been examined. Exacerbation of the herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 in the third trimester of gestation reduces the delivery of the fatty acid-binding proteins to the syncytiotrophoblast. During exacerbation of the HSV-1 infection, the selective transfer of the LCPUFAs across the syncytiotrophoblast basal plasma membrane into the fetal cord blood was observed. The supply of anti-inflammatory ω-3 PUFAs was reduced; however, the inflow of inflammatory arachidonic acid and other ω-6 PUFAs into the fetal blood was increased.

  10. Cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins: subjects and tools in metabolic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binas, B. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are major targets for specific binding of fatty acids in vivo. They constitute a widely expressed family of genetically related, small cytosolic proteins which very likely mediate intracellular transport of free long chain fatty acids. Genetic inhibition of FABP expression in vivo should therefore provide a useful tool to investigate and engineer fatty acid metabolism. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fettsaeurebindungsproteine (FABPs) sind wichtige Bindungsstellen fuer Fettsaeuren in vivo; sie bilden eine breit exprimierte Familie genetisch verwandter kleiner Zytosoleiweisse, die sehr wahrscheinlich den intrazellulaeren Transport unveresterter langkettiger Fettsaeuren vermitteln. Die genetische Hemmung der FABP-Expanssion in vivo bietet sich deshalb als Werkzeug zur Erforschung und gezielten Veraenderung des Fettsaeurestoffwechsels an. (orig.)

  11. Towards an understanding of Mesocestoides vogae fatty acid binding proteins' roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alvite

    Full Text Available Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda. Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate's counterparts.

  12. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual...

  13. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Meier, E

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...... an intracellular and a plasma membrane localization of the receptors. In all experiments cultures treated with THIP alone served as controls. The inhibitors of protein synthesis totally abolished the ability of THIP to induce low-affinity GABA receptors. In contrast, the inhibitors of intracellular transport...

  14. Characterization of vacuolar amino acid transporter from Fusarium oxysporum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunprom, Siriporn; Pongcharoen, Pongsanat; Sekito, Takayuki; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Akiyama, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt disease in many plant families, and many genes are involved in its development or growth in host plants. A recent study revealed that vacuolar amino acid transporters play an important role in spore formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the role of vacuolar amino acid transporters of this phytopathogenic fungus, the FOXG_11334 (FoAVT3) gene from F. oxysporum was isolated and its function was characterized. Transcription of FoAVT3 was upregulated after rapamycin treatment. A green fluorescent protein fusion of FoAvt3p was localized to vacuolar membranes in both S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum. Analysis of the amino acid content of the vacuolar fraction and amino acid transport activities using vacuolar membrane vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells heterologously expressing FoAVT3 revealed that FoAvt3p functions as a vacuolar amino acid transporter, exporting neutral amino acids. We conclude that the FoAVT3 gene encodes a vacuolar neutral amino acid transporter.

  15. Enteroendocrine-derived glucagon-like peptide-2 controls intestinal amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Koehler, Jacqueline; Yusta, Bernardo; Bahrami, Jasmine; Matthews, Dianne; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Drucker, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is co-secreted with GLP-1 from gut endocrine cells, and both peptides act as growth factors to expand the surface area of the mucosal epithelium. Notably, GLP-2 also enhances glucose and lipid transport in enterocytes; however, its actions on control of amino acid (AA) transport remain unclear. Here we examined the mechanisms linking gain and loss of GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) signaling to control of intestinal amino acid absorption in mice. Absorption, transport, and clearance of essential AAs, specifically lysine, were measured in vivo by Liquid Chromatography triple quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and ex vivo with Ussing chambers using intestinal preparations from Glp2 r +/+ and Glp2r - / - mice. Immunoblotting determined jejunal levels of protein components of signaling pathways (PI3K-AKT, and mTORC1-pS6-p4E-BP1) following administration of GLP-2, protein gavage, and rapamycin to fasted Glp2 r +/+ and Glp2r - / - mice. Expression of AA transporters from full thickness jejunum and 4F2hc from brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) was measured by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Acute administration of GLP-2 increased basal AA absorption in vivo and augmented basal lysine transport ex vivo . GLP-2-stimulated lysine transport was attenuated by co-incubation with wortmannin, rapamycin, or tetrodotoxin ex vivo . Phosphorylation of mTORC1 effector proteins S6 and 4E-BP1 was significantly increased in wild-type mice in response to GLP-2 alone, or when co-administered with protein gavage, and abolished following oral gavage of rapamycin. In contrast, activation of GLP-1R signaling did not enhance S6 phosphorylation. Disruption of GLP-2 action in Glp2r -/- mice reduced lysine transport ex vivo and attenuated the phosphorylation of S6 and 4E-BP1 in response to oral protein. Moreover, the expression of cationic AA transporter slc7a9 in response to refeeding, and the abundance of 4F2hc in BBMVs following protein

  16. New insights into structure and function of the different types of fatty acid-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Augusta Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. They may also modulate the effect of fatty acids on various metabolic enzymes and receptors and on cellular

  17. Functional analysis of apf1 mutation causing defective amino acid transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, J; Kotyk, A

    1993-04-01

    Mutation in the Apf1 locus causes a pleiotropic effect of H(+)-driven active amino acid transport in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The uptake of other, presumably H(+)-driven, substances, e.g. of purine and pyrimidine bases, maltose and phosphate ions, is not significantly influenced by this mutation. The apf1 mutation decreases not only the initial rates of amino acid uptake but also the accumulation ratios of amino acids taken up but has virtually no effect on the membrane potential or on the delta pH which constitute the thermodynamically relevant source of energy for their transport. Similarly, no changes in intracellular ATP content, in ATP-hydrolyzing and H(+)-extruding H(+)-ATPase activities, in the efflux of intracellularly accumulated amino acids, or in rates of endogenous respiration, were observed in the apf1 mutant phenotype. Hence, all these data are in accordance with the experiments showing that the Apf1 protein, an integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, is required exclusively for efficient processing and translocation of transport proteins specific for amino acids from the endoplasmic reticulum to their final destination, the plasma membrane.

  18. Prediction of membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities using primary sequence information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish K Mishra

    Full Text Available Membrane transport proteins (transporters move hydrophilic substrates across hydrophobic membranes and play vital roles in most cellular functions. Transporters represent a diverse group of proteins that differ in topology, energy coupling mechanism, and substrate specificity as well as sequence similarity. Among the functional annotations of transporters, information about their transporting substrates is especially important. The experimental identification and characterization of transporters is currently costly and time-consuming. The development of robust bioinformatics-based methods for the prediction of membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities is therefore an important and urgent task.Support vector machine (SVM-based computational models, which comprehensively utilize integrative protein sequence features such as amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, physico-chemical composition, biochemical composition, and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSM, were developed to predict the substrate specificity of seven transporter classes: amino acid, anion, cation, electron, protein/mRNA, sugar, and other transporters. An additional model to differentiate transporters from non-transporters was also developed. Among the developed models, the biochemical composition and PSSM hybrid model outperformed other models and achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 76.69% with a Mathews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.49 and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC of 0.833 on our main dataset. This model also achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 78.88% and MCC of 0.41 on an independent dataset.Our analyses suggest that evolutionary information (i.e., the PSSM and the AAIndex are key features for the substrate specificity prediction of transport proteins. In comparison, similarity-based methods such as BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and hidden Markov models do not provide accurate predictions

  19. Dietary fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport by altering LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J D; Cuthbert, J A; Spady, D K

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of LDL in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and the type of lipid in the diet. Recent studies in the hamster have shown that dietary fatty acids differentially affect circulating LDL levels primarily by altering receptor-dependent LDL uptake in the liver. To investigate the mechanistic basis of this effect, rates of receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver were correlated with LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels in hamsters fed safflower oil or coconut oil and varying amounts of cholesterol. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was significantly lower in animals fed coconut oil than in animals fed safflower oil at all levels of cholesterol intake (26, 53, and 61% lower at cholesterol intakes of 0, 0.06, and 0.12%, respectively). These fatty acid-induced changes in hepatic LDL receptor activity were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that dietary fatty acids regulate the LDL receptor pathway largely at the mRNA level. Images PMID:8349814

  20. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  1. The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Geertsma, Eric R.; Severi, Emmanuele; Kelly, David J.; Poolman, Bert; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate-binding protein-dependent secondary transporters are widespread in prokaryotes and are represented most frequently by members of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter family. Here, we report the membrane reconstitution of a TRAP transporter, the sialic acid-specific

  2. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  3. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, R.G.; Frazão, N.F.; Macedo-Filho, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  4. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 64800-000 Floriano, PI (Brazil); Frazão, N.F. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 581750-000 Cuité, PB (Brazil); Macedo-Filho, A., E-mail: amfilho@gmail.com [Campus Prof. Antonio Geovanne Alves de Sousa, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri, PI (Brazil)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  5. The actions of exogenous leucine on mTOR signalling and amino acid transporters in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron-Smith David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA leucine has been identified to be a key regulator of skeletal muscle anabolism. Activation of anabolic signalling occurs via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR through an undefined mechanism. System A and L solute carriers transport essential amino acids across plasma membranes; however it remains unknown whether an exogenous supply of leucine regulates their gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic leucine stimulation of anabolic signalling and specific amino acid transporters, using cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells. Results Human myotubes were treated with leucine, insulin or co-treated with leucine and insulin for 30 min, 3 h or 24 h. Activation of mTOR signalling kinases were examined, together with putative nutrient sensor human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34 and gene expression of selected amino acid transporters. Phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K was transiently increased following leucine exposure, independently to insulin. hVps34 protein expression was also significantly increased. However, genes encoding amino acid transporters were differentially regulated by insulin and not leucine. Conclusions mTOR signalling is transiently activated by leucine within human myotubes independently of insulin stimulation. While this occurred in the absence of changes in gene expression of amino acid transporters, protein expression of hVps34 increased.

  6. ρ0 Cells Feature De-Ubiquitination of SLC Transporters and Increased Levels and Fluxes of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bordinassi Medina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Solute carrier (SLC transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs, such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ0 cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA compared to parental cells. Here, we elucidated the altered functionality of SLC transporters and their dynamic ubiquitination status by measuring the uptake of several isotopically labeled amino acids in both human osteosarcoma 143B.TK- and ρ0 cells. Our pulse chase analysis indicated that de-ubiquitinated amino acid transporters in ρ0 cells were accompanied by an increased transport rate, which leads to higher levels of amino acids in the cell. Finding SLC transport enhancers is an aim of the pharmaceutical industry in order to compensate for loss of function mutations in these genes. Thus, the ubiquitination status of SLC transporters could be an indicator for their functionality, but evidence for a direct connection between de-ubiquitination and transporter activity has to be further elucidated.

  7. Myelin-associated proteins labelled by slow axonal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, P.P.; DuBois, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of protein metabolism and provides evidence that the neuronal contribution to myelin metabolism may be restricted to lipids only. On the other hand this line of research led to the partial characterization of a group of neuronal proteins probably involved in axo-glial interactions subserving the onset of myelination and the structural maintenance of the mature myelin sheath. Intraocular injection of radioactive amino acids allows the study of the anterograde transport of labelled proteins along retinofugal fibres which are well myelinated. Myelin extracted from the optic nerve and tract under these conditions also contains labelled proteins. Three hypotheses are available to explain this phenomenon. To offer an explanation for this phenomenon the work was planned as follows. a) Characterization of the spatio-temporal pattern of labelling of myelin, in order to define the experimental conditions (survival time and region of the optic pathway to be studied) necessary to obtain maximal labelling. b) Characterization (by gel electrophoresis) of the myelin-associated proteins which become labelled by axonal transport, in order to work on a consistent pattern of labelling. c) Investigation of the possible mechanism responsible for the labelling of myelin-associated proteins. (Auth.)

  8. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3 is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Tsukahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3, also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs. Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA. We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus.

  9. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  10. Induction of Heavy-Metal-Transporting CPX-Type ATPases during Acid Adaptation in Lactobacillus bulgaricus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaud, S.; Fernandez, A.; Boudebbouze, S.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Maguin, E.; van de Guchte, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that, through the production of lactic acid, gradually acidifies its environment during growth. In the course of this process, L. bulgaricus acquires an improved tolerance to acidity. A survey of the recently established genome sequence shows that this bacterium possesses few of the pH control functions that have been described in other LAB and raises the question of what other mechanisms could be involved in its adaptation to the decreasing environmental pH. In some bacteria other than LAB, ion transport systems have been implicated in acid adaptation. We therefore studied the expression of this type of transport system during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus by reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR and mapped transcription start sites. Intriguingly, the most significantly induced were three ATPases carrying the CPX signature of heavy-metal transporters. Protein homology and the presence of a conserved sequence motif in the promoter regions of the genes encoding these proteins strongly suggest that they are involved in copper homeostasis. Induction of this system is thought to assist in avoiding indirect damage that could result from medium acidification. PMID:16997986

  11. Insulin acutely upregulates protein expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36 in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Pelsers, M.M.A.L.; Soenen, S.; Mensink, M.; Bouwman, F.G.; Kooi, M.E.; Saris, W.H.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced fatty acid uptake may lead to the accumulation of lipid intermediates. This is related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rodent studies suggest that fatty acid transporters are acutely regulated by insulin. We investigated differences in fatty acid transporter content

  12. Gene expression of fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the blood-brain barrier and the cerebral cortex of the rat: differences across development and with different DHA brain status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélerin, Hélène; Jouin, Mélanie; Lallemand, Marie-Sylvie; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen C; Langelier, Bénédicte; Guesnet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Specific mechanisms for maintaining docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in brain cells but also transporting DHA from the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not agreed upon. Our main objective was therefore to evaluate the level of gene expression of fatty acid transport and fatty acid binding proteins in the cerebral cortex and at the BBB level during the perinatal period of active brain DHA accretion, at weaning, and until the adult age. We measured by real time RT-PCR the mRNA expression of different isoforms of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and the fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 in cerebral cortex and isolated microvessels at embryonic day 18 (E18) and postnatal days 14, 21 and 60 (P14, P21 and P60, respectively) in rats receiving different n-3 PUFA dietary supplies (control, totally deficient or DHA-supplemented). In control rats, all the genes were expressed at the BBB level (P14 to P60), the mRNA levels of FABP5 and ACSL3 having the highest values. Age-dependent differences included a systematic decrease in the mRNA expressions between P14-P21 and P60 (2 to 3-fold), with FABP7 mRNA abundance being the most affected (10-fold). In the cerebral cortex, mRNA levels varied differently since FATP4, ACSL3 and ACSL6 and the three FABPs genes were highly expressed. There were no significant differences in the expression of the 10 genes studied in n-3 deficient or DHA-supplemented rats despite significant differences in their brain DHA content, suggesting that brain DHA uptake from the blood does not necessarily require specific transporters within cerebral endothelial cells and could, under these experimental conditions, be a simple passive diffusion process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vitro Analysis of Metabolite Transport Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Marc-Sven; Kuhnert, Franziska; Zamani-Nour, Shirin; Weber, Andreas P M

    2017-01-01

    The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete. The photorespiratory cycle requires at least 25 transmembrane transport steps; however to date only plastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter and the accessory 2-oxoglutarate/malate and glutamate/malate transporters as well as the mitochondrial transporter BOU1 have been identified. The characterization of transport proteins and defining their substrates and kinetics are still major challenges.Here we present a detailed set of protocols for the in vitro characterization of transport proteins. We provide protocols for the isolation of recombinant transport protein expressed in E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the extraction of total leaf membrane protein for in vitro analysis of transporter proteins. Further we explain the process of reconstituting transport proteins in artificial lipid vesicles and elucidate the details of transport assays.

  14. Determination of proteins induced in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in resistant and susceptible cultivars of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Amber; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-07-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are signaling molecules that play key roles in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction, and defense against pathogens. The proteomics approach was used to identify proteins that are induced by JA and SA in the tomato cultivars Roma and Pant Bahr, which are susceptible and resistant to bacterial wilt, respectively. Threonine deaminase and leucine amino peptidase were upregulated, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small chain was downregulated by time-course application of JA. Translationally controlled tumor protein was upregulated by time-course application of SA. Protein disulfide isomerase was upregulated by application of either JA or SA. Proteins related to defense, energy, and protein destination/storage are suspected to be responsible for the susceptibility or resistance of the cultivars. Furthermore, in Roma, iron ABC transporter was upregulated by JA and down-regulated by SA. Iron ABC transporter plays a part in the signal transduction of both JA and SA in cultivars of tomato that are resistant to bacterial wilt.

  15. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  16. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  17. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  18. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Fatty acid transport protein 1 regulates retinoid metabolism and photoreceptor development in mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Cubizolle

    Full Text Available In retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, RPE65 catalyzes the isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol in the visual cycle and controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate. However, the mechanisms by which these processes are regulated are still unclear. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 is involved in fatty acid uptake and lipid metabolism in a variety of cell types. FATP1 co-localizes with RPE65 in RPE and inhibits its isomerase activity in vitro. Here, we further investigated the role of FATP1 in the visual cycle using transgenic mice that overexpress human FATP1 specifically in the RPE (hFATP1TG mice. The mice displayed no delay in the kinetics of regeneration of the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal after photobleaching and had no defects in light sensitivity. However, the total retinoid content was higher in the hFATP1TG mice than in wild type mice, and the transgenic mice also displayed an age-related accumulation (up to 40% of all-trans-retinal and retinyl esters that was not observed in control mice. Consistent with these results, hFATP1TG mice were more susceptible to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. hFATP1 overexpression also induced an ~3.5-fold increase in retinosome autofluorescence, as measured by two-photon microscopy. Interestingly, hFATP1TG retina contained ~25% more photoreceptor cells and ~35% longer outer segments than wild type mice, revealing a non-cell-autonomous effect of hFATP1 expressed in the RPE. These data are the first to show that FATP1-mediated fatty acid uptake in the RPE controls both retinoid metabolism in the outer retina and photoreceptor development.

  20. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  1. One-step purification of rat heart-type fatty acid-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, F. G.; Specht, B.; van der Vusse, G. J.; Börchers, T.; Glatz, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a member of a family of 14-15 kDa lipid binding proteins which are believed to enhance intracellular transport of lipids by facilitating their cytoplasmic diffusion. To obtain sufficient amounts of protein for in vitro studies, we expressed rat

  2. Role of stimulated amino acid transport in promoting glycogenesis in the irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilberg, M.S.; Neuhaus, O.W.

    1976-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats stimulates an amino acid transport system in the liver. Another phenomenon observed after exposure to ionizing radiations is the accumulation of hepatic glycogen. The data presented here relate the increased hepatic uptake of amino acids to glycogenesis. Male rats were exposed to two doses of γ rays, 2500 and 1500 R. Following exposure to 2500 R, the hepatic free amino acids were elevated during the first 48 hr accompanied by a decline in serum levels. At 72 hr the hepatic amino acids diminished to the control levels while the serum increased abruptly. By contrast, 72 hr after exposure to 1500 R the serum amino acid levels increased only 27 percent and the hepatic amino acid values increased 52 percent. These results are explained on the basis of the changes in AIB transport previously reported. The incorporation of 14 C from labeled L-alanine into hepatic glycogen was maximal 48 hr postexposure to 2500 R but declined to below control values at 72 hr. On the other hand, exposure to 1500 R resulted in maximal incorporation of 14 C at both 48 and 72 hr. We propose that transport of amino acids into liver cells is stimulated by the elevated blood levels of amino acids released from the degradation of protein. The transport increases the levels of hepatic free amino acids, and therefore, is a key factor in regulating postirradiation glycogenesis

  3. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a functional human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, human GAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Jensen, Anders A.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma membrane gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters act to terminate GABA neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. Intriguingly four distinct GABA transporters have been cloned from rat and mouse, whereas only three functional homologs of these transporters have been cloned from human....... The aim of this study therefore was to search for this fourth missing human transporter. Using a bioinformatics approach, we successfully identified and cloned the full-length cDNA of a so far uncharacterized human GABA transporter (GAT). The predicted protein displays high sequence similarity to rat GAT......-2 and mouse GAT3, and in accordance with the nomenclature for rat GABA transporters, we therefore refer to the transporter as human GAT-2. We used electrophysiological and cell-based methods to demonstrate that this protein is a functional transporter of GABA. The transport was saturable...

  5. Effects of a series of acidic drugs on L-lactic acid transport by the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yat Hei; Belanger, Francois; Lu, Jennifer; Turgeon, Jacques; Michaud, Veronique

    2018-03-07

    Drug-induced myopathy is a serious side effect that often requires removal of a medication from a drug regimen. For most drugs, the underlying mechanism of drug-induced myopathy remains unclear. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate L-lactic acid transport, and inhibition of MCTs may potentially lead to perturbation of L-lactic acid accumulation and muscular disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-lactic acid transport may be involved in the development of drug-induced myopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory potential of 24 acidic drugs on L-lactic acid transport using breast cancer cell lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231, which selectively express MCT1 and MCT4, respectively. The influx transport of L-lactic acid was minimally inhibited by all drugs tested. The efflux transport was next examined: loratadine (IC50: 10 and 61 µM) and atorvastatin (IC50: 78 and 41 µM) demonstrated the greatest potency for inhibition of L-lactic acid efflux by MCT1 and MCT4, respectively. Acidic drugs including fluvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin acid, lovastatin acid, irbesartan and losartan exhibited weak inhibitory potency on L-lactic acid efflux. Our results suggest that some acidic drugs, such as loratadine and atorvastatin, can inhibit the efflux transport of L-lactic acid. This inhibition may cause an accumulation of intracellular L-lactic acid leading to acidification and muscular disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Metabolic reprogramming through fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1 regulates macrophage inflammatory potential and adipose inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A novel approach to regulate obesity-associated adipose inflammation may be through metabolic reprogramming of macrophages (MΦs. Broadly speaking, MΦs dependent on glucose are pro-inflammatory, classically activated MΦs (CAM, which contribute to adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. In contrast, MΦs that primarily metabolize fatty acids are alternatively activated MΦs (AAM and maintain tissue insulin sensitivity. In actuality, there is much flexibility and overlap in the CAM-AAM spectrum in vivo dependent upon various stimuli in the microenvironment. We hypothesized that specific lipid trafficking proteins, e.g. fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, would direct MΦ fatty acid transport and metabolism to limit inflammation and contribute to the maintenance of adipose tissue homeostasis. Methods: Bone marrow derived MΦs (BMDMs from Fatp1−/− and Fatp1+/+ mice were used to investigate FATP1-dependent substrate metabolism, bioenergetics, metabolomics, and inflammatory responses. We also generated C57BL/6J chimeric mice by bone marrow transplant specifically lacking hematopoetic FATP1 (Fatp1B−/− and controls Fatp1B+/+. Mice were challenged by high fat diet (HFD or low fat diet (LFD and analyses including MRI, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, flow cytometric, histologic, and protein quantification assays were conducted. Finally, an FATP1-overexpressing RAW 264.7 MΦ cell line (FATP1-OE and empty vector control (FATP1-EV were developed as a gain of function model to test effects on substrate metabolism, bioenergetics, metabolomics, and inflammatory responses. Results: Fatp1 is downregulated with pro-inflammatory stimulation of MΦs. Fatp1−/− BMDMs and FATP1-OE RAW 264.7 MΦs demonstrated that FATP1 reciprocally controled metabolic flexibility, i.e. lipid and glucose metabolism, which was associated with inflammatory response. Supporting our previous work demonstrating the positive relationship between glucose

  7. Graphene for amino acid biosensing: Theoretical study of the electronic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S. J.; Makinistian, L.; Albanesi, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study of biosensors based on graphene has increased in the last years, the combination of excellent electrical properties and low noise makes graphene a material for next generation electronic devices. This work discusses the application of a graphene-based biosensor for the detection of amino acids histidine (His), alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), and tyrosine (Tyr). First, we present the results of modeling from first principles the adsorption of the four amino acids on a graphene sheet, we calculate adsorption energy, substrate-adsorbate distance, equilibrium geometrical configurations (upon relaxation) and densities of states (DOS) for each biomolecule adsorbed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the effects of amino acid adsorption on the electronic transport of graphene, we modeled a device using first-principles calculations with a combination of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Nonequilibrium Greens Functions (NEGF). We provide with a detailed discussion in terms of transmission, current-voltage curves, and charge transfer. We found evidence of differences in the electronic transport through the graphene sheet due to amino acid adsorption, reinforcing the possibility of graphene-based sensors for amino acid sequencing of proteins.

  8. Transport of acidic amino acids by human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, V.M.; Harig, J.M.; Adams, M.B.; Ramaswamy, K.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the transport of radiolabeled acidic amino acids into brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from human jejunum. The uptakes of L-glutamic, L-aspartic, and D-aspartic acids were stimulated by a Na + gradient. Concentrative uptake (resulting in an overshoot phenomenon) of these dicarboxylic amino acids occurred when there was an outward K + gradient. In addition, increasing K + gradients resulted in enhanced uptake of L-glutamic acid. This K + requirement is somewhat specific as Rb + and Cs + could enhance uptake to a limited extent, whereas Li + and choline + showed no enhancement. The presence of a K + gradient did not affect the affinity of the carrier system for L-glutamic acid but it did increase the V/sub max/. The presence of extravesicular anions having differing membrane permeabilities did not altar L-glutamic acid uptake indicating an absence of an effect of membrane potential on the transport process. Finally, the human transport system for L-glutamic acid appears to be specific for acidic amino acids as demonstrated by inhibition studies. The studies demonstrate a transport system in human jejunum specific for acidic amino acids that is energized by an inward Na + gradient and an outward K + gradient

  9. Electricity-free, sequential nucleic acid and protein isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, David R; Karalus, Richard J

    2012-05-15

    Traditional and emerging pathogens such as Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Yersinia pestis, or prion-based diseases are of significant concern for governments, industries and medical professionals worldwide. For example, EHECs, combined with Shigella, are responsible for the deaths of approximately 325,000 children each year and are particularly prevalent in the developing world where laboratory-based identification, common in the United States, is unavailable (1). The development and distribution of low cost, field-based, point-of-care tools to aid in the rapid identification and/or diagnosis of pathogens or disease markers could dramatically alter disease progression and patient prognosis. We have developed a tool to isolate nucleic acids and proteins from a sample by solid-phase extraction (SPE) without electricity or associated laboratory equipment (2). The isolated macromolecules can be used for diagnosis either in a forward lab or using field-based point-of-care platforms. Importantly, this method provides for the direct comparison of nucleic acid and protein data from an un-split sample, offering a confidence through corroboration of genomic and proteomic analysis. Our isolation tool utilizes the industry standard for solid-phase nucleic acid isolation, the BOOM technology, which isolates nucleic acids from a chaotropic salt solution, usually guanidine isothiocyanate, through binding to silica-based particles or filters (3). CUBRC's proprietary solid-phase extraction chemistry is used to purify protein from chaotropic salt solutions, in this case, from the waste or flow-thru following nucleic acid isolation(4). By packaging well-characterized chemistries into a small, inexpensive and simple platform, we have generated a portable system for nucleic acid and protein extraction that can be performed under a variety of conditions. The isolated nucleic acids are stable and can be transported to a position where power is available for PCR amplification

  10. Cellular fatty acid transport in heart and skeletal muscle as facilitated by proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiken, J. J.; Schaap, F. G.; van Nieuwenhoven, F. A.; van der Vusse, G. J.; Bonen, A.; Glatz, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the importance of long-chain fatty acids (FA) as fuels for heart and skeletal muscles, the mechanism of their cellular uptake has not yet been clarified. There is dispute as to whether FA are taken up by the muscle cells via passive diffusion and/or carrier-mediated transport. Kinetic

  11. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  12. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  13. Role of the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporters in Bile Acid and Drug Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters expressed by the hepatocyte and enterocyte play critical roles in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, an effective recycling and conservation mechanism that largely restricts these potentially cytotoxic detergents to the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. In doing so, the hepatic and enterocyte transport systems ensure a continuous supply of bile acids to be used repeatedly during the digestion of multiple meals throughout the day. Absorption of bile acids from the intestinal lumen and export into the portal circulation is mediated by a series of transporters expressed on the enterocyte apical and basolateral membranes. The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (abbreviated ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) is responsible for the initial uptake of bile acids across the enterocyte brush border membrane. The bile acids are then efficiently shuttled across the cell and exported across the basolateral membrane by the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. This chapter briefly reviews the tissue expression, physiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and transport properties of the ASBT and OSTα-OSTα. In addition, the chapter discusses the relationship between the intestinal bile acid transporters and drug metabolism, including development of ASBT inhibitors as novel hypocholesterolemic or hepatoprotective agents, prodrug targeting of the ASBT to increase oral bioavailability, and involvement of the intestinal bile acid transporters in drug absorption and drug-drug interactions. PMID:21103970

  14. Mechanisms Regulating Acid-Base Transporter Expression in Breast- and Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej

    , characteristics of which are a shift towards glycolytic metabolism and increased acid production. HER2 receptor overexpression in breast cancer leads to further increased glycolysis, invasion and metastasis, drug resistance and poor prognosis. Increased tumor glycolysis requires acquisition of mechanisms...... for dealing with excess acid production. In this light, evidence accumulates on the importance of pH regulatory proteins to cancer cell survival and motility. Our group previously demonstrated upregulation of the Na+/HCO3 - co-transporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) by a constitutively active form of HER2 receptor (p95HER...

  15. Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by ß-Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed Warsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in chorioid plexus of the brain, kidney, and several other tissues, is required for inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. At least in part by exerting β-glucuronidase activity, soluble klotho regulates several ion channels and carriers. Klotho protein deficiency accelerates the appearance of age related disorders including neurodegeneration and muscle wasting and eventually leads to premature death. The present study explored the effect of Klotho protein on the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 (SLC1A3 and EAAT2 (SLC1A2, Na+ coupled carriers clearing excitatory amino acids from the synaptic cleft and thus participating in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Methods: cRNA encoding EAAT1 or EAAT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and glutamate (2 mM-induced inward current (IGlu taken as measure of glutamate transport. Measurements were made without or with prior 24 h treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein (30 ng/ml in the absence and presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone monohydrate (DSAL,10 µM. Results: IGlu was observed in EAAT1 and in EAAT2 expressing oocytes but not in water injected oocytes. In both, EAAT1 and EAAT2 expressing oocytes IGlu was significantly increased by treatment with soluble ß-Klotho protein, an effect reversed by DSAL. Treatment with ß-klotho protein increased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carriers. Conclusion: ß-Klotho up-regulates the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and thus participates in the regulation of neuronal excitation.

  16. Effect of a keto acid-amino acid supplement on the metabolism and renal elimination of branched-chain amino acids in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Horácková, M; Skibová, J; Holecek, M

    2000-10-27

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids-amino acids on renal function and urinary excretion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). In a prospective investigation 28 patients with CRI (16 male, 12 female, aged 28-66 yrs, CCr 18.6 +/- 10.2 ml/min) on a low-protein diet (0.6 g of protein /kg BW/day and energy intake 140 kJ/kg BW/day) for a period of one month were included. Subsequently, this low protein diet was supplemented with keto acids-amino acids at a dose of 0.1 g/kg BW/day orally for a period of 3 months. Examinations performed at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period revealed significant increase in the serum levels of BCAA leucine (p Keto acid-amino acid administration had no effect on renal function and on the clearance of inulin, para-aminohippuric acid. Endogenous creatinine and urea clearance remained unaltered. A significant correlation between fractional excretion of sodium and leucine (p diet the supplementation of keto acids-amino acids does not affect renal hemodynamics, but is associated--despite increases in plasma concentrations--with a reduction of renal amino acid and protein excretion suggesting induction of alterations in the tubular transport mechanisms.

  17. Fluorescent Proteins for Investigating Biological Events in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shinoda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interior lumen of acidic organelles (e.g., endosomes, secretory granules, lysosomes and plant vacuoles is an important platform for modification, transport and degradation of biomolecules as well as signal transduction, which remains challenging to investigate using conventional fluorescent proteins (FPs. Due to the highly acidic luminal environment (pH ~ 4.5–6.0, most FPs and related sensors are apt to lose their fluorescence. To address the need to image in acidic environments, several research groups have developed acid-tolerant FPs in a wide color range. Furthermore, the engineering of pH insensitive sensors, and their concomitant use with pH sensitive sensors for the purpose of pH-calibration has enabled characterization of the role of luminal ions. In this short review, we summarize the recent development of acid-tolerant FPs and related functional sensors and discuss the future prospects for this field.

  18. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  19. Regulatory signals for intestinal amino acid transporters and peptidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, R.P.; Kwan, W.W.; Diamond, J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary protein ultimately regulates many processes involved in protein digestion, but it is often unclear whether proteins themselves, peptides, or amino acids (AAs) are the proximate regulatory signal. Hence the authors compared several processes involved in protein digestion in mice adapted to one of three rations, identical except for containing 54% of either casein, a partial hydrolysate of casein, or a free AA mixture simulating a complete hydrolysate of casein. The authors measured brush-border uptakes of seven AAs that variously serve as substrates for four AA transporters, and brush-border and cytosolic activities of four peptidases. The three rations yielded essentially the same AA uptake rates. Peptidase activities tended to be lower on the AA ration than on the protein ration. In other studies, all three rations yielded the same rates of brush-border peptide uptake; protein is only modestly more effective than AAs at inducing synthesis of pancreatic proteases; and, depending on the animal species, protein is either much less or much more effective than AAs at stimulating release of cholecystokinin and hence of pancreatic enzymes. Thus the regulators of each process involved in protein digestion are not necessarily that process's substrate

  20. Tunneling explains efficient electron transport via protein junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiro, Jerry A; Yu, Xi; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Cahen, David

    2018-05-15

    Metalloproteins, proteins containing a transition metal ion cofactor, are electron transfer agents that perform key functions in cells. Inspired by this fact, electron transport across these proteins has been widely studied in solid-state settings, triggering the interest in examining potential use of proteins as building blocks in bioelectronic devices. Here, we report results of low-temperature (10 K) electron transport measurements via monolayer junctions based on the blue copper protein azurin (Az), which strongly suggest quantum tunneling of electrons as the dominant charge transport mechanism. Specifically, we show that, weakening the protein-electrode coupling by introducing a spacer, one can switch the electron transport from off-resonant to resonant tunneling. This is a consequence of reducing the electrode's perturbation of the Cu(II)-localized electronic state, a pattern that has not been observed before in protein-based junctions. Moreover, we identify vibronic features of the Cu(II) coordination sphere in transport characteristics that show directly the active role of the metal ion in resonance tunneling. Our results illustrate how quantum mechanical effects may dominate electron transport via protein-based junctions.

  1. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-02-03

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H(+) transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties 'Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)' and an early maturing mutant 'Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)'. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis.

  2. 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, a photolabile analog of the auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid: synthesis and binding properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, J.G.; Howley, K.; Shumsky, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The polar transport of the plant growth regulator, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAAH), is thought to involve the participation of several proteins in the plasma membrane, including a specific, saturable, voltage independent H + /IAA - efflux carrier located preferentially at the basal end of each cell. Auxin transport is specifically inhibited by the herbicide, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), which binds specifically to a protein in the plasma membrane, thought to be either the IAA - efflux carrier or an allosteric effector protein. They have synthesized and characterized a photolabile analog of NPA, 5'-azido-N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (Az-NPA). This potential photoaffinity label for the NPA binding protein competes with 3 H-NPA for binding sites on Curcurbita pepo L. (zucchini) stem cell membranes with K/sub j/ = 1.5 x 10 -7 M. The K/sub i/ for NPA under these conditions is 2 x 10 -8 M, indicating that the affinity of Az-NPA for the membranes is only 7.5 fold lower than NPA. While the binding of 4.6 x 10 -6 M Az-NPA to NPA binding sites is reversible in the dark, exposure to light results in a 30% loss in 3 H-NPA binding ability. Pretreatment with 10 -4 M NPA protects the membranes against photodestruction of 3 H-NPA binding sites by Az-NPA, supporting the conclusion that Az-NPA destroys these sites by specific covalent attachment

  3. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium......-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L...... to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms....

  4. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Olfactory marker protein: turnover and transport in normal and regenerating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kream, R.M.; Margolis, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A 19,000-dalton acidic protein designated olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a cell-specific marker of mature olfactory chemosensory neurons. Intranasal irrigation of mouse olfactory epithelium with [ 35 S]methionine labeled OMP to high specific activity. Turnover and transport characteristics of 35 S-labeled OMP were compared to those of 35 S-labeled global cytosol protein in groups of young, adult, and Triton-treated adult mice. The latter contained primarily large numbers of regenerating olfactory neurons. In olfactory epithelium of young and Triton-treated mice, the specific activity of OMP was three times that of global cytosol protein, whereas in adults the two measures were equal. In all three groups, however, the rate of degradation of OMP was roughly equal to that of cytosol protein (T1/2 . 5 to 6 days). By contrast, differences in T1/2 for OMP decline in the bulb of adult, young, and Triton-treated adult mice were highly significant (T1/2's of 9.3, 6.1, and 4 to 5 days, respectively; p . 0.001). The specific activity of [35S]methionine incorporated in OMP exceeded that of the free amino acid 5-fold, indicating minimal precursor reutilization during the course of our experiments. Turnover data indicate that increased isotope incorporation into OMP in the epithelium is matched by an accelerated rate of degradation in the bulb. This may be correlated with the physiological state or developmental age of the primary neurons since in young and Triton-treated adult mice, rapidly maturing ''young'' olfactory neurons represent a larger proportion of the total population than in adults. Thus, OMP behaves as a typical, relatively slowly transported soluble protein (v . 2 to 4 mm/day, slow component b)

  6. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Fedoroff, N.

    2000-01-01

    Both physiological and genetic evidence indicate interconnections among plant responses to different hormones. We describe a pleiotropic recessive Arabidopsis transposon insertion mutation, designated hyponastic leaves (hyl1), that alters the plant's responses to several hormones. The mutant is characterized by shorter stature, delayed flowering, leaf hyponasty, reduced fertility, decreased rate of root growth, and an altered root gravitropic response. It also exhibits less sensitivity to auxin and cytokinin and hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid normalizes the mutant phenotype somewhat, whereas another auxin transport inhibitor, N-(1-naph-thyl)phthalamic acid, exacerbates the phenotype. The gene, designated HYL1, encodes a 419-amino acid protein that contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding motifs, a nuclear localization motif, and a C-terminal repeat structure suggestive of a protein-protein interaction domain. We present evidence that the HYL1 gene is ABA-regulated and encodes a nuclear dsRNA binding protein. We hypothesize that the HYL1 protein is a regulatory protein functioning at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level.

  7. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 ± 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 ± 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 ± 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of [3H]acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for [3H]acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of [3H]acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2'-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of [3H]acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of [3H]acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of [3H]acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH

  8. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  9. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  11. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  12. Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL is a natural language processing (NLP technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs – manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. Results We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. Conclusion We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from Gene

  13. Manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Blatti

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP and thioesterase (TE govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes.

  14. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    New types of aggregation suppressors, such as amino acids and their derivatives, were focused on as fourth-component additives. Data were obtained that indicated that the additives promote protein crystallization. Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization

  15. Utilization of alimentary protein and amino acids in satisfying the nitrogen requirements of monogastric mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion, R.; Arnal, M.

    1976-01-01

    The nitrogenous matter in the food of monogastric animals consists mainly of proteins, which are rapidly hydrolized in the intestinal tract when they have left the gastric reservoir. The digestive tube has several roles: it provides for hydrolysis of the food proteins and for a supply of endogenous nitrogen; it enables a certain digestive function to be performed by the intestinal flora and permits the transport of amino acids into the blood, selecting those which are needed for protein synthesis. The digestion products appear mainly in the form of free amino acids in the portal blood. A large proportion of these amino acids is taken up by the liver, so that intense protein synthesis takes place in the latter, coupled with a decrease in catabolism leading to a rhythmic increase in the liver content of proteins and RNA. The labile proteins retained are mainly enzymes, which catabolize the amino acids, and the liver is the site of the catabolism of most of the excess amino acids except those with chain branching. Alimentary deficiencies do not markedly reduce protein synthesis in this organ, since the rate of re-utilization of the amino acids is increased and the liver thus plays a regulatory role. The utilization of amino acids in muscle also follows a certain rhythm, partly connected with feeding, and under hormonal control. The muscle is the seat of catabolism of a large part of the branched chain amino acids, and like the liver it contributes to the energy utilization of amino acids. The rate of utilization of certain essential amino acids can be measured by metabolic criteria, including determination of blood and muscle concentrations and excretion of 14 CO 2 labels in the exhaled air or of 35 S labels in urine. (author)

  16. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  17. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  18. Acid-extrusion from tissue: the interplay between membrane transporters and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    The acid-base balance of cells is related to the concentration of free H⁺ ions. These are highly reactive, and their intracellular concentration must be regulated to avoid detrimental effects to the cell. H⁺ ion dynamics are influenced by binding to chelator substances ('buffering'), and by the production, diffusion and membrane-transport of free H⁺ ions or of the H⁺-bound chelators. Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation aims to balance this system of diffusion-reaction-transport processes at a favourable steady-state pHi. The ability of cells to regulate pHi may set a limit to tissue growth and can be subject to selection pressures. Cancer cells have been postulated to respond favourably to such selection pressures by evolving a better means of pHi regulation. A particularly important feature of tumour pHi regulation is acid-extrusion, which involves H⁺-extrusion and HCO₃⁻-uptake by membrane-bound transporter-proteins. Extracellular CO₂/HCO₃⁻ buffer facilitates these membrane-transport processes. As a mobile pH-buffer, CO₂/HCO₃⁻ protects the extracellular space from excessive acidification that could otherwise inhibit further acid-extrusion. CO₂/HCO₃⁻ also provides substrate for HCO₃⁻-transporters. However, the inherently slow reaction kinetics of CO₂/HCO₃⁻ can be rate-limiting for acid-extrusion. To circumvent this, cells can express extracellular-facing carbonic anhydrase enzymes to accelerate the attainment of equilibrium between CO₂, HCO₃⁻ and H⁺. The acid-extrusion apparatus has been proposed as a target for anti-cancer therapy. The major targets include H⁺ pumps, Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers and carbonic anhydrases. The effectiveness of such therapy will depend on the correct identification of rate-limiting steps in pHi regulation in a specific type of cancer.

  19. Acid-regulated proteins induced by Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria during acid shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I R; Svensäter, G

    1998-10-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that with the more aciduric oral bacteria, an acid shock to sub-lethal pH values results in the induction of an acid tolerance response that protects the cells at extremely low pH (pH 3.0-4.0) that kills unadapted control cells maintained at pH 7.5 (Oral Microbiol Immunol 1997: 12: 266-273). In this study, we were interested in comparing the protein profiles of acid-shocked and control cells of nine organisms from three acid-ogenic genera that could be categorized as strong, weak and non-acid responders in an attempt to identify proteins that could be classified as acid-regulated proteins and which may be important in the process of survival at very low pH. For this, log-phase cultures were rapidly acidified from pH 7.5 to 5.5 in the presence of [14C]-amino acids for varying periods up to 2 h, the period previously shown to be required for maximum induction of the acid response. The cells were extracted for total protein and subjected to one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide chromatography with comparable control and acid-shocked protein profiles compared by scanning and computer analysis. Of particular interest were the proteins in the acid-shocked cells that showed enhanced labeling (i.e., synthesis) over the control cells, since these were considered acid-regulated proteins of importance in pH homeostasis. Streptococcus mutans LT11 generated the most rapid and complex pattern: a total of 36 acid-regulated proteins showing enhanced synthesis, with 25 appearing within the first 30 min of acid shock. The enhanced synthesis was transient with all proteins, with the exception of two with molecular weights of 50/49 and 33/32 kDa. Within the acid-regulated proteins were proteins having molecular weights comparable to the heat shock proteins and the various subunits of the membrane H+/ATPase. By comparison, the strong responder, Lactobacillus casei 151, showed the enhanced formation of only nine proteins within the

  20. Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna

    2003-11-01

    With the increasing availability of whole organism genome sequences, understanding protein structure and function is of capital importance. Recent developments in the methodology of incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins allow the exploration of proteins at a very detailed level. Furthermore, de novo design of novel protein structures and function is feasible with unprecedented sophistication. Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.

  1. Protein synthesis in the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.M.; Stephens, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of exogenous carbamoyl-amino acids in protein biosynthesis has been examined in vitro using a mixture of 14 C amino acids to label newly synthesized protein in human reticulocyte rich (8-18%) peripheral blood. Aliquots of the radiolabeled newly synthesized protein were acid precipitated, washed and the radioactivity measured. Control samples which measured the synthetic capacity of the blood were aliquots of the same blood- 14 C amino acid mixture without added carbamoyl-amino acids or cyanate. N-carbamoyl leucine alone or a 3 N-carbamoyl amino acid mixture of leucine, aspartic acid and tyrosine were used to test inhibition of protein synthesis. Also carbamoyl-amino acids were synthesized using cyanate and Pierce hydrolyzate amino acid calibration standards or the mixture of 14 C amino acids. In this system the carbamoylation of endogenous amino acids by cyanate up to 8 μmol/100μl showed a linear decrease in protein synthesis with time which is inversely related to the cyanate concentration. At greater cyanate levels the inhibition of protein synthesis reaches a plateau. When N-carbamoyl-amino acids only are present there is about a 50% decrease in the 14 C protein at 30 minutes as compared to the synthesis of 14 C protein without N-carbamoyl-amino acids. These results indicate that the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids interferes with protein synthesis

  2. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  3. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  4. Transport mechanism and regulatory properties of the human amino acid transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Pochini, Lorena; Panni, Simona; Pingitore, Piero; Hedfalk, Kristina; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-11-01

    The kinetic mechanism of the transport catalyzed by the human glutamine/neutral amino acid transporter hASCT2 over-expressed in P. pastoris was determined in proteoliposomes by pseudo-bi-substrate kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-glutamineex/glutaminein transport reaction. A random simultaneous mechanism resulted from the experimental analysis. Purified functional hASCT2 was chemically cross-linked to a stable dimeric form. The oligomeric structure correlated well with the kinetic mechanism of transport. Half-saturation constants (Km) of the transporter for the other substrates Ala, Ser, Asn and Thr were measured both on the external and internal side. External Km were much lower than the internal ones confirming the asymmetry of the transporter. The electric nature of the transport reaction was determined imposing a negative inside membrane potential generated by K(+) gradients in the presence of valinomycin. The transport reaction resulted to be electrogenic and the electrogenicity originated from external Na(+). Internal Na(+) exerted a stimulatory effect on the transport activity which could be explained by a regulatory, not a counter-transport, effect. Native and deglycosylated hASCT2 extracted from HeLa showed the same transport features demonstrating that the glycosyl moiety has no role in transport function. Both in vitro and in vivo interactions of hASCT2 with the scaffold protein PDZK1 were revealed.

  5. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  6. Specific lysosomal transport of small neutral amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisoni, R.L.; Flickinger, K.S.; Thoene, J.G.; Christensen, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of amino acid exodus from lysosomes have allowed us previously to describe transport systems specific for cystine and another for cationic amino acids in fibroblast lysosomes. They are now able to study amino acid uptake into highly purified fibroblast lysosomes obtained by separating crude granular fraction on gradients formed by centrifugation in 35% isoosmotic Percoll solutions. Analog inhibition and saturation studies indicate that L-[ 14 C]proline (50 μM) uptake by fibroblast lysosomes at 37 0 C in 50 mM citrate/tris pH 7.0 buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose is mediated by two transport systems, one largely specific for L-proline and the other for which transport is shared with small neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine and threonine. At 7 mM, L-proline inhibits L-[ 14 C]proline uptake almost completely, whereas ala, ser, val, thr, gly, N-methylalanine and sarcosine inhibit proline uptake by 50-65%. The system shared by alanine, serine and threonine is further characterized by these amino acids strongly inhibiting the uptakes of each other. Lysosomal proline transport is selective for the L-isomer of the amino acid, and is scarcely inhibited by 7 mM arg, glu, asp, leu, phe, his, met, (methylamino) isobutyrate, betaine or N,N-dimethylglycine. Cis or trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline inhibit proline uptake only slightly. In sharp contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane in which Na + is required for most proline and alanine transport, lysosomal uptake of these amino acids occurs independently of Na +

  7. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  8. ETMB-RBF: discrimination of metal-binding sites in electron transporters based on RBF networks with PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation-reduction reactions. In these oxidation-reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins.

  9. Acid-base transport in pancreas – new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eNovak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+ and base (HCO3- transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO3- and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases, as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl- channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signalling, fine-tune and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis and cancer.

  10. DNA methylation of amino acid transporter genes in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, C; Novakovic, B; Lillycrop, K A; Bell, C G; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Saffery, R; Lewis, R M; Cleal, J K

    2017-12-01

    Placental transfer of amino acids via amino acid transporters is essential for fetal growth. Little is known about the epigenetic regulation of amino acid transporters in placenta. This study investigates the DNA methylation status of amino acid transporters and their expression across gestation in human placenta. BeWo cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to inhibit methylation and assess the effects on amino acid transporter gene expression. The DNA methylation levels of amino acid transporter genes in human placenta were determined across gestation using DNA methylation array data. Placental amino acid transporter gene expression across gestation was also analysed using data from publically available Gene Expression Omnibus data sets. The expression levels of these transporters at term were established using RNA sequencing data. Inhibition of DNA methylation in BeWo cells demonstrated that expression of specific amino acid transporters can be inversely associated with DNA methylation. Amino acid transporters expressed in term placenta generally showed low levels of promoter DNA methylation. Transporters with little or no expression in term placenta tended to be more highly methylated at gene promoter regions. The transporter genes SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A4, SLC7A5, SLC7A11 and SLC7A10 had significant changes in enhancer DNA methylation across gestation, as well as gene expression changes across gestation. This study implicates DNA methylation in the regulation of amino acid transporter gene expression. However, in human placenta, DNA methylation of these genes remains low across gestation and does not always play an obvious role in regulating gene expression, despite clear evidence for differential expression as gestation proceeds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Hepatic and renal Bcrp transporter expression in mice treated with perfluorooctanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldasher, Lobna M.; Wen, Xia; Little, Michael S.; Bircsak, Kristin M.; Yacovino, Lindsay L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PFOA increased liver weight and Cyp4a14 mRNA and protein expression in mice. ► PFOA increased kidney Cyp4a14 mRNA in mice. ► PFOA increased Bcrp mRNA and protein in livers, but not kidneys, of mice. ► PFOA inhibited activation of human BCRP ATPase activity in vitro. ► PFOA inhibited human BCRP transport in inverted membrane vesicles. - Abstract: The breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is an efflux transporter that participates in the biliary and renal excretion of drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent evidence suggests that pharmacological activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) can up-regulate the hepatic expression of Bcrp. The current study investigated the regulation of hepatic and renal Bcrp mRNA and protein in mice treated with the PPARα agonist perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the ability of PFOA to alter human BCRP function in vitro. Bcrp mRNA and protein expression were quantified in the livers and kidneys of male C57BL/6 mice treated with vehicle or PFOA (1 or 3 mg/kg/day oral gavage) for 7 days. PFOA treatment increased liver weights as well as the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the PPARα target gene, cytochrome P450 4a14. Compared to vehicle-treated control mice, PFOA increased hepatic Bcrp mRNA and protein between 1.5- and 3-fold. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed enhanced canalicular Bcrp staining in liver sections from PFOA-treated mice. The kidney expression of cytochrome P450 4a14 mRNA, but not Bcrp, was increased in mice treated with PFOA. Micromolar concentrations of PFOA decreased human BCRP ATPase activity and inhibited BCRP-mediated transport in inverted membrane vesicles. Together, these studies demonstrate that PFOA induces hepatic Bcrp expression in mice and may inhibit human BCRP transporter function at concentrations that exceed levels observed in humans

  12. Fast axonal transport of 3H-leucin-labelled proteins in the unhurt and isolated optical nerve of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of radioactivity of amino acid molecules incorporated in protein after injection of 3 H-Leucin into the right bulb was investigated and determined along optical nerve after 1, 2, and 4 h. A slightly increased radioactivity at the point of entrance of the optical nerves into the optical duct was found. A slightly reduced axon diameter was discussed as a possible cause. The radioactivity brought into the optical nerve via the vascular system was determined by measuring the contralateral optical nerve. In relation to the axonally transported activity, it was low. The speed of the fast axonal transport is 168 mm/d. If the processes ruling the amino acids in the perikaryon are taken into consideration, the transport speed is 240 mm/d. The application of the protein synthesis prohibitor, Cycloheximide, 5 minutes after the injection of Leucinin completely prevented the appearance of axonally transported labelled proteins. When cycloheximide was administered 2 h after Leucin, a significantly loner radioactivity than in the nerve could be determined after another 2 h; i.e. the incorporation of Leucin was not completed yet after 2 h. The profile of active compounds was the same as in the control group. In other experiments, the axonal transport of labelled proteins in isolated optical nerve fibres was tested. If the separation was carried out 2 h after the injection of Leucin an extreme reduction in activity could be determined after 1 or 2 h. The continued distribution of activity after cycloheximide treatment and removal of perikarya in comparison with the control indicate the continuation of the transport, also after separation of the axon from the perikaryon. This means that, during the time of the experiment, the mechanism of the fast axonal transport functions independently of the perikaryon. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Amino acid derivatives are substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2 (slc36a2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Noel; Anderson, Catriona M H; Gatfield, Kelly M; Jevons, Mark P; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thwaites, David T

    2011-01-01

    The H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter PAT2 (SLC36A2) transports the amino acids proline, glycine, alanine and hydroxyproline. A physiological role played by PAT2 in amino acid reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule is demonstrated by mutations in SLC36A2 that lead to an iminoglycinuric phenotype (imino acid and glycine uria) in humans. A number of proline, GABA and tryptophan derivatives were examined to determine if they function either as transported substrates or non-transported inhibitors of PAT2. The compounds were investigated following heterologous expression of rat PAT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PAT2 function was characterised by: radiotracer uptake and competition (cis-inhibition) studies; radiotracer efflux and trans-stimulation; and measurement of substrate-induced positive inward current by two-electrode voltage-clamp. In general, the proline derivatives appeared to be transported substrates and the relative ability to induce current flow was closely related to the inhibitory effects on PAT2-mediated l-[(3)H]proline uptake. In contrast, certain heterocyclic GABA derivatives (e.g. l-pipecolic acid) were translocated only slowly. Finally, the tryptophan derivatives inhibited PAT2 function but did not undergo transport. l-Proline uptake was inhibited by 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (IC(50) 1.6±0.4mM), α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan (3.5±1.5mM), l-tryptophan, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan and indole-3-propionic acid. Although neither 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan nor α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan were able to elicit inward current in PAT2-expressing oocytes both reduced the current evoked by l-proline. 5-Hydroxy-l-tryptophan and α-methyl-d,l-tryptophan were unable to trans-stimulate l-proline efflux from PAT2-expressing oocytes, confirming that the two compounds act as non-transported blockers of PAT2. These two tryptophan derivatives should prove valuable experimental tools in future investigations of the physiological roles of PAT2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Fiscal 2000 research report on the technology for utilizing intracellular protein transport; 2000 nendo saibonai tanpakushitsu yuso kino riyo gijutsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research was conducted for the establishment of 'intracellular transport engineering' for collecting eucaryotic proteins having cytotoxicity and activated proteins having escaped decomposition into an appropriate intracellular organelle by artificially manipulating the intracellular transport system for proteins in eucaryotes. In this fiscal year, element technologies and tasks necessary for the transport and activation of intracellular proteins in eucaryotes are extracted, and research was conducted on relevant patents. In a survey of the latest trends of research and development, attention was directed mainly at cells or organelles, and the details of progress in the last one year were investigated and reported, which were related to the functions of single membrane organelles excluding for double membrane bound organelles, e.g., mitochondria and chloroplast, etc., that have unique DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and to the molecular mechanism of transport of protein to each organelle. Furthermore, relative to each organelle, deployment of protein transport function application technology was taken up. (NEDO)

  15. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  16. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  17. In silico characterization of boron transporter (BOR1 protein sequences in Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B is essential for the plant growth and development, and its primary function is connected with formation of the cell wall. Moreover, boron toxicity is a shared problem in semiarid and arid regions. In this study, boron transporter protein (BOR1 sequences from some Poaceae species (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, Oryza sativa subsp. indica, Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of BOR1 proteins were basic character and had generally aliphatic amino acids. Analysis of the domains showed that transmembrane domains were identified constantly and three motifs were detected with 50 amino acids length. Also, the motif SPNPWEPGSYDHWTVAKDMFNVPPAYIFGAFIPATMVAGLYYFDHSVASQ was found most frequently with 25 repeats. The phylogenetic tree showed divergence into two main clusters. B. distachyon species were clustered separately. Finally, this study contributes to the new BOR1 protein characterization in grasses and create scientific base for in silico analysis in future.

  18. Acid-base transport in pancreas-new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO-3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges...... to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H-K-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K and Cl channels, such as K3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport...

  19. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  20. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  1. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Transport of phosphoric acid through supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Yassine, T.; Baidoun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The transport of phosphhoric acid through liquid membranes of amylalkohol, 1-octanol and 2-octanol was studied. It was found that phosphoric acid is transfered from feed side to strip side and the transport increased with the concentration of phosphoric acid up to 5M. The permeability in each membrane was determined for 5M phosphoic acid. It was found that the permeability values are 1.45 x 10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for amylakohol and ∼ 1x10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for each of 1-octanol and 2-octanol

  4. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [ 3 H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [ 14 C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14 C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  5. Acid-base status determines the renal expression of Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, T.; Renkema, K.Y.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis results in renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ wasting, whereas chronic metabolic alkalosis is known to exert the reverse effects. It was hypothesized that these adaptations are mediated at least in part by the renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport proteins. The aim of this study, therefore, was

  6. EHD proteins: Key conductors of endocytic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of endocytic transport is controlled by an elaborate network of proteins. Rab GTP-binding proteins and their effectors have well-defined roles in mediating specific endocytic transport steps, but until recently, less was known about the four mammalian dynamin-like C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain (EHD) proteins that also regulate endocytic events. In recent years, however, great strides have been made in understanding the structure and function of these unique proteins. Indeed, a growing body of literature addresses EHD protein structure, interactions with binding partners, functions in mammalian cells, and the generation of various new model systems. Accordingly, this is now an opportune time to pause and review the function and mechanisms of action of EHD proteins, and to highlight some of the challenges and future directions for the field. PMID:21067929

  7. Interactions between Therapeutic Proteins and Acrylic Acid Leachable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengfeng; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Brems, David N; Ren, Da

    2012-01-01

    Leachables are chemical compounds that migrate from manufacturing equipment, primary containers and closure systems, and packaging components into biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical products. Acrylic acid (at concentration around 5 μg/mL) was detected as leachable in syringes from one of the potential vendors (X syringes). In order to evaluate the potential impact of acrylic acid on therapeutic proteins, an IgG 2 molecule was filled into a sterilized X syringe and then incubated at 45 °C for 45 days in a pH 5 acetate buffer. We discovered that acrylic acid can interact with proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, (2) the N-terminus, and (3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed. Even thought a small amount (from 0.02% to 0.3%) of protein was found to be modified by acrylic acid, the modified protein can potentially be harmful due to the toxicity of acrylic acid. After being modified by acrylic acid, the properties of the therapeutic protein may change due to charge and hydrophobicity variations. Acrylic acid was detected to migrate from syringes (Vendor X) into a therapeutic protein solution (at a concentration around 5 μg/mL). In this study, we discovered that acrylic acid can modify proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, 2) the N-terminus, and 3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed.

  8. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A

    2002-01-01

    implicated in lipid movement and expressed in tissues with a role in sterol synthesis and absorption, might also be involved in sitosterol transport. Transport by the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp; Abcb1), the multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp1; Abcc1), the breast cancer resistance...

  9. Role of cholangiocyte bile Acid transporters in large bile duct injury after rat liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Zhao, Lijin; Li, Dajiang; Liu, Zipei; Chen, Geng; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuguang

    2010-07-27

    The pathogenesis of nonanastomotic strictures with a patent hepatic artery remains to be investigated. This study focuses on the role of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters in bile duct injury after liver transplantation. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=20 for each): the sham-operated group (Sham), the transplant group with 1-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-1h), and the transplant group with 12-hr donor liver cold preservation (CP-12h). Bile was collected for biochemical analysis. The histopathologic evaluation of bile duct injury was performed and the cholangiocyte bile acid transporters apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP), and Ostalpha/Ostbeta were investigated. RESULTS.: The immunohistochemical assay suggested that ASBT and ILBP were expressed exclusively on large bile duct epithelial cells, whereas Ostalpha and Ostbeta were expressed on both small and large bile ducts. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression levels of these transporters dramatically decreased after transplantation. It took seven to 14 days for ILBP, Ostalpha, and Ostbeta to recover, whereas ASBT recovered within 3 days and even reached a peak above the normal level seven days after operation. In the CP-12h group, the ratios of the ASBT/ILBP, ASBT/Ostalpha and ASBT/Ostbeta expression levels were correlated with the injury severity scores of large but not small bile ducts. The results suggest that the unparallel alteration of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters may play a potential role in large bile duct injury after liver transplantation with prolonged donor liver preservation.

  10. Arachidonic Acid-Induced Expression of the Organic Solute and Steroid Transporter-beta (Ost-beta) in a Cartilaginous Fish Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Ho; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Barnes, David

    2008-01-01

    The organic solute and steroid transporter (OST/Ost) is a unique membrane transport protein heterodimer composed of subunits designated alpha and beta, that transports conjugated steroids and prostaglandin E2 across the plasma membrane. Ost was first identified in the liver of the cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate, and subsequently was found in many other species, including humans and rodents. The present study describes the isolation of a new cell line, LEE-1, derived from an early embryo of L. erinacea, and characterizes the expression of Ost in these cells. The mRNA size and amino acid sequence of Ost-beta in LEE-1 was identical to that previously reported for Ost-beta from skate liver, and the primary structure was identical to that of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) with the exception of a single amino acid. Ost-beta was found both on the plasma membrane and intracellularly in LEE-1 cells, consistent with its localization in other cell types. Interestingly, arachidonic acid, the precursor to eiconsanoids, strongly induced Ost-beta expression in LEE-1 cells and a lipid mixture containing arachidonic acid also induced Ost-alpha. Overall, the present study describes the isolation of a novel marine cell line, and shows that this cell line expresses relatively high levels of Ost when cultured in the presence of arachidonic acid. Although the function of this transport protein in embryo-derived cells is unknown, it may play a role in the disposition of eicosanoids or steroid-derived molecules. PMID:18407792

  11. Direct interaction between EgFABP1, a fatty acid binding protein from Echinococcus granulosus, and phospholipid membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Porfido

    Full Text Available Growth and maintenance of hydatid cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus have a high requirement for host lipids for biosynthetic processes, membrane building and possibly cellular and developmental signalling. This requires a high degree of lipid trafficking facilitated by lipid transporter proteins. Members of the fatty acid binding protein (FABP family have been identified in Echinococcus granulosus, one of which, EgFABP1 is expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscoleces, but it has also been described in both hydatid cyst fluid and secretions of protoscoleces. In spite of a considerable amount of structural and biophysical information on the FABPs in general, their specific functions remain mysterious.We have investigated the way in which EgFABP1 may interact with membranes using a variety of fluorescence-based techniques and artificial small unilamellar vesicles. We first found that bacterial recombinant EgFABP1 is loaded with fatty acids from the synthesising bacteria, and that fatty acid binding increases its resistance to proteinases, possibly due to subtle conformational changes induced on EgFABP1. By manipulating the composition of lipid vesicles and the ionic environment, we found that EgFABP1 interacts with membranes in a direct contact, collisional, manner to exchange ligand, involving both ionic and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, we observed that the protein can compete with cytochrome c for association with the surface of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs.This work constitutes a first approach to the understanding of protein-membrane interactions of EgFABP1. The results suggest that this protein may be actively involved in the exchange and transport of fatty acids between different membranes and cellular compartments within the parasite.

  12. Prediction of FAD binding sites in electron transport proteins according to efficient radial basis function networks and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2016-07-30

    Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is the most efficient process through which cells harvest energy from consumed food. When cells undergo cellular respiration, they require a pathway to keep and transfer electrons (i.e., the electron transport chain). Due to oxidation-reduction reactions, the electron transport chain produces a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. In case protons flow back through this membrane, this mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy by ATP synthase. The convert process is involved in producing ATP which provides energy in a lot of cellular processes. In the electron transport chain process, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is one of the most vital molecules for carrying and transferring electrons. Therefore, predicting FAD binding sites in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. We used an independent data set to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, which had an accuracy of 69.84 %. We compared the performance of the proposed method in analyzing two newly discovered electron transport protein sequences with that of the general FAD binding predictor presented by Mishra and Raghava and determined that the accuracy of the proposed method improved by 9-45 % and its Matthew's correlation coefficient was 0.14-0.5. Furthermore, the proposed method enabled reducing the number of false positives significantly and can provide useful information for biologists. We developed a method that is based on PSSM profiles and SAAPs for identifying FAD binding sites in newly discovered electron transport protein sequences. This approach achieved a significant improvement after we added SAAPs to PSSM features to analyze FAD binding proteins in the electron transport chain. The proposed method can serve as an effective tool for predicting FAD binding sites in electron

  13. Functional discrimination of membrane proteins using machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabuki Yukimitsu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminating membrane proteins based on their functions is an important task in genome annotation. In this work, we have analyzed the characteristic features of amino acid residues in membrane proteins that perform major functions, such as channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and primary active transporters. Results We observed that the residues Asp, Asn and Tyr are dominant in channels/pores whereas the composition of hydrophobic residues, Phe, Gly, Ile, Leu and Val is high in electrochemical potential-driven transporters. The composition of all the amino acids in primary active transporters lies in between other two classes of proteins. We have utilized different machine learning algorithms, such as, Bayes rule, Logistic function, Neural network, Support vector machine, Decision tree etc. for discriminating these classes of proteins. We observed that most of the algorithms have discriminated them with similar accuracy. The neural network method discriminated the channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and active transporters with the 5-fold cross validation accuracy of 64% in a data set of 1718 membrane proteins. The application of amino acid occurrence improved the overall accuracy to 68%. In addition, we have discriminated transporters from other α-helical and β-barrel membrane proteins with the accuracy of 85% using k-nearest neighbor method. The classification of transporters and all other proteins (globular and membrane showed the accuracy of 82%. Conclusion The performance of discrimination with amino acid occurrence is better than that with amino acid composition. We suggest that this method could be effectively used to discriminate transporters from all other globular and membrane proteins, and classify them into channels/pores, electrochemical and active transporters.

  14. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Higashi

    Full Text Available Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2 was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  15. Mechanistic logic underlying the axonal transport of cytosolic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Das, Utpal; Tang, Yong; Roy, Subhojit

    2011-01-01

    Proteins vital to presynaptic function are synthesized in the neuronal perikarya and delivered into synapses via two modes of axonal transport. While membrane-anchoring proteins are conveyed in fast axonal transport via motor-driven vesicles, cytosolic proteins travel in slow axonal transport; via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in cultured axons, populations of cytosolic proteins tagged to photoactivable-GFP (PA-GFP) move with a slow motor-dependent anterograde bias; distinct from vesicular-trafficking or diffusion of untagged PA-GFP. The overall bias is likely generated by an intricate particle-kinetics involving transient assembly and short-range vectorial spurts. In-vivo biochemical studies reveal that cytosolic proteins are organized into higher-order structures within axon-enriched fractions that are largely segregated from vesicles. Data-driven biophysical modeling best predicts a scenario where soluble molecules dynamically assemble into mobile supra-molecular structures. We propose a model where cytosolic proteins are transported by dynamically assembling into multi-protein complexes that are directly/indirectly conveyed by motors. PMID:21555071

  16. Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that facilitate ER-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Walter, P

    1999-04-01

    Many eukaryotic cell surface proteins are anchored in the lipid bilayer through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI anchors are covalently attached in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The modified proteins are then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface. We have identified two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LAG1 and a novel gene termed DGT1 (for "delayed GPI-anchored protein transport"), encoding structurally related proteins with multiple membrane-spanning domains. Both proteins are localized to the ER, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Deletion of either gene caused no detectable phenotype, whereas lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells displayed growth defects and a significant delay in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that LAG1 and DGT1 encode functionally redundant or overlapping proteins. The rate of GPI anchor attachment was not affected, nor was the transport rate of several non-GPI-anchored proteins. Consistent with a role of Lag1p and Dgt1p in GPI-anchored protein transport, lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells deposit abnormal, multilayered cell walls. Both proteins have significant sequence similarity to TRAM, a mammalian membrane protein thought to be involved in protein translocation across the ER membrane. In vivo translocation studies, however, did not detect any defects in protein translocation in lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells, suggesting that neither yeast gene plays a role in this process. Instead, we propose that Lag1p and Dgt1p facilitate efficient ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins.

  17. Amino acid transporter genes are essential for FLO11-dependent and FLO11-independent biofilm formation and invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Torbensen

    Full Text Available Amino acids can induce yeast cell adhesion but how amino acids are sensed and signal the modulation of the FLO adhesion genes is not clear. We discovered that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK evolved invasive growth ability under prolonged nitrogen limitation. Such invasive mutants were used to identify amino acid transporters as regulators of FLO11 and invasive growth. One invasive mutant had elevated levels of FLO11 mRNA and a Q320STOP mutation in the SFL1 gene that encodes a protein kinase A pathway regulated repressor of FLO11. Glutamine-transporter genes DIP5 and GNP1 were essential for FLO11 expression, invasive growth and biofilm formation in this mutant. Invasive growth relied on known regulators of FLO11 and the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 complex that controls DIP5 and GNP1, suggesting that Dip5 and Gnp1 operates downstream of the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 complex for regulation of FLO11 expression in a protein kinase A dependent manner. The role of Dip5 and Gnp1 appears to be conserved in the S. cerevisiae strain ∑1278b since the dip5 gnp1 ∑1278b mutant showed no invasive phenotype. Secondly, the amino acid transporter gene GAP1 was found to influence invasive growth through FLO11 as well as other FLO genes. Cells carrying a dominant loss-of-function PTR3(647::CWNKNPLSSIN allele had increased transcription of the adhesion genes FLO1, 5, 9, 10, 11 and the amino acid transporter gene GAP1. Deletion of GAP1 caused loss of FLO11 expression and invasive growth. However, deletions of FLO11 and genes encoding components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway or the protein kinase A pathway were not sufficient to abolish invasive growth, suggesting involvement of other FLO genes and alternative pathways. Increased intracellular amino acid pools in the PTR3(647::CWNKNPLSSIN-containing strain opens the possibility that Gap1 regulates the FLO genes through alteration of the amino acid pool sizes.

  18. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  19. Amino acids transport in lactic streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold Jacob Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    Lactic streptococci are extremely fastidious bacteria. For growth an exogenous source of amino acids and other nutrients is essential. The amino acid requirement in milk is fulfilled by the milk-protein casein, which is degraded by sequential hydrolysis, involving proteases and peptidases. ... Zie:

  20. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  1. The riboflavin transporter RibU in Lactococcus lactis : Molecular characterization of gene expression and the transport mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, CM; Slotboom, DJ; Geertsma, ER; Duurkens, Hinderika; Poolman, B; van Sinderen, D

    This study describes the characterization of the riboflavin transport protein RibU in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000. RibU is predicted to contain five membrane-spanning segments and is a member of a novel transport protein family, not described in the Transport

  2. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  3. Up-Regulation of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The excitatory amino-acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 clear glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus terminate neuronal excitation. The carriers are subject to regulation by various kinases. The EAAT3 isoform is regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. The present study thus explored whether mTOR influences transport by EAAT1 and/or EAAT2. Methods: cRNA encoding wild type EAAT1 (SLC1A3 or EAAT2 (SLC1A2 was injected into Xenopus oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding mTOR. Dual electrode voltage clamp was performed in order to determine electrogenic glutamate transport (IEAAT. EAAT2 protein abundance was determined utilizing chemiluminescence. Results: Appreciable IEAAT was observed in EAAT1 or EAAT2 expressing but not in water injected oocytes. IEAAT was significantly increased by coexpression of mTOR. Coexpression of mTOR increased significantly the maximal IEAAT in EAAT1 or EAAT2 expressing oocytes, without significantly modifying affinity of the carriers. Moreover, coexpression of mTOR increased significantly EAAT2 protein abundance in the cell membrane. Conclusions: The kinase mTOR up-regulates the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2.

  4. Cloning and expression of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transporter functioning as a heterodimer with 4F2hc instead of rBAT. A new candidate gene for cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, D P; Kekuda, R; Huang, W; Wang, H; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H; Prasad, P D; Ganapathy, V

    1999-10-08

    We have cloned a transporter protein from rabbit small intestine, which, when coexpressed with the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in mammalian cells, induces a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity. This protein (4F2-lc6 for the sixth member of the 4F2 light chain family) consists of 487 amino acids and has 12 putative transmembrane domains. At the level of amino acid sequence, 4F2-lc6 shows significant homology (44% identity) to the other five known members of the 4F2 light chain family, namely LAT1 (4F2-lc1), y(+)LAT1 (4F2-lc2), y(+)LAT2 (4F2-lc3), xCT (4F2-lc4), and LAT2 (4F2-lc5). The 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex-mediated transport process is Na(+)-independent and exhibits high affinity for neutral and cationic amino acids and cystine. These characteristics are similar to those of the b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity previously shown to be associated with rBAT (protein related to b(0,+) amino acid transport system). However, the newly cloned 4F2-lc6 does not interact with rBAT. This is the first report of the existence of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport process that is independent of rBAT. 4F2-lc6 is expressed predominantly in the small intestine and kidney. Based on the characteristics of the transport process mediated by the 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex and the expression pattern of 4F2-lc6 in mammalian tissues, we suggest that 4F2-lc6 is a new candidate gene for cystinuria.

  5. Postruminal Delivery System for Amino Acids and Proteins in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sýkora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to develop an effective postruminal transport system (PTS with a high content of suitable vegetable proteins and amino acids. PTS serves for nutrient delivery to the abomasum and small intestine of dairy cows in order to increase the milk yield. Direct addition of proteins and amino acids to the diet is not useful as the ruminal microbes will utilize active substances before they reach absorption sites in the small intestine. PTS has several advantages, e.g. a possibility of the direct application in a food, low cost, and nutritional and therapeutical improvement. PTS consists of a core (pellets, small tablets and a coating, which protects the core against the environment of rumen and enables to release the core content in the environment of abomasum and small intestine. Lenticular tablets - cores of PTS were prepared by wet granulation method and compression. Qualitative indicators of tablets (average weight, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time were determined according to valid Czech and European Pharmacopoeias. Cores were subsequently coated with several types of coating - ethylcellulose, stearic acid and pH sensitive polymer poly-(2-vinylpyridine-co-styren, alone or in combination of various rates. Nine samples of coated protein tablets exhibiting appropriate characteristics in vitro were prepared. The presence of the pH sensitive polymer at least in 10% concentration of the coating and the coating amount of 9.0 to 12.6% per tablet were necessary to ensure the requested PTS properties.

  6. Placental fatty acid transport in maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I; Parisi, F; Berti, C; Mandò, C; Desoye, G

    2012-12-01

    Pregestational obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with a specific proinflammatory, endocrine and metabolic phenotype that may lead to higher supply of nutrients to the feto-placental unit and to excessive fetal fat accumulation. In particular, obesity may influence placental fatty acid (FA) transport in several ways, leading to increased diffusion driving force across the placenta, and to altered placental development, size and exchange surface area. Animal models show that maternal obesity is associated with increased expression of specific FA carriers and inflammatory signaling molecules in placental cotyledonary tissue, resulting in enhanced lipid transfer across the placenta, dislipidemia, fat accumulation and possibly altered development in fetuses. Cell culture experiments confirmed that inflammatory molecules, adipokines and FA, all significantly altered in obesity, are important regulators of placental lipid exchange. Expression studies in placentas of obese-diabetic women found a significant increase in FA binding protein-4 expression and in cellular triglyceride content, resulting in increased triglyceride cord blood concentrations. The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal obesity and fetal overgrowth.

  7. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency). PMID:26443794

  8. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pernil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion.

  9. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  10. Detecting Electron Transport of Amino Acids by Using Conductance Measurement

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    Wei-Qiong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The single molecular conductance of amino acids was measured by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM break junction. Conductance measurement of alanine gives out two conductance values at 10−1.85 G0 (1095 nS and 10−3.7 G0 (15.5 nS, while similar conductance values are also observed for aspartic acid and glutamic acid, which have one more carboxylic acid group compared with alanine. This may show that the backbone of NH2–C–COOH is the primary means of electron transport in the molecular junction of aspartic acid and glutamic acid. However, NH2–C–COOH is not the primary means of electron transport in the methionine junction, which may be caused by the strong interaction of the Au–SMe (methyl sulfide bond for the methionine junction. The current work reveals the important role of the anchoring group in the electron transport in different amino acids junctions.

  11. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [ 18F ]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([ 18F ]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [ 18F ]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [ 18F ]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging

  12. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Protein Kinases C-Mediated Regulations of Drug Transporter Activity, Localization and Expression

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    Abdullah Mayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors in pharmacokinetics, involved notably in drug–drug interactions and drug adverse effects. Factors that govern their activity, localization and expression are therefore important to consider. In the present review, the implications of protein kinases C (PKCs in transporter regulations are summarized and discussed. Both solute carrier (SLC and ATP-binding cassette (ABC drug transporters can be regulated by PKCs-related signaling pathways. PKCs thus target activity, membrane localization and/or expression level of major influx and efflux drug transporters, in various normal and pathological types of cells and tissues, often in a PKC isoform-specific manner. PKCs are notably implicated in membrane insertion of bile acid transporters in liver and, in this way, are thought to contribute to cholestatic or choleretic effects of endogenous compounds or drugs. The exact clinical relevance of PKCs-related regulation of drug transporters in terms of drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, drug–drug interactions and drug toxicity remains however to be precisely determined. This issue is likely important to consider in the context of the development of new drugs targeting PKCs-mediated signaling pathways, for treating notably cancers, diabetes or psychiatric disorders.

  14. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Taro; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles

  15. Amino acid code of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, B V

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of protein three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem to be solved. This paper presents principles of the code theory of protein secondary structure, and their consequence--the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. The doublet code model of protein secondary structure, developed earlier by the author (Shestopalov, 1990), is part of this theory. The theory basis are: 1) the name secondary structure is assigned to the conformation, stabilized only by the nearest (intraresidual) and middle-range (at a distance no more than that between residues i and i + 5) interactions; 2) the secondary structure consists of regular (alpha-helical and beta-structural) and irregular (coil) segments; 3) the alpha-helices, beta-strands and coil segments are encoded, respectively, by residue pairs (i, i + 4), (i, i + 2), (i, i = 1), according to the numbers of residues per period, 3.6, 2, 1; 4) all such pairs in the amino acid sequence are codons for elementary structural elements, or structurons; 5) the codons are divided into 21 types depending on their strength, i.e. their encoding capability; 6) overlappings of structurons of one and the same structure generate the longer segments of this structure; 7) overlapping of structurons of different structures is forbidden, and therefore selection of codons is required, the codon selection is hierarchic; 8) the code theory of protein secondary structure generates six variants of the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. There are two possible kinds of model construction based on the theory: the physical one using physical properties of amino acid residues, and the statistical one using results of statistical analysis of a great body of structural data. Some evident consequences of the theory are: a) the theory can be used for calculating the secondary structure from the amino acid sequence as a partial solution of the problem of calculation of protein three

  16. gamma-Glutamyl amino acids. Transport and conversion to 5-oxoproline in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, R.J.; Meister, A.

    1985-01-01

    Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids, a step in the proposed glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated amino acid transport pathway, was examined in mouse kidney. The transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids was demonstrated in vitro in studies on kidney slices. Transport was followed by measuring uptake of 35 S after incubation of the slices in media containing gamma-glutamyl methionine [ 35 S]sulfone. The experimental complication associated with extracellular conversion of the gamma-glutamyl amino acid to amino acid and uptake of the latter by slices was overcome by using 5-oxoproline formation (catalyzed by intracellular gamma-glutamyl-cyclotransferase) as an indicator of gamma-glutamyl amino acid transport. This method was also successfully applied to studies on transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vivo. Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vitro and in vivo is inhibited by several inhibitors of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and also by high extracellular levels of glutathione. This seems to explain urinary excretion of gamma-glutamylcystine by humans with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency and by mice treated with inhibitors of this enzyme. Mice depleted of glutathione by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (which inhibits glutathione synthesis) or by treatment with 2,6-dimethyl-2,5-heptadiene-4-one (which effectively interacts with tissue glutathione) exhibited significantly less transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids than did untreated controls. The findings suggest that intracellular glutathione functions in transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Evidence was also obtained for transport of gamma-glutamyl gamma-glutamylphenylalanine into kidney slices

  17. mTORC1 Activator SLC38A9 Is Required to Efflux Essential Amino Acids from Lysosomes and Use Protein as a Nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Gregory A; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Wolfson, Rachel L; Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Danai, Laura V; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2017-10-19

    The mTORC1 kinase is a master growth regulator that senses many environmental cues, including amino acids. Activation of mTORC1 by arginine requires SLC38A9, a poorly understood lysosomal membrane protein with homology to amino acid transporters. Here, we validate that SLC38A9 is an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway, and we uncover an unexpectedly central role for SLC38A9 in amino acid homeostasis. SLC38A9 mediates the transport, in an arginine-regulated fashion, of many essential amino acids out of lysosomes, including leucine, which mTORC1 senses through the cytosolic Sestrin proteins. SLC38A9 is necessary for leucine generated via lysosomal proteolysis to exit lysosomes and activate mTORC1. Pancreatic cancer cells, which use macropinocytosed protein as a nutrient source, require SLC38A9 to form tumors. Thus, through SLC38A9, arginine serves as a lysosomal messenger that couples mTORC1 activation to the release from lysosomes of the essential amino acids needed to drive cell growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  19. The Human Gene SLC25A29, of Solute Carrier Family 25, Encodes a Mitochondrial Transporter of Basic Amino Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation. PMID:24652292

  20. The human gene SLC25A29, of solute carrier family 25, encodes a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-09

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation.

  1. Incorporation of radioactive amino acids into protein in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seglin, P.O.

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from a 14 C-labelled amino acid mixture (algal protein hydrolysate) into protein in isolated rat hepatocytes has been studied. The incorporation rate declined with increasing cell concentration, an effect which could be explained by isotope consumption, partly (and largely) by isotope dilution due to the formation of non-labelled amino acids by the cells. At a high extracellular amino acid concentration, the rate of incorporation into protein became independent of cell concentration because the isotope dilution effect was now quantitatively insignificant. The time course of protein labelling at various cell concentrations correlated better with the intracellular than with the extracellular amino acid specific activity, suggesting that amino acids for protein synthesis were taken from an intracellular pool. With increasing extracellular amino acid concentrations, both the intracellular amino acid concentration, the intracellular radioactivity and the rate of incorporation into protein increased. Protein labelling exhibited a distinct time lag at high amino acid concentrations, presumable reflecting the time-dependent expansion of the intracellular amino acid pool. The gradual increase in the rate of protein labelling could be due either to an increased intracellular specific activity, or to a real stimulation of protein synthesis by amino acids, depending on whether the total intracellular amino acid pool or just the expandable compartment is the precursor pool for protein synthesis

  2. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy

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    Natalia M. Bottasso Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs: intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs’ expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Down-Regulation of Placental Transport of Amino Acids Precedes the Development of Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Maternal Nutrient Restricted Baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantham, Priyadarshini; Rosario, Fredrick J; Weintraub, Susan T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Powell, Theresa L; Li, Cun; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for perinatal complications and adult disease. IUGR is associated with down-regulation of placental amino acid transporter expression and activity at birth. It is unknown whether these changes are a cause or a consequence of human IUGR. We hypothesized that placental amino acid transport capacity is reduced prior to onset of reduced fetal growth in baboons with maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Pregnant baboons were fed either a control (n = 8) or MNR diet (70% of control diet, n = 9) from Gestational Day 30. At Gestational Day 120 (0.65 of gestation), fetuses and placentas were collected. Microvillous (MVM) and basal (BM) plasma membrane vesicles were isolated. System A and system L transport activity was determined in MVM, and leucine transporter activity was assessed in BM using radiolabeled substrates. MVM amino acid transporter isoform expression (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4 and LAT1 and LAT2) was measured using Western blots. LAT1 and LAT2 expression were also determined in BM. Maternal and fetal plasma amino acids concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry. Fetal and placental weights were unaffected by MNR. MVM system A activity was decreased by 37% in MNR baboon placentas (P = 0.03); however MVM system A amino acid transporter protein expression was unchanged. MVM system L activity and BM leucine transporter activity were not altered by MNR. Fetal plasma concentrations of essential amino acids isoleucine and leucine were reduced, while citrulline increased (P growth trajectory. The reduction in plasma leucine and isoleucine in MNR fetuses may be caused by reduced activity of MVM system A, which is strongly coupled with system L essential amino acid uptake. Our findings indicate that reduced placental amino acid transport may be a cause rather than a consequence of IUGR due to inadequate maternal nutrition. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation...

  6. Effects of Sodium and Amino Acid Substrate Availability upon the Expression and Stability of the SNAT2 (SLC38A2 Amino Acid Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten M. Hoffmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The SNAT2 (SLC38A2 System A amino acid transporter mediates Na+-coupled cellular uptake of small neutral α-amino acids (AAs and is extensively regulated in response to humoral and nutritional cues. Understanding the basis of such regulation is important given that AA uptake via SNAT2 has been linked to activation of mTORC1; a major controller of many important cellular processes including, for example, mRNA translation, lipid synthesis, and autophagy and whose dysregulation has been implicated in the development of cancer and conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Extracellular AA withdrawal induces an adaptive upregulation of SNAT2 gene transcription and SNAT2 protein stability but, as yet, the sensing mechanism(s that initiate this response remain poorly understood although interactions between SNAT2 and its substrates may play a vital role. Herein, we have explored how changes in substrate (AA and Na+ availability impact upon the adaptive regulation of SNAT2 in HeLa cells. We show that while AA deprivation induces SNAT2 gene expression, this induction was not apparent if extracellular Na+ was removed during the AA withdrawal period. Furthermore, we show that the increase in SNAT2 protein stability associated with AA withdrawal is selectively repressed by provision of SNAT2 AA substrates (N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and glutamine, but not non-substrates. This stabilization and substrate-induced repression were critically dependent upon the cytoplasmic N-terminal tail of SNAT2 (containing lysyl residues which are putative targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, because “grafting” this tail onto SNAT5, a related SLC38 family member that does not exhibit adaptive regulation, confers substrate-induced changes in stability of the SNAT2-5 chimeric transporter. In contrast, expression of SNAT2 in which the N-terminal lysyl residues were mutated to alanine rendered the transporter stable and insensitive to substrate-induced changes

  7. Action of Abscisic Acid on Auxin Transport and its Relation to Phototropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, S. M.; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    The action of abscisic acid on the kinetics of auxin transport through Zea mays L. (cv. Goudster) coleoptiles has been investigated. Abscisic acid applied simultaneously with indoleacetic acid-2-14C in the donor block reduced the transport intensity without materially affecting the basipetal...... velocity or the uptake. No effect on acropetal transport was observed. The data have been used to discuss the similarities in effects of abscisic acid and visible radiation and a hypothesis is proposed to explain the phenomena of phototropism....

  8. The long and winding road: transport pathways for amino acids in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, Julia; Müller, Benedikt; Hammes, Ulrich Z

    2018-03-16

    Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004). The maternal tissues that harbor the female gametophyte and the female gametophyte are referred to as the ovule (Fig. 1). Double fertilization of the egg cell and the central cell by the two generative nuclei of the pollen leads to the diploid embryo and the endosperm, respectively (Hamamura et al. in Curr Opin Plant Biol 15:70-77, 2012). Upon fertilization, the ovule is referred to as the seed. Seeds combine two purposes: to harbor storage compounds for use by the embryo upon germination and to protect the embryo until the correct conditions for germination are encountered. As a consequence, seeds are the plant tissue that is of highest nutritional value and the human diet, by a considerable amount, consists of seeds or seed-derived products. Amino acids are of special interest, because plants serve as the main source for the so-called essential amino acids, that animals cannot synthesize de novo and are therefore often a limiting factor for human growth and development (WHO in Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. WHO technical report series, WHO, Geneva, 2007). The plant embryo needs amino acids for general protein synthesis, and additionally they are used to synthesize storage proteins in the seeds of

  9. Prediction of arsenic and antimony transporter major intrinsic proteins from the genomes of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Ahmed, Jahed; Alum, Md Asraful; Hasan, Md Mahbub; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), commonly known as aquaporins, transport water and non-polar small solutes. Comparing the 3D models and the primary selectivity-related motifs (two Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) regions, the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, and Froger's positions (FPs)) of all plant MIPs that have been experimentally proven to transport arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb), some substrate-specific signature sequences (SSSS) or specificity determining sites (SDPs) have been predicted. These SSSS or SDPs were determined in 543 MIPs found in the genomes of 12 crop plants; the As and Sb transporters were predicted to be distributed in noduline-26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), and every plant had one or several As and Sb transporter NIPs. Phylogenetic grouping of the NIP subfamily based on the ar/R selectivity filter and FPs were linked to As and Sb transport. We further determined the group-wise substrate selectivity profiles of the NIPs in the 12 crop plants. In addition to two NPA regions, the ar/R filter, and FPs, certain amino acids especially in the pore line, loop D, and termini contribute to the functional distinctiveness of the NIP groups. Expression analysis of transcripts in different organs indicated that most of the As and Sb transporter NIPs were expressed in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  11. Acylation of proteins with myristic acid occurs cotranslationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.; Hu, J.S.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    Several proteins of viral and cellular origin are acylated with myristic acid early during their biogenesis. To investigate the possibility that myristylation occurred cotranslationally, the BC 3 H1 muscle cell line, which contains a broad array of myristylated proteins, was pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid. Nascent polypeptide chains covalently associated with transfer RNA were isolated subsequently by ion-exchange chromatography. [ 3 H]Myristate was attached to nascent chains through an amide linkage and was identified by thin-layer chromatography after its release from nascent chains by acid methanolysis. Inhibition of cellular protein synthesis with puromycin resulted in cessation of [ 3 H]myristate-labeling of nascent chains, in agreement with the dependence of this modification on protein synthesis in vivo. These data represent a direct demonstration that myristylation of proteins is a cotranslational modification

  12. Characteristics of Mammalian Rh Glycoproteins (SLC42 transporters) and Their Role in Acid-Base Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhoul, Nazih L.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Rh glycoproteins belong to the solute transporter family SLC42 and include RhAG, present in red blood cells, and two non-erythroid members RhBG and RhCG that are expressed in various tissues, including kidney, liver, skin and the GI tract. The Rh proteins in the red blood cell form an “Rh complex” made up of one D-subunit, one CE-subunit and two RhAG subunits. The Rh complex has a well-known antigenic effect but also contributes to the stability of the red cell membrane. RhBG and RhCG are related to the NH4+ transporters of the yeast and bacteria but their exact function is yet to be determined. This review describes the expression and molecular properties of these membrane proteins and their potential role as NH3/NH4+ and CO2 transporters. The likelihood that these proteins transport gases such as CO2 or NH3 is novel and significant. The review also describes the physiological importance of these proteins and their relevance to human disease. PMID:23506896

  13. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  14. Liver fatty acid binding protein is the mitosis-associated polypeptide target of a carcinogen in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuk, J.A.; Tsichlis, P.N.; Sorof, S.

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes in normal rat liver were found previously to contain a cytoplasmic 14,000-dalton polypeptide (p14) that is associated with mitosis and is the principal early covalent target of activated metabolites of the carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene). The level of immunohistochemically detected p14 was low when growth activity of hepatocytes was low, was markedly elevated during mitosis in normal and regenerating livers, but was very high throughout interphase during proliferation of hyperplastic and malignant hepatocytes induced in rat liver by a carcinogen (N-2-fluorenylacetamide or 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene). The authors report here that p14 is the liver fatty acid binding protein. The nucleotide sequence of p14 cDNA clones, isolated by screening a rat liver cDNA library in bacteriophage λgt11 using p14 antiserum, was completely identical to part of the sequence reported for liver fatty acid binding protein. Furthermore, the two proteins shared the following properties: size of mRNA, amino acid composition, molecular size according to NaDodSO 4 gel electrophoresis, and electrophoretic mobilities in a Triton X-100/acetic acid/urea gel. The two polypeptides bound oleic acid similarly. Finally, identical elevations of cytoplasmic immunostain were detected specifically in mitotic hepatocytes with either antiserum. The collected findings are suggestive that liver fatty acid binding protein may carry ligands that promote hepatocyte division and may transport certain activated chemical carcinogens

  15. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-11-21

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host's bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm's tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4) from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2) as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa) fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites' survival.

  16. Water Transport Mediated by Other Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyue; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Water transport through membrane is so intricate that there are still some debates. (Aquaporins) AQPs are entirely accepted to allow water transmembrane movement depending on osmotic gradient. Cotransporters and uniporters , however, are also concerned in water homeotatsis. Urea transporter B (UT-B) has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to AQP1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR ) was initially thought as a water channel but now not believed to transport water directly. By cotranporters, water is transported by water osmosis coupling with substrates, which explains how water is transported across the isolated small intestine. This chapter provides information about water transport mediated by other membrane proteins except AQPs .

  17. Genetic analysis of amino acid transport in the facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, J.; Thuriaux, P.; Chauvat, F.

    1987-01-01

    The existence of active transport systems (permeases) operating on amino acids in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 was demonstrated by following the initial rates of uptake with 14 C-labeled amino acids, measuring the intracellular pools of amino acids, and isolating mutants resistant to toxic amino acids. One class of mutants (Pfa1) corresponds to a regulatory defect in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, but two other classes (Can1 and Aza1) are defective in amino acid transport. The Can1 mutants are defective in the active transport of three basic amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) and in one of two transport systems operating on glutamine. The Aza1 mutants are not affected in the transport of the basic amino acids but have lost the capacity to transport all other amino acids except glutamate. The latter amino acid is probably transported by a third permease which could be identical to the Can1-independent transport operating on glutamine. Thus, genetic evidence suggests that strain 6803 has only a small number of amino acid transport systems with fairly broad specificity and that, with the exception of glutamine, each amino acid is accumulated by only one major transport system. Compared with heterotrophic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, these permeases are rather inefficient in terms of affinity (apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 6 to 60 μM) and of V/sub max/

  18. "Facilitated" amino acid transport is upregulated in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, T; Oku, T; Uehara, H; Desai, R; Beattie, B; Tjuvajev, J; Blasberg, R

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude of "facilitated" amino acid transport across tumor and brain capillaries and to evaluate whether amino acid transporter expression is "upregulated" in tumor vessels compared to capillaries in contralateral brain tissue. Aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), a non-metabolized [14C]-labeled amino acid, and a reference molecule for passive vascular permeability, [67Ga]-gallium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ga-DTPA), were used in these studies. Two experimental rat gliomas were studied (C6 and RG2). Brain tissue was rapidly processed for double label quantitative autoradiography 10 minutes after intravenous injection of ACPC and Ga-DTPA. Parametric images of blood-to-brain transport (K1ACPC and K1Ga-DTPA, microL/min/g) produced from the autoradiograms and the histology were obtained from the same tissue section. These three images were registered in an image array processor; regions of interest in tumor and contralateral brain were defined on morphologic criteria (histology) and were transferred to the autoradiographic images to obtain mean values. The facilitated component of ACPC transport (deltaK1ACPC) was calculated from the K1ACPC and K1Ga-DTPA data, and paired comparisons between tumor and contralateral brain were performed. ACPC flux, K1ACPC, across normal brain capillaries (22.6 +/- 8.1 microL/g/min) was >200-fold greater than that of Ga-DTPA (0.09 +/- 0.04 microL/g/min), and this difference was largely (approximately 90%) due to facilitated ACPC transport. Substantially higher K1ACPC values compared to corresponding K1DTPA values were also measured in C6 and RG2 gliomas. The deltaK1ACPC values for C6 glioma were more than twice that of contralateral brain cortex. K1ACPC and deltaK1ACPC values for RG2 gliomas was not significantly higher than that of contralateral cortex, although a approximately 2-fold difference in facilitated transport is obtained after normalization for differences in capillary

  19. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  20. Nano and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic AcidMembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nano- and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic-Acid Membranes A. R. Crothers a,b , C. J. Radke a,b , A. Z. Weber a a...Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Water and aqueous cations transport along multiple length scales in perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes. Molecular interactions...as a function of hydration. A resistor network upscales the nanoscale properties to predict effective membrane ion and water transport and their

  1. New fluorescent bile acids: synthesis, chemical characterization, and disastereoselective uptake by Caco-2 cells of 3-deoxy 3-NBD-amino deoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Májer, Ferenc; Salomon, Johanna J; Sharma, Ruchika; Etzbach, Simona V; Najib, Mohd Nadzri Mohd; Keaveny, Ray; Long, Aideen; Wang, Jun; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Gilmer, John F

    2012-03-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a tertiary BA, cause opposing effects in vivo and in cell suspensions. Fluorescent analogues of DCA and UDCA could help investigate important questions about their cellular interactions and distribution. We have prepared a set of isomeric 3α- and 3β-amino analogues of UDCA and DCA and derivatised these with the discrete fluorophore, 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol (NBD), forming the corresponding four fluorescent adducts. These absorb in the range 465-470 nm and fluoresce at approx. 535 nm. In order to determine the ability of the new fluorescent bile acids to mimic the parents, their uptake was studied using monolayers of Caco-2 cells, which are known to express multiple proteins of the organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) subfamily of transporters. Cellular uptake was monitored over time at 4 and 37°C to distinguish between passive and active transport. All four BA analogues were taken up but in a strikingly stereo- and structure-specific manner, suggesting highly discriminatory interactions with transporter protein(s). The α-analogues of DCA and to a lesser extent UDCA were actively transported, whereas the β-analogues were not. The active transport process was saturable, with Michaelis-Menten constants for 3α-NBD DCA (5) being K(m)=42.27±12.98 μM and V(max)=2.8 ± 0.4 nmol/(mg protein*min) and for 3α-NBD UDCA (3) K(m)=28.20 ± 7.45 μM and V(max)=1.8 ± 0.2 nmol/(mg protein*min). These fluorescent bile acids are promising agents for investigating questions of bile acid biology and for detection of bile acids and related organic anion transport processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of a spontaneous CHO amino acid transport mutant by a combination of tritium suicide and replica plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantzig, A.H.; Slayman, C.W.; Adelberg, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A spontaneous transport mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHY-1, was isolated by a combination of [ 3 H]proline suicide and replica plating. The mutant took up less tritium than the parent, resulting in a lower killing rate during storage. Transport by four separate amino acid transport systems (A, ASC, L, Ly+) was examined. The CHY-1 mutant exhibited normal uptake via the ASC, L, and Ly+ systems. By contrast, uptake of the most specific substrate of the A system, 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, was significantly reduced at low, but not high, concentrations, due to a 3.5-fold increase in Km and a 1.5-fold increase in Vmax. Taken together, these data suggest that the CHY-1 mutation may be in the structural gene coding for the A transport protein. The tritium suicide procedure is discussed, and general equations are derived to predict the maximum storage time for the survival of one mutant cell and the optimum size of the cell population for maximum mutant enrichment

  3. Fast axonal transport of labeled proteins in motoneurons of exercise-trained rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmin, B.J.; Lavoie, P.A.; Gardiner, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the fast orthograde axonal transport of radiolabeled proteins was measured to determine the effects of endurance-running training on transport velocity and amounts of transported proteins in rat sciatic motoneurons. Female rats were subjected to a progressive running-training program for 10-12 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, rats underwent right L4-L5 dorsal root ganglionectomy. The next day, 20 microCi of [3H]leucine was injected bilaterally in the vicinity of the motoneuronal cell bodies supplying the sciatic nerve, to study axonal transport parameters. Results showed that peak and average transport velocities of labeled proteins were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased by 22 and 29%, respectively, in the deafferented nerves of the runners as compared with controls. Moreover, the amount of total transported protein-bound radioactivity was increased in both left (40%) and right (37%) sciatic nerves of the runners. An exhaustive exercise session reduced (P less than 0.05) peak displacement (8%) and total transported protein-bound radioactivity (36%) in the sciatic nerves of control rats, whereas no changes were noticed in trained animals. The data suggest that chronic endurance running induces significant adaptations in the fast axonal transport of labeled proteins

  4. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  5. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  6. Detergent-induced stabilization and improved 3D map of the human heteromeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc-LAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meury, Marcel; Costa, Meritxell; Harder, Daniel; Stauffer, Mirko; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, Béla; Rosell, Albert; Ilgü, Hüseyin; Kovar, Karin; Palacín, Manuel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level.

  7. Detergent-induced stabilization and improved 3D map of the human heteromeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc-LAT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Meury

    Full Text Available Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level.

  8. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  9. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. Residue-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids for protein engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldijk, Mark B.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Lemke, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids has given protein chemists access to an expanded repertoire of amino acids. This methodology has significantly broadened the scope of protein engineering allowing introduction of amino acids with non-native functionalities, such as bioorthogonal reactive

  11. Identification of mitochondrial carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transport assay of reconstituted recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Ferdinando; Agrimi, Gennaro; Blanco, Emanuela; Castegna, Alessandra; Di Noia, Maria A; Iacobazzi, Vito; Lasorsa, Francesco M; Marobbio, Carlo M T; Palmieri, Luigi; Scarcia, Pasquale; Todisco, Simona; Vozza, Angelo; Walker, John

    2006-01-01

    The inner membranes of mitochondria contain a family of carrier proteins that are responsible for the transport in and out of the mitochondrial matrix of substrates, products, co-factors and biosynthetic precursors that are essential for the function and activities of the organelle. This family of proteins is characterized by containing three tandem homologous sequence repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, each folded into two transmembrane alpha-helices linked by an extensive polar loop. Each repeat contains a characteristic conserved sequence. These features have been used to determine the extent of the family in genome sequences. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 34 members of the family. The identity of five of them was known before the determination of the genome sequence, but the functions of the remaining family members were not. This review describes how the functions of 15 of these previously unknown transport proteins have been determined by a strategy that consists of expressing the genes in Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reconstituting the gene products into liposomes and establishing their functions by transport assay. Genetic and biochemical evidence as well as phylogenetic considerations have guided the choice of substrates that were tested in the transport assays. The physiological roles of these carriers have been verified by genetic experiments. Various pieces of evidence point to the functions of six additional members of the family, but these proposals await confirmation by transport assay. The sequences of many of the newly identified yeast carriers have been used to characterize orthologs in other species, and in man five diseases are presently known to be caused by defects in specific mitochondrial carrier genes. The roles of eight yeast mitochondrial carriers remain to be established.

  12. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  13. Identification of multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters by liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Kailasa, Suresh; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-08-15

    The development of liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (LNASI MS) for the analysis of multiply charged proteins (insulin, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, α-lactalbumin, myoglobin and BSA), peptides (glutathione, HW6, angiotensin-II and valinomycin) and amino acid (arginine) clusters is described. The charged droplets are formed by liquid nitrogen assisted sample spray through a stainless steel nebulizer and transported into mass analyzer for the identification of multiply charged protein ions. The effects of acids and modifier volumes for the efficient ionization of the above analytes in LNASI MS were carefully investigated. Multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters were effectively identified by LNASI MS. The present approach can effectively detect the multiply charged states of cytochrome c at 400 nM. A comparison between LNASI and ESI, CSI, SSI and V-EASI methods on instrumental conditions, applied temperature and observed charge states for the multiply charged proteins, shows that the LNASI method produces the good quality spectra of amino acid clusters at ambient conditions without applied any electric field and heat. To date, we believe that the LNASI method is the most simple, low cost and provided an alternative paradigm for production of multiply charged ions by LNASI MS, just as ESI-like ions yet no need for applying any electrical field and it could be operated at low temperature for generation of highly charged protein/peptide ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Dai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4 is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host’s bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm’s tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. Results We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4 from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2 and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2 as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites’ survival.

  16. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates are essential for systemic activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and accumulation of jasmonic acid in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Heinrich, Maria; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-28

    Herbivory induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the accumulation of jasmonates and defensive metabolites in damaged leaves and in distal undamaged leaves. Previous studies mainly focused on individual responses and a limited number of systemic leaves, and more research is needed for a better understanding of how different plant parts respond to herbivory. In the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, FACs (fatty acid-amino acid conjugates) in Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are the major elicitors that induce herbivory-specific signaling but their role in systemic signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that simulated herbivory (adding M. sexta OS to fresh wounds) dramatically increased SIPK (salicylic acid-induced protein kinase) activity and jasmonic acid (JA) levels in damaged leaves and in certain (but not all) undamaged systemic leaves, whereas wounding alone had no detectable systemic effects; importantly, FACs and wounding are both required for activating these systemic responses. In contrast to the activation of SIPK and elevation of JA in specific systemic leaves, increases in the activity of an important anti-herbivore defense, trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI), were observed in all systemic leaves after simulated herbivory, suggesting that systemic TPI induction does not require SIPK activation and JA increases. Leaf ablation experiments demonstrated that within 10 minutes after simulated herbivory, a signal (or signals) was produced and transported out of the treated leaves, and subsequently activated systemic responses. Our results reveal that N. attenuata specifically recognizes herbivore-derived FACs in damaged leaves and rapidly send out a long-distance signal to phylotactically connected leaves to activate MAPK and JA signaling, and we propose that FACs that penetrated into wounds rapidly induce the production of another long-distance signal(s) which travels to all systemic leaves and activates TPI defense.

  17. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  19. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find...

  20. Hypoxia and the anticoagulants dalteparin and acetylsalicylic acid affect human placental amino acid transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Jens Kleppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants, e.g. low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA are prescribed to women at risk for pregnancy complications that are associated with impaired placentation and placental hypoxia. Beyond their role as anticoagulants these compounds exhibit direct effects on trophoblast but their impact on placental function is unknown. The amino acid transport systems A and L, which preferably transfer essential amino acids, are well-described models to study placental nutrient transport. We aimed to examine the effect of hypoxia, LMWHs and ASA on the activity of the placental amino acid transport systems A and L and associated signalling mechanisms. METHODS: The uptake of C14-MeAIB (system A or H3-leucin (system L was investigated after incubation of primary villous fragments isolated from term placentas. Villous tissue was incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia, 8% O2 and standard culture conditions (21% O2 or at 2% O2 and 21% O2 with dalteparin or ASA. Activation of the JAK/STAT or mTOR signalling pathways was determined by Western analysis of total and phosphorylated STAT3 or Raptor. RESULTS: Hypoxia decreased system A mediated MeAIB uptake and increased system L mediated leucine uptake compared to standard culture conditions (21% O2. This was accompanied by an impairment of STAT3 and a stimulation of Raptor signalling. System L activity increased at 8% O2. Dalteparin treatment reduced system A and system L activity under normoxic conditions and ASA (1 mM decreased system A and L transporter activity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data underline the dependency of placental function on oxygen supply. LMWHs and ASA are not able to reverse the effects of hypoxia on placental amino acid transport. These findings and the uncovering of the signalling mechanisms in more detail will help to understand the impact of LMWHs and ASA on placental function and fetal growth.

  1. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  2. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaria, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Kumaran, D.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. Typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP) and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consists of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations have been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the integral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, we report 1.9{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound to

  3. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  4. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  5. Chemical Transport Knockout for Oxidized Vitamin C, Dehydroascorbic Acid, Reveals Its Functions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its transport by glucose transporters (GLUTs in vitro, it is unknown whether dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C, DHA has any in vivo function. To investigate, we created a chemical transport knockout model using the vitamin C analog 6-bromo-ascorbate. This analog is transported on sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters but its oxidized form, 6-bromo-dehydroascorbic acid, is not transported by GLUTs. Mice (gulo−/− unable to synthesize ascorbate (vitamin C were raised on 6-bromo-ascorbate. Despite normal survival, centrifugation of blood produced hemolysis secondary to near absence of red blood cell (RBC ascorbate/6-bromo-ascorbate. Key findings with clinical implications were that RBCs in vitro transported dehydroascorbic acid but not bromo-dehydroascorbic acid; RBC ascorbate in vivo was obtained only via DHA transport; ascorbate via DHA transport in vivo was necessary for RBC structural integrity; and internal RBC ascorbate was essential to maintain ascorbate plasma concentrations in vitro/in vivo.

  6. Identification of residues in ABCG2 affecting protein trafficking and drug transport, using co-evolutionary analysis of ABCG sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ameena J; Cox, Megan H; Jones, Natalie; Goode, Alice J; Bridge, Katherine S; Wong, Kelvin; Briggs, Deborah; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-07-17

    ABCG2 is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter with a physiological role in urate transport in the kidney and is also implicated in multi-drug efflux from a number of organs in the body. The trafficking of the protein and the mechanism by which it recognizes and transports diverse drugs are important areas of research. In the current study, we have made a series of single amino acid mutations in ABCG2 on the basis of sequence analysis. Mutant isoforms were characterized for cell surface expression and function. One mutant (I573A) showed disrupted glycosylation and reduced trafficking kinetics. In contrast with many ABC transporter folding mutations which appear to be 'rescued' by chemical chaperones or low temperature incubation, the I573A mutation was not enriched at the cell surface by either treatment, with the majority of the protein being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two other mutations (P485A and M549A) showed distinct effects on transport of ABCG2 substrates reinforcing the role of TM helix 3 in drug recognition and transport and indicating the presence of intracellular coupling regions in ABCG2. © 2015 Authors.

  7. Functional analysis of human aromatic amino acid transporter MCT10/TAT1 using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kurosaka, Goyu; Hashimoto, Takanori; Masukawa, Yuki; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid in humans and an important serotonin and melatonin precursor. Monocarboxylate transporter MCT10 is a member of the SLC16A family proteins that mediates low-affinity tryptophan transport across basolateral membranes of kidney, small intestine, and liver epithelial cells, although the precise transport mechanism remains unclear. Here we developed a simple functional assay to analyze tryptophan transport by human MCT10 using a deletion mutant for the high-affinity tryptophan permease Tat2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. tat2Δtrp1 cells are defective in growth in YPD medium because tyrosine present in the medium competes for the low-affinity tryptophan permease Tat1 with tryptophan. MCT10 appeared to allow growth of tat2Δtrp1 cells in YPD medium, and accumulate in cells deficient for Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. These results suggest that MCT10 is functional in yeast, and is subject to ubiquitin-dependent quality control. Whereas growth of Tat2-expressing cells was significantly impaired by neutral pH, that of MCT10-expressing cells was nearly unaffected. This property is consistent with the transport mechanism of MCT10 via facilitated diffusion without a need for pH gradient across the plasma membrane. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to occur in the human MCT10 coding region. Among eight SNP amino acid changes in MCT10, the N81K mutation completely abrogated tryptophan import without any abnormalities in the expression or localization. In the MCT10 modeled structure, N81 appeared to protrude into the putative trajectory of tryptophan. Plasma membrane localization of MCT10 and the variant proteins was also verified in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the LIV system of Campylobacter jejuni reveals alternative roles for LivJ and LivK in commensalism beyond branched-chain amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardo, Deborah A; Hendrixson, David R

    2011-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino acid transport system, reduced the commensal colonization capacity of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicks. Cjj81176_1038 is the first gene of a six-gene locus that encodes homologous components of the E. coli LIV system. By analyzing mutants with in-frame deletions of individual genes or pairs of genes, we found that this system constitutes a LIV transport system in C. jejuni responsible for a high level of leucine acquisition and, to a lesser extent, isoleucine and valine acquisition. Despite each LIV protein being required for branched-chain amino acid transport, only the LivJ and LivK periplasmic binding proteins were required for wild-type levels of commensal colonization of chicks. All LIV permease and ATPase components were dispensable for in vivo growth. These results suggest that the biological functions of LivJ and LivK for colonization are more complex than previously hypothesized and extend beyond a role for binding and acquiring branched-chain amino acids during commensalism. In contrast to other studies indicating a requirement and utilization of other specific amino acids for colonization, acquisition of branched-chain amino acids does not appear to be a determinant for C. jejuni during commensalism.

  9. Laser-based optical activity detection of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, B.H.

    1987-08-01

    The optical activity detector (OAD) for HPLC is a selective detector for optically active substances including amino acids and proteins. Four free amino acids were resolved using cation-exchange chromatography followed by detection with refractive index detector (RI) for proline and threonine and the OAD to an ultraviolet absorbance detector (uv) for tyrosine and phenylalanine. Amino acid detection by refractive index is not sensitive and uv absorbance detects only three amino acids. Derivatization of amino acids to make them detectable by uv absorbance enhances the applicability of OA/uv for the determination of enantiomeric ratios. The separation of 16 dansyl-L-amino acids by RP-HPLC with detection by OA/uv is illustrated. Calculation of the specific rotation of 22 dansyl-L-amino acids shows that derivatization enhances the OA detectability of some amino acids but degrades that of others. RP-HPLC of proteins is a rapidly developing technique. Several researchers have reported the detection of multiple peaks when a pure protein is subjected to HPLC under certain conditions. These multiple peaks have been determined to be different conformations of the same protein. Since proteins are optically active, OA is a suitable detector. The RP-HPLC separation of conformers of soybean trypsin inhibitor is illustrated. Detection by OA/uv provides insights from the chromatogram unavailable from uv absorbance detection alone. In addition, identification of impurities is simplified with OA/uv. Specific rotations of the separated protein fractions show no significant change accompanying change in conformation. 163 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballatori, Nazzareno; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions

  11. Scale-free behaviour of amino acid pair interactions in folded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen B.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Mortensen, Rasmus J.

    2012-01-01

    The protein structure is a cumulative result of interactions between amino acid residues interacting with each other through space and/or chemical bonds. Despite the large number of high resolution protein structures, the ‘‘protein structure code’’ has not been fully identified. Our manuscript...... presents a novel approach to protein structure analysis in order to identify rules for spatial packing of amino acid pairs in proteins. We have investigated 8706 high resolution non-redundant protein chains and quantified amino acid pair interactions in terms of solvent accessibility, spatial and sequence...... which amino acid paired residues contributed to the cells with a population above 50, pairs of Ala, Ile, Leu and Val dominate the results. This result is statistically highly significant. We postulate that such pairs form ‘‘structural stability points’’ in the protein structure. Our data shows...

  12. Characterization of fatty acid binding by the P2 myelin protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudaitis, P.G.; Weise, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, significant sequence homology has been found between the P2 protein of peripheral myelin and intracellular retinoid- and fatty acid-binding proteins. They have found that salt extracts of bovine intradural nerve roots contain the P2 basic protein in association with free fatty acid. Preliminary results from quantitative analyses showed a ratio of 0.4-1.1 fatty acid (mainly oleate and palmitate) per P2 molecule. P2/ligand interactions were partially characterized using ( 3 H)-oleate in gel permeation assays and binding studies using lipidex to separated bound and free fatty acid. Methyloleate was found to displace ( 3 H)-oleate from P2, indicating that ligand binding interactions are predominantly hydrophobic in nature. On the other hand, myristic acid and retinol did not inhibit the binding of oleate to the protein, results consistent with a decided affinity for long chain fatty acids but not for the retinoids. The binding between P2 and oleic acid showed an apparent Kd in the micromolar range, a value comparable to those found for other fatty acid-binding proteins. From these results they conclude that P2 shares not only structural homology with certain fatty acid binding proteins but also an ability to bind long chain fatty acids. Although the significance of these similarities is not yet clear, they may, by analogy, expect P2 to have a role in PNS lipid metabolism

  13. A protein with amino acid sequence homology to bovine insulin is present in the legume Vigna unguiculata (cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venâncio T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bovine insulin in plants, much effort has been devoted to the characterization of these proteins and elucidation of their functions. We report here the isolation of a protein with similar molecular mass and same amino acid sequence to bovine insulin from developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotype Epace 10. Insulin was measured by ELISA using an anti-human insulin antibody and was detected both in empty pods and seed coats but not in the embryo. The highest concentrations (about 0.5 ng/µg of protein of the protein were detected in seed coats at 16 and 18 days after pollination, and the values were 1.6 to 4.0 times higher than those found for isolated pods tested on any day. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of insulin was performed on the protein purified by C4-HPLC. The significance of the presence of insulin in these plant tissues is not fully understood but we speculate that it may be involved in the transport of carbohydrate to the fruit.

  14. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  15. Training-induced changes in membrane transport proteins of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C.

    2006-01-01

    Training improves human physical performance by inducing structural and cardiovascular changes, metabolic changes, and changes in the density of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the training-induced changes in proteins involved in sarcolemmal membrane transport. It is concluded...

  16. Utilizing knowledge base of amino acids structural neighborhoods to predict protein-protein interaction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Jan; Škoda, Petr; Hoksza, David

    2017-12-06

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a key role in an investigation of various biochemical processes, and their identification is thus of great importance. Although computational prediction of which amino acids take part in a PPI has been an active field of research for some time, the quality of in-silico methods is still far from perfect. We have developed a novel prediction method called INSPiRE which benefits from a knowledge base built from data available in Protein Data Bank. All proteins involved in PPIs were converted into labeled graphs with nodes corresponding to amino acids and edges to pairs of neighboring amino acids. A structural neighborhood of each node was then encoded into a bit string and stored in the knowledge base. When predicting PPIs, INSPiRE labels amino acids of unknown proteins as interface or non-interface based on how often their structural neighborhood appears as interface or non-interface in the knowledge base. We evaluated INSPiRE's behavior with respect to different types and sizes of the structural neighborhood. Furthermore, we examined the suitability of several different features for labeling the nodes. Our evaluations showed that INSPiRE clearly outperforms existing methods with respect to Matthews correlation coefficient. In this paper we introduce a new knowledge-based method for identification of protein-protein interaction sites called INSPiRE. Its knowledge base utilizes structural patterns of known interaction sites in the Protein Data Bank which are then used for PPI prediction. Extensive experiments on several well-established datasets show that INSPiRE significantly surpasses existing PPI approaches.

  17. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino......Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...

  18. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  19. Analysis of Nanobody-Epitope Interactions in Living Cells via Quantitative Protein Transport Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früholz, Simone; Pimpl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, quantitative protein transport analyses have been used to elucidate the sorting and transport of proteins in the endomembrane system of plants. Here, we have applied our knowledge about transport routes and the corresponding sorting signals to establish an in vivo system for testing specific interactions between soluble proteins.Here, we describe the use of quantitative protein transport assays in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts to test for interactions occurring between a GFP-binding nanobody and its GFP epitope. For this, we use a secreted GFP-tagged α-amylase as a reporter together with a vacuolar-targeted RFP-tagged nanobody. The interaction between these proteins is then revealed by a transport alteration of the secretory reporter due to the interaction-triggered attachment of the vacuolar sorting signal.

  20. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. 14 C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell

  1. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  2. Genes Encoding Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter II and their Association with Fruit Acidity in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiquan Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT was previously reported as a candidate for the locus controlling acidity in apple ( × Borkh.. In this study, we found that apple genes can be divided into three families and the gene belongs to the family. Duplication of genes in apple is related to the polyploid origin of the apple genome. Divergence in expression has occurred between the gene and its homologs in the family and only the gene is significantly associated with malic acid content. The locus consists of two alleles, and . resides in the tonoplast and its ectopic expression in yeast was found to increase the influx of malic acid into yeast cells significantly, suggesting it may function as a vacuolar malate channel. In contrast, encodes a truncated protein because of a single nucleotide substitution of G with A in the last exon. As this truncated protein resides within the cell membrane, it is deemed to be nonfunctional as a vacuolar malate channel. The frequency of the genotype is very low in apple cultivars but is high in wild relatives, which suggests that apple domestication may be accompanied by selection for the gene. In addition, variations in the malic acid content of mature fruits were also observed between accessions with the same genotype in the locus. This suggests that the gene is not the only genetic determinant of fruit acidity in apple.

  3. Structure of a Bacterial ABC Transporter Involved in the Import of an Acidic Polysaccharide Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Kaneko, Ai; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide alginate represents a promising marine biomass for the microbial production of biofuels, although the molecular and structural characteristics of alginate transporters remain to be clarified. In Sphingomonas sp. A1, the ATP-binding cassette transporter AlgM1M2SS is responsible for the import of alginate across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we present the substrate-transport characteristics and quaternary structure of AlgM1M2SS. The addition of poly- or oligoalginate enhanced the ATPase activity of reconstituted AlgM1M2SS coupled with one of the periplasmic solute-binding proteins, AlgQ1 or AlgQ2. External fluorescence-labeled oligoalginates were specifically imported into AlgM1M2SS-containing proteoliposomes in the presence of AlgQ2, ATP, and Mg(2+). The crystal structure of AlgQ2-bound AlgM1M2SS adopts an inward-facing conformation. The interaction between AlgQ2 and AlgM1M2SS induces the formation of an alginate-binding tunnel-like structure accessible to the solvent. The translocation route inside the transmembrane domains contains charged residues suitable for the import of acidic saccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Water Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein and amino acids composition of seeds and pulp of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus were analyzed using Kjeldahl method and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) respectively. The protein contents (% dry matter) of seeds and pulp were found to be 24.23 and 1.05% respectively. The results of amino acids ...

  5. Giant Mealworm (Zophobas Morio) as a “Vehicle” to Transport Healthy Nutritional Ingredients from Seaweed (Ascophyllum Nodosum) towards Fish Cultured: Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, M.A.J.; Durif, Caroline M.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Booms, G.H.R.; Vries, de Evert; Ginneken, van V.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first step investigating a new food chain, using Zophobas morio as a potential “vehicle” to transport amino acids (AA) from Norwegian kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) into the insect body. Additionally, suitability of Z. morio as a dietary protein substitute for fishmeal (FM) in

  6. Complement Activation by Ceramide Transporter Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, G.H.; Losen, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Veerhuis, R.; Molenaar, P.C.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; De Baets, M.H.; Daha, MR; Martinez-Martinez, P.

    2014-01-01

    C1q is the initiator of the classical complement pathway and, as such, is essential for efficient opsonization and clearance of pathogens, altered self-structures, and apoptotic cells. The ceramide transporter protein (CERT) and its longer splicing isoform CERTL are known to interact with

  7. Mutations of the central tyrosines of putative cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) sequences modify folding, activity, and sterol-sensing of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Hegedüs, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs; Özvegy-Laczka, Csilla

    2015-02-01

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein causing multidrug resistance in cancer. Membrane cholesterol and bile acids are efficient regulators of ABCG2 function, while the molecular nature of the sterol-sensing sites has not been elucidated. The cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC, L/V-(X)(1-5)-Y-(X)(1-5)-R/K) sequence is one of the conserved motifs involved in cholesterol binding in several proteins. We have identified five potential CRAC motifs in the transmembrane domain of the human ABCG2 protein. In order to define their roles in sterol-sensing, the central tyrosines of these CRACs (Y413, 459, 469, 570 and 645) were mutated to S or F and the mutants were expressed both in insect and mammalian cells. We found that mutation in Y459 prevented protein expression; the Y469S and Y645S mutants lost their activity; while the Y570S, Y469F, and Y645F mutants retained function as well as cholesterol and bile acid sensitivity. We found that in the case of the Y413S mutant, drug transport was efficient, while modulation of the ATPase activity by cholesterol and bile acids was significantly altered. We suggest that the Y413 residue within a putative CRAC motif has a role in sterol-sensing and the ATPase/drug transport coupling in the ABCG2 multidrug transporter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  9. Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-05

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  10. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  11. Analysis of the LIV System of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Alternative Roles for LivJ and LivK in Commensalism beyond Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardo, Deborah A.; Hendrixson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino acid transport system, reduced the commensal colonization capacity of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicks. Cjj81176_1038 is the first gene of a six-gene locus that encodes homologous components of the E. coli LIV system. By analyzing mutants with in-frame deletions of individual genes or pairs of genes, we found that this system constitutes a LIV transport system in C. jejuni responsible for a high level of leucine acquisition and, to a lesser extent, isoleucine and valine acquisition. Despite each LIV protein being required for branched-chain amino acid transport, only the LivJ and LivK periplasmic binding proteins were required for wild-type levels of commensal colonization of chicks. All LIV permease and ATPase components were dispensable for in vivo growth. These results suggest that the biological functions of LivJ and LivK for colonization are more complex than previously hypothesized and extend beyond a role for binding and acquiring branched-chain amino acids during commensalism. In contrast to other studies indicating a requirement and utilization of other specific amino acids for colonization, acquisition of branched-chain amino acids does not appear to be a determinant for C. jejuni during commensalism. PMID:21949065

  12. Control of amino acid transport coordinates metabolic reprogramming in T-cell malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzes, K M; Swamy, M; Hukelmann, J L; Emslie, E; Sinclair, L V; Cantrell, D A

    2017-12-01

    This study explores the regulation and importance of System L amino acid transport in a murine model of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) caused by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). There has been a strong focus on glucose transport in leukemias but the present data show that primary T-ALL cells have increased transport of multiple nutrients. Specifically, increased leucine transport in T-ALL fuels mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity which then sustains expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and c-Myc; drivers of glucose metabolism in T cells. A key finding is that PTEN deletion and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ) accumulation is insufficient to initiate leucine uptake, mTORC1 activity, HIF1α or c-Myc expression in T cells and hence cannot drive T-ALL metabolic reprogramming. Instead, a key regulator for leucine transport in T-ALL is identified as NOTCH. Mass spectrometry based proteomics identifies SLC7A5 as the predominant amino acid transporter in primary PTEN -/- T-ALL cells. Importantly, expression of SLC7A5 is critical for the malignant transformation induced by PTEN deletion. These data reveal the importance of regulated amino acid transport for T-cell malignancies, highlighting how a single amino acid transporter can have a key role.

  13. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A

    2008-01-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property

  14. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Technische Mikrobiologie, Weihenstephaner Steig 16, 85350 Freising (Germany)], E-mail: rudi.vogel@wzw.tum.de

    2008-07-15

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  15. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  16. Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleda, Laila; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Min Gab; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2017-12-31

    Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

  17. Transport proteins of parasitic protists and their role in nutrient salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Paul; Major, Peter; Nakjang, Sirintra; Hirt, Robert P; Embley, T Martin

    2014-01-01

    The loss of key biosynthetic pathways is a common feature of important parasitic protists, making them heavily dependent on scavenging nutrients from their hosts. This is often mediated by specialized transporter proteins that ensure the nutritional requirements of the parasite are met. Over the past decade, the completion of several parasite genome projects has facilitated the identification of parasite transporter proteins. This has been complemented by functional characterization of individual transporters along with investigations into their importance for parasite survival. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on transporters from parasitic protists and highlight commonalities and differences in the transporter repertoires of different parasitic species, with particular focus on characterized transporters that act at the host-pathogen interface.

  18. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    Full Text Available The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  19. Alterations in protein transport events in rat liver after estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, M.A.; Jones, A.L.; Underdown, B.J.; Schiff, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE) treatment on the hepatic processing of rat polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) and human asialoorosomucoid (ASOr) were studied. After 5 days of treatment with EE (5 mg/kg) or solvent alone, male rats were anesthetized and injected with tracer doses of the test proteins. Bile flow rates had been reduced by >60% in the EE-treated animals. A previously reported radiolabeling strategy was used to monitor both the transport of intact protein to bile and the degradation of protein in lysosomes. Transport of intact IgA to bile was reduced by 43%, with transport peaking 27 min later in EE-treated animals compared with controls. There was a corresponding impairment of uptake of labeled IgA from blood. EE induced no kinetic change in the uptake or processing of ASOr. However, there was an increase in the proportion of ASOr reaching bile intact from 3% to 15-23% of the injected dose. The data indicate that EE disables the transport pathway for IgA and causes a partial change in the routing of ASOr after endocytosis in favor of direct transport to the bile canaliculus. These findings may have implications for the importance of membrane composition in protein transport events

  20. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonta, Lital [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2009-02-24

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2017-10-10

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Resveratrol Inhibits Porcine Intestinal Glucose and Alanine Transport: Potential Roles of Na+/K+-ATPase Activity, Protein Kinase A, AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and the Association of Selected Nutrient Transport Proteins with Detergent Resistant Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Klinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Resveratrol (RSV have been demonstrated, including effects on transporters and channels. However, little is known about how RSV influences intestinal transport. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of RSV on intestinal transport and the respective mechanisms. Methods: Porcine jejunum and ileum were incubated with RSV (300 µM, 30 min in Ussing chambers (functional studies and tissue bathes (detection of protein expression, phosphorylation, association with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results: RSV reduced alanine and glucose-induced short circuit currents (ΔIsc and influenced forskolin-induced ΔIsc. The phosphorylation of sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, protein kinase A substrates (PKA-S and liver kinase B1 (LKB1 increased but a causative relation to the inhibitory effects could not directly be established. The DRM association of SGLT1, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1 and (phosphorylated Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3 did not change. Conclusion: RSV influences the intestinal transport of glucose, alanine and chloride and is likely to affect other transport processes. As the effects of protein kinase activation vary between the intestinal localizations, it would appear that increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels are part of the mechanism. Nonetheless, the physiological responses depend on cell type-specific structures.

  3. Crystal structure of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) liver bile acid-binding protein bound to cholic and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Stefano; Guariento, Mara; Perduca, Massimiliano; Di Pietro, Santiago M; Santomé, José A; Monaco, Hugo L

    2006-07-01

    The family of the liver bile acid-binding proteins (L-BABPs), formerly called liver basic fatty acid-binding proteins (Lb-FABPs) shares fold and sequence similarity with the paralogous liver fatty acid-binding proteins (L-FABPs) but has a different stoichiometry and specificity of ligand binding. This article describes the first X-ray structure of a member of the L-BABP family, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) L-BABP, bound to two different ligands: cholic and oleic acid. The protein binds one molecule of oleic acid in a position that is significantly different from that of either of the two molecules that bind to rat liver FABP. The stoichiometry of binding of cholate is of two ligands per protein molecule, as observed in chicken L-BABP. The cholate molecule that binds buried most deeply into the internal cavity overlaps well with the analogous bound to chicken L-BABP, whereas the second molecule, which interacts with the first only through hydrophobic contacts, is more external and exposed to the solvent. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  5. Interaction of LY171883 and other peroxisome proliferators with fatty-acid-binding protein isolated from rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J R; Eacho, P I

    1991-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) is a 14 kDa protein found in hepatic cytosol which binds and transports fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands throughout the cell. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether LY171883, a leukotriene D4 antagonist, and other peroxisome proliferators bind to FABP and displace an endogenous fatty acid. [3H]Oleic acid was used to monitor the elution of FABP during chromatographic purification. [14C]LY171883 had a similar elution profile when substituted in the purification, indicating a common interaction with FABP. LY171883 and its structural analogue, LY189585, as well as the hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643, displaced [3H]oleic acid binding to FABP. Analogues of LY171883 that do not induce peroxisome proliferation only weakly displaced oleate binding. [3H]Ly171883 bound directly to FABP with a Kd of 10.8 microM, compared with a Kd of 0.96 microM for [3H]oleate. LY171883 binding was inhibited by LY189585, clofibric acid, ciprofibrate and bezafibrate. These findings demonstrate that peroxisome proliferators, presumably due to their structural similarity to fatty acids, are able to bind to FABP and displace an endogenous ligand from its binding site. Interaction of peroxisome proliferators with FABP may be involved in perturbations of fatty acid metabolism caused by these agents as well as in the development of the pleiotropic response of peroxisome proliferation. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1747111

  6. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find......Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably...

  7. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Germination, Growth, Elements, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Askary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and the transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their derivatives and ozone (O3. In addition to dry and wet deposition of these gases has been the major route of influx in ionic form into the ecosystem. This investigation was evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR with different pH (6.8 as control, 6.5, 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 on germination, growth, elements, protein, photosynthetic pigments contents of Lycopersicon esculentum in hydroponic culture. Experiments were conducted at research laboratory of arak university in summer of 1391. Results were showed that from pH=6.8 until pH=5/5 significantly increased P and K and protein content, root and shoot dry and wet weight. SAR exposure with high acidity (pH=5/5 until pH=2.5 significantly suppressed germination, growth index, measured elements as P and K, protein and photosynthetic pigments, while significant increased sulphur contect from 150% to 550% compared to controls. Maximal amounts sulphur were measured in pH=2/5. Acid rain in low pH were decrease plant growth and make protein and incearsed sulphur content in leaf. As regards, low acidity promoted the growth of tomato plants and high acidity inhibit, Therefore, it is recommended that tomato plants cultures in soils with low acidity.

  8. Site-specific labeling of proteins with NMR-active unnatural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David H.; Cellitti, Susan E.; Hao Xueshi; Zhang Qiong; Jahnz, Michael; Summerer, Daniel; Schultz, Peter G.; Uno, Tetsuo; Geierstanger, Bernhard H.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of amino acids other than the canonical amino acids can now be easily incorporated in vivo into proteins at genetically encoded positions. The technology requires an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is added to the media while a TAG amber or frame shift codon specifies the incorporation site in the protein to be studied. These unnatural amino acids can be isotopically labeled and provide unique opportunities for site-specific labeling of proteins for NMR studies. In this perspective, we discuss these opportunities including new photocaged unnatural amino acids, outline usage of metal chelating and spin-labeled unnatural amino acids and expand the approach to in-cell NMR experiments.

  9. The primary structure of fatty-acid-binding protein from nurse shark liver. Structural and evolutionary relationship to the mammalian fatty-acid-binding protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzihradszky, K F; Gibson, B W; Kaur, S; Yu, Z H; Medzihradszky, D; Burlingame, A L; Bass, N M

    1992-02-01

    The primary structure of a fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) isolated from the liver of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) was determined by high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (employing multichannel array detection) and Edman degradation. Shark liver FABP consists of 132 amino acids with an acetylated N-terminal valine. The chemical molecular mass of the intact protein determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Mr = 15124 +/- 2.5) was in good agreement with that calculated from the amino acid sequence (Mr = 15121.3). The amino acid sequence of shark liver FABP displays significantly greater similarity to the FABP expressed in mammalian heart, peripheral nerve myelin and adipose tissue (61-53% sequence similarity) than to the FABP expressed in mammalian liver (22% similarity). Phylogenetic trees derived from the comparison of the shark liver FABP amino acid sequence with the members of the mammalian fatty-acid/retinoid-binding protein gene family indicate the initial divergence of an ancestral gene into two major subfamilies: one comprising the genes for mammalian liver FABP and gastrotropin, the other comprising the genes for mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins I and II, cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein myelin P2 protein, adipocyte FABP, heart FABP and shark liver FABP, the latter having diverged from the ancestral gene that ultimately gave rise to the present day mammalian heart-FABP, adipocyte FABP and myelin P2 protein sequences. The sequence for intestinal FABP from the rat could be assigned to either subfamily, depending on the approach used for phylogenetic tree construction, but clearly diverged at a relatively early evolutionary time point. Indeed, sequences proximately ancestral or closely related to mammalian intestinal FABP, liver FABP, gastrotropin and the retinoid-binding group of proteins appear to have arisen prior to the divergence of shark liver FABP and should therefore also be present in elasmobranchs

  10. The Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibitor α-Cyano-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Disrupts Rat Lung Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Granja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The human embryo develops in a hypoxic environment. In this way, cells have to rely on the glycolytic pathway for energy supply, leading to an intracellular accumulation of monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. These acids have an important role in cell metabolism and their rapid transport across the plasma membrane is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis. This transport is mediated by a family of transporters, designated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, namely isoforms 1 and 4. MCT1/4 expression is regulated by the ancillary protein CD147.The general aim of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of MCT1/4, CD147 and the glucose transporter GLUT1 during human fetal lung development and elucidate the role of MCTs in lung development. Methods: The expression pattern of MCT1/4 and GLUT1 was characterized by immunohistochemistry and fetal lung viability and branching were evaluated by exposing rat fetal lung explants to CHC, an inhibitor of MCT activity. Results: Our findings show that all the biomarkers are differently expressed during fetal lung development and that CHC appears to have an inhibitory effect on lung branching and viability, in a dose dependent way. Conclusion: We provide evidence for the role of MCTs in embryo lung development, however to prove the dependence of MCT activity further studies are waranted.

  11. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future

  12. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: jkroy@bhu.ac.in [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  13. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  14. Expression of solute carrier 7A4 (SLC7A4) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to mediate amino acid transport activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Sabine; Janzen, Annette; Vékony, Nicole; Martiné, Ursula; Strand, Dennis; Closs, Ellen I

    2002-01-01

    Member 4 of human solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A4) exhibits significant sequence homology with the SLC7 subfamily of human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) [Sperandeo, Borsani, Incerti, Zollo, Rossi, Zuffardi, Castaldo, Taglialatela, Andria and Sebastio (1998) Genomics 49, 230-236]. It is therefore often referred to as hCAT-4 even though no convincing transport activity has been shown for this protein. We expressed SLC7A4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but could not detect any transport a...

  15. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  16. Identifying the molecular functions of electron transport proteins using radial basis function networks and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Nguyen, Trinh-Trung-Duong; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2017-05-01

    The electron transport proteins have an important role in storing and transferring electrons in cellular respiration, which is the most proficient process through which cells gather energy from consumed food. According to the molecular functions, the electron transport chain components could be formed with five complexes with several different electron carriers and functions. Therefore, identifying the molecular functions in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. This work includes two phases for discriminating electron transport proteins from transport proteins and classifying categories of five complexes in electron transport proteins. In the first phase, the performances from PSSM with AAIndex feature set were successful in identifying electron transport proteins in transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 73.2%, specificity of 94.1%, and accuracy of 91.3%, with MCC of 0.64 for independent data set. With the second phase, our method can approach a precise model for identifying of five complexes with different molecular functions in electron transport proteins. The PSSM with AAIndex properties in five complexes achieved MCC of 0.51, 0.47, 0.42, 0.74, and 1.00 for independent data set, respectively. We suggest that our study could be a power model for determining new proteins that belongs into which molecular function of electron transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  18. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise.

  19. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Groen, Bart B L; Franssen, Rinske; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-01-01

    Short periods of muscle disuse result in substantial skeletal muscle atrophy. Recently, we showed that both neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. In this study, we test our hypothesis that NMES can augment the use of presleep protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Twenty healthy, older [69 ± 1 (SE) yr] men were subjected to 24 h of bed rest, starting at 8:00 AM. In the evening, volunteers were subjected to 70-min 1-legged NMES, while the other leg served as nonstimulated control (CON). Immediately following NMES, 40 g of intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine labeled protein was ingested prior to sleep. Blood samples were taken throughout the night, and muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs in the evening and the following morning (8 h after protein ingestion) to assess dietary protein-derived l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments in myofibrillar protein. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations and plasma l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments increased significantly following protein ingestion and remained elevated for up to 6 h after protein ingestion (P protein-bound l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments (MPE) increased to a greater extent in the stimulated compared with the control leg (0.0344 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0297 ± 0.0016 MPE, respectively; P protein-derived amino acids in the NMES compared with CON leg. In conclusion, application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. Here we demonstrate that in older men after a day of bed rest, the application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of

  20. A traffic signal for heterodimeric amino acid transporters to transfer from the ER to the Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-01-15

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters represent a unique class of transport systems that consist of a light chain that serves as the 'transporter proper' and a heavy chain that is necessary for targeting the complex to the plasma membrane. The currently prevailing paradigm assigns no role for the light chains in the cellular processing of these transporters. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Sakamoto et al. provide evidence contrary to this paradigm. Their studies with the rBAT -b(0,+)AT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter-b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter) heterodimeric amino acid transporter show that the C-terminus of the light chain b(0,+)AT contains a sequence motif that serves as the traffic signal for the transfer of the heterodimeric complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. This is a novel function for the light chain in addition to its already established role as the subunit responsible for the transport activity. These new findings also seem to be applicable to other heterodimeric amino acid transporters as well.

  1. Possible site-specific reagent for the general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, F S; Roon, R J

    1978-02-07

    The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. The amino acid analogue N-delta-chloroacetyl-L-ornithine (NCAO) has been tested as potential site specific reagent for this system. L-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki = 80 micrometer) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 micrometer NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. Approximately 80% inactivation of the system was observed after 90 min. When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. The inactivation was noncompetitive (Ki congruent to 60 micrometer) and could not be reversed by the removal of the NCAO. Addition of a five-fold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. Under parallel conditions of incubation, other closely related transport systems were not inhibited by NCAO.

  2. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  3. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  4. Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. More specifically, permeability functions of BBB in transendothelial transport of various substances such as metabolic fuels, ethanol, amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, monocarbxylic acids, gases, water, and minerals in the peripheral circulation and into the brain have been widely explained. In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, ...

  5. Value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, acute coronary syndrome, biomarker. ... is essential to prevent major complications and death. Routinely used biomarkers such ..... fatty acid binding proteins: their function and physiological sig-.

  6. Degradation of protein translation machinery by amino acid starvation-induced macroautophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzmeier, Christine; Eiselein, Sven; Johnson, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    , unbiased approaches relying on quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Macroautophagy is induced by rapamycin treatment, and by amino acid and glucose starvation in differentially, metabolically labeled cells. Protein dynamics are linked to image-based models of autophagosome turnover. Depending...... on the inducing stimulus, protein as well as organelle turnover differ. Amino acid starvation-induced macroautophagy leads to selective degradation of proteins important for protein translation. Thus, protein dynamics reflect cellular conditions in the respective treatment indicating stimulus-specific pathways...

  7. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the transport of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration

  8. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Properties of the mitochondrial carrier of adenine-nucleotide after purification. Study of the transport protein under isolated form and reincorporated form in phospho-lipidic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandolin, Gerard

    1983-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the reconstitution of the ADP/ATP transport by incorporation of the specific carrier, isolated in presence of detergent, in phospholipids vesicles. Fundamental properties of the reconstituted transport are identical to that of transport in mitochondria, notably as far as the exchange stoichiometry, the turn over and the transport Km are concerned, as well as the asymmetric orientation of the carrier in the membrane. The second part of this research addresses the study of interactions of specific ligands with the ADP/ATP transport protein in presence of detergent. The study of the variations of the intrinsic fluorescence of the isolated ADP/ATP carrier highlights conformational changes exclusively induced by the presence of transportable nucleotides which are modulated in a different manner by carboxy-atractyloside or bongkrekic acid. Moreover, by using the isolated protein, a detailed analysis of binding parameters of fluorescent analogues of ATP is reported [fr

  10. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  11. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Mizuki; Katta, AVSK Mohan; Ahmad, Shandar; Mori, Takaharu; Sugita, Yuji; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function

  12. The TIP30 protein complex, arachidonic acid and coenzyme A are required for vesicle membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengliang Zhang

    Full Text Available Efficient membrane fusion has been successfully mimicked in vitro using artificial membranes and a number of cellular proteins that are currently known to participate in membrane fusion. However, these proteins are not sufficient to promote efficient fusion between biological membranes, indicating that critical fusogenic factors remain unidentified. We have recently identified a TIP30 protein complex containing TIP30, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 and Endophilin B1 (Endo B1 that promotes the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles, which transport endosomal acidification enzymes vacuolar (H⁺-ATPases (V-ATPases to the early endosomes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the TIP30 protein complex facilitates the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles in vitro. Fusion of the two vesicles also depends on arachidonic acid, coenzyme A and the synthesis of arachidonyl-CoA by ACSL4. Moreover, the TIP30 complex is able to transfer arachidonyl groups onto phosphatidic acid (PA, producing a new lipid species that is capable of inducing close contact between membranes. Together, our data suggest that the TIP30 complex facilitates biological membrane fusion through modification of PA on membranes.

  13. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.

  14. Major involvement of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) in uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid by human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ito, Katsuaki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) and its contribution to the supply of biotin and pantothenic acid to the human brain via the blood-brain barrier. DNA microarray and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that SLC5A6 is expressed in microvessels of human brain. The absolute expression levels of SLC5A6 protein in isolated human and monkey brain microvessels were 1.19 and 0.597 fmol/μg protein, respectively, as determined by a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. Using an antibody-free method established by Kubo et al. (2015), we found that SLC5A6 was preferentially localized at the luminal membrane of brain capillary endothelium. Knock-down analysis using SLC5A6 siRNA showed that SLC5A6 accounts for 88.7% and 98.6% of total [(3) H]biotin and [(3) H]pantothenic acid uptakes, respectively, by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. SLC5A6-mediated transport in hCMEC/D3 was markedly inhibited not only by biotin and pantothenic acid, but also by prostaglandin E2, lipoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, indomethacin, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone, and flurbiprofen. This study is the first to confirm expression of SLC5A6 in human brain microvessels and to provide evidence that SLC5A6 is a major contributor to luminal uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid at the human blood-brain barrier. In humans, it was unclear (not concluded) about what transport system at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the brain uptakes of two vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid, which are necessary for brain proper function. This study clarified for the first time that the solute carrier 5A6/Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter SLC5A6/SMVT is responsible for the supplies of biotin and pantothenic acid into brain across the BBB in humans. DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PGE2, prostaglandin E2. © 2015

  15. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  16. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengli; Luecke, Christian; Baier, Leslie J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Hamilton, James A.

    1997-01-01

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel β-strands which form two nearly orthogonal β-sheets of five strands each, and two short α-helices that connect the β-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two β-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand

  17. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  19. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  20. Optimizing scoring function of protein-nucleic acid interactions with both affinity and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yan

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions.

  1. The construction of an amino acid network for understanding protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Zhou, Jianhong; Sun, Maomin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) are undirected networks consisting of amino acid residues and their interactions in three-dimensional protein structures. The analysis of AANs provides novel insight into protein science, and several common amino acid network properties have revealed diverse classes of proteins. In this review, we first summarize methods for the construction and characterization of AANs. We then compare software tools for the construction and analysis of AANs. Finally, we review the application of AANs for understanding protein structure and function, including the identification of functional residues, the prediction of protein folding, analyzing protein stability and protein-protein interactions, and for understanding communication within and between proteins.

  2. Hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids is mediated by both sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptides and modulated by intestinal sensing of plasma bile acid levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijepcevic, Davor; Roscam Abbing, Reinout L P; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Blank, Antje; Donkers, Joanne M; van Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Waart, Dirk R; Tolenaars, Dagmar; van der Meer, Jonathan H M; Wildenberg, Manon; Beuers, Ulrich; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Schinkel, Alfred H; van de Graaf, Stan F J

    2017-11-01

    The Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is believed to be pivotal for hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. However, plasma bile acid levels are normal in a subset of NTCP knockout mice and in mice treated with myrcludex B, a specific NTCP inhibitor. Here, we elucidated which transport proteins mediate the hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids and demonstrated intestinal sensing of elevated bile acid levels in plasma in mice. Mice or healthy volunteers were treated with myrcludex B. Hepatic bile acid uptake kinetics were determined in wild-type (WT), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) knockout mice (lacking Slco1a/1b isoforms), and human OATP1B1-transgenic mice. Effects of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) on hepatic transporter mRNA levels were assessed in rat hepatoma cells and in mice by peptide injection or adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression. NTCP inhibition using myrcludex B had only moderate effects on bile acid kinetics in WT mice, but completely inhibited active transport of conjugated bile acid species in OATP knockout mice. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase Cyp7a1 expression was strongly down-regulated upon prolonged inhibition of hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. Fgf15 (mouse counterpart of FGF19) expression was induced in hypercholanemic OATP and NTCP knockout mice, as well as in myrcludex B-treated cholestatic mice, whereas plasma FGF19 was not induced in humans treated with myrcludex B. Fgf15/FGF19 expression was induced in polarized human enterocyte-models and mouse organoids by basolateral incubation with a high concentration (1 mM) of conjugated bile acids. NTCP and OATPs contribute to hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids in mice, whereas the predominant uptake in humans is NTCP mediated. Enterocytes sense highly elevated levels of (conjugated) bile acids in the systemic circulation to induce FGF15/19, which modulates hepatic bile acid synthesis and uptake. (Hepatology 2017;66:1631-1643).

  3. The relationship between amino acid and protein content of yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed industry are the relationships between isoleucine, leucine, lysine and arginine with crude protein content. Equations to predict the content of these amino acids from the amount of crude protein in maize are given. The remaining amino acids can be estimated without loss of accuracy from their mean value expressed as ...

  4. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  5. Sterol regulatory element binding protein and dietary lipid regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Michael C; Monks, Jenifer; Burns, Valerie; Phistry, Meridee; Marians, Russell; Foote, Monica R; Bauman, Dale E; Anderson, Steven M; Neville, Margaret C

    2010-12-01

    The lactating mammary gland synthesizes large amounts of triglyceride from fatty acids derived from the blood and from de novo lipogenesis. The latter is significantly increased at parturition and decreased when additional dietary fatty acids become available. To begin to understand the molecular regulation of de novo lipogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding factor (SREBF)-1c is a primary regulator of this system. Expression of Srebf1c mRNA and six of its known target genes increased ≥2.5-fold at parturition. However, Srebf1c-null mice showed only minor deficiencies in lipid synthesis during lactation, possibly due to compensation by Srebf1a expression. To abrogate the function of both isoforms of Srebf1, we bred mice to obtain a mammary epithelial cell-specific deletion of SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), the SREBF escort protein. These dams showed a significant lactation deficiency, and expression of mRNA for fatty acid synthase (Fasn), insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), mitochondrial citrate transporter (Slc25a1), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (Scd2) was reduced threefold or more; however, the mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1α (Acaca) and ATP citrate lyase (Acly) were unchanged. Furthermore, a 46% fat diet significantly decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis and reduced the protein levels of ACACA, ACLY, and FASN significantly, with no change in their mRNA levels. These data lead us to conclude that two modes of regulation exist to control fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of the lactating mouse: the well-known SREBF1 system and a novel mechanism that acts at the posttranscriptional level in the presence of SCAP deletion and high-fat feeding to alter enzyme protein.

  6. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  7. Human proton coupled folic acid transporter is a monodisperse oligomer in the lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol solubilized state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduri, Nanda G; Ernst, Heidi A; Prabhala, Bala K; Bhatt, Shweta; Boesen, Thomas; Gajhede, Michael; Mirza, Osman

    2018-01-08

    The human proton coupled folic acid transporter PCFT is the major import route for dietary folates. Mutations in the gene encoding PCFT cause hereditary folic acid malabsorption, which manifests itself by compromised folate absorption from the intestine and also in impaired folate transport into the central nervous system. Since its recent discovery, PCFT has been the subject of numerous biochemical studies aiming at understanding its structure and mechanism. One major focus has been its oligomeric state, with some reports supporting oligomers and others a monomer. Here, we report the overexpression and purification of recombinant PCFT. Following detergent screening, n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside (DDM) and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) were chosen for further work as they exhibited the most optimal solubilization. We found that purified detergent solubilized PCFT was able to bind folic acid, thus indicating a functionally active protein. Size exclusion chromatography showed that PCFT in DDM was polydisperse; the LMNG preparation was clearly monodisperse but with shorter retention time than the major DDM peak. To assess the oligomeric state negative stain electron microscopy was performed which showed a particle with the size of a PCFT dimer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus manganese transport protein C (MntC is an extracellular matrix- and plasminogen-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Salazar

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus--particularly nosocomial infections--represent a great concern. Usually, the early stage of pathogenesis consists on asymptomatic nasopharynx colonization, which could result in dissemination to other mucosal niches or invasion of sterile sites, such as blood. This pathogenic route depends on scavenging of nutrients as well as binding to and disrupting extracellular matrix (ECM. Manganese transport protein C (MntC, a conserved manganese-binding protein, takes part in this infectious scenario as an ion-scavenging factor and surprisingly as an ECM and coagulation cascade binding protein, as revealed in this work. This study showed a marked ability of MntC to bind to several ECM and coagulation cascade components, including laminin, collagen type IV, cellular and plasma fibronectin, plasminogen and fibrinogen by ELISA. The MntC binding to plasminogen appears to be related to the presence of surface-exposed lysines, since previous incubation with an analogue of lysine residue, ε-aminocaproic acid, or increasing ionic strength affected the interaction between MntC and plasminogen. MntC-bound plasminogen was converted to active plasmin in the presence of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. The newly released plasmin, in turn, acted in the cleavage of the α and β chains of fibrinogen. In conclusion, we describe a novel function for MntC that may help staphylococcal mucosal colonization and establishment of invasive disease, through the interaction with ECM and coagulation cascade host proteins. These data suggest that this potential virulence factor could be an adequate candidate to compose an anti-staphylococcal human vaccine formulation.

  9. Evaluation of [1-11C]-α-aminoisobutyric acid for tumor detection and amino acid transport measurement: Spontaneous canine tumor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Schmall, B.; Conti, P.S.; Dahl, J.R.; Rothman, L.; Sgouros, G.

    1985-01-01

    Alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methyl alanine, is a nonmetabolized amino acid treansported into cells particularly malignant cells, predominantly by the ''A'' amino acid transport system. Since it is not metabolized, [1- 11 C]-AIB can be used to quantify A-type amino acid transport into cells using a relatively simple compartmental model and quantitative imaging procedures (e.g. positron tomography). The tissue distribution of [1- 11 C]-AIB was determined in six dogs bearing spontaneous tumors, including lymphosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Quantitative imaging with tissue radioassay confirmation at necropsy showed poor to excellent tumor localization. However, in all cases the concentrations achieved appear adequate for amino acid transport measurement at known tumor locations. The observed low normal brain (due to blood-brain barrier exclusion) and high (relative to brain) tumor concentrations of [1- 11 C]-AIB suggest that this agent may prove effective for the early detection of human brain tumors. (orig.)

  10. How cholesterol interacts with proteins and lipids during its intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Solanko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    as well as by non-vesicular sterol exchange between organelles. In this article, we will review recent progress in elucidating sterol-lipid and sterol-protein interactions contributing to proper sterol transport in living cells. We outline recent biophysical models of cholesterol distribution and dynamics...... for characterization of sterol-protein interactions and for monitoring intracellular sterol transport. Finally, we review recent work on the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol import into mammalian cells and describe the process of cellular cholesterol efflux. Overall, we emphasize how......Sterols, as cholesterol in mammalian cells and ergosterol in fungi, are indispensable molecules for proper functioning and nanoscale organization of the plasma membrane. Synthesis, uptake and efflux of cholesterol are regulated by a variety of protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions...

  11. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  12. Acidic and uncharged polar residues in the consensus motifs of the yeast Ca2+ transporter Gdt1p are required for calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Thines, Louise; Deschamps, Antoine; Flémal, Gaëlle; Demaegd, Didier; Morsomme, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The UPF0016 family is a recently identified group of poorly characterized membrane proteins whose function is conserved through evolution and that are defined by the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the E-φ-G-D-[KR]-[TS] consensus motif in their transmembrane domain. We showed that 2 members of this family, the human TMEM165 and the budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and are likely to form a new group of Ca 2+ transporters. Mutations in TMEM165 have been demonstrated to cause a new type of rare human genetic diseases denominated as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated 17 mutations in the yeast Golgi-localized Ca 2+ transporter Gdt1p. Single alanine substitutions were targeted to the highly conserved consensus motifs, 4 acidic residues localized in the central cytosolic loop, and the arginine at position 71. The mutants were screened in a yeast strain devoid of both the endogenous Gdt1p exchanger and Pmr1p, the Ca 2+ -ATPase of the Golgi apparatus. We show here that acidic and polar uncharged residues of the consensus motifs play a crucial role in calcium tolerance and calcium transport activity and are therefore likely to be architectural components of the cation binding site of Gdt1p. Importantly, we confirm the essential role of the E53 residue whose mutation in humans triggers congenital disorders of glycosylation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24167354

  14. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  15. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  16. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Protein and Amino Acid Needs and Relationship with Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, Ricardo; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Ghosh, Shibani

    2015-01-01

    Over a third of all deaths of children under the age of five are linked to undernutrition. At a 90% coverage level, a core group of ten interventions inclusive of infant and young child nutrition could save one million lives of children under 5 y of age (15% of all deaths) (Lancet 2013). The infant and young child nutrition package alone could save over 220,000 lives in children under 5 y of age. High quality proteins (e.g. milk) in complementary, supplementary and rehabilitation food products have been found to be effective for good growth. Individual amino acids such as lysine and arginine have been found to be factors linked to growth hormone release in young children via the somatotropic axis and high intakes are inversely associated with fat mass index in pre-pubertal lean girls. Protein intake in early life is positively associated with height and weight at 10 y of age. This paper will focus on examining the role of protein and amino acids in infant and young child nutrition by examining protein and amino acid needs in early life and the subsequent relationship with stunting.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel keratinocyte protein (psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein [PA-FABP]) that is highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin and that shares similarity to fatty acid-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H; Leffers, H

    1992-01-01

    termed PA-FABP (psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein). The deduced sequence predicted a protein with molecular weight of 15,164 daltons and a calculated pI of 6.96, values that are close to those recorded in the keratinocyte 2D gel protein database. The protein comigrated with PA-FABP...... as determined by 2D gel analysis of [35S]-methionine-labeled proteins expressed by transformed human amnion (AMA) cells transfected with clone 1592 using the vaccinia virus expression system and reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against 2D gel purified PA-FABP. Structural analysis of the amino...... acid sequence revealed 48%, 52%, and 56% identity to known low-molecular-weight fatty acid-binding proteins belonging to the FABP family. Northern blot analysis showed that PA-FABP mRNA is indeed highly up-regulated in psoriatic keratinocytes. The transcript is present in human cell lines of epithelial...

  18. The importance of the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden; Underhill, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is fairly ubiquitously expressed in the brain, though it does not necessarily maintain the same function everywhere. It is important in maintaining low local concentrations of glutamate, where its predominant post-synaptic localiza......Abstract The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is fairly ubiquitously expressed in the brain, though it does not necessarily maintain the same function everywhere. It is important in maintaining low local concentrations of glutamate, where its predominant post...

  19. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang

    2016-01-01

    deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid...

  20. Acidic pH and short-chain fatty acids activate Na+ transport but differentially modulate expression of Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in omasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhengqian; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger; Shen, Zanming

    2016-01-01

    Low sodium content in feed and large amounts of salivary sodium secretion are essential requirements to efficient sodium reabsorption in the dairy cow. It is already known that Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) of the ruminal epithelium plays a key role in Na(+) absorption, and its function is influenced by the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and mucosal pH. By contrast, the functional role and regulation of NHE in omasal epithelium have not been completely understood. In the present study, we used model studies in small ruminants (sheep and goats) to investigate NHE-mediated Na(+) transport and the effects of pH and SCFA on NHE activity in omasal epithelium and on the expression of NHE isoform in omasal epithelial cells. Conventional Ussing chamber technique, primary cell culture, quantitative PCR, and Western blot were used. In native omasal epithelium of sheep, the Na(+) transport was electroneutral, and it was inhibited by the specific NHE3 inhibitor 3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxo-propenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride, which decreased mucosal-to-serosal, serosal-to-mucosal, and net flux rates of Na(+) by 80% each. The application of low mucosal pH (6.4 or 5.8) in the presence of SCFA activated the Na(+) transport across omasal epithelium of sheep compared with that at pH 7.4. In cultured omasal epithelial cells of goats, mRNA and protein of NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 were detected. The application of SCFA increased NHE1 mRNA and protein expression, which was most prominent when the culture medium pH decreased from 7.4 to 6.8. At variance, the mRNA and protein expression of NHE2 and NHE3 were decreased with low pH and SCFA, which was contrary to the published data from ruminal epithelial studies. In conclusion, this paper shows that (1) NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 are expressed in omasal epithelium; (2) NHE3 mediates the major portion of transepithelial Na(+) transport in omasal epithelium; and (3) SCFA and acidic pH acutely

  1. Experimental Evolution of a Green Fluorescent Protein Composed of 19 Unique Amino Acids without Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words)

  2. Effect of common polymorphisms of the farnesoid X receptor and bile acid transporters on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Lee, Vincent H L; Zuo, Zhong; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, dihydroxy bile acid, promotes gallstone dissolution and has been attributed with several other beneficial effects. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may influence the pharmacokinetics of UDCA by modulating the expression of bile acid transporters. This exploratory study examined whether common functional polymorphisms in FXR and in bile acid transporter genes affect the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA. Polymorphisms in genes for transporters involved in bile acid transport, solute carrier organic anion 1B1 (SLCO1B1) 388A>G and 521T>C, solute carrier 10A1 (SLC10A1) 800 C>T and ATP-binding cassette B11 (ABCB11) 1331T>C, and the FXR -1G>T polymorphism were genotyped in 26 male Chinese subjects who ingested single oral 500-mg doses of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of UDCA and its major conjugate metabolite glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were determined. The mean systemic exposure of UDCA was higher in the five subjects with one copy of the FXR -1G>T variant allele than in those homozygous for the wild-type allele (n = 21) (AUC0-24 h : 38.5 ± 28.2 vs. 20.9 ± 8.0 μg h/mL, P = 0.021), but this difference appeared mainly due to one outlier with the -1GT genotype and elevated baseline and post-treatment UDCA concentrations. After excluding the outlier, body weight was the only factor associated with plasma concentrations of UDCA and there were no significant associations with the other polymorphisms examined. None of the polymorphisms affected the pharmacokinetics of GUDCA. This study showed that the common polymorphisms in bile acid transporters had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA but an effect of the FXR polymorphism cannot be excluded. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew W; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Tsirka, Stella E; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G

    2015-04-03

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Peizhen; Rockwell, Cheryl E.; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  5. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peizhen, E-mail: songacad@gmail.com; Rockwell, Cheryl E., E-mail: rockwelc@msu.edu; Cui, Julia Yue, E-mail: juliacui@uw.edu; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  6. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  7. Preparation of Citric Acid Crosslinked Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Blend Membranes for Creatinine Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Ariadi Lusiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of membrane using crosslinking reaction between chitosan and citric acid showed that functional group modification increased the number of active carrier groups which lead to better transport capacity of the membrane. In addition, the substitution of the carboxyl group increased creatinine permeation of chitosan membrane. The transport capacity of citric acid crosslinked chitosan membrane for creatinine was found to be 6.3 mg/L. The presence of cyanocobalamin slightly hindered the transport of creatinine although compounds did not able to pass through citric acid crosslinked chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol blend membrane, as compounds no found in the acceptor phase.

  8. Structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by Trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. These compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. The structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. In this study, three-dimensional structure of Thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from Trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. Fourteen transmembrane helices of Thmfs1 protein are observed contributing to an inward-open conformation. The transport channel and ligand binding sites in Thmfs1 are identified based on heuristic, iterative algorithm and structural alignment with homologous proteins. MD simulations were performed to reveal the differential structural behaviour occurring in the ligand free and ligand bound forms. We found that two discrete trichothecene binding sites are located on either side of the central transport tunnel running from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular side across the Thmfs1 protein. Detailed analysis of the MD trajectories showed an alternative access mechanism between N and C-terminal domains contributing to its function. These results also demonstrate that the transport of trichodermin occurs via hopping mechanism in which the substrate molecule jumps from one binding site to another lining the transport tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetically programmed expression of proteins containing the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-07

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, polynucleotides encoding the novel synthetase molecules, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid phenylselenocysteine and translation systems. The invention further provides methods for producing modified proteins (e.g., lipidated proteins) through targeted modification of the phenylselenocysteine residue in a protein.

  10. Fatty acid-binding protein in liver and small intestine of the preruminant calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cytosol obtained from differential centrifugation of homogenates from liver and small intestine mucosa was incubated with 1-[ 14 C] oleic acid or 1-[ 14 C] palmitic acid and filtered through Sephadex G-75. Elution profiles for both tissues showed radioactivity in two main peaks, the first corresponding to binding of fatty acid to high molecular weight proteins and the second to a protein fraction with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 daltons. The low molecular weight fraction had high fatty acid-binding activity, which was greater for oleic than palmitic acid. The findings demonstrate the presence of fatty acid-binding protein in liver and intestinal mucosa of the preruminant calf

  11. The Implication of PGC-1α on Fatty Acid Transport across Plasma and Mitochondrial Membranes in the Insulin Sensitive Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Supruniuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α coactivator plays a decisive role in the maintenance of lipid balance via engagement in numerous metabolic processes (i.e., Krebs cycle, β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain. It constitutes a link between fatty acids import and their complete oxidation or conversion into bioactive fractions through the coordination of both the expression and subcellular relocation of the proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane movement. Studies on cell lines and/or animal models highlighted the existence of an upregulation of the total and mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm and FATPs content in skeletal muscle in response to PGC-1α stimulation. On the other hand, the association between PGC-1α level or activity and the fatty acids transport in the heart and adipocytes is still elusive. So far, the effects of PGC-1α on the total and sarcolemmal expression of FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FABPpm in cardiomyocytes have been shown to vary in relation to the type of PPAR that was coactivated. In brown adipose tissue (BAT PGC-1α knockdown was linked with a decreased level of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid transporters (FAT/CD36, FABP3, whereas the results obtained for white adipose tissue (WAT remain contradictory. Furthermore, dysregulation in lipid turnover is often associated with insulin intolerance, which suggests the coactivator's potential role as a therapeutic target.

  12. Brucella abortus ure2 region contains an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Lobo Juan M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution to Brucella biology is unknown. Results Re-examination of the ure2 locus showed that the operon includes five genes downstream of ureABCEFGDT that are orthologs to a nikKMLQO cluster encoding an ECF-type transport system for nickel. ureT and nikO mutants were constructed and analyzed for urease activity and acid resistance. A non-polar ureT mutant was unaffected in urease activity at neutral pH but showed a significantly decreased activity at acidic pH. It also showed a decreased survival rate to pH 2 at low concentration of urea when compared to the wild type. The nikO mutant had decreased urease activity and acid resistance at all urea concentrations tested, and this phenotype could be reverted by the addition of nickel to the growth medium. Conclusions Based on these results, we concluded that the operon ure2 codes for an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transporter necessary for the maximal activity of the urease whose structural subunits are encoded exclusively by the genes in the ure1 operon.

  13. The Regulation of Insulin-Stimulated Cardiac Glucose Transport via Protein Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Renguet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular catabolism is the cell capacity to generate energy from various substrates to sustain its function. To optimize this energy production, cells are able to switch between various metabolic pathways in accordance to substrate availability via a modulation of several regulatory enzymes. This metabolic flexibility is essential for the healthy heart, an organ requiring large quantities of ATP to sustain its contractile function. In type 2 diabetes, excess of non-glucidic nutrients such as fatty acids, branched-chain amino-acids, or ketones bodies, induces cardiac metabolic inflexibility. It is characterized by a preferential use of these alternative substrates to the detriment of glucose, this participating in cardiomyocytes dysfunction and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Identification of the molecular mechanisms leading to this metabolic inflexibility have been scrutinized during last decades. In 1963, Randle demonstrated that accumulation of some metabolites from fatty acid metabolism are able to allosterically inhibit regulatory steps of glucose metabolism leading to a preferential use of fatty acids by the heart. Nevertheless, this model does not fully recapitulate observations made in diabetic patients, calling for a more complex model. A new piece of the puzzle emerges from recent evidences gathered from different laboratories showing that metabolism of the non-glucidic substrates induces an increase in acetylation levels of proteins which is concomitant to the perturbation of glucose transport. The purpose of the present review is to gather, in a synthetic model, the different evidences that demonstrate the role of acetylation in the inhibition of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in cardiac muscle.

  14. Protein kinase C activation decreases cell surface expression of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter. Requirement of a carboxyl-terminal domain and partial dependence on serine 486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Avtandil; Wu, Ying; Robinson, Michael B

    2002-11-29

    Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters are required for the clearance of extracellular glutamate and influence both physiological and pathological effects of this excitatory amino acid. In the present study, the effects of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator on the cell surface expression and activity of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter were examined in two model systems, primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes that endogenously express GLT-1 and C6 glioma cells transfected with GLT-1. In both systems, activation of PKC with phorbol ester caused a decrease in GLT-1 cell surface expression. This effect is opposite to the one observed for the EAAC1 subtype of glutamate transporter (Davis, K. E., Straff, D. J., Weinstein, E. A., Bannerman, P. G., Correale, D. M., Rothstein, J. D., and Robinson, M. B. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 2475-2485). Several recombinant chimeric proteins between GLT-1 and EAAC1 transporter subtypes were generated to identify domains required for the subtype-specific redistribution of GLT-1. We identified a carboxyl-terminal domain consisting of 43 amino acids (amino acids 475-517) that is required for PKC-induced GLT-1 redistribution. Mutation of a non-conserved serine residue at position 486 partially attenuated but did not completely abolish the PKC-dependent redistribution of GLT-1. Although we observed a phorbol ester-dependent incorporation of (32)P into immunoprecipitable GLT-1, mutation of serine 486 did not reduce this signal. We also found that chimeras containing the first 446 amino acids of GLT-1 were not functional unless amino acids 475-517 of GLT-1 were also present. These non-functional transporters were not as efficiently expressed on the cell surface and migrated to a smaller molecular weight, suggesting that a subtype-specific interaction is required for the formation of functional transporters. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of PKC on GLT-1 activity and define a unique carboxyl-terminal domain as an

  15. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@jaist.ac.jp; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  16. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system

  17. AFAL: a web service for profiling amino acids surrounding ligands in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Ortega-Salazar, Samuel; Gonzales-Nilo, Fernando; Pohl, Ehmke; Holmes, David S.; Quatrini, Raquel

    2014-11-01

    With advancements in crystallographic technology and the increasing wealth of information populating structural databases, there is an increasing need for prediction tools based on spatial information that will support the characterization of proteins and protein-ligand interactions. Herein, a new web service is presented termed amino acid frequency around ligand (AFAL) for determining amino acids type and frequencies surrounding ligands within proteins deposited in the Protein Data Bank and for assessing the atoms and atom-ligand distances involved in each interaction (availability: http://structuralbio.utalca.cl/AFAL/index.html). AFAL allows the user to define a wide variety of filtering criteria (protein family, source organism, resolution, sequence redundancy and distance) in order to uncover trends and evolutionary differences in amino acid preferences that define interactions with particular ligands. Results obtained from AFAL provide valuable statistical information about amino acids that may be responsible for establishing particular ligand-protein interactions. The analysis will enable investigators to compare ligand-binding sites of different proteins and to uncover general as well as specific interaction patterns from existing data. Such patterns can be used subsequently to predict ligand binding in proteins that currently have no structural information and to refine the interpretation of existing protein models. The application of AFAL is illustrated by the analysis of proteins interacting with adenosine-5'-triphosphate.

  18. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  19. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  20. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F; Zhou, Yuehan

    2010-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3-). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3- is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3- buffers in the lumen, in the process creating "new HCO3-" for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT - along with more distal renal segments - is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3-]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid-base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3- and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid-base composition of the blood plasma.

  1. Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. More specifically, permeability functions of BBB in transendothelial transport of various substances such as metabolic fuels, ethanol, amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, monocarbxylic acids, gases, water, and minerals in the peripheral circulation and into the brain have been widely explained. In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. PMID:27355037

  2. Inactivation of the glutamine/amino acid transporter ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles: proteoliposomes as a tool to gain insights in the molecular mechanism of action and of antitumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppedisano, Francesca; Catto, Marco; Koutentis, Panayiotis A.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Pochini, Lorena; Koyioni, Maria; Introcaso, Antonellina; Michaelidou, Sophia S.; Carotti, Angelo; Indiveri, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    The ASCT2 transport system catalyses a sodium-dependent antiport of glutamine and other neutral amino acids which is involved in amino acid metabolism. A library of 1,2,3-dithiazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the glutamine/amino acid ASCT2 transporter in the model system of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the rat liver transporter. Fifteen of the tested compounds at concentration of 20 μM or below, inhibited more than 50% the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. These good inhibitors bear a phenyl ring with electron withdrawing substituents. The inhibition was reversed by 1,4-dithioerythritol indicating that the effect was likely owed to the formation of mixed sulfides with the protein's Cys residue(s). A dose–response analysis of the most active compounds gave IC 50 values in the range of 3–30 μM. Kinetic inhibition studies indicated a non-competitive inhibition, presumably because of a potential covalent interaction of the dithiazoles with cysteine thiol groups that are not located at the substrate binding site. Indeed, computational studies using a homology structural model of ASCT2 transporter, suggested as possible binding targets, Cys-207 or Cys-210, that belong to the CXXC motif of the protein. -- Highlights: ► Non‐competitive inhibition of ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles was studied in proteoliposomes. ► Different 1,2,3-dithiazoles were synthesized and evaluated as transporter inhibitors. ► Many compounds potently inhibited the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalyzed by ASCT2. ► The inhibition was reversed by DTE indicating reaction with protein Cys. ► The most active compounds gave IC 50 in the range of 3–30 μM.

  3. Inactivation of the glutamine/amino acid transporter ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles: proteoliposomes as a tool to gain insights in the molecular mechanism of action and of antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppedisano, Francesca [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Catto, Marco [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Koutentis, Panayiotis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nicolotti, Orazio [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Pochini, Lorena [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Koyioni, Maria [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Introcaso, Antonellina [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Michaelidou, Sophia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Carotti, Angelo, E-mail: carotti@farmchim.uniba.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The ASCT2 transport system catalyses a sodium-dependent antiport of glutamine and other neutral amino acids which is involved in amino acid metabolism. A library of 1,2,3-dithiazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the glutamine/amino acid ASCT2 transporter in the model system of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the rat liver transporter. Fifteen of the tested compounds at concentration of 20 μM or below, inhibited more than 50% the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. These good inhibitors bear a phenyl ring with electron withdrawing substituents. The inhibition was reversed by 1,4-dithioerythritol indicating that the effect was likely owed to the formation of mixed sulfides with the protein's Cys residue(s). A dose–response analysis of the most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} values in the range of 3–30 μM. Kinetic inhibition studies indicated a non-competitive inhibition, presumably because of a potential covalent interaction of the dithiazoles with cysteine thiol groups that are not located at the substrate binding site. Indeed, computational studies using a homology structural model of ASCT2 transporter, suggested as possible binding targets, Cys-207 or Cys-210, that belong to the CXXC motif of the protein. -- Highlights: ► Non‐competitive inhibition of ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles was studied in proteoliposomes. ► Different 1,2,3-dithiazoles were synthesized and evaluated as transporter inhibitors. ► Many compounds potently inhibited the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalyzed by ASCT2. ► The inhibition was reversed by DTE indicating reaction with protein Cys. ► The most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} in the range of 3–30 μM.

  4. Changes of synovial fluid protein concentrations in supra-patellar bursitis patients after the injection of different molecular weights of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Carl P C; Hsu, Chih Chin; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ruo Li; Zhou, Shaobo; Shen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Cherng; Tsai, Wen Chung

    2014-04-01

    molecular weight hyaluronic acid injection group. Transthyretin, complement 5, and matrilin 3 proteins revealed a trend of increasing western immunoblotting band densities after hyaluronic acid injections. Transthyretin revealed significant increases in protein band densities in both the high and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid injection groups. This study may provide the rationale for targeting several biomarkers associated with lipid transport, inflammation, and anti-aging as possible disease modifying therapies for the treatment of supra-patellar bursitis and even degenerative joint disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave-assisted acid and base hydrolysis of intact proteins containing disulfide bonds for protein sequence analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiz, Bela; Li, Liang

    2010-09-01

    Controlled hydrolysis of proteins to generate peptide ladders combined with mass spectrometric analysis of the resultant peptides can be used for protein sequencing. In this paper, two methods of improving the microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis process are described to enable rapid sequencing of proteins containing disulfide bonds and increase sequence coverage, respectively. It was demonstrated that proteins containing disulfide bonds could be sequenced by MS analysis by first performing hydrolysis for less than 2 min, followed by 1 h of reduction to release the peptides originally linked by disulfide bonds. It was shown that a strong base could be used as a catalyst for microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis, producing complementary sequence information to that generated by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. However, using either acid or base hydrolysis, amide bond breakages in small regions of the polypeptide chains of the model proteins (e.g., cytochrome c and lysozyme) were not detected. Dynamic light scattering measurement of the proteins solubilized in an acid or base indicated that protein-protein interaction or aggregation was not the cause of the failure to hydrolyze certain amide bonds. It was speculated that there were some unknown local structures that might play a role in preventing an acid or base from reacting with the peptide bonds therein. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of Proteins and Noncovalent Protein Complexes during Electrospray Ionization by Amino Acid Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Haiyan; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-07-21

    Ionization of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes with minimal disturbance to their native structure presents a great challenge for biological mass spectrometry (MS). In living organisms, the native structure of intracellular proteins is commonly stabilized by solute amino acids (AAs) accumulated in cells at very high concentrations. Inspired by nature, we hypothesized that AAs could also pose a stabilizing effect on the native structure of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes during ionization. To test this hypothesis, here we explored MS response for various protein complexes upon the addition of free AAs at mM concentrations into the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution. Thermal activation of ESI droplets in the MS inlet capillary was employed as a model destabilizing factor during ionization. Our results indicate that certain AAs, in particular proline (Pro), pose considerable positive effect on the stability of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS without affecting the signal intensity of protein ions and original protein-ligand equilibrium, even when added at the 20 mM concentration. The data suggest that the degree of protein stabilization is primarily determined by the osmolytic and ampholytic characteristics of AA solutes. The highest stability and visibility of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS are achieved using AA additives with neutral isoelectric point, moderate proton affinity, and unfavorable interaction with the native protein state. Overall, our results indicate that the simple addition of free amino acids into the working solution can notably improve the stability and accuracy of protein analysis by native ESI-MS.

  7. Breed and species comparison of amino acid transport variation in equine erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, D A; Young, J D; Mason, D K; Collins, E A; Snow, D H

    1985-05-01

    The amino acid permeability of red blood cells from Equus caballus (thoroughbred, Arab, shire and pony), E przewalskii (Przewalski's horse), E asinus (donkey and mule) and E burchelli (common or plains zebra) was measured. Individual animals exhibited stable but widely differing rates of L-[U-14C]alanine uptake in the range 5 to 1554 mumol (litre cells)-1 h-1 (0.2 mM extracellular L-alanine, 37 degrees C). Of the thoroughbreds tested, 30 per cent had red blood cells which were essentially impermeable to L-alanine (5 to 10 mumol (litre cells)-1 h-1, giving transport rates similar to those found previously in amino acid transport-deficient sheep erythrocytes. In contrast, only 3 per cent of the ponies tested had red blood cells impermeable to L-alanine. No cases of erythrocyte amino acid transport deficiency were found in the other horse breeds and species tested.

  8. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  9. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Expression of a fatty acid-binding protein in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, H.

    1991-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transformed with a plasmid containing a cDNA fragment encoding bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP C ) under the control of the inducible yeast GAL10 promoter, expressed FABP during growth on galactose. The maximum level of immunoreactive FABP, identical in size and isoelectric point to native protein, was reached after approximately 16 hours of induction. In contrast, transcription of the gene was induced within half an hour. Both, protein and mRNA were unstable and degraded within 1 h after repression of transcription. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that FABP was exclusively associated with the cytosol. FABP expressed in yeast cells was functional as was demonstrated by its capacity to bind long chain fatty acids in an in vitro assay. Growth of all transformants on galactose as the carbon source showed no phenotype at temperatures up to 37 deg C, but the growth of FABP-expressing cells at 37 deg C was significantly retarded. Among the biochemical effects of FABP expression on lipid metabolism is a marked reduction of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-palmitic acid. This effect is most pronounced in triacylglycerols and phospholipids when cells grow at 30 deg C and 37 deg C, respectively. In an in vitro assay determining the desaturation of palmitoyl CoA by microsomal membranes cytosol with or without exo- or endogenous FABP showed the same stimulation of the reaction. The desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-stearic acid, the pattern of unlabelled fatty acids (saturated vs. unsaturated) and the distribution of exogenously added radioactive fatty acids (palmitic, stearic or oleic acid) among lipid classes was not significantly affected. Using high concentrations (1 mM) the uptake of fatty acids was first stimulated and then inhibited when FABP was expressed. (author)

  11. Myristic acid, a rare fatty acid, is the lipid attached to the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus and its cellular homolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, J.E.; Sefton, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid bound to p60/sub src/, the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, has been identified by gas and thin-layer chromatography as the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, myristic acid. The protein can be labeled biosynthetically with either [ 3 H]myristic acid or [ 3 H]palmitic acid. Incorporation of [ 3 H]myristic acid was noticeably greater than incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitic acid. All of the [ 3 H]myristic acid-derived label in p60/sub src/ was present as myristic acid. In contrast, none of the radioactivity derived from [ 3 H]palmitic acid was recovered as palmitic acid. Instead, all 3 H incorporated into p60/sub src/ from [ 3 H]palmitic acid arose by metabolism to myristic acid. The cellular tyrosine kinase, p60c-/sub src/ also contains myristic acid. By comparison of the extent of myristylation of p60v-/sub src/ with that of the Moloney murine leukemia virus structural protein precursor, Pr65gag, the authors estimate that greater than 80% of the molecules of p60v-/sub src/ contain one molecule of this fatty acid. Myristylation is a rare form of protein modification. p60v-/sub src/ contains 10 to 40% of the myristic acid bound to protein in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus and is easily identified in total cell lysates when [ 3 H]myristic acid-labeled proteins are separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparison of the amount of [ 3 H]myristic acid-labeled p60/sub src/ in total cell lysates and in immunoprecipitates suggests that immunoprecipitation with rabbit anti-Rous sarcoma virus tumor sera detects ca. 25% of the p60/sub src/ present in cells

  12. Relationship of Quantity of Citric Acid and Protein Content of Mycelia during Citric Acid Production by Three Strains of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah-Al-Mahin; Alamgir Z. Chowdhury; Rehana Begum

    2006-01-01

    The amount of protein in the surface grown mycelia of three strains of Aspergillus niger (CA16,79/20 and 318) was found to decrease with the increase of citric acid production in sucrose based fermentation medium. Throughout the study period of 6 to 10 days of fermentation, highest amount of citric acid was produced by Aspergillus niger 318 although the amount of protein in mycelia was lowest for this strain. On the other hand, lowest amount of citric acid was produced by the strain CA 16 which in tern produced highest amount of mycelial protein. Aspergillus niger 79/20 produced both intermediate level of protein and citric acid. The Protein was estimated by three commonly used methods namely: Kjeldahl, Biuret and Lowry methods. Kjeldahl and Lowry method gave the highest and lowest results respectively for protein determination in all cases.(authors)

  13. Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontigo, Sofía; Ribera, Alejandra; Gianfreda, Liliana; de la Luz Mora, María; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cartes, Paula

    2015-07-01

    So far, considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of Si uptake and transport in vascular plants. This review presents a comprehensive update about this issue, but also provides the new insights into the role of Si against mineral stresses that occur in acid soils. Such information could be helpful to understand both the differential Si uptake ability as well as the benefits of this mineral element on plants grown under acidic conditions. Silicon (Si) has been widely recognized as a beneficial element for many plant species, especially under stress conditions. In the last few years, great efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanisms involved in uptake and transport of Si by vascular plants and recently, different Si transporters have been identified. Several researches indicate that Si can alleviate various mineral stresses in plants growing under acidic conditions, including aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency all of which are highly detrimental to crop production. This review presents recent findings concerning the influence of uptake and transport of Si on mineral stress under acidic conditions because a knowledge of this interaction provides the basis for understanding the role of Si in mitigating mineral stress in acid soils. Currently, only four Si transporters have been identified and there is little information concerning the response of Si transporters under stress conditions. More investigations are therefore needed to establish whether there is a relationship between Si transporters and the benefits of Si to plants subjected to mineral stress. Evidence presented suggests that Si supply and its subsequent accumulation in plant tissues could be exploited as a strategy to improve crop productivity on acid soils.

  14. Glutamic Acid - Amino Acid, Neurotransmitter, and Drug - Is Responsible for Protein Synthesis Rhythm in Hepatocyte Populations in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2016-08-01

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were studied in serum-free media. Ultradian protein synthesis rhythm was used as a marker of cell synchronization in the population. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2 mg/ml) to the medium of nonsynchronous sparse cultures resulted in detection of a common protein synthesis rhythm, hence in synchronization of the cells. The antagonist of glutamic acid metabotropic receptors MCPG (0.01 mg/ml) added together with glutamic acid abolished the synchronization effect; in sparse cultures, no rhythm was detected. Feeding rats with glutamic acid (30 mg with food) resulted in protein synthesis rhythm in sparse cultures obtained from the rats. After feeding without glutamic acid, linear kinetics of protein synthesis was revealed. Thus, glutamic acid, a component of blood as a non-neural transmitter, can synchronize the activity of hepatocytes and can form common rhythm of protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is realized via receptors. Mechanisms of cell-cell communication are discussed on analyzing effects of non-neural functions of neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is used clinically in humans. Hence, a previously unknown function of this drug is revealed.

  15. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  16. The ABC transporter Rv1272c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances the import of long-chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Daniel, Jaiyanth

    2018-02-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which causes tuberculosis, is capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG) by utilizing fatty acids from host cells. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in transport processes in all organisms. Among the classical ABC transporters in Mtb none have been implicated in fatty acid import. Since the transport of fatty acids from the host cell is important for dormancy-associated TAG synthesis in the pathogen, mycobacterial ABC transporter(s) could potentially be involved in this process. Based on sequence identities with a bacterial ABC transporter that mediates fatty acid import for TAG synthesis, we identified Rv1272c, a hitherto uncharacterized ABC-transporter in Mtb that also shows sequence identities with a plant ABC transporter involved in fatty acid transport. We expressed Rv1272c in E. coli and show that it enhances the import of radiolabeled fatty acids. We also show that Rv1272c causes a significant increase in the metabolic incorporation of radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids into cardiolipin, a tetra-acylated phospholipid, and phosphatidylglycerol in E. coli. This is the first report on the function of Rv1272c showing that it displays a long-chain fatty acid transport function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut luminal endogenous protein: implications for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2012-08-01

    The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the

  18. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  19. Influence of the Amino Acid Sequence on Protein-Mineral Interactions in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, S. S.; Reardon, P. N.; Purvine, S.; Lipton, M. S.; Washton, N.; Kleber, M.

    2017-12-01

    The intimate associations between protein and mineral surfaces have profound impacts on nutrient cycling in soil. Proteins are an important source of organic C and N, and a subset of proteins, extracellular enzymes (EE), can catalyze the depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM). Our goal was to determine how variation in the amino acid sequence could influence a protein's susceptibility to become chemically altered by mineral surfaces to infer the fate of adsorbed EE function in soil. We hypothesized that (1) addition of charged amino acids would enhance the adsorption onto oppositely charged mineral surfaces (2) addition of aromatic amino acids would increase adsorption onto zero charged surfaces (3) Increase adsorption of modified proteins would enhance their susceptibility to alterations by redox active minerals. To test these hypotheses, we generated three engineered proxies of a model protein Gb1 (IEP 4.0, 6.2 kDA) by inserting either negatively charged, positively charged or aromatic amino acids in the second loop. These modified proteins were allowed to interact with functionally different mineral surfaces (goethite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and birnessite) at pH 5 and 7. We used LC-MS/MS and solution-state Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy NMR to observe modifications on engineered proteins as a consequence to mineral interactions. Preliminary results indicate that addition of any amino acids to a protein increase its susceptibility to fragmentation and oxidation by redox active mineral surfaces, and alter adsorption to the other mineral surfaces. This suggest that not all mineral surfaces in soil may act as sorbents for EEs and chemical modification of their structure should also be considered as an explanation for decrease in EE activity. Fragmentation of proteins by minerals can bypass the need to produce proteases, but microbial acquisition of other nutrients that require enzymes such as cellulases, ligninases or phosphatases

  20. Genetic regulation by amino acids of specific membrane protein biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiles, T.C.; Handlogten, M.E.; Kilberg, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rat Hepatocytes in primary culture were incubated in amino acid-free (AAF) medium or amino acid-supplemented (AAS) medium for 2-6 hr. The effect of amino acid starvation on the synthesis of specific membrane proteins was monitored by including 3 H-leucine during the incubation. A crude plasma membrane fraction was prepared and then analyzed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography. Amino acid deprivation caused an induction of the synthesis of 5 of the 30 proteins studied. The ratio (AAF/-AAS) of cpm incorporated into the remaining 25 proteins was 0.8 +/- 0.2, whereas the ratio for the 5 proteins that showed amino acid-dependent synthesis ranged from 1.5 to 2.5. The presence of 4 μM actinomycin in the AAF medium completely blocked the starvation-induced synthesis of the 5 proteins tested, but did not alter significantly the ratio of cpm incorporated into the other 25 proteins. Binding studies involving ConA suggested a plasma membrane location for the 5 proteins. The molecular weight values of the starvation-induced proteins are 70, 66, 66, 67, and 45kD. Surface-labelling of intact cells and preparation of antibodies against the 5 proteins will be used to establish the subcellular location and to describe the amino acid-dependent synthesis of each in more detail

  1. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  2. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by membrane transport protein, Mhp1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katie J; Jackson, Scott M; Brueckner, Florian; Patching, Simon G; Beckstein, Oliver; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Geng, Tian; Weyand, Simone; Drew, David; Lanigan, Joseph; Sharples, David J; Sansom, Mark SP; Iwata, So; Fishwick, Colin WG; Johnson, A Peter; Cameron, Alexander D; Henderson, Peter JF

    2014-01-01

    The hydantoin transporter Mhp1 is a sodium-coupled secondary active transport protein of the nucleobase-cation-symport family and a member of the widespread 5-helix inverted repeat superfamily of transporters. The structure of Mhp1 was previously solved in three different conformations providing insight into the molecular basis of the alternating access mechanism. Here, we elucidate detailed events of substrate binding, through a combination of crystallography, molecular dynamics, site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical/biophysical assays, and the design and synthesis of novel ligands. We show precisely where 5-substituted hydantoin substrates bind in an extended configuration at the interface of the bundle and hash domains. They are recognised through hydrogen bonds to the hydantoin moiety and the complementarity of the 5-substituent for a hydrophobic pocket in the protein. Furthermore, we describe a novel structure of an intermediate state of the protein with the external thin gate locked open by an inhibitor, 5-(2-naphthylmethyl)-L-hydantoin, which becomes a substrate when leucine 363 is changed to an alanine. We deduce the molecular events that underlie acquisition and transport of a ligand by Mhp1. PMID:24952894

  3. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  4. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  5. Analysis of the protein-protein interactions between the human acidic ribosomal P-proteins: evaluation by the two hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, M; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O

    2000-01-01

    The surface acidic ribosomal proteins (P-proteins), together with ribosomal core protein P0 form a multimeric lateral protuberance on the 60 S ribosomal subunit. This structure, also called stalk, is important for efficient translational activity of the ribosome. In order to shed more light...... forms the 60 S ribosomal stalk: P0-(P1/P2)(2). Additionally, mutual interactions among human and yeast P-proteins were analyzed. Heterodimer formation could be observed between human P2 and yeast P1 proteins....

  6. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabney-Smith, Carole [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  7. Characterisation of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1 Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle by Immunofluorescent Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hodson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1; however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle. In human skeletal muscle, positive LAT1 staining was noted close to the sarcolemmal membrane (dystrophin positive staining, with a greater staining intensity for LAT1 observed in the sarcoplasmic regions of type II fibres (those not stained positively for myosin heavy-chain 1, Type II—25.07 ± 5.93, Type I—13.71 ± 1.98, p < 0.01, suggesting a greater abundance of this protein in these fibres. Finally, we observed association with LAT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suggesting LAT1 association close to the microvasculature. This is the first study to visualise the distribution and localisation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle. As such, this approach provides a validated experimental platform to study the role and regulation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle in response to various physiological and pathophysiological models.

  8. Na--dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na - -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo [3,2,1]octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na - dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na - -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo [2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na - -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system

  9. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  10. Amino acid starvation has opposite effects on mitochondrial and cytosolic protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Johnson

    Full Text Available Amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation for they can serve as precursors of protein synthesis, be remodelled for nucleotide and fat biosynthesis, or be burnt as fuel. Mitochondria are energy producing organelles that additionally play a central role in amino acid homeostasis. One might expect mitochondrial metabolism to be geared towards the production and preservation of amino acids when cells are deprived of an exogenous supply. On the contrary, we find that human cells respond to amino acid starvation by upregulating the amino acid-consuming processes of respiration, protein synthesis, and amino acid catabolism in the mitochondria. The increased utilization of these nutrients in the organelle is not driven primarily by energy demand, as it occurs when glucose is plentiful. Instead it is proposed that the changes in the mitochondrial metabolism complement the repression of cytosolic protein synthesis to restrict cell growth and proliferation when amino acids are limiting. Therefore, stimulating mitochondrial function might offer a means of inhibiting nutrient-demanding anabolism that drives cellular proliferation.

  11. Transport of soluble proteins through the Golgi occurs by diffusion via continuities across cisternae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Rizzo, Riccardo; Polishchuk, Roman; Martella, Oliviano; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Fusella, Aurora; Spaar, Alexander; Sallese, Michele; Capestrano, Maria Grazia; Pavelka, Margit; Vos, Matthijn R; Rikers, Yuri GM; Helms, Volkhard; Mironov, Alexandre A; Luini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of transport through the Golgi complex is not completely understood, insofar as no single transport mechanism appears to account for all of the observations. Here, we compare the transport of soluble secretory proteins (albumin and α1-antitrypsin) with that of supramolecular cargoes (e.g., procollagen) that are proposed to traverse the Golgi by compartment progression–maturation. We show that these soluble proteins traverse the Golgi much faster than procollagen while moving through the same stack. Moreover, we present kinetic and morphological observations that indicate that albumin transport occurs by diffusion via intercisternal continuities. These data provide evidence for a transport mechanism that applies to a major class of secretory proteins and indicate the co-existence of multiple intra-Golgi trafficking modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02009.001 PMID:24867214

  12. P-aminobenzoic acid and tritiated cyanoborohydride for the detection of pyruvoyl residues in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Poelje, P.D.; Snell, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for the detection of covalently bound pyruvic acid in purified proteins or in crude extracts is described. The dialyzed sample is first treated with sodium cyanoborohydride to reduce any Schiff bases present and then incubated with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium [ 3 H]cyanoborohydride. Derivatized proteins are visualized by fluorography following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices containing the labeled proteins are hydrolyzed, and, after removal of polyacrylic acid, the hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of pyruvic acid is established by the detection of a tritiated, 280-nm absorbing compound with a retention time corresponding to that of synthetic N-(p-carboxyphenyl)alanine. The procedure is capable of detecting protein-bound pyruvic acid in the picomolar range and is easily modified to screen for other covalently bound keto acids

  13. A method of radiocompetitive assay of total thyroxine in the serum by means of enzymatic release of thyroxine from the transporting proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarski, A.; Wyrwinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pepsin causes denaturation of the transporting proteins and liberates thyroxine which can be assayed by the radiocompetitive method. Change of the pH of the medium from acid to alkaline inactivates irreveribly pepsin. The enzymatic release of thyroxine is much simpler that the method of ethanol extraction and thermal denaturation of the transporting proteins applied up to now. The new technique of thyroxine release has been introduced for radiocompetitive determination of thyroxine using dextran coated charcoal for adsorption of the free hormone. A new method has been elaborated for preparation of working standards of thyroxine in a mixture of pepsin solution with hormone-free serum. The method is efficient and rapid. The normal range is from 50 to 130 nanomol/l. Over 7 000 determinations were done as yet in patients with suspected thyroid function disturbances. (author)

  14. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential a...

  15. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (P<0·05) than for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat. With the exception of arginine and tryptophan, the SID of all indispensable AA in SPI was greater (P<0·05) than in soya flour, and with the exception of threonine, the SID of all indispensable AA in wheat was less (P<0·05) than in all other ingredients. If the same scoring pattern for children between 6 and 36 months was used to calculate PDCAAS-like values and DIAAS, PDCAAS-like values were greater (P<0·05) than DIAAS values for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat indicating that PDCAAS-like values estimated in pigs may overestimate the quality of these proteins.

  16. Comparative analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2016-09-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Membrane topology of rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yudan; Gu, Yanting; Wang, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhou

    2018-07-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) is a subtype of the amino acid transport system A that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. It plays critical roles in glutamic acid-glutamine circulation, liver gluconeogenesis and other biological pathway. However, the topology of the SNAT2 amino acid transporter is unknown. Here we identified the topological structure of SNAT2 using bioinformatics analysis, Methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal) chemical modification, protease cleavage assays, immunofluorescence and examination of glycosylation. Our results show that SNAT2 contains 11 transmembrane domains (TMDs) with an intracellular N terminus and an extracellular C terminus. Three N-glycosylation sites were verified at the largest extracellular loop. This model is consistent with the previous model of SNAT2 with the exception of a difference in number of glycosylation sites. This is the first time to confirm the SNAT2 membrane topology using experimental methods. Our study on SNAT2 topology provides valuable structural information of one of the solute carrier family 38 (SLC38) members. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solitary BioY Proteins Mediate Biotin Transport into Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Kirsch, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters form a large group of vitamin uptake systems in prokaryotes. They are composed of highly diverse, substrate-specific, transmembrane proteins (S units), a ubiquitous transmembrane protein (T unit), and homo- or hetero-oligomeric ABC ATPases. Biotin transporters represent a special case of ECF-type systems. The majority of the biotin-specific S units (BioY) is known or predicted to interact with T units and ABC ATPases. About one-third of BioY proteins, however, are encoded in organisms lacking any recognizable T unit. This finding raises the question of whether these BioYs function as transporters in a solitary state, a feature ascribed to certain BioYs in the past. To address this question in living cells, an Escherichia coli K-12 derivative deficient in biotin synthesis and devoid of its endogenous high-affinity biotin transporter was constructed as a reference strain. This organism is particularly suited for this purpose because components of ECF transporters do not naturally occur in E. coli K-12. The double mutant was viable in media containing either high levels of biotin or a precursor of the downstream biosynthetic path. Importantly, it was nonviable on trace levels of biotin. Eight solitary bioY genes of proteobacterial origin were individually expressed in the reference strain. Each of the BioYs conferred biotin uptake activity on the recombinants, which was inferred from uptake assays with [3H]biotin and growth of the cells on trace levels of biotin. The results underscore that solitary BioY transports biotin across the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:23836870

  19. Membrane Transporters: Structure, Function and Targets for Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravna, Aina W.; Sager, Georg; Dahl, Svein G.; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    Current therapeutic drugs act on four main types of molecular targets: enzymes, receptors, ion channels and transporters, among which a major part (60-70%) are membrane proteins. This review discusses the molecular structures and potential impact of membrane transporter proteins on new drug discovery. The three-dimensional (3D) molecular structure of a protein contains information about the active site and possible ligand binding, and about evolutionary relationships within the protein family. Transporters have a recognition site for a particular substrate, which may be used as a target for drugs inhibiting the transporter or acting as a false substrate. Three groups of transporters have particular interest as drug targets: the major facilitator superfamily, which includes almost 4000 different proteins transporting sugars, polyols, drugs, neurotransmitters, metabolites, amino acids, peptides, organic and inorganic anions and many other substrates; the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, which plays an important role in multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy; and the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, which includes the molecular targets for some of the most widely used psychotropic drugs. Recent technical advances have increased the number of known 3D structures of membrane transporters, and demonstrated that they form a divergent group of proteins with large conformational flexibility which facilitates transport of the substrate.

  20. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Growth and Expression of Placental Fatty Acid Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kui; Li, Li; Zhang, Dan; Li, Yi; Wang, Hai Qing; Lai, Han Lin; Hu, Chuan Lai

    2017-12-15

    To explore the effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy fed HF diet, while rats in the control group were fed normal (CON) diet. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet-induced obesity-resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group). The DIO rats and DIR rats were maintained on the HF diet throughout pregnancy. Pregnant rats were euthanized at day 21 gestation, fetal and placental weights were recorded, and placental tissue was collected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA expression of placental nutrient transporters. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Average fetal weight of DIO dams was reduced by 6.9%, and the placentas of CON-HF and DIO dams were significantly heavier than the placentas of CON-CON and DIR dams at day 21 of gestation (pobesity induced by a HF diet led to intrauterine growth retardation and down-regulated the expression of placental fatty acid transporters.

  1. The Lack of the Essential LptC Protein in the Trans-Envelope Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machine Is Circumvented by Suppressor Mutations in LptF, an Inner Membrane Component of the Escherichia coli Transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Benedet, Mattia; Falchi, Federica A.; Puccio, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Peano, Clelia; Polissi, Alessandra; Deho, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport (Lpt) system is responsible for transferring LPS from the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM), where it plays a crucial role in OM selective permeability. In E. coli seven essential proteins are assembled in an Lpt trans-envelope complex, which is conserved in gamma-Proteobacteria. LptBFG constitute the IMABC transporter, LptDE form the OM translocon for final LPS delivery, whereas LptC, an IM-anchored protein with a periplasmic domain, interacts with the IM ABC transporter, the periplasmic protein LptA, and LPS. Although essential, LptC can tolerate several mutations and its role in LPS transport is unclear. To get insights into the functional role of LptC in the Lpt machine we searched for viable mutants lacking LptC by applying a strong double selection for lptC deletion mutants. Genome sequencing of viable Delta lptC mutants revealed single amino acid substitutions at a unique position in the predicted large periplasmic domain of the IM component LptF (LptF(SupC)). In complementation tests, lptF(SupC) mutants suppress lethality of both Delta lptC and lptC conditional expressionmutants. Our data show that mutations in a specific residue of the predicted LptF periplasmic domain can compensate the lack of the essential protein LptC, implicate such LptF domain in the formation of the periplasmic bridge between the IM and OM complexes, and suggest that LptC may have evolved to improve the performance of an ancestral six-component Lpt machine.

  2. The Lack of the Essential LptC Protein in the Trans-Envelope Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machine Is Circumvented by Suppressor Mutations in LptF, an Inner Membrane Component of the Escherichia coli Transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Benedet, Mattia

    2016-08-16

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport (Lpt) system is responsible for transferring LPS from the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane (IM) to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM), where it plays a crucial role in OM selective permeability. In E. coli seven essential proteins are assembled in an Lpt trans-envelope complex, which is conserved in gamma-Proteobacteria. LptBFG constitute the IMABC transporter, LptDE form the OM translocon for final LPS delivery, whereas LptC, an IM-anchored protein with a periplasmic domain, interacts with the IM ABC transporter, the periplasmic protein LptA, and LPS. Although essential, LptC can tolerate several mutations and its role in LPS transport is unclear. To get insights into the functional role of LptC in the Lpt machine we searched for viable mutants lacking LptC by applying a strong double selection for lptC deletion mutants. Genome sequencing of viable Delta lptC mutants revealed single amino acid substitutions at a unique position in the predicted large periplasmic domain of the IM component LptF (LptF(SupC)). In complementation tests, lptF(SupC) mutants suppress lethality of both Delta lptC and lptC conditional expressionmutants. Our data show that mutations in a specific residue of the predicted LptF periplasmic domain can compensate the lack of the essential protein LptC, implicate such LptF domain in the formation of the periplasmic bridge between the IM and OM complexes, and suggest that LptC may have evolved to improve the performance of an ancestral six-component Lpt machine.

  3. Representation of protein-sequence information by amino acid subalphabets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.A.F.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    -sequence information, using machine learning strategies, where the primary goal is the discovery of novel powerful representations for use in AI techniques. In the case of proteins and the 20 different amino acids they typically contain, it is also a secondary goal to discover how the current selection of amino acids...

  4. Amino acid transport system - A substrate predicts the therapeutic effects of particle radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Uehara

    Full Text Available L-[methyl-11C]Methionine (11C-Met is useful for estimating the therapeutic efficacy of particle radiotherapy at early stages of the treatment. Given the short half-life of 11C, the development of longer-lived 18F- and 123I-labeled probes that afford diagnostic information similar to 11C-Met, are being sought. Tumor uptake of 11C-Met is involved in many cellular functions such as amino acid transport System-L, protein synthesis, and transmethylation. Among these processes, since the energy-dependent intracellular functions involved with 11C-Met are more reflective of the radiotherapeutic effects, we evaluated the activity of the amino acid transport System-A as an another energy-dependent cellular function in order to estimate radiotherapeutic effects. In this study, using a carbon-ion beam as the radiation source, the activity of System-A was evaluated by a specific System-A substrate, alpha-[1-14C]-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (14C-MeAIB. Cellular growth and the accumulation of 14C-MeAIB or 14C-Met were evaluated over time in vitro in cultured human salivary gland (HSG tumor cells (3-Gy or in vivo in murine xenografts of HSG tumors (6- or 25-Gy before and after irradiation with the carbon-ion beam. Post 3-Gy irradiation, in vitro accumulation of 14C-Met and 14C-MeAIB decreased over a 5-day period. In xenografts of HSG tumors in mice, tumor re-growth was observed in vivo on day-10 after a 6-Gy irradiation dose, but no re-growth was detected after the 25-Gy irradiation dose. Consistent with the growth results, the in vivo tumor accumulation of 14C-MeAIB did not decrease after the 6-Gy irradiation dose, whereas a significant decrease was observed after the 25-Gy irradiation dose. These results indicate that the activity of energy dependent System-A transporter may reflect the therapeutic efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy and suggests that longer half-life radionuclide-labeled probes for System-A may also provide widely available probes to

  5. The Down regulated in Adenoma (dra) gene encodes an intestine-specific membrane sulfate transport protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, D G; Wang, W; Moseley, R H; Traber, P G

    1995-05-19

    A gene has been described, Down Regulated in Adenoma (dra), which is expressed in normal colon but is absent in the majority of colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. However, the function of this protein is unknown. Because of sequence similarity to a recently cloned membrane sulfate transporter in rat liver, the transport function of Dra was examined. We established that dra encodes for a Na(+)-independent transporter for both sulfate and oxalate using microinjected Xenopus oocytes as an assay system. Sulfate transport was sensitive to the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic acid stilbene). Using an RNase protection assay, we found that dra mRNA expression is limited to the small intestine and colon in mouse, therefore identifying Dra as an intestine-specific sulfate transporter. dra also had a unique pattern of expression during intestinal development. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of expression in colon at birth with a marked increase in the first 2 postnatal weeks. In contrast, there was a lower, constant level of expression in small intestine in the postnatal period. Caco-2 cells, a colon carcinoma cell line that differentiates over time in culture, demonstrated a marked induction of dra mRNA as cells progressed from the preconfluent (undifferentiated) to the postconfluent (differentiated) state. These results show that Dra is an intestine-specific Na(+)-independent sulfate transporter that has differential expression during colonic development. This functional characterization provides the foundation for investigation of the role of Dra in intestinal sulfate transport and in the malignant phenotype.

  6. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  7. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  8. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V.; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-04-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix.

  9. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix. (papers)

  10. The importance of glutamate, glycine, and γ-aminobutyric acid transport and regulation in manganese, mercury and lead neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Aschner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Historically, amino acids were studied in the context of their importance in protein synthesis. In the 1950s, the focus of research shifted as amino acids were recognized as putative neurotransmitters. Today, many amino acids are considered important neurochemicals. Although many amino acids play a role in neurotransmission, glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are among the more prevalent and better understood. Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, and Gly and GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters, in the central nervous system, are known to be tightly regulated. Prolonged exposure to environmental toxicants, such as manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb), however, can lead to dysregulation of these neurochemicals and subsequent neurotoxicity. While the ability of these metals to disrupt the regulation of Glu, Gly and GABA have been studied, few articles have examined the collective role of these amino acids in the respective metal's mechanism of toxicity. For each of the neurotransmitters above, we will provide a brief synopsis of their regulatory function, including the importance of transport and re-uptake in maintaining their optimal function. Additionally, the review will address the hypothesis that aberrant homeostasis of any of these amino acids, or a combination of the three, plays a role in the neurotoxicity of Mn, Hg, or Pb

  11. The putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein CLP1 is involved in cellulase induction in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengli; Wang, Bang; Ji, Jingxiao; Jiang, Yongsheng; Wan, Li; Tian, Chaoguang; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-09

    Neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. Here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, cellodextrin transporter-like protein 1 (CLP1; NCU05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in N. crassa. Although CLP1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and Avicel. The co-disruption of the cellodextrin transporters cdt2 and clp1 in strain Δ3βG formed strain CPL7. With induction by cellobiose, cellulase production was enhanced 6.9-fold in CPL7 compared with Δ3βG. We also showed that the suppression of cellulase expression by CLP1 occurred by repressing the expression of cellodextrin transporters, particularly cdt1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of the hypercellulase-producing strain CPL7 showed that the cellulase expression machinery was dramatically stimulated, as were the cellulase enzyme genes including the inducer transporters and the major transcriptional regulators. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Putative Cellodextrin Transporter-like Protein CLP1 Is Involved in Cellulase Induction in Neurospora crassa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengli; Wang, Bang; Ji, Jingxiao; Jiang, Yongsheng; Wan, Li; Tian, Chaoguang; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. Here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, cellodextrin transporter-like protein 1 (CLP1; NCU05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in N. crassa. Although CLP1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and Avicel. The co-disruption of the cellodextrin transporters cdt2 and clp1 in strain Δ3βG formed strain CPL7. With induction by cellobiose, cellulase production was enhanced 6.9-fold in CPL7 compared with Δ3βG. We also showed that the suppression of cellulase expression by CLP1 occurred by repressing the expression of cellodextrin transporters, particularly cdt1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of the hypercellulase-producing strain CPL7 showed that the cellulase expression machinery was dramatically stimulated, as were the cellulase enzyme genes including the inducer transporters and the major transcriptional regulators. PMID:25398875

  13. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  14. Factor VII and protein C are phosphatidic acid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoosi, Narjes; Smith, Stephanie A; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Morrissey, James H

    2013-08-20

    Seven proteins in the human blood clotting cascade bind, via their GLA (γ-carboxyglutamate-rich) domains, to membranes containing exposed phosphatidylserine (PS), although with membrane binding affinities that vary by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we employed nanodiscs of defined phospholipid composition to quantify the phospholipid binding specificities of these seven clotting proteins. All bound preferentially to nanobilayers in which PS headgroups contained l-serine versus d-serine. Surprisingly, however, nanobilayers containing phosphatidic acid (PA) bound substantially more of two of these proteins, factor VIIa and activated protein C, than did equivalent bilayers containing PS. Consistent with this finding, liposomes containing PA supported higher proteolytic activity by factor VIIa and activated protein C toward their natural substrates (factors X and Va, respectively) than did PS-containing liposomes. Moreover, treating activated human platelets with phospholipase D enhanced the rates of factor X activation by factor VIIa in the presence of soluble tissue factor. We hypothesize that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to the monoester phosphate of PA because of its accessibility and higher negative charge compared with the diester phosphates of most other phospholipids. We further found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which contains a monoester phosphate attached to its myo-inositol headgroup, also supported enhanced enzymatic activity of factor VIIa and activated protein C. We conclude that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to monoester phosphates, which may have implications for the function of these proteases in vivo.

  15. Intracellular Transport and Kinesin Superfamily Proteins: Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, N.; Takemura, R.

    Using various molecular cell biological and molecular genetic approaches, we identified kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) and characterized their significant functions in intracellular transport, which is fundamental for cellular morphogenesis, functioning, and survival. We showed that KIFs not only transport various membranous organelles, proteins complexes and mRNAs fundamental for cellular functions but also play significant roles in higher brain functions such as memory and learning, determination of important developmental processes such as left-right asymmetry formation and brain wiring. We also elucidated that KIFs recognize and bind to their specific cargoes using scaffolding or adaptor protein complexes. Concerning the mechanism of motility, we discovered the simplest unique monomeric motor KIF1A and determined by molecular biophysics, cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography that KIF1A can move on a microtubule processively as a monomer by biased Brownian motion and by hydolyzing ATP.

  16. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  17. Carrier-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the transport of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) across the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1, mediates the influx of GABA and GABA mimetic drug substances such as vigabatrin and gaboxadol and the anticancer prodrug δ-aminolevulinic acid across the apical membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. Little is however known about the basolateral transport of these substances. We investigated basolateral transport of GABA in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers using isotope studies. Here we report that, at least two transporters seem to be involved in the basolateral transport of GABA. The basolateral uptake consisted of a high-affinity system with a K(m) of 290 μM and V(max) of 75 pmol cm(-2) min(-1) and a low affinity system with a K(m) of approximately 64 mM and V(max) of 1.6 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The high-affinity transporter is Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent. The substrate specificity of the high-affinity transporter was further studied and Gly-Sar, Leucine, gaboxadol, sarcosine, lysine, betaine, 5-hydroxythryptophan, proline and glycine reduced the GABA uptake to approximately 44-70% of the GABA uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Other substances such as β-alanine, GABA, 5-aminovaleric acid, taurine and δ-aminolevulinic acid reduced the basolateral GABA uptake to 6-25% of the uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Our results indicate that the distance between the charged amino- and acid-groups is particular important for inhibition of basolateral GABA uptake. Thus, there seems to be a partial substrate overlap between the basolateral GABA transporter and hPAT1, which may prove important for understanding drug interactions at the level of intestinal transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellberg, Kristina; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Banaszak, Leonard J.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Bernlohr, David A. (UMM)

    2012-07-11

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been characterized as facilitating the intracellular solubilization and transport of long-chain fatty acyl carboxylates via noncovalent interactions. More recent work has shown that the adipocyte FABP is also covalently modified in vivo on Cys117 with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a bioactive aldehyde linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate 4-HNE binding and modification, the crystal structures of adipocyte FABP covalently and noncovalently bound to 4-HNE have been solved to 1.9 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. While the 4-HNE in the noncovalently modified protein is coordinated similarly to a carboxylate of a fatty acid, the covalent form show a novel coordination through a water molecule at the polar end of the lipid. Other defining features between the two structures with 4-HNE and previously solved structures of the protein include a peptide flip between residues Ala36 and Lys37 and the rotation of the side chain of Phe57 into its closed conformation. Representing the first structure of an endogenous target protein covalently modified by 4-HNE, these results define a new class of in vivo ligands for FABPs and extend their physiological substrates to include bioactive aldehydes.

  19. Light-driven solute transport in Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The cell membrane of Halobacterium halobium exhibits differential regions which contain crystalline arrays of a single kind of protein, termed bacteriorhodopsin. This bacterial retinal-protein complex resembles the visual pigment and, after the absorption of protons, translocates H(+) across the cell membrane, leading to an electrochemical gradient for protons between the inside and the outside of the cell. Thus, light is an alternate source of energy in these bacteria, in addition to terminal oxidation. The paper deals with work on light-driven transport in H. halobium with cell envelope vesicles. The discussion covers light-driven movements of H(+), Na(+), and K(+); light-driven amino acid transport; and apparent allosteric control of amino acid transport. The scheme of energy coupling in H. halobium vesicles appears simple, its quantitative details are quite complex and reveal regulatory phenomena. More knowledge is required of the way the coupling components are regulated by the ion gradients present.

  20. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  1. The external gate of the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters requires a basic/acidic amino acid pair for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) translocation and the induction of substrate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealover, Natalie R; Felts, Bruce; Kuntz, Charles P; Jarrard, Rachel E; Hockerman, Gregory H; Lamb, Patrick W; Barker, Eric L; Henry, L Keith

    2016-11-15

    The substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), is a widely used drug of abuse that induces non-exocytotic release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine through their cognate transporters as well as blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the same transporters. The resulting dramatic increase in volume transmission and signal duration of neurotransmitters leads to psychotropic, stimulant, and entactogenic effects. The mechanism by which amphetamines drive reverse transport of the monoamines remains largely enigmatic, however, promising outcomes for the therapeutic utility of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder and the long-time use of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic-directed amphetamines in treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy increases the importance of understanding this phenomenon. Previously, we identified functional differences between the human and Drosophila melanogaster serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT, respectively) revealing that MDMA is an effective substrate for hSERT but not dSERT even though serotonin is a potent substrate for both transporters. Chimeric dSERT/hSERT transporters revealed that the molecular components necessary for recognition of MDMA as a substrate was linked to regions of the protein flanking transmembrane domains (TM) V through IX. Here, we performed species-scanning mutagenesis of hSERT, dSERT and C. elegans SERT (ceSERT) along with biochemical and electrophysiological analysis and identified a single amino acid in TM10 (Glu394, hSERT; Asn484, dSERT, Asp517, ceSERT) that is primarily responsible for the differences in MDMA recognition. Our findings reveal that an acidic residue is necessary at this position for MDMA recognition as a substrate and serotonin releaser. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental Study and Reactive Transport Modeling of Boric Acid Leaching of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang K.-T. K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Borated water leakage through spent fuel pools (SFPs at pressurized water reactors is a concern because it could cause corrosion of reinforcement steel in the concrete structure, compromise the integrity of the structure, or cause unmonitored releases of contaminated water to the environment. Experimental data indicate that pH is a critical parameter that determines the corrosion susceptibility of rebar in borated water and the degree of concrete degradation by boric acid leaching. In this study, reactive transport modeling of concrete leaching by borated water was performed to provide information on the solution pH in the concrete crack or matrix and the degree of concrete degradation at different locations of an SFP concrete structure exposed to borated water. Simulations up to 100 years were performed using different boric acid concentrations, crack apertures, and solution flow rates. Concrete cylinders were immersed in boric acid solutions for several months and the mineralogical changes and boric acid penetration in the concrete cylinder were evaluated as a function of time. The depths of concrete leaching by boric acid solution derived from the reactive transport simulations were compared with the measured boric acid penetration depth.

  3. Proton transport properties in zwitterion blends with Brønsted acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa-Fujita, Masahiro; Byrne, Nolene; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-16

    We describe zwitterion, 3-(1-butyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-3-yl)propane-1-sulfonate (Bimps), mixtures with 1,1,1-trifluoro-N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methanesulfoneamide (HN(Tf)(2)) as new proton transport electrolytes. We report proton transport mechanisms in the mixtures based on results from several methods including thermal analyses, the complex-impedance method, and the pulsed field gradient spin echo NMR (pfg-NMR) method. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the mixtures decreased with increasing HN(Tf)(2) concentration up to 50 mol %. The Tg remained constant at -55 °C with further acid doping. The ionic conductivity of HN(Tf)(2) mixtures increased with the HN(Tf)(2) content up to 50 mol %. Beyond that ratio, the mixtures showed no increase in ionic conductivity (10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature). This tendency agrees well with that of Tg. However, the self-diffusion coefficients obtained from the pfg-NMR method increased with HN(Tf)(2) content even above 50 mol % for all component ions. At HN(Tf)(2) 50 mol %, the proton diffusion of HN(Tf)(2) was the fastest in the mixture. These results suggest that Bimps cannot dissociate excess HN(Tf)(2), that is, the excess HN(Tf)(2) exists as molecular HN(Tf)(2) in the mixtures. The zwitterion, Bimps, forms a 1:1 complex with HN(Tf)(2) and the proton transport property in this mixture is superior to those of other mixing ratios. Furthermore, CH(3)SO(3)H and CF(3)SO(3)H were mixed with Bimps for comparison. Both systems showed a similar tendency, which differed from that of the HN(Tf)(2) system. The Tg decreased linearly with increasing acid content for every mixing ratio, while the ionic conductivity increased linearly. Proton transport properties in zwitterion/acid mixtures were strongly affected by the acid species added.

  4. Role of N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Shindo, Naoki; Numata, Takao; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). Several N-terminal deletion variants of ROL were expressed in A. oryzae. Interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the C-terminal region of the propeptide (N28) was found to be critical for secretion of ROL into the culture medium. To further investigate the role of N28, the ROL secretory process was visualized in vivo using ROL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. In cells producing ROL with N28, fluorescence observations showed that the fusion proteins are transported through endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell wall, which is one of the typical secretory processes in a eukaryotic cell. Because the expression of the mature ROL-GFP fusion protein induced fluorescence accumulation without its translocation into the ER, N28 is considered to play a crucial role in protein transport. When N28 was inserted between the secretion signal and GFP, fluorescence observations showed that GFP, which is originally a cytoplasmic protein, was efficiently translocated into the ER of A. oryzae, resulting in an enhanced secretion of mature GFP after proteolytic cleavage of N28. These findings suggest that N28 facilitates protein translocation into ER and can be a promising candidate for improving heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  5. Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camargo, Simone M R; Singer, Dustin; Makrides, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hartnup amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) is the major luminal sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter of small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. The expression of B(0)AT1 in kidney was recently shown to depend on its association with collectrin (Tmem27...

  6. Proteins and amino acids are fundamental to optimal nutrition support in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.M.; Cynober, L.; DeLegge, M.; Kreymann, G.; Wernerman, J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are widely considered to be subcomponents in nutritional support. However, proteins and amino acids are fundamental to recovery and survival, not only for their ability to preserve active tissue (protein) mass but also for a variety of other functions. Understanding the

  7. Genome, secretome and glucose transport highlight unique features of the protein production host Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is widely used as a production platform for heterologous proteins and model organism for organelle proliferation. Without a published genome sequence available, strain and process development relied mainly on analogies to other, well studied yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results To investigate specific features of growth and protein secretion, we have sequenced the 9.4 Mb genome of the type strain DSMZ 70382 and analyzed the secretome and the sugar transporters. The computationally predicted secretome consists of 88 ORFs. When grown on glucose, only 20 proteins were actually secreted at detectable levels. These data highlight one major feature of P. pastoris, namely the low contamination of heterologous proteins with host cell protein, when applying glucose based expression systems. Putative sugar transporters were identified and compared to those of related yeast species. The genome comprises 2 homologs to S. cerevisiae low affinity transporters and 2 to high affinity transporters of other Crabtree negative yeasts. Contrary to other yeasts, P. pastoris possesses 4 H+/glycerol transporters. Conclusion This work highlights significant advantages of using the P. pastoris system with glucose based expression and fermentation strategies. As only few proteins and no proteases are actually secreted on glucose, it becomes evident that cell lysis is the relevant cause of proteolytic degradation of secreted proteins. The endowment with hexose transporters, dominantly of the high affinity type, limits glucose uptake rates and thus overflow metabolism as observed in S. cerevisiae. The presence of 4 genes for glycerol transporters explains the high specific growth rates on this substrate and underlines the suitability of a glycerol/glucose based fermentation strategy. Furthermore, we present an open access web based genome browser http://www.pichiagenome.org.

  8. Correlation of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine with diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Song, Hai-Yan; Liu, Kai; An, Meng-Meng

    2015-01-01

    To detect the serum concentrations of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in patients with diabetic nephropathy and SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in renal tissue of db/db mice (C57BL/KsJ, diabetic nephropathy mice), thus preliminary exploration on the role of secreted protein acidic riches in cysteine in the development of diabetic nephropathy were carried out. Serum SPARC levels in normal subjects, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (without diabetic nephropathy), c...

  9. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. One-Pot Procedure for Recovery of Gallic Acid from Wastewater and Encapsulation within Protein Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Madadlou, Ashkan; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Mousavi, Mohammad E

    2016-02-24

    A whey protein isolate solution was heat-denatured and treated with the enzyme transglutaminase, which cross-linked ≈26% of the amino groups and increased the magnitude of the ζ-potential value. The protein solution was microemulsified, and then the resulting water-in-oil microemulsion was dispersed within a gallic acid-rich model wastewater. Gallic acid extraction by the outlined microemulsion liquid membrane (MLM) from the exterior aqueous phase (wastewater) and accumulation within the internal aqueous nanodroplets induced protein cold-set gelation and resulted in the formation of gallic acid-enveloping nanoparticles. Measurements with a strain-controlled rheometer indicated a progressive increase in the MLM viscosity during gallic acid recovery corresponding to particle formation. The mean hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles made from the heat-denatured and preheated enzymatically cross-linked proteins was 137 and 122 nm, respectively. The enzymatic cross-linking of whey proteins led to a higher gallic acid recovery yield and increased the glass transition enthalpy and temperature. A similar impact on glass transition indices was observed by the gallic acid-induced nanoparticulation of proteins. Scanning electron microscopy showed the existence of numerous jammed/fused nanoparticles. It was suggested on the basis of the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that the in situ nanoparticulation of proteins shifted the C-N stretching and C-H bending peaks to higher wavenumbers. X-ray diffraction results proposed a decreased β-sheet content for proteins because of the acid-induced particulation. The nanoparticles made from the enzymatically cross-linked protein were more stable against the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and retained almost 19% of the entrapped gallic acid after 300 min sequential gastric and intestinal digestions.

  11. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeds, P.J.; Opekun, A.; Jahoor, F.; Wong, W.W.; Klein, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15 N and 13 C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Additive effects of lupin protein and phytic acid on aortic calcification in ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Geissler, Stefanie; Radtke, Juliane; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-03-01

    Lupin proteins have repeatedly been shown to exhibit lipid lowering properties and reduce aortic calcification in atherosclerosis models. Despite many efforts on its identification, the component which is responsible for the observed effects is still under debate. Phytic acid which is generally associated with lupin protein isolates has currently been described as bioactive plant compound. The objective of the study was to determine the role of associated phytic acid for the described lupin protein effects. A two-factorial study with ApoE knockout mice was conducted in which mice received lupin protein isolate or casein with or without phytase. Phytic acid was added to the casein diets to a final concentration identical to the lupin protein diets. Here we show that the serum concentrations of cholesterol, lathosterol and desmosterol were lower and the faecal bile acid excretion was higher in the groups fed lupin proteins than in the groups fed casein ( p  < 0.05). Mice that received the lupin protein diet containing phytic acid were characterized by a lower aortic calcification than mice of the other three groups ( p  < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that the cholesterol lowering properties of lupin protein isolate were not caused by phytic acid. However, the hypocalcific action of lupin proteins appears to depend on the combination of lupin proteins and phytic acid.

  13. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  14. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Massao Shimizu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino acids, although serine and glutamine were also significant. Except for tyrosine, which increased with germination, all other amino acids were reduced. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the total soluble protein showed glutamic acid/glutamine and glycine as the main amino acids. However, other amino acids such as leucine, aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, lysine, serine were also found in reasonable amounts.Endosperma é o principal tecido de reserva em sementes de café. Sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. foram germinadas por seis semanas e as alterações qualitativas e quantitativas de aminoácidos e proteínas foram investigadas. O conteúdo total de aminoácidos livres reduziu durante a germinação, no entanto, o conteúdo de proteínas permaneceu constante. Perfis eletroforéticos de proteínas em SDS-PAGE mostraram que proteínas do tipo legumina foram menos coradas nas últimas semanas. Asparagina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, alanina e lisina foram os principais aminoácidos, apesar de que serina e glutamina também estavam presentes em quantidades significativas. Exceto tirosina, a qual aumentou durante a germinação, todos os outros aminoácidos tiveram redução em sua concentração. A análise aminoacídica da fração de proteína solúvel total mostrou que ácido glutâmico/glutamina e glicina eram os principais aminoácidos presentes. No entanto, outros aminoácidos, tais como leucina, ácido asp

  15. Comparative genomic analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2015-11-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity was accompanied by progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of whey protein and a free amino acid mixture simulating whey protein on measures of satiety in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Dietary protein is considered more satiating than carbohydrate, and whey protein is more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to direct effects of the unique mixture of proteins in whey, due to the effects of peptides released upon digestion and/or its amino acid composition. The objective of the present study was to compare the satiating effects of intact whey protein isolate (WPI) or a free amino acid mixture (AAM) simulating the amino acid composition of the WPI. A single-blind completely randomised block design included twenty, healthy, adult women (age 24·2 (sem 0·8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22·7 (sem 0·4) kg/m2). Following consumption of isoenergetic (approximately 1800 kJ) preload meals enriched (52 g amino acid equivalent) with WPI or AAM, consumption of an ad libitum test meal 120 min later and subjective feelings of appetite using visual analogue scales (VAS) were determined. There were no significant differences (P=0·24) in the ad libitum test meal intakes between the WPI (268·5 (sem 27·3) g) and the AAM (238·4 (sem 22·7) g) preload meals. Subjective VAS ratings of appetite did not differ significantly between the WPI and the AAM preload meals (P>0·05). Intact whey protein and a free AAM simulating the whey protein showed similar effects on satiety. This suggests that the satiating effect of whey protein may be related to its specific amino acid composition.

  17. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  18. Biodistribution of [11C] methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutinen, E.; Jyrkkioe, S.; Groenroos, T.; Haaparanta, M.; Lehikoinen, P.; Naagren, K.

    2001-01-01

    [N-methyl- 11 C]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ( 11 C-MeAIB) is a potentially useful tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) studies on hormonally regulated system A amino acid transport. 11 C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue specific for system A amino acid transport. We evaluated the biodistribution of 11 C-MeAIB in rats and humans to estimate the usefulness of the tracer for in vivo human PET studies, for example, on regulation of system A amino acid transport and on tumour imaging. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were killed 5, 20, 40 or 60 min after the injection of 11 C-MeAIB, and the tissue samples were weighed and counted for 11 C radioactivity. Ten lymphoma patients with relatively limited tumour burden underwent whole-body (WB) PET imaging with 11 C-MeAIB. In addition, three other patients had dynamic PET scanning of the head and neck area, and the tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the kinetic influx constants (K i values) for the tracer. In animal studies, the highest activity was detected in the kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and intestines. In humans, the highest activity was found in the salivary glands, and after that in the kidney and pancreas, similar to the results in animal studies. Rapid uptake was also detected in the skeletal muscle. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were obtained, and the mean fractional tracer uptake values (K i ) of the parotid glands (n=3) and cervical muscles (n=3) were 0.039±0.008 min -1 and 0.013±0.006 min -1 , respectively. The K i value of the tumour (n=1) was 0.064 min -1 . Higher uptake of 11 C-MeAIB into the tumour tissue was encountered. These results encourage further 11 C-MeAIB PET studies in humans on the physiology and pathology of system A amino acid transport and on tumour detection. (orig.)

  19. Ion Binding Energies Determining Functional Transport of ClC Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Xu; Zou, Xian-Wu; Sang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The ClC-type proteins, a large family of chloride transport proteins ubiquitously expressed in biological organisms, have been extensively studied for decades. Biological function of ClC proteins can be reflected by analyzing the binding situation of Cl- ions. We investigate ion binding properties of ClC-ec1 protein with the atomic molecular dynamics simulation approach. The calculated electrostatic binding energy results indicate that Cl- at the central binding site Scen has more binding stability than the internal binding site Sint. Quantitative comparison between the latest experimental heat release data isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and our calculated results demonstrates that chloride ions prefer to bind at Scen than Sint in the wild-type ClC-ec1 structure and prefer to bind at Sext and Scen than Sint in mutant E148A/E148Q structures. Even though the chloride ions make less contribution to heat release when binding to Sint and are relatively unstable in the Cl- pathway, they are still part contributors for the Cl- functional transport. This work provides a guide rule to estimate the importance of Cl- at the binding sites and how chloride ions have influences on the function of ClC proteins.

  20. Conformational basis for the Li(+)-induced leak current in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the substrate-independent Li(+)-induced leak current was examined using two-electrode voltage clamp. The leak current was not affected by the addition of GABA and was not due to H(+) permeation. The Li......(+)-bound conformation of the protein displayed a lower passive water permeability than that of the Na(+)- and choline (Ch(+))-bound conformations and the leak current did not saturate with increasing amounts of Li(+) in the test solution. The mechanism that gives rise to the leak current did not support active water...... transport in contrast to the mechanism responsible for GABA translocation (approximately 330 water molecules per charge). Altogether, these data support the distinct nature of the leak conductance in relation to the substrate translocation process. It was observed that the leak current was inhibited by low...

  1. Post-transcriptional regulation of the arginine transporter Cat-1 by amino acid availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulak, K. S.; Mishra, R.; Zhou, L.; Hyatt, S. L.; de Jonge, W.; Lamers, W.; Snider, M.; Hatzoglou, M.

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of the high affinity cationic amino acid transporter (Cat-1) by amino acid availability has been studied. In C6 glioma and NRK kidney cells, cat-1 mRNA levels increased 3.8-18-fold following 2 h of amino acid starvation. The transcription rate of the cat-1 gene remained unchanged

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Gruber

    Full Text Available We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp., two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II. We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  3. A solute-binding protein for iron transport in Streptococcus iniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Anxing

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae is a major pathogen that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in cultured fish worldwide. The pathogen's ability to adapt to the host affects the extent of infection, hence understanding the mechanisms by which S. iniae overcomes physiological stresses during infection will help to identify potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infection. Grow S. iniae under iron-restricted conditions is one approach for identifying host-specific protein expression. Iron plays an important role in many biological processes but it has low solubility under physiological condition. Many microorganisms have been shown to be able to circumvent this nutritional limitation by forming direct contacts with iron-containing proteins through ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. The ABC transporter superfamilies constitute many different systems that are widespread among living organisms with different functions, such as ligands translocation, mRNA translation, and DNA repair. Results An ABC transporter system, named as mtsABC (metal transport system was cloned from S. iniae HD-1, and was found to be involved in heme utilization. mtsABC is cotranscribed by three downstream genes, i.e., mtsA, mtsB, and mtsC. In this study, we cloned the first gene of the mtsABC transporter system (mtsA, and purified the corresponding recombinant protein MtsA. The analysis indicated that MtsA is a putative lipoprotein which binds to heme that can serve as an iron source for the microorganism, and is expressed in vivo during Kunming mice infection by S. iniae HD-1. Conclusions This is believed to be the first report on the cloning the ABC transporter lipoprotein from S. iniae genomic DNA. Together, our data suggested that MtsA is associated with heme, and is expressed in vivo during Kunming mice infection by S. iniae HD-1 which indicated that it can be a potential candidate for S. iniae subunit vaccine.

  4. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1981-12-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the α,α'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The α,α'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the α,α'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized

  5. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the α,α'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The α,α'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and pathogenic toxins. All of the available data strongly suggest that the α,α'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized

  6. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, W. M.

    1981-12-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized.

  7. Additive effects of lupin protein and phytic acid on aortic calcification in ApoE deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    2015-03-01

    A two-factorial study with ApoE knockout mice was conducted in which mice received lupin protein isolate or casein with or without phytase. Phytic acid was added to the casein diets to a final concentration identical to the lupin protein diets. Here we show that the serum concentrations of cholesterol, lathosterol and desmosterol were lower and the faecal bile acid excretion was higher in the groups fed lupin proteins than in the groups fed casein (p < 0.05. Mice that received the lupin protein diet containing phytic acid were characterized by a lower aortic calcification than mice of the other three groups (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results show that the cholesterol lowering properties of lupin protein isolate were not caused by phytic acid. However, the hypocalcific action of lupin proteins appears to depend on the combination of lupin proteins and phytic acid.

  8. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  9. Laser-based optical activity detection of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The optical activity detector (OAD) for HPLC is a selective detector for optically active substances including amino acids and proteins. This study illustrates the use of the OAD in three related areas. Section I illustrates the separation of four free amino acids using cation-exchange chromatography. Detection by coupling the OAD to a refractive index detector (RI) for proline and threonine and the OAD to an ultraviolet absorbance detector (UV) for tyrosine and phenylalanine allows the calculation of enantiomeric (D/L) ratios of these amino acids without physical separation. Specific rotations of these four amino acids are also reported. Section II illustrates the separation of 16 dansyl-L-amino acids by RP-HPLC with detection by OA/UV. Section III illustrates the RP-HPLC separation of conformers of soybean trypsin inhibitor. Detection by OA/UV provides insights from the chromatogram unavailable for UV absorbance detection alone. In addition, identification of impurities is simplified with OA/UV. Specific rotations of the separated protein fractions show no significant change accompanying change in conformation.

  10. The fragile X mental retardation protein has nucleic acid chaperone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Caroline; Mazroui, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Khandjian, Edouard W; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation resulting from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP contains two K-homology (KH) domains and one RGG box that are landmarks characteristic of RNA-binding proteins. In agreement with this, FMRP associates with messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) within actively translating ribosomes, and is thought to regulate translation of target mRNAs, including its own transcript. To investigate whether FMRP might chaperone nucleic acid folding and hybridization, we analysed the annealing and strand exchange activities of DNA oligonucleotides and the enhancement of ribozyme-directed RNA substrate cleavage by FMRP and deleted variants relative to canonical nucleic acid chaperones, such as the cellular YB-1/p50 protein and the retroviral nucleocapsid protein HIV-1 NCp7. FMRP was found to possess all the properties of a potent nucleic acid chaperone, requiring the KH motifs and RGG box for optimal activity. These findings suggest that FMRP may regulate translation by acting on RNA-RNA interactions and thus on the structural status of mRNAs.

  11. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of Low Specific Activity Nitric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document was written in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes the potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with the transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site in Washington State to three Eastern ports

  12. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...... differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate...

  13. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    -keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic....... Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in combination, our studies of the gene structure of the human PiT1 and PiT2 genes (SLC20A1 and SLC20A2, respectively) and alignment of protein...

  14. A biotin enrichment strategy identifies novel carbonylated amino acids in proteins from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Davies, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is an irreversible protein oxidation correlated with oxidative stress, various diseases and ageing. Here we describe a peptide-centric approach for identification and characterisation of up to 14 different types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins. The modified residues...... in vitro metal ion-catalysed oxidation. Furthermore, we assigned 133 carbonylated sites in 36 proteins in native human plasma protein samples. The optimised workflow enabled detection of 10 hitherto undetected types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins: aldehyde and ketone modifications of leucine...

  15. Consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne

    2010-01-01

    Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  17. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Acid stress response and protein induction in Campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Wik, Monica Takamiya; Lametsch, René

    2012-01-01

    with MALDI-TOF-TOF. The most acid-sensitive isolate was C. jejuni 327, followed by NCTC 11168 and isolate 305 as the most tolerant. Overall, induction of five proteins was observed within the pI range investigated: 19 kDa periplasmic protein (p19), thioredoxin-disulfide (TrxB), a hypothetical protein Cj0706......RT-PCR. In this transcriptomic analysis, only up-regulation of trxB and p19 was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A defined medium that supports the growth of a range of Campylobacter strains and suitable for proteomic analysis was developed. Mainly proteins normally involved in iron control and oxidative stress defence were induced...

  19. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION : DELETION OF INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS FROM GROWTH MIXTURE OF TEN ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN URINARY NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F S; Miller, L L; Whipple, G H

    1947-02-28

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  20. Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) mediated the transport of organic solutes in Xenopus laevis oocytes: isolation and pharmacological characterization of rOscp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Sanada, Yutaka; Nihei, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masako; Kohyama, Noriko; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2007-09-22

    Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) was isolated from a rat testis cDNA library. Isolated rOscp1 cDNA consisted of 1089 base pairs that encoded a 363-amino acid protein, and the amino acid sequence was 88% and 93% identical to that of human OSCP1 (hOSCP1) and mouse Oscp1 (mOscp1), respectively. The message for rOscp1 is highly detected in rat testis. When expressed in X. oocytes, rOscp1 mediated the high affinity transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH) with a Km value of 15.7+/-1.9 microM, and rOscp1-mediated organic solutes were exhibited in time- and Na+-independent manners. rOscp1 also transported various structurally heterogenous compounds such as testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and taurocholate with some differences in substrate specificity compared with hOSCP1. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the rOscp1 protein is localized in the basal membrane side of Sertoli cells as observed in mouse testis [Kobayashi et al., 2007; Kobayashi, Y., Tsuchiya, A., Hayashi, T., Kohyama, N., Ohbayashi, M., Yamamoto, T., 2007. Isolation and characterization of polyspecific mouse organic solute carrier protein 1 (mOscp1). Drug Metabolism and Disposition 35 (7), 1239-1245]. Thus, the present results indicate that a newly isolated cDNA clone, rOscp1, is a polyspecific organic solute carrier protein with some differences in substrate specificity compared with human and mouse OSCP1.

  1. Study of the transport of mercurial compounds by seric proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien-Saint Guily, Nicole

    1970-01-01

    A bond between the seric proteins and various mercurial compounds labeled with the radioisotopes 203 Hg and 197 Hg was demonstrated by means of research methods specific to radioactivity combined with protein separation techniques. In the course of this study it was shown how strongly the composition of the buffer during electrophoretic migration influences the transport of certain organo-mercurial compounds by the seric proteins. By means of a thioloprive: N - ethyl - maleimide, labeled with 14 C, it was proved that the bonding sites between the proteins and the mercurial compounds were the thiol groups of the proteins but that other bonding sites, in particular the amino groups, could also be involved. (author) [fr

  2. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  3. Effect of dietary proteins on the incorporation of amino acids in plasma proteins of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Usha R.; Singh, U.B.; Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on nine male calves (Hariana x Holstein) of about one and a half years of age and fed different amounts of crude protein. 14 C-DL-leucine was injected into the blood of the animals and specific radioactivity of plasma protein measured. There was linear correlation between nitrogen ingested, digested and retained by the animals and the specific radioactivity of total plasma proteins. The experiments suggest the possible use of the incorporation of amino acids into plasma proteins as an index of nutritional status of the animals. (auth.)

  4. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.; Rand, J.; Kiang, C.L.; Stump, D.; Berk, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of [ 3 H]-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound [ 3 H]oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation of the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 μg/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10 4 adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

  5. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    -synaptic neurons. This has led to the identification of a plethora of different kinases, receptors and scaffolding proteins that interact with DAT and hereby either modulate the catalytic activity of the transporter or regulate its trafficking and degradation. Several new tools for studying DAT regulation in live...

  6. Apicoplast lipoic acid protein ligase B is not essential for Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Günther

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid (LA is an essential cofactor of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes (KADHs and the glycine cleavage system. In Plasmodium, LA is attached to the KADHs by organelle-specific lipoylation pathways. Biosynthesis of LA exclusively occurs in the apicoplast, comprising octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]: protein N-octanoyltransferase (LipB and LA synthase. Salvage of LA is mitochondrial and scavenged LA is ligated to the KADHs by LA protein ligase 1 (LplA1. Both pathways are entirely independent, suggesting that both are likely to be essential for parasite survival. However, disruption of the LipB gene did not negatively affect parasite growth despite a drastic loss of LA (>90%. Surprisingly, the sole, apicoplast-located pyruvate dehydrogenase still showed lipoylation, suggesting that an alternative lipoylation pathway exists in this organelle. We provide evidence that this residual lipoylation is attributable to the dual targeted, functional lipoate protein ligase 2 (LplA2. Localisation studies show that LplA2 is present in both mitochondrion and apicoplast suggesting redundancy between the lipoic acid protein ligases in the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum.

  7. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  8. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E.

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using 14 C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors

  9. [Evaluation of the adjusted amino acid score by digestibility for estimating the protein quality and protein available in food and diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility to estimate protein quality and utilizable protein in foods and diets, considering net protein utilization (NPU) as a biological reference method. Ten foods of vegetable origin and ten of animal origin, as well as eight mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin were studied. When all the foods were considered, a positive (r = 0.83) and highly significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between NPU and the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility was found. When the foods were separated according to their origin, this correlation was positive only for the foods of vegetable origin (r = 0.93) and statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Also, only in those foods were similar values found between NPU and amino acid score adjusted by digestibility, as well as in utilizable protein estimated considering both methods. Caution is required to interpret protein quality and utilizable protein values of foods of animal origin and mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin when the amino acid score method adjusted by digestibility, or NPU, are utilized.

  10. MS transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid transporters--an efficient alternative for radiometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2014-08-05

    Transport assays for neurotransmitters based on radiolabeled substrates are widely spread and often indispensable in basic research and the drug development process, although the use of radioisotopes is inherently coupled to issues concerning radioactive waste and safety precautions. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). These "MS Transport Assays" provide all capabilities of [(3)H]GABA transport assays and therefore represent the first substitute for the latter. The performance of our approach is demonstrated for GAT1, the most important GABA transporter (GAT) subtype. As GABA is endogenously present in COS-7 cells employed as hGAT1 expression system, ((2)H6)GABA was used as a substrate to differentiate transported from endogenous GABA. To record transported ((2)H6)GABA, a highly sensitive, short, robust, and reliable HILIC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method using ((2)H2)GABA as an internal standard was developed and validated according to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) guidelines. Based on this LC-MS quantification, a setup to characterize hGAT1 mediated ((2)H6)GABA transport in a 96-well format was established, that enables automated processing and avoids any sample preparation. The K(m) value for ((2)H6)GABA determined for hGAT1 is in excellent agreement with results obtained from [(3)H]GABA uptake assays. In addition, the established assay format enables efficient determination of the inhibitory potency of GAT1 inhibitors, is capable of identifying those inhibitors transported as substrates, and furthermore allows characterization of efflux. The approach described here combines the strengths of LC-MS/MS with the high efficiency of transport assays based on radiolabeled substrates and is applicable to all GABA transporter subtypes.

  11. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Anna Kirstine; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance......: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after RYGB...

  12. Plant Proteins and Synthetic Amino Acids in the Nutrition of Non-Ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D. [Department of Applied Biochemistry and Nutrition, University Of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1968-07-01

    It is to be emphasized that in formulating diets for farm animals other than ruminants it is important to meet the requirements for individual essential amino acids and not merely to give regard to over-ail protein quality. The protein component serves to meet the needs for essential amino acids and also supplies material to synthesize those amino acids that are individually dispensable. In arranging for efficient formulation it is important to have available amino acid requirement standards to meet a particular production objective and data on the quantity of amino acids supplied by the various ingredients available. In considering the amino acid content of ingredients it is important to pay due regard to the problems of availability. Efforts to define amino acid requirements for the pig and chick have given somewhat variable results: it is possible to account for some of this variability. It is recognized that under certain circumstances non-amino nitrogen can be utilized by such species as the chick and the pig. The mechanisms involved are briefly considered. Some experimental work has shown that non-amino nitrogen can support growth, but it is difficult to establish a situation in which the non-essential amino acid levels are sufficiently low to take advantage of this fact. Extensive use of synthetic essential amino acids could change this situation. The case for the use of synthetic amino